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Close up. Bring the camera closer to the object.

Abbreviation for "After Recording." Record voices in sync with video. In anime, instead of using
the completed version, there is a version specifically created for ADR. Recording voices first, then
matching the animation to the voices is called "Pre-Sco" for Pre-Scoring.

(Iro Tsuki)
Movies made for editing and audio with color in them. An almost-complete state. Uncolored
video is called Sen-dori (Line Film) or Shiroi (White). Compared to Colored video, one cannot
do as much work edit-wise nor audio-wise. Because of worsening production conditions, it is not
rare to perform audio work with Sen-dori.

(Iro ShiteiKensa)
Color Directions/Inspection
There is something called a Color Model that is a record of how to color in the characters that is
made per scene by the color setting staff. Color Direction instructs which color model to use per
cut. Sometimes, the colors of small objects that only make an appearance for one episode are
decided by this section. The cuts that have their color models decided are then sent to a
Finish section where they are actually colored in. The inspection section then checks to see if
the correct colors were used, and if any mistakes are made.

Full Insert
Handing over all materials needed for work.

A Part
First part of the episode before the commercial break.

(E Konte)
Using the given scenario, one illustrates cuts, screen composition, and character actions along
with voice lines and duration. Serves as blueprint of animation.
-New(E Konte Satsu)
"Storyboard Filming"
To film/work using storyboard art. It has basically no movement whatsoever.

(E-Konte wo Kitteiru)
Cut the Storyboard
Means to draw the storyboard.

Episode Director
Using the storyboard, position that directs acting and images for certain sections. Present at all
meetings/checks throughout anime process.
*Literally means interpretation/mise-en-scene but acts more like a stage director in anime production.

Theatrical and/or accompaniment music.

All Rush
Put all cuts in numerical order and check. During this process, person in charge can pick up
mistakes in continuity and check coherence within a scene.

(All Konte Satsu)

All Board Filming
Movie that connects all filmed storyboards together.

(Omoi Cut)
"Heavy Cut"
A cut heavy in calories, meaning a cut requiring a lot of hard work.
-New(Oto Modoshi)
"Audio Back"
Taking the ADR and the SE (sound effects) and matching them to the video.

(Onkyou Seisaku)
Audio Production
Section that operates and deals with audio staff, VA (voice actor), staff arrangement, audio studio
arrangement, order ADR script.

Short of Audio Director.

(Onkyou Kantoku)
Audio Director
The person responsible for all things audio for an anime. Does everything from voice actor
casting, ordering which pieces of music to use, deciding how to use BGM and sound effects
during Dubbing, and instructing voice actors with their acting.


In the anime industry, there are many times when the staff cannot get together in one place.
Production goes to their workplaces and gathers their work.

(Kakuwa Sakkan)
"Individual Episode Animation Director"
An animation director that is in charge of one particular episode.

Cut Bag
A thick envelope to protect materials from damage and dirt during shipping. Despite
digitalization, art is still drawn on paper. Cut number, duration, advisor, sheet number,
camerawork, footnotes, various other pieces of information are directly written on the bag.

Editing process. See "Editing" for full definition.

(Carbon Sen)
"Carbon Line"
In Cel Animation, carbon was burned into the back of the cel to make a principal line.

Term for technique of postulating a movie camera filming a character, and moving that camera.

Chit chat voices that have no specified dialogue, such as casual talking in the background and
cheering of crowds.

The person that brings together everything regarding an anime. Participates from the very first
stages of production, including planning and scenario building, and when the work enters
production, he or she provides instructions such as acting and renditions for certain scenes and
his/her interpretation of the work s world.

"Complete Package"
Data with all work finished and is in a state ready to be broadcasted.

Who is doing what, when and where. Character actions and dialogue written out as text. Made
up of paragraphs, dialogue, and stage directions.

During Rush Check for retake, sometimes work is broken up into check movie controls and
record-keeping. Records on retake and cut numbers are kept.

Cue Lamp
Lamp inside the (voice) recording booth. Also used at times when staff from the adjustment
room wants to give cues to the cast.

Character Design
Person who creates a character blueprint, a 3D design that makes it easier for animators to
move the characters. Designs for a character s physical image is done by a
Character Genan (Character Draft), but when an animator handles the first drafts, he or she will
also often be responsible for character designs.

"Clean Up"
Taking lines from rough key, and making them clearer and cleaner.

(Chara Settei)
"Character Setting"
The configurations of a character.

Means Assemble. Also called Gross-Dashi (Gross Out) and Gross-Uke (Gross In). When dealing
with a TV series, production Gross is outsourced on a per-episode basis from a base company to a
different production company. There are also other forms of Gross, such as animation and finish.

"Insert Record"
The music used within the anime.

Key Animation
Illustrations of key movement points (beginning, critical junctures, end). Those in charge of this
section are called Genga-man.

(Genga Youshi)
"Key Animation Paper"
The paper that a Genga-man uses to draw on.

"Key Filming"
Movie data filmed in its Key Animation stage.

"Original Version"
Here (at Musashino Animation), this term points to the master video data that will be copied and
eventually sent to the broadcasting companies.

"Cast List"
List that shows which characters show up at which scenes. The list used by Audio and Animation
are different. What you see in episode 2 is the audio list.

Section that prepares ambient and emotional sounds, and adds sound effects when needed.
Sound Effects = SE.

(Conte Satsu)
Board Filming
Film the storyboard for a predetermined amount of seconds, or the movie format.


(Sai Cutting)
To re-edit the work. Often takes place when the story changes in a big way, or if the broadcast
format changes in a certain way.

Collective term for Key, Inbetween, A.D. Correction.

(Sakuga Retake)
Animation Retake
During Rush Check, retakes on animation that needs to be fixed. Missing character parts,
corrections on actions and facial expressions, etc.

(Sakuga Houkai)
"Animation Deterioration"
When the quality of the product drops drastically. A tragedy due to a collapse in scheduling.

(Sakuga Plan)
"Animation Plan"
Plan of action for a character, and the planning for the final make-up of what is on the screen of a
particular cut.

"Animation Meeting"
Meeting for animation staff. E.D. and Genga-men come together to discuss acting plans based on
* Uchi is short for Uchi-Awase, which means meeting.

Taking an unfinished take from an edited movie, and replacing it with a more completed take.
There are different types of replacements, such as pre-ADR replacing, pre-Dubbing replacing, and
pre-Original movie replacing.

Digital software now allows production to composite character on backgrounds, add effects, and
export in movie data. Before digitalization, process consisted of placing Cels on top of illustrated
backgrounds and actually taking pictures with a camera.

"Film Meeting"
Episodic Director and Filming Director's meeting before their work.

"Film Insert"
The act of handing over work to the film section.

(Satsuei Ire-Kiri)
"Film Full Insert"
Fully handing over all materials to the film section.

(Sakuga In}
"Animation In"
To begin animation work.

"Story Production"
The act of making the story.

Abbreviation for Animation Director.
In charge of certain episodes and their animation quality. Checks coherency among animations
drawn by several key animators, and adds corrections. Has very high technique. If schedule is
tight, one episode s work is headed by several Animation Directors.

(Sakkan Up)
A.D. Up
Either the deadline for an Animation Director s work, or the director s finished work itself.

(Sakkan Ire)
A.D. Insert
The act of giving materials (Layout checks or Key Animation) to the Animation Director so that
he/she can work on it. Or the materials themselves.

(Sakkan Sagyou)
A.D. Work
Corrections made by the Animation Director.

"A.D. Assist"
Assist the A.D. and lessen the load of their work.

Process of coloring in characters and objects. Now, colors can be digitally added on with a
computer, but during the Cel days, colors were painted on transparent acetate sheets.

(Shiage Kensa)
Finish Check
Finish is coloring picture data from video. Finish Check is review of Finished product, so that
there are no errors and everything is colored as directed.

(Shikisai Settei)
"Color Setting"
Section that determines the color of characters and small objects. In addition, in order to prevent
characters from standing out compared to the background, this section adjusts the color for each

(Shikisai Sample)
"Color Sample"
Sample of colors that served as an example used for the preparation of paint. During the cel
animation days, drawings were colored in via paint, and so such samples were needed. For digital
animation, it is similar to the Color Setting.

"First Issue"
Ever since the film days, the first completely copy is called the "shogou (first issue)." The fixed and
corrected version afterwards are called "Ni-gou (2nd issue)," "San-gou (3rd issue)," etc.

The length of time of a piece of film or cut.

(Shuusei Youshi)
"Revision Paper"
Paper that is used to point out instructions and revisions of layouts and key animation. In usual
revision/instruction situations, there is a different color assigned to each person who checks the
product (director, episodic director, general animation director, animation director, etc.) so that
one may know what was instructed by which person.

"Simulation Chart"
Chart that simulates the current production progress and how much workload specific sections
will have. Using this, one will try to predict the various problems that may surface, and find ways
to improve.

"White-ball Type"
Any sound over the length of 2 minutes is called "Shirotama (White ball)." The term points to a
phrase that is recorded continually, and not by short intervals.
*"White Ball" could mean "Pearl," but in that case it should be called "Shiratama" and not "Shirotama," so for
the time being I left it a direct translation.

Progress Sheet
One episode is made up of roughly 280 340 cuts. The table that compiles each cut s progress is
the Progress Sheet. Sheet management is most important in understanding and managing a
schedule. Although rudimentary, rookie producers often forget to update the sheet, after which
they get yelled at by the Desk.

(Shinjin Genga)
Rookie Key
A Genga-man with little experience.

A tool that cuts and joins film.

3D Check
Check 3DCG modeling data and motions.


(3D Kantoku)
3D Director
Person responsible for all the 3DCG used in the anime. Performs operations such as checking the
CG made by the staff and managing schedules as well as the materials.
(3D Layout Shutsuryoku)
"3D Layout Power Output"
Recreating a certain scene by putting buildings and characters in three-dimensional space. The
layout of the scene is then created by inserting an imaginary camera in that space. This 3D layout
is then printed on paper, after which character movements are hand-drawn.

(Seisaku Shinkou)
(Animation) Production Progress
Person responsible for managing production from storyboard to delivery for specific episodes.
From scheduling and material management to staff arrangement, distribution, and
transportation, there is endless work. Since they have a hand in basically all sections, they often
go on to become directors or producers.

(Seisaku Iinkai)
Production Committee
An organization that handles various business operations, as well as collect funds to produce the
anime. It aims to disperse capital risk by investing in numerous companies. Shareholding
companies are given different kinds of rights and royalties, and in turn use those rights to
perform business. (Ex: Books, CDs, Packages, Toy Distribution)
*You always see the name of each anime s committee at the very end of the opening/ending credits.

Just as the term suggests: Planning.

(Settei Seisaku)
"Setting Production"
Supervise settings of characters, art, objects, and collect references and materials of these
-New(Serifu Uke)
"From Lines"
Adding sounds from the characters lines.
Ex: Don t add the BGM from the start of the cut. Add it from [the character s] lines.


(Serifu Sheet)
Dialogue Sheet
The written parts in a Time Sheet that signifies when a character says their lines for how long.

(Seisaku Kaigi)
"Production Meeting"
Meeting where the Line Producer, Production Desk, Setting Production, Production Progress all
come together and discuss information such as the current production progress.

A transparent sheet that was used for cel animation production. Because it was created using
Celluloids, it was called "cel."

(Zero Coma)
"Zero Frame"
Means to not add any pauses in-between dialogue.

"General A.D."
Gather the work from several A.D. over several episodes, and unify the small changes in character

Feature of the copy machine that prints collated copies when there is a need to create multiple
copies of multiple-paged documents and materials.



"Time Sheet"
Paper with timing for animation and directions written during filming.

Tool that holds animation paper, which has holes in it, in place so they don't go out of alignment.
During animation, it becomes the position of standard.
-New(Tap Hari)
"Tap Paste"
On animation paper, there are holes called "Tap Holes" that exist to keep overlapped paper from
moving out of alignment. When a drawing is copied or when an animator simply wishes to fix the
position of a drawing without having to completely re-draw it, they will cut and paste the paper
with holes.

Matching sound data, BGM, and sound effects with video.

(Dubbing mae sashikae)

"Replace before Dubbing"
The operation of, before the dubbing process, taking the video data used during ADR and
replacing it with the most updated version. Improving the state of the material makes it easier for
the dubbing process to take place. It is desired for the video to be in an almost complete
condition at this stage.

"Attach Pan"
Camerawork: Camera follows the character. Used when there is complex movements and/or
change in speed.

(Tsume Shiji)
"Fill Directions"
When drawing in-between animation frames, there are directions written on the key animation
paper that instructs the range of movement, and how many frames are needed. For example:
"There needs to be 4 frames between these two key, covering this much movement."
-New(Texture Hari Komi)
"Texture Fill"
Adding texture to a 3D model.


Person for schedule management and progress coordination for the entire anime. Main work:
adjust workload of the main staff, follow up progress, solve problems that occur over time. The
stuff he/she hears over the phone are almost never good news.

Inbetween Finish
Douga (animation) + Shiage (finish).
Also can be used for Doushi-Maki, which is the shipping of animation and finish.

(Toukakou no ura uchi)

"Back up the Transmitted Light"
The operation of coloring areas black on cels where the transmitted light overlap, so that they
don't become transparent during the filming process.

(Douga Kensa)
"Video Inspection"
Section that checks whether the exported video has any errors and if it was made as instructed.

Clean up Key Animation, add in-between movements, make into animation. Or the actual
materials themselves. People in this section are called "Douga-man."

Stage Direction
Everything in the scenario that is not actor dialogue. Includes situation, emotions, actions put into

Machine that communicates between control room and recording room. Audio Director instructs
cast inside the recording room while pressing the Talkback Switch.
*In episode 2, the button the director (chubby in blue) presses when theyre talking about how the voice
actor should be saying her lines.


(Trace Dai)
Trace Table
Also known as Light Table. A table with a board of glass or acrylic over a light source such as a
fluorescent lamp. It is built into the animation desk. The light makes overlapping animation paper
transparent, enough for the bottom to be visible through the top. It is used for key, inbetween,
and video animation work.



(Nakawari ga Tokeru)
The Inbetween is melting
The process of adding video (meaning frames) between Key images is called nakawari or
inbetween animation. When this inbetween portion s quality decreases and the animation
seems to deteriorate, it is sometimes referred to as melting.

2nd Key
Abbreviation for Secondary Key Animation.
Animation is broken up into two parts: Key Animation and Layout. Furthermore, Key is at times
split into 1st and 2nd Key. 2nd Key are like assistants.

"Final Product"
Finalizing the completed movie. Beyond this stage are sponsors, distributors, and broadcast



Short for Perspective. Animators change the size and shape of an object depending on the place
and distance from the point of view, and try to make it as realistic as possible.

Data by cut. Checking this data and fixing retakes for it is called "Bara-Check."

Scatter Check
Check each cut to see if it was filmed properly or if data is correct. Points out cuts that need
corrections for quality upgrade. Since the cuts are scattered, this is called Scatter Check or
Retake Order.

A type of video effect. Adding shadows on the screen or putting gradations. Before the digital
age, these were added using paraffin paper (wax paper), hence the name Parra.

When there are dents and bruises on the surface of the cel, and the light of the film reflects onto
the lens.
(Hito Koma Uchi)
"1 Frame Hit"
Hit in this case means "directions." Perhaps the word Beat may fit better. 1 Frame Hit means to
write down directions regarding the drawing material per frame. Anime is drawn at a framerate
of 24 frames per second, and it is normal for Japanese TV animation to use a 3-frame-hit system
(meaning writing down directions for every three frames). 1 Frame Hit would be writing down
directions on 24 drawings per second, and the more drawings are directed per second, the more
fluid the animation is.

"Art Meeting"
Meeting that discusses all the necessary information the create the backgrounds, from seasons,
time, weather, etc.


(BG Uchi)
BG Meet
BG = Background. Meeting with art companies if/when they are employed to draw backgrounds.
Also called Bi-Uchi or Fuukei-Uchi.
* Bi is short of Art, and Fuukei means backgrounds.

(Bijutsu Board)
"Art Board"
The art board is the principle background art drawn every time the staff enters background work.
Since several people work on one scene, this board has the necessary information (make-up of
buildings and grounds, colors of the sky and plants, etc.) so that there will be no disruption in

(Bijutsu board nashi no ippatsu haikei)

One-shot backgrounds without art board
Normally, what s drawn first is the art board, which serves as the guidelines for background
images. Usually, this needs to match the image that the director has in mind, after which
background work commences. However, there are times when background work begins without
an art board. This is a very high-risk operation, since if the finished background does not match
what the director had in mind, the entire background for that scene must be fixed.

(Bijutsu man)
"Art Man"
Just like there are Genga-men, these are the staff members of the art department.

B Part
The second half of the episode, following the commercial break.

Abbreviation for Video Edit. Insert telop (captions/subtitles), perform final checks, and make
product into satisfactory form.

Points to when the speed of the character's movement is different from that of the camera, the
character seems like it is finely shaking, fluctuating, or vibrating. It is sometimes purposely added
to show that a character is shaking.

A technique that keeps characters and camera in place, but moves the background.


"Brush Up"
Put the extra effort to make the materials they have even better.

An activity chart. It maps out the workflow so that people can understand it better.

Breath intake.

A general flow of the story. Before writing the scenario, one must write the plot and speculate
how the story is going to be constructed.

Supplementary/Subsidiary staff.

The Edit process. Also called Cutting. Following the storyboard, the editor connects the cuts of
all filmed data, adjusts length of each cut so that it shows the intended meaning, changes the
order of cuts, etc. In a TV series, there is a specific broadcast format, and so the editor must adjust
length for TV.

(Help no Shigoto)
Helper s Work
Here (at Musashino Animation), this points to when someone helping out with another episode s
key animation in their free time, despite it not being from an episode they are assigned to.

Reading through the script and analyzing the content.

Voice Over
Taking translated audio and placing them over video.

Board Check
The art materials that serve as guidelines for each cuts background work is called the Art Board.
This is the check for that board.


Polygons are used to show a 3-dimensional shape of an object. The more polygons there are, the
smoother the surface can be rendered.



"Wrap it up"
Means to hurry up.

The process of shipping out animation and finishing work. For times when work is outsourced to
different studios, which is how the process got its name.

(Maki Modosu)
The process of re-outsourcing to another person/organization, if for some reason a studio is no
longer available for assistance.

(Mawari Komi)
Expression of putting character on an axis and wrap the camera around. Requires precise
calculations and time-consuming animation technique.

Person in charge of adjusting the balance of the volumes of character lines, sound effects, and
BGM, then processing the audio.

(Mixer Joshu)
Assistant Mixer
Handles recording operations using Protools as well as manage the settings of the equipment at
the audio studio. Helps to make operations run as smooth as possible.

"Maker P"
Often means Producer of package production company. FYI, it is common to separate animation
production () and merchandise production ().
*Both and are read as Seisaku, which means production.

Eye Flash
Luminance or shine.


"Motion Blur"
The blur/afterimage that is produced when taking a moving object with a camera.

The object that a 3D graphic is modeled/formed after.

Base Company
An animation company that a sponsor company directly contracts for production. In a TV series, it
is rare for one company to produce all episodes. Often, another company will be employed for
production on a per-episode basis. This secondary company is called Gross-Uke. Even when
production is outsourced (called Gross-Dashi ), however, pre- and post-production is often
managed by the Moto-Uke company.
* Uke means receive or redeem. Literally, Moto-Uke means receive the original. Dashi () means to



"Line P"
Abbreviation for Line Producer. Responsible for production site. Mainly performs staffing,
scheduling, budget management duties.

RushRush Check
Rush (film) is a term from the days when film was used. It is film developed for post-production
work so that the original film will stay undamaged. This term is now means the movie data made
for checking.
Rush Check is the process of checking the movie data to see if there are any problems. There are
two types: Bara-Check and All Rush.

- Bara-Check (Scatter Check)

Check each cut to see if it was filmed properly or if data is correct. Points out cuts that need
corrections for quality upgrade.
Since the cuts are scattered, this is called Scatter Check or Retake Order.
- All-Rush
Put all cuts in numerical order and check.
During this process, person in charge can pick up mistakes in continuity and check coherence
within a scene.

Rush Room
Room with all the necessary equipment to perform Rush Check.

Rough Key
As previously mentioned, the Key Animation work, up to Layout+First Key Animation ( Ichi-Gen ),
AKA the deliverables. The product before the Finish Work of the Key Animation.

Line Director
Line refers to the manufacturing department that the project is assigned to. The director heads
that department.

Cut in need of correction.

(Retake Shuusei)
Retake Revision
Correction of Retake content that was ordered during check.


Reconstruct the schedule, or readjust dates.

Screen composition drawn from storyboard. Has character positions and backgrounds. After
going through layout presentation and A.D. checks, this layout is sent to the background section
for background art work.
-New(Low Poly)
"Low Polygon"
A 3D model made out of a low number of polygons.

(Lok -Han)
"Loc-Hun: Location Hunting"
Searching for the setting of the anime, and collecting data.
The data compiled up to the final product is called a "roll." Rolls are managed after each finished
roll is numbered (Roll 1, Roll 2, etc.).