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MALECircumcisionREMOVES16+Functions.

Doyouknowwhattheyare?

ShelleyWright

1.FrenarBand,orRidgedBand

Thefrenarbandisagroupofsoftridgesnearthejunctionoftheinnerand
outerforeskin.Thisregionistheprimaryerogenouszoneoftheintactmale
body.Lossofthisdelicatebeltofdenselyinnervated,sexuallyresponsive
tissuereducesthefullnessandintensityofsexualresponse.[Source:
Taylor,J.R.etal.,"ThePrepuce:SpecializedMucosaofthePenisandIts
LosstoCircumcision,"BritishJournalofUrology77(1996):291295.]

2.MechanicalGlidingAction

Theforeskin'sglidingactionisahallmarkfeatureofthenormal,natural,
intactpenis.Thisnonabrasiveglidingofthepenisinandoutofitsown
shaftskinfacilitatessmooth,comfortable,pleasurableintercourseforboth
partners.Withoutthisglidingaction,thecoronaofthecircumcisedpenis
canfunctionasaonewayvalve,makingartificiallubricantsnecessaryfor
comfortableintercourse.[Source:P.M.Fleiss,MD,MPH,"TheCase
AgainstCircumcision,"Mothering:TheMagazineofNaturalFamilyLiving
(Winter1997):3645.]

3.Meissner'sCorpuscles

Circumcisionremovesthemostimportantsensorycomponentofthe
foreskinthousandsofcoiledfinetouchreceptorscalledMeissner's
corpuscles.Alsolostarebranchesofthedorsalnerve,andbetween10,000
and20,000specializederotogenicnerveendingsofseveraltypes.Together
thesedetectsubtlechangesinmotionandtemperature,aswellasfine
gradationsintexture.[Sources:1.R.K.Winkelmann,"TheErogenous
Zones:TheirNerveSupplyandItsSignificance,"ProceedingsoftheStaff
MeetingsoftheMayoClinic34(1959):3947.2.R.K.Winkelmann,"The
CutaneousInnervationofHumanNewbornPrepuce,"Journalof
InvestigativeDermatology26(1956):5367.]

4.Frenulum

ThefrenulumisahighlyerogenousVshapedstructureontheundersideof
theglansthattetherstheforeskin.Duringcircumcisionitisfrequentlyeither
amputatedwiththeforeskinorsevered,whichdestroysordiminishesits
sexualandphysiologicalfunctions.[Sources:1.Cold,C,Taylor,J,"The
Prepuce,"BJUInternational83,Suppl.1,(1999):3444.2.Kaplan,G.W.,
"ComplicationsofCircumcision,"UrologicClinicsofNorthAmerica10,
1983.]

5.DartosFascia

Circumcisionremovesapproximatelyhalfofthistemperaturesensitive
smoothmusclesheathwhichliesbetweentheouterlayerofskinandthe
corpuscavernosa.[Source:Netter,F.H.,"AtlasofHumanAnatomy,"
SecondEdition(Novartis,1997):Plates234,329,338,354,355.]

6.ImmunologicalSystem

Thesoftmucosa(innerforeskin)containsitsownimmunologicaldefense
systemwhichproducesplasmacells.Thesecellssecreteimmunoglobulin
antibodiesaswellasantibacterialandantiviralproteins,includingthe
pathogenkillingenzymelysozyme.[Sources:1.A.AhmedandA.W.Jones,
"ApocrineCystadenoma:AReportofTwoCasesOccurringonthe
Prepuce,"BritishJournalofDermatology81(1969):899901.2.P.J.

Floweretal.,"AnImmunopathologicStudyoftheBovinePrepuce,"
VeterinaryPathology20(1983):189202.]

7.LymphaticVessels

Thelossofthesevesselsduetocircumcisionreducesthelymphflowwithin
thatpartofthebody'simmunesystem.[Source:Netter,F.H.,"Atlasof
HumanAnatomy,"SecondEdition(Novartis,1997):plate379.]

8.EstrogenReceptors

Thepresenceofestrogenreceptorswithintheforeskinhasonlyrecently
beendiscovered.Theirpurposeisnotyetunderstoodandneedsfurther
study.[Source:R.Hausmannetal.,"TheForensicValueofthe
ImmunohistochemicalDetectionofOestrogenReceptorsinVaginal
Epithelium,"InternationalJournalofLegalMedicine109(1996):1030.]

9.ApocrineGlands

Theseglandsoftheinnerforeskinproducepheromonesnature'spowerful,
silent,invisiblebehavioralsignalstopotentialsexualpartners.Theeffectof

theirabsenceonhumansexualityhasneverbeenstudied.[Source:A.
AhmedandA.W.Jones,"ApocrineCystadenoma:AReportofTwoCases
OccurringonthePrepuce,"BritishJournalofDermatology81(1969):
899901.]

10.SebaceousGlands

Thesebaceousglandsmaylubricateandmoisturizetheforeskinandglans,
whichisnormallyaprotectedinternalorgan.Notallmenhavesebaceous
glandsontheirinnerforeskin.[Source:A.B.HymanandM.H.Brownstein,
"Tyson'sGlands:EctopicSebaceousGlandsandPapillomatosisPenis,"
ArchivesofDermatology99(1969):3137.]

11.LangerhansCells

Thesespecializedepithelialcellsareacomponentoftheimmunesystemin
thepenis.[Source:G.N.Weissetal.,"TheDistributionandDensityof
LangerhansCellsintheHumanPrepuce:SiteofaDiminishedImmune
Response?"IsraelJournalofMedicalSciences29(1993):4243.]

12.NaturalGlansColoration

Thenaturalcolorationoftheglansandinnerforeskin(usuallyhiddenand
onlyvisibletootherswhensexuallyaroused)isconsiderablymoreintense
thanthepermanentlyexposedandkeratinizedcolorationofacircumcised
penis.Thesociobiologicalfunctionofthisvisualstimulushasneverbeen
studied.

Theglansrangesfrompinktoredtodarkpurpleamongintactmenof
NorthernEuropeanancestry,andfrompinkishtomahagonytodarkbrown
amongintactmenofColor.Ifcircumcisionisperformedonaninfantor
youngboy,theconnectivetissuewhichprotectivelyfusestheforeskinand
glanstogetherisrippedapart.Thisleavestheglansrawandsubjectto
infection,scarring,pitting,shrinkage,andeventualdiscoloration.Overa
periodofyearstheglansbecomeskeratinized,addingadditionallayersof
tissueinordertoadequatelyprotectitself,whichfurthercontributesto
discoloration.Manyrestoringmenreportdramaticchangesinglanscolor
andappearance,andthatthesechangescloselymirrorthenatural
colorationandsmooth,glossyappearanceoftheglansseeninintactmen.

[Source:P.M.Fleiss,MD,MPH,"TheCaseAgainstCircumcision,"
Mothering:TheMagazineofNaturalFamilyLiving(Winter1997):3645.]

13.LengthandCircumference

Circumcisionremovessomeofthelengthandgirthofthepenisits
doublelayeredwrappingoflooseandusuallyoverhangingforeskinis
removed.Acircumcisedpenisistruncatedandthinnerthanitwouldhave
beenifleftintact.[Source:R.D.TalaricoandJ.E.Jasaitis,"Concealed
Penis:AComplicationofNeonatalCircumcision,"JournalofUrology110
(1973):732733.]

14.BloodVessels

Severalfeetofbloodvessels,includingthefrenulararteryandbranchesof
thedorsalartery,areremovedincircumcision.Thelossofthisrich
vascularizationinterruptsnormalbloodflowtotheshaftandglansofthe
penis,damagingthenaturalfunctionofthepenisandalteringits
development.[Sources:1.H.C.Bazettetal.,"Depth,Distributionand
ProbableIdentificationinthePrepuceofSensoryEndOrgansConcernedin
SensationsofTemperatureandTouchThermometricConductivity,"
ArchivesofNeurologyandPsychiatry27(1932):489517.2.Netter,F.H.,
"AtlasofHumanAnatomy,"SecondEdition(Novartis,1997):plates238,
239.]

15.DorsalNerves

Theterminalbranchofthepudendalnerveconnectstotheskinofthe
penis,theprepuce,thecorporacavernosa,andtheglans.Destructionof
thesenervesisararebutdevastatingcomplicationofcircumcision.Ifcut
duringcircumcision,thetoptwothirdsofthepeniswillbealmostcompletely
withoutsensation.[Sources:1.Agur,A.M.R.ed.,"Grant'sAtlasof
Anatomy,"NinthEdition(WilliamsandWilkins,1991):188190.2.Netter,

F.H.,"AtlasofHumanAnatomy,"SecondEdition(Novartis,1997):plate
380,387.]

16+OtherLosses

Circumcisionperformedduringinfancydisruptsthebondingprocess
betweenchildandmother.Thereareindicationsthattheinnatesenseof
trustinintimatehumancontactisinhibitedorlost.Itcanalsohave
significantadverseeffectsonneurologicaldevelopment.

Additionally,aninfant'sselfconfidenceandhardinessisdiminishedby
forcingthenewbornvictimintoadefensivepsychologicalstateof"learned
helplessness"or"acquiredpassivity"tocopewiththeexcruciatingpain
whichhecanneitherfightnorflee.

Thetraumaofthisearlypainlowersacircumcisedboy'spainthreshold
belowthatofintactboysandgirls.Thishasbeenproveninastudyduring
vaccinationtime.[Sources:1.R.Goldman,Circumcision:TheHidden
Trauma(Boston:VanguardPublications,1997),139175.2.A.Taddioet
al.,"EffectofNeonatalCircumcisiononPainResponsesduringVaccination
inBoys,"Lancet345(1995):291292.]

Everyyearsomeboyslosetheirentirepenisesfromcircumcision
accidentsandinfections.Theyarethen"sexuallyreassigned"bycastration
andtransgendersurgery,andareexpectedtolivetheirlivesasfemales.

[Sources:1.J.P.GearhartandJ.A.Rock,"TotalAblationofthePenisafter
CircumcisionwithElectrocautery:AMethodofManagementandLongTerm
Followup,"JournalofUrology142(1989):799801.2.M.DiamondandH.K.
Sigmundson,"SexReassignmentatBirth:LongTermReviewandClinical
Implications,"ArchivesofPediatricsandAdolescentMedicine151(1997):
298304.]

EveryyearmanyboysintheUnitedStatesandelsewherelosetheirlives
asaresultofcircumcisionafactthatisroutinelyignoredorobscured.

[Sources:1.G.W.Kaplan,"ComplicationsofCircumcision,"UrologicClinics
ofNorthAmerica10(1983):543549.2.R.S.Thompson,"Routine
CircumcisionintheNewborn:AnOpposingView,"JournalofFamily
Practice31(1990):189196.