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# Chemistry 28

## Module 2: Ways of Expressing Concentration

Method
Weight-volume

Definition
Wt solute/vol of solvent

Unit/Symbol
g/L

Remarks

## part per thousand

parts per million

Percentage
methods
Dilution ratio

Molar
Formal

Normal
Titer

Wt solute/ wt soln

## parts per billion

%w/w

Wt solute/vol soln
Vol of conc. acid or base
to vol of H2O added to the
acid or base
Mole solute/L soln
# gram formula weights in
1L solution

%wt/v
____:_____

## Equivalents solute/L soln

Wt pure substance that
(a) will react with
(b) is chemically
equivalent
(c) is contained in
(d) may be obtained
from
(e) may be substituted
for
1 mL of a solution

M
F

solutions

## Used when expressing

equilibrium concentrations of
molecules
Usually used for titrants

EXAMPLES
Weight volume
1. How many grams of NaCl are needed to prepare 500 mL of normal saline which is 0.85%
(w/v)?

2. One liter of 7.5% (w/v) solution glucose contains how many grams of glucose?

3. How many grams of MgCl2 are needed to prepare 500 mL solution that is 250 ppm MgCl2?

4. How many grams of MgCl2 are needed to prepare 500 mL solution that is 250 ppmm Cl-?

Percentage methods
1. What is the %(/w) of a glucose solution which contains 25.0 g glucose and weighs 300 g?

2. Calculate the percent by volume of a solution prepared by addidn 75.0 mL acetone to 450
mL of water. Assume the volumes are additive.

3. Calculate the percent by weight of a solution prepares by dissolving 5.00 g silver nitratein
25 mL of water. Assume the density of water id 1.00 g/mL.

Dilution ration
1. What volumes of conc HCl and of water are needed to prepare 600 mL of 1:5 solution?

2. If a further 50 mL of water is added to 150 mL of 1:2 acetic acid solution, what will be its
final dilution?

Molarity
1. Calculate the molarity of a silver nitrate (169.9) solution containing 16.9 g of the solid in
250.0 mL.

2. How many grams of silver nitrate are needed to prepare 500 mL of 0.1250 m solution?

3. What volume of the solution in the preceeding number is needed to prepare 250 m of
0.0625 M solution?

4. When 150 mL of 0.150 M HCl is added to 100 mL 0f 0.300 mL HCl, and the solution
diluted to 500 mL, what is the concentration of the resulting solution?

## Normality and Equivalent Weight

1. What is the normality of a 0.150 M HCl solution?

## 2, What is the normality of a 0.250 M solution of Al(OH)3?

3. Given the following unbalanced reactios, indicate the equivalent weight of the compound (in
boldface).
(a) H3PO4 + NaOH Na2HPO4 + H2O
(b) H2CO3 + NaOH NaHCO3 + H2O
(c) NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2 H2O
(d) AgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3
Titer
1. Express the concentrations of the following solutions by the titer method.
(a) the Cl- titer of 0.500 N AgNO3

## (b) the CaCO3 titer of 0.0200 M EDTA

(c) the CaCl2 titer of an EDTA solution that has a CaCO3 titer of 1.000 mg/mL.

Integrated Problems
1. Calculate the normality, molarity, and the silver nitrate titer of a solution that contains 4.00
g of NaCl in 100 g of water and has a density of 1.02 g/mL.

2. A 23.7% (w/w) solution of KHSO4 has density of 1.15 g/mL. Express the concentration of
this solution in the following ways: molar, normal for reactions in which (a) neutralization
occurs (b) BaSO4 is precipitated and (c) SO42- is reduced t So; the following titers: (a)
NaOH (b) SO3 and (c) KCl.