Anda di halaman 1dari 18

ABSTRACT

Time management is a crucial thing that needed by individual especially for students. It can
affect their academic achievement. Therefore, the objective of the study is to investigate impact
of time management towards student achievement. One hundred questions have been distributed
to UUM students. Based on the survey there is a significant impact of time management towards
academic achievement. While, there is no significant impact of academic achievement between
genders. The last, there is no significant impact of academic achievement among ethnicity. The
results show that the time management very crucial in determining the academic achievement of
UUM students. Therefore, UUM should makes workshop about time management to realize
students that time management is important for them.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction
Time management is the thing that sometimes ignored by students, including the students in
Universiti Utara Malaysia. The student assumes that time management has no effect on their
academic achievement. This makes students become not optimal in order to maximize their
academic process and it will have a negative impact on their academic value.
Based on this situation, we need the technique development to analyze the impact of time
management towards UUM students for their academic achievement. This technique allows us to
know what the impact of time management, whether is it good or bad. The study is expected to
helps students in managing time wisely so that affects their academic performance and
productivity. Poor time management will be able to hamper productivity and its not good for
students' academic achievement. Thing that they can do and finish earlier will be undermined
because of the bad time management and much or few it will have an impact towards their
academic achievement and productivity.
All students need a good time management to be productive students. Thats why a good time
management will help students to improve productivity. So that they will skilled to divide
between their studying times, join the organization, and play or do some sports activities. In the
end the skill of managing time can be used by students in order to enter the real work life.

1.2 Problem Statement


One of the main problems is most of the students cannot manage their time wisely, so that they
dont know what is their priority. Thus, time management affects to their academic achievement.
Based on our research problem, then the specific factors in time management (IV) is formulated
as bellows:
1. Does time management influence the students academic achievement?
2

2. By managing their time wisely, does it increase the students grades?


3. Can students in UUM manage their time by joined the activities that offered by the
campus?
1.3 Research Objectives
The general objective of the study is to examine the impact of time management toward
academic achievement among students in UUM. The specific objectives are:
1. To investigate the influence of time management towards academic achievement of
students.
2. To determine the difference of academic achievement between genders.
3. To determine the difference of academic achievement among ethnicity.

1.4 Scope of the Study


The study focus on examining the time management level towards students academic
achievement in three aspects which is includes the tangibility, reliability, and responsiveness. The
population under study will be selected among UUM students. Therefore, the study findings will
be generalized among UUM students only.

1.5 Relevance of the Study


It is hope that the study findings will contribute in managing time towards improving the student
academic achievement. By understanding the time management level among students, it may
develop and further improve their academic achievement in the future.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definition of Investigated Variables
3

Time management refers to the development of processes and tools that increase efficiency and
productivity (Hassanzabeh & Ebadi, 2007). Busari (2000) asserted that academic achievement is
generally regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills developed in the school subject
(as cited in Ogundokun, 2010). As Ireoegbu (1992) explains, it is the level of performance in
school subjects as exhibited by an individual (as cited in Ogundokun, 2010).

2.2 Theoretical Background


Without a clear understanding about time management theory, it is difficult to formulate a
strategy and come up with an action plan that will manage your time effectively. It doesn't matter
if you're trying to enhance your professional or work related life, or your personal routines. The
tools and techniques that you will choose, adopt and follow will depend upon which type of time
management theory appeals most to you.
According to the case that we raise for our research, here we are using Abraham Harold
Maslows Theory about time management. In his theory, Maslow explained that as long as the
efficient use of time helps us meet higher goals of fulfillment, spirituality and well being, we
perceive it as helpful. But in the interests of greater efficiency, if we sacrifice bigger things like
purpose, meaning and satisfaction with our lives, then it is a moot victory.
Maslow's theory focuses on understanding and differentiating needs, and also setting time limits
on getting each done so that you do not encroach on other essential areas of your life. Based on
this reason, we are implementing Maslows Theory to our research.

2.3 Theoretical Framework


The framework of the study is illustrated in figure 2.1
IV

DV

TIME
MANAGEME
NT

ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEME
NT
4

Figure 2.1
This framework is formulated based on the students academic achievement to define impact
among variables.

2.4 Research Hypothesis


The develop of the hypothesis are as follows:
H1

There is a significant impact of time management towards academic achievement.

H2

There is no significant impact of academic achievement between genders.

H3

There is no significant impact of academic achievement among ethnicity.

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design


In our research, we already define about two variables that we will measure and also divide it
into two types of variable. The independent variable used in this study is time management.
Dependent variable is academic achievement. To help us in collecting data as research survey we
were collected data using questionnaire. Which is this tool is the common tool to evaluate our
research survey in getting our particular purposes.

3.2 Population, Sample, and Unit of Analysis


The population consists of UUM students who have used the time management in their daily
activities. In order to complete this study, we took 100 students as a sample among 36,000
students in UUM. Individual student is the unit of analysis for the study.

3.3 Sampling Design


The study is using non-probability sampling because in this study we did not refer to a list
number of students which is enrolled by Students Affairs & Alumni UUM but we are taking a
random sample.

3.4 Data Sources


The study involves the use of both sources are primary and secondary data. The primary data is
spreading the questionnaires through students in UUM meanwhile secondary data is taking some
of online journals as references in order to make this report.

3.5 Data Collection Methods


We are using data collection method; doing a survey by using questionnaire. We spreads the
questionnaire randomly to the students and collected it directly as they finished filling the
questionnaire.

3.6 Data Analysis


The main purpose of this study is to measure how the impact of time management towards
academic achievement. We use questionnaire as our evaluate tool to get any result of our
research purpose. After all data from questionnaire already collected, we use SPSS as our second
tool to process our data with any procedure of several analysis stage. Actually SPSS itself we use
to data input and analysis whether our data valid or not. The research objectives which include
the following analysis:
1. Descriptive Analysis, to describe demographic background of respondent profile.
2. Reliability Analysis, to provide a unique estimate of the internal consistency and
reliability.
3. Regression Analysis, to assess the impact of time management towards academic
achievement of student in UUM.
4. Independent T-Test, to investigate the mean difference of Academic Achievement
between genders.
5. ANOVA test, to investigate the mean difference of Academic Achievement among
ethnicity.

CHAPTER 4
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

4.1 Demographic Background


Descriptive analysis was used to describe the purpose of the study. Based on table 1, it shows
that there are 100 respondents, 46% respondents are male and the rest 54% respondents are
female. It shows that mostly 99 (99%) respondents are single, while the rest 1 (1%) respondents
have been married. Table also shows that from 100 respondents, majority of respondents aged
within 18-22 among 80%, followed by 19% aged within 22-26, and the last 1% respondents aged
above 26. Based on the table, majority respondents among 35 person or 35% are foreigner,
followed by Malay 53 person or 53%, Chinese among 9 person or 9% and the India 3 person or
3%. It is show that from 100 respondents, most of them studying in COB 70%, followed CAS
13% and COLGIS 17%.
Table 1. Demographic Background
Variables
Gender
Male
Female
Marital Status
Single
Married
Age
18 22
22 26
>26
Ethnicity
Malay
Chinese
India
Foreigner
College
COB
CAS
COLGIS

Frequency (N=100)

Percentage (%)

46
54

46%
54%

99
1

99%
1%

80
19
1

80%
19%
1%

53
9
3
35

53%
9%
3%
35%

70
13
17

70%
13%
17%

4.2 Reliability Analysis


Reliability analysis was used to check the consistency and stability of the instrument. Based on
Table 2, the result indicates that the alpha value for IV variable ranged is 0.732 and alpha value
for DV variable ranged is 0.771.
Table 2. Reliability Analysis
Variables
IV
DV

Number of Items
7
4

Alpha Value
0.732
0.771

4.3 Hypothesis Testing


The testing of hypothesis will be tested on the following:
4.3.1

H1 :

The Impact of Time Management towards Academic Achievement

Simple Linear Regression has been performed to determine the best set of predictor variable in
predicting DV. The R-squared of 0.356 implies that the one predictor variable explain about
35.6% of the variance/variation in the Academic Achievement. This is not quite a good and
respectable result. The ANOVA table revealed that the F-statistics (54.211) is large and the
corresponding p-value is highly significant (0.0001) or lower than the alpha value of 0.05.
Based on Coefficient table, one variable which is Time Management (IV) (p=0.000< alpha) was
found to be of significance in explaining DV. The beta coefficient is 0.597. This means that this
variable makes the strongest unique contribution to explaining the dependent variable (AA),
when the variance explained by predictor variable in the model is controlled for. It suggests that
one standard deviation increase in IV is followed by 0.597 standard deviation increase in AA.

Table 3
R

.597a

Std. Error of the

Square
.356
.350
a. Predictors: (Constant), IV

Sum of Squares
28.203

ANOVAa
df
1

Mean Square
28.203

Residual

50.984

98

.520

Total

79.188

99

Model
Regression
1

Model Summary
R Square
Adjusted R

Model

Estimate
.721

F
54.211

Sig.
.000b

a. Dependent Variable: DV
b. Predictors: (Constant), IV

Coefficientsa
Unstandardized Coefficients

Model

Std. Error

(Constant)

1.287

.247

IV

.581

Standardized

Sig.

5.215

.000

7.363

.000

Coefficients
Beta

.079
.597
a. Dependent Variable: DV

10

4.3.2

H2 :

The Difference of Academic Achievement between Genders

Independent Sample t-Test was performed to investigate the mean difference of Academic
Achievement between genders. Based on Table 4, the result shows no significant difference of
Academic Achievement between genders (p=0.169> ). The result indicates that no significant
different of Academic Achievement between male and female students.
Table 4
Group Statistics
Gender

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

ACADEMIC

Male

46

2,89

,966

,142

ACHIEVEMENT

Female

54

3,14

,821

,112

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test

t-test for Equality of Means

for Equality of
Variances
F

Sig.

df

Sig. (2tailed)

Mean

Std. Error

Difference Difference

95%
Confidence
Interval of
the
Difference
Lower

Up
per

Equal

1,113

,294

-1,386

98

,169

-,248

,179

-,602

variances
ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEMENT

,
107

assumed
Equal

-1,368 88,863

variances

,175

-,248

,181

-,607

,
112

not
assumed

11

4.3.3

H3 :

The Difference of Academic Achievement among Ethnicity

A one-way ANOVA between-groups analysis of variance was performed to investigate the mean
difference of Academic Achievement among Ethnicity. Based on Table 5, the result shows no
significant difference of Academic Achievement among Ethnicity and DV (p=0.715 > ). The
result indicates that there is no significant different of Academic Achievement among ethnicity of
students.
Table 5
ANOVA
ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

Sig.

Between Groups

1,108

,369

,454

,715

Within Groups

78,080

96

,813

Total

79,188

99

12

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion
We are taking this research to see how significant the influence of time management towards
academic achievement among students in UUM. After we input the data from the questionnaire
that we gave to the respondents finally we got the output of the research. The result asserts that
there is a significant influence between time management and academic achievement among
student in UUM. Then, we examines that did the academic achievement give significant
influence between genders. We got that there is no significant influence towards both of
variables. Whereas the impact of academic achievement to ethnicity, there is no significant
impact towards that variables after we examined it. In conclusion, the findings of this study
indicate that the time management have significant impact toward academic achievement among
student in UUM.

5.2 Recommendations
After completed our study, we come out with few recommendations. Each students have to
manage their time not only to get the highest GPA but also to manage their own life to preface
and considerate the priority one. Especially for student in UUM, they should have to equalize the
time between lectures activities with the activities outside lectures time such as joining the club
and organization. If the students cannot manage their time wisely, then one of both activities
would give them the bad impact, like get the bad GPA because of concerning organization more
than studying. As we know, time management is important to everyone. Controlling how much
time you spend on various activities, and choosing which activities take priority, is at the heart of
effective time management. Studying time management theory helps you plan, organize and
schedule your tasks in the correct way so that they align with what really matters in your life.So,
manage your time efficiently.

13

REFERENCES

Denlinger, J. C. The Effect of Time Management on College Students Academic Performance.


Retrieved

30

March

2014,

from

http://firstyearcomposition.weebly.com/uploads/8/7/2/6/8726689/denlin
ger_eng_104_time_management_study.pdf

Hassanzabeh, R., & Ebadi, A. G. (2007). Measure the Share of the Effective Factors and Time
Management. World Applied Sciences Journal 2, 3. Retrieved 30 March 2014,
from http://idosi.org/wasj/wasj2(3)/4
Ogundokun, M.O. & Adeyemo, D.A. (2010, December). Emotional intelligence and academic
achievement: The moderating influence of age, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
(Vol.

10,

no.

2).

Retrieved

26

May

2014,

from

http://www.ncsu.edu/aern/TAS10.2/TAS10.2Ogundokun.pdf

Poser, B. (2003). Time management for students. Retrieved 30 March 2014, from
http://www.yorku.ca/cdc/lsp
Sekaran, U. & Bougie, R. (2013). Research methods for business (6th ed.). West Sussex: John
Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tao & Mani. (2013). Time management theory: 3 concepts to transform your efficiency.
Retrieved 3 June 2014, from http://timemanagementtao.com/time-managementtheory.html

14

APPENDICES

APPENDIX I :

Questionnaire

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ON THE IMPACT OF TIME MANAGEMENT TOWARDS


ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN UUM
Dear Respondent,
We are five students of Research Methodology Class Group J are under taking a research project
about The Impact of Time Management towards Academic Achievement of Student in UUM.
This research is conducted by:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Anisa Nataya
Herayati Aries
Rifdathul Melyani
Randy Karnefa
Teguh Hardi

(228843)
(228844)
(228845)
(228855)
(228863)

We are glad to inform you that you have been chosen to participate in this study. Your responses
and views are highly important in achieving the objectives of this study. The information
provided will be treated as private and confidential and will be used only for the purpose of this
study.
Thank you for your valuable time, attention and cooperation.
Yours faithfully,
Researchers
PART A DEMOGRAPHIC DATA: respondents profile. Please provide
answer to the following by crossing15
(X) one box only.

1. Gender

4. Ethnicity
Malay
Chinese
India
Foreigner

2. Age
18-22
22-26
>26
3. Marital Status

5. College

COB
CAS
COLGIS

Single
Married

PART B for this part, you are required to use the following scale to
respond to the statements:
STRONGLY DISAGREE

STRONGLY

AGREE

Section B1: these questions related to TIME MANAGEMENT. For this section you are
required to take your own choice.
Section
B2: these statementsQuestion
related to ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.
No.
1
2 For
3 this4section
5
you
to takecoming
your own
choice.
1. are
I required
always on-time
to the
class
No.
Question
1
2
3
4
5
1. II never
alwayslate
gettocertificate
2.
come intoby
thedean
class
2.
3.

always access
get above
3.00 GPA
II always
learning
zone every semester

3.
4.

never fail
in subjects
thatnetwork
I took
II seldom
accessing
social

4.
5.

always often
get good
grades
every semesteractivities
II always
attend
the non-academic

6.

I frequently attend the academic course

7.

I often doing revision in library

Thank you for your participation.

16

17

APPENDIX II :

SPSS Result
Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.732

a) The value is positive due to a positive average covariance among items. This not violates
reliability model assumptions. You may want to check item coding.

Reliability Statistics
Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.771

b) The value is positive due to a positive average covariance among items. This not violates

reliability model assumptions. You may want to check item coding.

18