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Introduction to Euclids Geometry

Top Definitions

A point is that which has no part.

2.

A line is a breadth less length

3.

A straight line is a line which lies evenly with the points on itself.

4.

A surface is that which has length and breadth only.

5.

A plane surface is a surface which lies evenly with the straight lines on

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itself.

An Axiom or postulates are the statement accepted as true without


proof.

Theorems are statements which are proved using definitions, axioms,

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previously proved statement and deductive reasoning.


All attempts to prove Euclids fifth postulate using first four postulates

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failed and led to several other geometries called non Euclidean

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geometries.

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Top Concepts

The extremities of lines are points.

2.

The edges of a surface are lines.

3.

Euclids Axioms:

1.

(i)

Things which are equal to the same things are equal to one
another.

(ii)

If equals are added to equals, the wholes are equal.

(iii)

When an equal amount is taken from equals, an equal


amount results.

(iv)

Things which coincide with one another are equal to one


another.

(v)

The whole is garter than a part.

(vi)

Things which are double of same things are equal to one


another.

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(vii)

Things which are halves of same things are equal to one


another.

4.

Magnitudes of the same kind can be compared and added but


magnitude of different types can not be compared.

5.

A > B means that there is some quantity C such that A = B + C.

6.

Euclids 5 Postulate:
(i)

A straight line segment can be drawn joining any two points.

(ii)

Any straight line segment can be extended indefinitely in a


straight line.
Given any straight line segment, a circle can be drawn

(iii)

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having the segment as radius and one endpoint as center.


(iv)

All right angles are congruent.

(v)

If two lines are drawn which intersect a third in such a way

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that the sum of the inner angles on one side is less than two
right angles, then the two lines inevitably must intersect

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each other on that side if extended far enough. This is known


as the parallel postulate.

Equivalent version of Euclids fifth postulate:


(i)

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For every line l and for every point P not lying on l, there

(ii)

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exists a unique line m passing through P and parallel to l.


Two distinct intersecting lines cannot be parallel to the same

line.

Two distinct lines cannot have more than one point in common.

9.

The distance of a point from a line is the length of the perpendicular

8.

from the point to the line.


10.

Though Euclid defined a point, a line and a plane, but the definitions
are not accepted by mathematicians. Therefore these terms are now
taken undefined.

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Top Diagrams
A line

2.

A ray

3.

A line segment

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