Anda di halaman 1dari 77

991122

STRATEGIC
MANAGEMENT
MANAJEMEN STRATEGI
PENGERTIAN DAN PROSES
991122
Kepustakaan
 Strategic Management, John A. Pearce II and Richard B. Robinson, Jr.,
6th & 5th Ed., Irwin, 1997 & 1994
 Strategic Management, Fred. R. David, 6th Ed., Prentice Hall, 1997
 Strategic Management, Charles W.L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones, 4th Ed.,
Houghton Miflin, 1998
 Strategic Management, Michael A. Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, and Robert E.
Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., West Publishing, 1996
 Strategic Management, Samuel C. Certo and J. Paul Peter, 3rd Ed., Irwin,
1995
 The Strategy Concept and Process, Arnoldo C. Hax and Nicolas S.
Majluf, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, 1996
 Strategy Safari, Henry Mintzberg, Bruce Ahlstrand, and Joseph Lampel,
The Free Press, 1998
 Visionary Leadership, Burt Nanus, Jossey-Bass, 1992
SOAL UJIAN AKHIR STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
000524 17 Desember 1999 - (40 menit)
991122
Berhubung seorang kawan mengenal anda telah lulus ujian
Manajemen Strategik tingkat Magister, dia meminta nasihat
kepada anda. Dia memiliki modal sebesar X rupiah (Pilihlah
angka X ini antara Rp. 10 juta sampai Rp 10 milyar), dan ia
ingin berusaha. Dia minta anda nasihat: bagaimana memilih
usaha yang cocok untuk dan apa yang harus dilakukannya
sehingga kemungkinan suksesnya lebih besar.

Tugas anda: Menuliskan proses yang baik sesuai proses


manajemen strategik yang anda ketahui (termasuk tools
yang dipakai serta uraian ringkas teori/pengertiannya) serta
aplikasi dalam kasus kawan anda tersebut.
000524
Sikap ke Perubahan Masa Depan
 Passive
 Tak peduli apa itu masa depan, yang penting kerjakan sebaik-baiknya sekarang.
Yang penting, kita kerja keras dan makin efisien.

 Reactive
 Kita tunggu saja apa perubahannya, kita nanti sesuaikan/adaptasi dengan
keadaan perubahan itu.

 Anticipative
 Kita perlu mencari tahu akan terjadi perubahan apa, sumber-sumber
perubahannya. Kita harus sudah menyiapkan sarana prasarana dan ikut
berubah bersama.

 Proactive
 Obsesi untuk menjadi pemimpin perubahan, ikut menentukan dan
menciptakan perubahan, menentukan standar-standar baru industri.

Modified from:
Brown & Eisenhardt, Competing on the Edge, 1998, Chapt. 1
000524
991122

TEKAD

MISI ALU

STRATEGI

JABARAN STRATEGI

IMPLEMENTASI
KONSEP DASAR *
( Oleh: Hiskak Secakusuma, 1990 )

991122

COMMITMENT
TEKAD

MISSION SWOT
MISI ALU

STRATEGIES
ALTERNATIF DAN PILIHAN

OPERATING STRATEGIES
STRATEGY TAHUNAN

IMPLEMENTATION
PELAKSANAAN & PENGENDALIAN

* BUILDING BLOCKS
KERANGKA KERJA
991122

C
M IE + EE
Pr + Ma + Te + CP + FC
Go + Ph + Sc
PO

GS + LO
OS + AO + P
SLCR + Control
TIGA TEORI PORTER
991122

INDUSTRY ANALYSIS

GENERIC STRATEGIES

VALUE CHAIN
Strategy Formulation Framework
000601

STAGE 1 : THE INPUT STAGE

External Factor Competitive Internal Factor


Evaluation (EFE) Profile Evaluation (IFE)
Matrix Matrix Matrix

STAGE 2 : THE MATCHING STAGE

TOWS SPACE BCG


Matrix Matrix Matrix

Internal-External Grand Strategy


Matrix Matrix

STAGE 3 : THE DECISION STAGE


QSPM
Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix

David, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 6-2


000524 MISI DAN VISI
 VISION (The Future State)

 MISSION (ABOUT OUR BUSINESS & ABOUT US)

 STRATEGIC INTENT (OBSESSION, WINNING, LEADERSHIP)

 CORE COMPETENCE (CAPABILITY, SUSTAINED ADVANTAGE)

 STRATEGY (ACTIONS & DECISIONS, FIT TO COMPETITIVE ENV.)


000528
VISION
 The ability to think about the future (Advanced Learner’s Dict.)

 Aspiration, Values, and Philosophies (Certo & Peter)

 = Mission (Hill & Jones)

 No definition (Hitt et.al.)

 What do we want to become? (David)

The Future State of the Company


Keadaan (kejayaan) Perusahaan di Masa Depan
000528
MISSION
 A particular aim to fulfil more than anything else (Adv. Learner’s Dict.)

 Specific Statement of Organizational Purpose (Certo & Peter)

 A formal declaration of what the company is trying to achieve


over the medium to long term (Hill & Jones)

 Statement of a firm’s unique purpose and the scope of its


operations in product and market terms (Hitt et. al.)

 Enduring statements of purpose that distinguish one business


from other firms. What is our business?.(David)

Satu pernyataan tentang batasan dan pedoman usaha


perusahaan serta tujuan yang hendak dicapainya.
000528
STRATEGIC INTENT
We believe that the application of concepts such as
“strategic fit”, “generic strategies”, and the “strategy
hierarchy” have often abetted the process of
competitive decline. (8 rules, 7=S, 5 forces, 4 stages, 3 generics, 2x2 matrices)

To create an obsession with winning and sustained for


global leadership.
- captures the essence of winning
- stable over time
- sets a target that deserves personal commitment

Hamel & Prahalad, HBR May-June 89, Page 63-76


000528 CORE COMPETENCE

A core competence is a central value-creating


capability of an organization - a core skill.

- Identification of current core competence


- Establish the core competence agenda
- Create new business opportunities

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Chapter 10


Hamel & Prahalad, HBR May-June 89, Page 63-76
000528
STRATEGY
 A plan designed for a particular purpose (Adv. Learner’s Dict.)

 The patern that integrates goals, policies, and actions


sequences into a cohesive whole (Certo & Peter)

 Specific patern of decisions and actions to achieve an


organization’s goals (Hill & Jones)

Satu set keputusan dan kegiatan yang pas dengan


lingkungan persaingan yang dinamis untuk mencapai
tujuan perusahaan yang ditetapkan.
PERNYATAAN MISI
991122 TIGA SEHAT ENAM SEMPURNA
991129

 Produk dan/atau Jasa (Products/Services, yang


menyediakan nilai atau manfaat sepadan dengan harganya)

 Pasar atau Konsumen (Consumers, kebutuhan segmen


pasar tertentu yang akan dilayani/dipenuhi)

 Teknologi Bersaing (Technology, yang dipakai dalam


proses menciptakan nilai/manfaat produk atau jasa yang bersaing)

 Tujuan (Goals, tujuan yang akan diperjoangkan untuk periode


perencanaan: survival, growth, profitability)

 Falsafah (Philosophy, dasar keyakinan dan nilai-nilai yang


menjadi landasan kebersamaan dalam berinteraksi)

 Konsep Diri (Self Consept, kompetensi dan ciri keunggulan


yang diagungkan, termasuk mana intern: apakah kita ini dan ekstern:
apakah citra yang kita inginkan)

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Page 29


David, 6th Ed, 1997, Page 88
SWOT STRENGTH-WEAKNESS-OPPORTUNITY-THREAT
991122 ANALISIS LINGKUNGAN USAHA

 Analisis Usaha Intern (Internal Environment)

 Analisis Usaha Ekstern (External Environment)

 Analisis Persaingan (Competitive Profile)

 Teknik Prakiraan (Forecasting)


Analisis Lingkungan Ekstern
991129

Remote Environment
(Global and Domestic)

Economic, Social, Political, Technological, Ecological

Industry Environment
(Global and Domestic)

Entry barriers, Supplier, Buyer,


Substitute, Rivalry

Operating Environment
(Global and Domestic)

Competitors, Creditors,
Customers, Labors,
Suppliers

THE FIRM

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 3-1


Analisis Industri
(Porter’s Five Forces)
991129

Potential
Potential
entrants
entrants
Threat of
new entrants

Bargaining power of Bargaining power of

Rivalry among
Suppliers Buyers
Suppliers existing firms Buyers

Threat of

Substitutes
Substitutes

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 3-4


National Competitive Advantage
(Porter’s Diamond)
000524

Strategy,
Strategy,Structure,
Structure,
Rivalry
Rivalry

National
Factor Demand
Factor Competitive Demand
Endowments
Endowments Conditions
Conditions
Advantage

Related
Related&&Supp.
Supp.
Industries
Industries

Hill&Jones, 4th Ed, 1998, Fig. 3-8


A firm’s
strategic conduct is
dynamic in nature

Competitive
Actions taken responses lead
to additional
by one firm
elicit responses
Competitive actions from
from Dynamics the firm that
acted
competitors
originally

Actions and responses


shape the competitive
positions of each firm’s
business level strategy
HYPERCOMPETITION
(D’Aveni’s - Teori Obok-obok)
000607

 HYPERCOMPETITION
 The stable periods have become shorter. Sustainable advantages are
becoming more temporary everyday.

 FOUR ADVANTAGES/ARENAS of Competition


 Cost & Quality, Timing & KnowHow, Strongholds, DeepPockets

 NEW 7-S’s Analysis


 Vision for Disrupting
 Superior Stakeholder Satisfaction
 Strategic Soothsaying
 Capabilities for Executing Disrupting
 Capability for Speed
 Capabilty to Surprise
 Tactic Used to Deliver the Disruptions
 Shifting the Rules
 Signaling
 Simultaneous & Sequential Thrusts
D’Aveni, Hypercompetition, 1994
HYPERCOMPETITION
(D’Aveni’s - Teori Obok-obok)
000607

 FOUR ADVANTAGES/ARENAS of Competition

Perfect
Perfect
Competition
Competition

Deep Pockets
Deep Pockets

Stronghold
Stronghold

Timing/Know-how
Timing/Know-how

Price
Price&&Qualty
Qualty

D’Aveni, Hypercompetition, 1994


HYPERCOMPETITION
(D’Aveni’s - Teori Obok-obok)
000607

 NEW 7-S’s Analysis

VISION
Satisfaction
Soothaying

Market
Disruption

TACTICS
CAPABILITY
Shifting
Speed
Signaling
Surprise
Simultaneous

D’Aveni, Hypercompetition, 1994


000601
Analisis Usaha Intern
(Merumuskan Strengths & Weaknesses)

 Fungsional (Produksi, Keuangan, HRD, Marketing, R&D)

 Value Chain (Prasarana dan Operasional)

 Tolok Ukur (Rata-rata Industri, Pesaing, Obsesi)

 Key Success Factors (Current, Potential)

 Competence (Assets, Capabilities)


000601 Analisis Keunggulan

RESOURCES
RESOURCES
Tangible + Intangible
Tangible + Intangible

CORE COMPETITIVE
CORE COMPETITIVE
COMPETENCIES
COMPETENCIES ADVANTAGE
ADVANTAGE

CAPABILITIES
CAPABILITIES
Skill + Knowledge
Skill + Knowledge

SUSTAINABILITY

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 3.2 (mod)


000524
Evolusi Daur
Industri/Produk
Demand

Embryonic

Growth Shakeout Maturity Decline

Time
Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 3.6
000601
Analisis Persaingan
(Competitive Profile Matrix)

Company Competitor 1 Competitor 2


Success Factors Weight Rate Score Rate Score Rate Score

Market Share
Price
Fin. Position
Product Quality
Customer Loyalty
etc.

Total Weighted Score

David, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 4-18


000607
KONSEP DASAR

COMMITMENT
TEKAD
VALUE OF THE FIRM

MISSION SWOT
MISI ALU CORPORATE LEVEL
VALUE &/or COMP.
GLOBAL LEVEL

STRATEGIES BUSINESS LEVEL


ALTERNATIF DAN PILIHAN
COMPETITIVENESS
OPERATING LEVEL
OPERATING STRATEGIES
STRATEGY TAHUNAN
PRODUCTIVITY
IMPLEMENTATION
PELAKSANAAN & PENGENDALIAN
010306
FINANCIAL STRATEGIES

Financial Criteria COMMITMENT


(Morden 18 & Lynch 9) TEKAD

Accounting for Improvement


(Hope : Issue 6)

MISSION SWOT
Four Perspectives MISI ALU Faktor Pencapaian
Financial
Customer
Internal Business Process
Learning & Growth Finance & Accounting
STRATEGIES
Four Processes ALTERNATIF DAN PILIHAN
Translating the Vision
Communicating & Linking Balanced Scorecard
Business Planning
Feedback & Learning OPERATING STRATEGIES
STRATEGY TAHUNAN
Building Stra-Man System
National’s 10 Steps
IMPLEMENTATION
PELAKSANAAN & PENGENDALIAN
991122
Berbagai Jenis Strategi

 Strategi Portofolio (BCG, GE, McKinsey, Lifecycle)

 Strategi Generik (Porter)

 Strategi Utama (Grand Strategies)

 Strategi SWOT (SWOT Strategy Analysis)

 Strategi-strategi Operasional (Operating)


Berbagai Kelompok Strategi
991122
 Stars, Cash-Cows, Dogs, Question Marks
 Invest/Grow, Selectivity, Harvest/Divest
 Winner, Profit Producer, Average, Question, Loser

Berbagai Jenis Strategi


 Broad Differentiation, Broad Low-Cost (Overall Cost Leadership),
Focus Differentiation, Focus Low-Cost
 Concentrated Growth, Market Development, Product
Development, Innovation, Horizontal Integration, Vertical
Integration, Concentric Diversification, Conglomerate
Diversification, Turnaround, Divestiture, Liquidation
 Bentukan: New, Acquisition, JV, Strategic Alliances, Concortia
 Strategi-strategi operasional/fungsional di bidang : Produksi,
Marketing, Keuangan, Sumberdaya Manusia, Riset, Organisasi &
Manajemen, dan Sistim Informasi
STRATEGI STRATEGI
UTAMA
991122 12 GRAND STRATEGIES. The comprehensive, general
plan of major actions through which a firm intends to achieve its
long term objectives in a dynamic environment.
 Concentrated Growth (product, market, technology)
 Market Development (geographic, segments)
 Product Development (prolong life cycle, brand name)
 Innovation (new lifecycle, existing obsolete)
 Horizontal Integration (similar business)
 Vertical Integration (forward, backward)
 Concentric Diversification (synergistic possibilities)
 Conglomerate Diversification (financial synergy)
 Turnaround/Retrenchment (cost, assets)
 Divestiture (business, major component)
 Liquidation (assets value, non-going concern)
 Bentukan: New Venture, Acquisition, Joint Ventures,
Strategic Alliances, Consortia
Pearce & Robinson, 5th Ed, 1994, Ch. 7
991122
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

 Analisis SWOT (SWOT Analysis Matrix)


 Diagram SWOT (SWOT Diagram)
 Analisis Strategi Generik (Porter’s Generic Strategies)
 Pilihan Strategi Utama (Grand Strategy Selection)
 Matriks Strategi Utama (Grand Strategy Matrix)
 Analisis SPACE (Strategic Position & Action Eval. M.)
 Matriks Portofolio (BCG, GE, McKinsey, Lifecycle,Core)
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FORMULATION PROCESS
(TRADITIONAL APPROACH or FIT APPROACH-IO Approach)

DYNAMIC
ENVIRONMENT
FORMULATION
STRATEGIES IMPLEMENTATION
ASSETS &
PROCESS
CAPABILITIES

BUSINESS
MISSION

OUTSIDE - IN

Mencari alternatif strategi sebanyak-banyaknya


(yang fit pada lingkungan ekstern ddan intern)
Dan memilih yang terbaik di antaranya.
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FORMULATION PROCESS
(RESOURCE-BASED APPROACH or COMPETENCE-BASED APPROACH)

DYNAMIC
ENVIRONMENT
G
FORMULATION
IMPLEMENTATION O
STRATEGIES
ASSETS
ASSETS&& A
PROCESS
CAPABILITIES
CAPABILITIES L

BUSINESS
MISSION

STRATEGIC INTENT

INSIDE - OUT

Mencari alternatif kompetensi sebanyak-banyaknya


(yang feasible untuk dipertahankan atau dibangun)
Dan memilih yang terbaik di antaranya dan menetapkan strateginya
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio

BCG Growth-Share Matrix


991122
(Boston Consulting Group)

High
Industry Growth Rate
Low

High Low
Relative Market Share

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.1


Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
CFROI (Cashflow Return on Investment, BCG)
991122 Strategies for Value Creation

CFROI (%)

A
Cost of Capital (Tolok Ukur)

B C D E
Positive Neutral Negative
Spread
Business
Spread
Business
Spread F
Business
Size
* Increase CFROI * Increase CFROI * Increase CFROI
* Hold CFROI, Grow Fast * Then Grow * Reduce Reinvestment
* Erode CFROI, Grow Faster * Divest or Liquidate

Memilih Core of Business :


Ide dari BCG di Jaya, 1997
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio

991122
GE Nine Cell Planning Grid

Industry (product-market) attractiveness


High
Invest/Grow Invest/Grow Selectivity

Medium

Invest/Grow Selectivity Harvest/Divest


Low

Selectivity Harvest/Divest Harvest/Divest

Strong Average Weak


Business Strength

Pearce & Robinson, 5th Ed, 1994, Fig. 8-7


Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
McKinsey Matrix (McKinsey & Company)
991122

Winner Winner Question Mark

High
Industry Attractiveness

Winner Average Loser

Medium

Profit Loser Loser


Producer
Low

Good Medium Poor


Competitive Position

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.2


Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
Industry Attractiveness - Business Strength Matrix
991122
(McKinsey & Company and General Electric)
Industry Attractiveness
High Medium Low

High Invest Selective Grow or


Business Strength Growth Let Go

Medium Selective Grow or


Growth Let Go Harvest

Grow or
Low Let Go Harvest Divest

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 9-4


Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio

991122
Lifecycle Portofolio Matrix
Stage of Market Life Cycle
Introduction Growth Maturity Decline

ly
Competitive Strength

h sive
High s s
Pu gre
g
stA
ve n ty
In t io ctivi
Moderate u e
Ca Sel
t
ves r
In ge st
n
Low Da rve
Ha

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig. 9-5


Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio

991122
MISSION and VALUE

High
C
B E
Fitness to Mission* Creat Value /
Divest if cannot
Invest & Grow improve

F
A
Low

Sell & Realise Value Close / Divest


High Low
Value Creation
Potential * Istilah Vision dipakai oleh BCG
Memilih Core of Business :
Ide dari BCG di Jaya, 1997
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif Portofolio
Core Competence Agenda
991122

New
Premier plus 10 yrs Mega-opportunities

Core Competence
Existing

Fill in the Blanks White Spaces

Existing New
Market

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 10.3


PARENTING MIX
BUSINESS LEVEL STRATEGIES
(Winning the Competition)

 MARKET LEADERSHIP

 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

 TARGET MARKET/CUSTOMERS
MARKET LEADERSHIP

 PIONEER

 FOLLOWER

 CHALENGER
OPERATING LEVEL STRATEGIES
(Productivity)

 EFFECTIVE (Key Result Area)

 EFFICIENT (Economically)

 SATISFACTION
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif
Matriks SWOT (TOWS Analysis
991122
Matrix)

S trenghts W eaknesses

O pportunities
SO WO
Use strengths to Overc. weaknesses
take advantage of taking advantage
opportunities of opportunities

T hreats
ST WT
Use strengths to Min. Weaknesses
avoid threats and avoid threats

David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-3


Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

991122 GENERIC STRATEGIES

Differentiation Overall

Broad
in Cost
Strategic Target Broad Target Leadership
Narrow/Focus

Differentiation Low Cost


in in
Narrow Target Narrow Target

Differentiation Low Cost


Strategic Advantage

Michael Porter’s on Competitive Strategy, Video, 1988


Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

Diagram SWOT (SWOT Analysis


991122 Diagram)
Numerous
Environmental
Opportunities

Turnaround Aggressive
Oriented
Strategy
Strategy
Critical Substantial
Internal Internal
Weaknesses Strengths
Defensive Diversification
Strategy Strategy

Major
Environmental
Threats

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-1


Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

Grand Strategy Selection


991122
Overcome
Weakness

Turnaround
Divest Vertical Integration
Liquidation Congl. Diversification

Internal External
Resources Resources

Concentrated Horizontal Integration


Market Development Concentric Diversification
Product Development Joint Venture
Innovation

Maximize
Strength

Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 8-4


Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

991122
Grand Strategy Matrix/Cluster
Rapid
Market Growth

Market Penetration Market Penetration


Market Development Market Development
Product Development Product Development
Horizontal Integration Horizontal Integration
Divestiture Vertical Integration
Liquidation Concentric Diversification
Weak Strong
Competitive Competitive
Position Position
Concentric Diversification Concentric Diversification
Horizontal Diversification Horizontal Diversification
Conglomerate Diversification Conglomerate Diversification
Retrenchment Joint Venture
Divestiture
Liquidation

Slow
Market Growth

David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-11


Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 8-5
Perangkat Pencari Alternatif

SPACE
Evaluation)
Matrix (Strategic Position and Action
991122
Financial Strength
+6
+5
+4

Conservartive +3 Aggressive
+2
+1
Competitive Industrial
Advantage Strength
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 + 6
-1
-2
Defensive Competitive
-3
-4
-5
-6
Environmental
Stability

David, 6th Ed, 1997, Fig. 6-5


In Search of Excellence
000528
We chose 75 highly regarded companies (on the subject of
excellence as we had defined it - continously innovative big
companies) - Hati-hati karena tidak ada control group.

The 8 attributes that emerged :


 A bias for action (“Do it, fix it, try it”)
 Close to customer
 Autonomy and entrepreneurship
 Productivity through people
 Hands-on, value driven
 Stick to the knitting
 Simple form, lean staff
 Simultaneous loose-tight properties

Peters & Waterman Jr., 1982


Pemilihan Strategi
(Melakukan pemilihan strategi terbaik dari sebanyak-banyak strategi
alternatif yang telah tersaring)
991122

THE QSPM MATRIX


(The Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix )
STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES
KEY FACTORS
Weight Strategy 1 Strategy 2 Strategy 3

EXTERNAL FACTORS
Economy
Political/Legal/Governmental
Social/Cultural/Demographic/Env.
Technological
Competitive

INTERNAL FACTORS
Management
Marketing
Finance/Accounting
Production/Operation
Research and Development
Computer Information Systems

SUM OF WEIGHTED
SCORES
David, 6th Ed, 1997, Tab. 6-5
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

991122
Penjabaran Tahunan
 Strategi Operasional/Fungsional menjabarkan
Strategi Utama/Bisnis menjadi Strategi menurut fungsi
manajemen dan/atau sektor, dan tahapan

 Sasaran Tahunan menjabarkan Sasaran (Objectives)


Jangka Panjang menjadi Sasaran yang harus dicapai
tahunan

 Kebijakan (Policies) menjabarkan Falsafah dan


Konsep Diri ke dalam bentuk pedoman perilaku

 Rencana Kegiatan (Action Plan) penjabaran lebih


spesifik kapan, apa, siapa, sasaran pendek-pendek

 Taktik adalah kegiatan yang harus dikerjakan sekarang/


segera, sangat spesifik, keputusan pelaksana
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

Strategi Fungsional
991122 /Operasional
(menjabarkan Strategi menurut fungsi manajemen dan/atau sektor, dan tahapan)

Strategi Produksi (biaya, mutu, pelayanan, frekuensi, sourcing/


manajemen material, proses/otomasi, sistim & kendali)
Strategi Pemasaran (Segmentasi, Posisi, Target, Produk, Harga,
Promosi, Distribusi)
Strategi Keuangan (Sumber Dana, Alokasi, Dividen & Modal Kerja)
Strategi Sumber Daya Manusia (Perikrutan, Pengembangan
Karir, Kompensasi, Evaluasi Kinerja, Sistim R/P, Hubungan Kerja)
Strategi Riset & Pengembangan (Orientasi fungsi/produk,
Pengembangan/Inovasi, Pemuka/Pengikut , jangka panjang/pendek,
sentral/desentral, In-house/luar)
Strategi Organisasi dan Manajemen (Struktur,
Kepemimpinan/Leadership, Budaya/Culture)
Strategi Sistim Informasi (Manual/Otomasi, Sistem Objectives,
System Constrains, System Design) - Raymond McLeod, Jr., MIS, 6th Ed.,Prentice Hall, 1995, Fig. 2.6
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

Strategi Fungsional/Operasional
A Typical Value Chain
991122

Firm Infrastructure

Support Activities Human Resources Management

Ma
rgin
Technology Development

Procurement

Marketing and Sales


Outbound Logistic
Inbound Logistic

Operation

Service

Ma
rgin
Primary Activities

Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, 1985


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

Kebijakan (Policies)
991122 Jabaran Falsafah dan Konsep Diri ke dalam bentuk pedoman perilaku,
para pelaksana dapat mengambil keputusan dan bertindak sendiri tetapi
terkendali oleh rambu-rambu kebijakan ini.


Kebijakan menciptakan kendali tak langsung atas
tindakan mandiri

Kebijakan mengatur penanganan yang sama untuk
aktivitas yang sama

Kebijakan membuat keputusan lebih cepat

Kebijakan membakukan perilaku dalam perusahaan

Kebijakan mengurangi ketidak pastian

Kebijakan mengurangi aksi keengganan

Kebijakan menyediakan jawaban untuk hal rutin

Kebijakan menghindari perdebatan berdasar emosi
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

Contoh : Strategi Pemasaran


991122 2. Market Share
1. Market Size (units) (current strategy)
3. Impact of Strategy
1994 1995 1994 1995 (effects of new program)
actual predicted actual predicted Market Share
500,000 520,000 20 % 18 % Modification

1.06 Product (+6%)

X 1.20 Promotion (+20%)


1.27

X 0.95 Price (-5%)


1.21
Distribution (-4%)
X 0.96

X 1.16 1.16 Combined

20.9
X .209 4. Modified Market Share
5. Predicted Units 108.582

X 205 6. Price $ 205 per unit


7. Projected Sales 22,259,710
- 17,120,400 8. Cost
9. Gross Margin 5,139,310

New Marketing Strategy’s Projections for 1995,


ZEP Convection Ovens
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

991122 Prasarana Implementasi

 Organisasi/Management (Structure)
 Kepemimpinan (Leadership)
 Budaya (Culture)
 Sistim Imbalan (Reward Systems)
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Prasarana Implementasi
991122 McKinsey 7-S Framework
Strategy

Structure S Systems

Shared Value R
S (Culture)

C
S kill S tyle
(Management) (Leadership)

S taff
(Management)
L
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.11-1
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Prasarana Implementasi
Structure (Organisasi & Manajemen)
991129

Organizational Design (Collecting the combination of


organizational structure and control systems to implement its
strategy and to create and sustain a competitive advantage)
Differentiation (How to allocate people and resources to
organizational tasks in order to create value. Span of Control)
Vertical Differentiation (How to distribute decision-making
authority. Tall and Flat Structures)
Horizontal Differentiation (How to divide people and
tasks into functions and divisions to increase their ability to create
value. Simple, Functional, Divisional, Matrix)
Integration (How to coordinate people and functions to
accomplish organizational tasks)
Bureaucratic Costs (The cost of operating and
organizational structure and control system)

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Ch. 11


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Organisasi dan Manajemen
Tall and Flat Structures
991129

3 3

2 2

1 1

Tall Structure Flat Structure

Hill & Jones, 4th Ed., 1998, Fig. 11-2


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Kepemimpinan

991129
Visionary Leadership

Vision (A realistic, credible, attractive future for the


organization. It deals with the future and expresses what you will be
working hard to create)

What is not? (It is not: a prophacy, a mission, factual, true


or false, static for all time, a constrait on actions)

Criteria (Future oriented, utopian, appropriate, high ideals,


clarify purpose and direction, inspire enthusiasm, reflect
uniqueness, ambitious)

Leadership (Take charge, make things happen, dream


dreams, then translate them into reality)

Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership, 1992


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Kepemimpinan

991129
Visionary Leadership
External
Environment

Spokesperson Direction Setter

Present Future

Coach Change Agent

Internal
Environment
Burt Nanus, Visionary Leadership, 1992, page 13
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Prasarana Implementasi
Effective Leadership
991129
(Kepemimpinan Efektif)

Strategic Leadership (The ability to anticipate,


envision, maintain flexibility, and empower others to create
strategic change as necessary)

Strategic Intent (The leveraging of a firm’s internal


resources, capabilities, and core of competencies in the
competitive environment) - (Misintrepreted??? Sc:The obsession
with winning and sustained for global leadership in the future
competitive env.)

Strategic Direction (Longterm vision of a firm’s


strategic intent)

Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL

Strategic Competitiveness
991129 Effective Strategic
Leadership

Shape the formation


of

Strategic Intent Strategic Mission

Influence

Successful
Strategic Actions

Formulation Implementation
of Strategies of Strategies

Strategic
Competitiveness

Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996, Fig. 12-1


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL

Kepemimpinan Efektif
991129

Effective
Strategic Leadership

Determining Establishing
Strategic Balance
Direction Emphasizing Controls
Maintaining
Ethical
Core Developing Sustaining an
Practices
Competencies Human organizational
Capital culture

Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996, Fig. 12-4


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL

Entreprenur Korporasi
991129

Corporate Entrepreneurship (The set of


capabilities to produce or acquire new goods or services and manage
the innovation process (for pre-existing markets). Take risk, be
aggressive, proactive, and innovative)

Invention (The act of creating or developing a new product or


process idea)

Innovation (The process of creating a commercial product


from invention)

Imitation (The adoption of the innovation by similar firms)


Internal Corporate Venturing (The set of activities
used to create inventions and innovations within a single organization)

Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDAL

Internal Corporate Venturing


991129
Concept of
Corporate Strategy

Strategic Context Structural Context

Autonomous Induced
Strategic Strategic
Behavior Behavior

Hitt, Ireland & Hoskisson, 2nd Ed., 1996, Fig. 13.1


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Prasarana Implementasi
Culture (Budaya)
991129
Budaya Perusahaan (Perangkat/set yang terdiri dari
keyakinan, norma-norma, nilai-nilai, dan kebiasaan yang menjadi dasar
kebersamaan dan menjadi dasar cara berinteraksi)

Keyakinan/Beliefs (Keyakinan tentang hal-hal yang paling


cocok bagi perusahaan, seperti “being the best, superior, importance of
people-details-subtlety-communication”)

Norma-norma (Batasan-batasan yang menyatakan suatu


perilaku/perbuatan itu salah atau benar, biasanya tertulis)

Nilai-nilai (Batasan-batasan kebersamaan tentang


perilaku/perbuatan yang baik/buruk atau layak/tak layak, biasanya tak
tertulis kadang tertulis seperti kose etika)

Kebiasaan (Perilaku pelaku-pelaku utama perusahaan yang


menjadi panutan yang menjadi berpengaruh kepada kenyamanan
apabila dilakukan atau tidak dilakukan)
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI
Manajemen Perubahan
Strategi-Perubahan-Budaya
991129

Perubahan yang perlu untuk implementasi


Reformulasi strategi
Hubungkan erat
atau

Banyak
dengan misi dan
norma dasar Siap untuk kesulitan
strategi perubahan budaya

Synergistic Pengelolaan
Sedikit

Fokus pada sekitar budaya


memperkuat budaya

Tinggi Rendah

Kompatibilitas perubahan dengan budaya


Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.11-8
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

Strategic Challenge of Change


000417

Managing Change (Reacting, Anticipating, Leading)


Competing on the Edge (Where to go/Direction, How
to get there/Concepts, What is the result)

Strategic Direction (Unpredictable/today,


Uncontrolled/units, Inefficient/reinvent, Proactive/lead,
Continous/relentless, Diverse/lots of moves)

Core Concepts (The Edge of Chaos/structure-surprise, The


Edge of Time/past-current-future, Time Pacing/rhythm for change)

Building Blocks (EoC: Improvisation-Coadaptation,


EoT:Regeneration-Experementation, TP:Transition-Rhythm)

Competing on the Edge 1998, Chap 1


IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

10 Rules of Competing on the Edge


Strategy
000417

Advantage is Temporary
Strategy is Diverse, Emergent, and Complicated
Reinvention is the Goal
Organization

Live in the Present


Stretch Out the Past
Reach into the Future
Time Pace Change
Leadership

Grow the Strategy


Drive Strategy from Business Level
Repatch Businesses and Articulate the Whole
Competing on the Edge 1998, Chap 9
IMPLEMENTASI STRATEGI DAN KENDALI

Empat Jenis Kendali


991129

1. Pengintaian Strategi
Monitor selalu kejadian-kejadian dalam atau luar
perusahaan yang berpengaruh besar pasa strategi

2. Kendali Premis
Apakah asumsi dan prediksi yang dipakai masih sahih ?

3. Kendali Dadakan Khusus


Akibat kejadian mendadak

4. Kendali Implementasi
Perlu perubahan strategi akibat
tahapan pelaksanaan ?

Formulasi Implementasi
Saat Saat 2 Saat 3
1
Pearce & Robinson, 6th Ed., 1997, Fig.12-1