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Water Quality Analysis

Chlorine concentration

it is necessary to maintain at least 0.2 ppm of residual chlorine.

When the amount of chlorine is increased, it start to flavor the water and people may
reject it in favor of less secure water sources.
Chlorine is consumed in the water itself and through contact with the interior wall of the
Wall coefficient

The coefficient is found experimentally and is elusive.

Plastic pipes have 0 wall coefficient.

The coefficient can be measured by passing water of known concentration at constant

flow rate through a long section of pipe, minimum 300 m.
Bulk coefficient

This coefficient is measured experimentally, measuring how the chlorine coefficient in a

glass container filled with water from the source change over time.

For Alem Tena water distribution system:

Assuming the bulk coefficient:
K = -0.2378 day


Plastic pipes have 0 wall coefficient

So first assuming the amount of chlorine added at the reservoir is 1ppm.

1. Water quality analysis can only be done in extended period simulation
because we have to see the change over time. To change epanet in to
extende- period mode we go to the data tab of the browser, and select
options. In that menu, select times.

2. Specify what type of analysis you want to carry out



3. Add the chlorine source. Click on reservoir and introduce 1 in the parameter
initial quality

4. Define the chlorine consumptions, introducing the bulk cofficient in pipe


5. Calculate the network

6. observe the result

As it can be seen from the above image at 12 hr all of the nodes have greater than
0.8 mg/l residual chlorine level. Recommended residual chlorine is between 0.2-0.6
ppm. When the amount of chlorine is increased, it starts to flavor the water and
people may reject it in favor of less secure water sources. This maximum value
depends greatly on the population using the water and whether they are
accustomed to chlorination or not. A maximum 0.6 ppm is advised. So the amount
of residual chlorine must be reduced.
7. Change the concentration of chlorine at source to 0.5 ppm.


The chlorine concentration at source would maintain the chlorine values

within the suitable range of values.
The objective of modeling chlorine is to detect points of excessive
concentration that could cause refusal by consumers.
Water Age Analysis
Water age it measures how long the water stays in the network. It has two
main purposes:
To ensure contact time with chlorine: to ensure that water is drinkable it
has to have had contact with chlorine for 30 minutes.
To avoid quality deterioration with time : when water spends a long time
in pipes, the quality deteriorate noticeably.

As a general rule, plan for water to spend no more than one day in the
network. (3 days recommended)
It is in the furthest and most isolated areas of network where quality
problems are greatest.
1. To see how much time water spends in the pipes, do

The water spends between 1 24 hrs in the network, so the design is