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Warm-up

Read each statement about learning English grammar.


Circle the number that describs your best

l:never

2:

rurely

sometimes

often

1.

I study grammar books

2.

I read newspapers, watch TV and movies, and listen to songs.

3.

I use English as much as possible to practice the grammar I


know
I observe native speakers in different sih-rations and notice
what they say and do.
When I don't know how to say something perfectly, I don't
say anything at all.
I don't worry about making mistakes because I learn from

4.
5.

6.

and memorize the rules.

them.

7.

I leam better when I work in groups with my classmates.

8.

When a teacher uses words I don't understand, I ask for help.

9.

When I don't know how to say something, I try to say


another way.
I think of grammar rules when I speak.

10.

it

always

1234

1,234

1234
1234
't234
1234
1234
1234
t234
1234

Now compare your answers with another student. Do you like to leam English grammar in the same way? In what
are you similar, and in what ways are you different?
Use the chart below to write down your similarities and differences.

Use the chart to tell the rest ofthe class how you and your partner learn English grammar.

98

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC

REVIEWING BASIC GRAMMAR


Subjects, verbs, and obiects

sv

Birds

(a)

Atmost all English sentences contain a subject (s) and a verb (v)
The verb may or may not be followed by an object (o).

Jly

(noun) (verb)

Verbs: verbs that are not followed by an object, as in (a) and (b),
are called intrdnsitive verbs. Common inhansitive verbs:
agree, arrive, come, cry, exist, go, happen, live, occur, rain,

sv
Thebaby oied.

(b)

(noun)

rise, sleep, staY, walk.


Verbs that are followed by an object, as in @ and (d), are called
transitive verbs. Common trdnsitive verbsr build, cut, find, 1ike,
male, need, send, use, wan.
Some verbs can be either intransitive or fiansitiYe.

(verb)

svo
(c) The student needs

(noun)

a pen.

intransitive'. a student studies.


lransitive. a student studies books.

(verb) (noun)

svo

(or pronouns). Examples of nouns: person, place, thing, John, Asia,


pen, information, appeqrance, amusement, failure

(d) My friend enjoyed the Party.

(noun) (verb)
',

1.

2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

(noun)

Find the subject (S), verbs (V) and objec* (O) in

the

following sentences'

Scientists use logics in their works.


Scientific use of logics works well here.
She managed to surprise me by her sharp remark.
To my surprise, she managed to remark sharply.
Chinese products have swarmed Indonesian mobile phone market'
A Chinese products the best antlvirus program recently.

The verb 'be'

i 0e) {noun)

A sentence with 6e as the main verb

In (a)...be + a noun
In (b)...be + an adiective

I
I

@e) (adjective)

was

In (c)...b2

has three basic pattems:

prepositional phnse

at the library.

b, i.

is wdting a letter.
were listening to some music.
letter was written bv Alice.

In

as

",

auxiliary verb in progressive verb tenses and

(d)

lam
Yoro qre

He, she,

"t* "*d

it

ACADEMIC PURPOSES

is = auxiliarv: writing
Tense forms of De

I wqs
Yortwere
He, she, it was

main verb

Ihave been
Youhave been
He, she,

it

has been

9!

III.

Adjectives

(a) Mary is an intelligent shrdent


o) The hungry children ate fruit.

I4 grammar, we say that adjectives


modi$ nouns. The word modiff means "charge a little."
Adjectives give a llitle different meaning to a non: intelligen,
Adjectives describe nouns.

student, lazy sndent, good student. Examples of adjectives: young,


old, ich, poor, beautiful, red, French, modern).

(c)

was some beautiful pictures.


INC O RECT : beautifu ls pictures

IV.

An adjective is neither singular nor plural. A final -s is

never

added to an adjective.

Adverbs

(a) He walks guiclr/y.

(ADVERB)
(b) She opened the

door

quietly.

(ADVERB)

Adverbs modi$r verbs. Often they answer the question "How?"


ln (a): How does he walk? Answer Quickly.
Adverbs are often formed by adding -Iy to an adjective.

adjective: qafuk

adverb: quickly
(c) I arn extremely happy
(ADVERB) (ADJECTTVE)
(d)

Am will

com

Adverbs are also used

to

modiry adjectives, i.e.,

to

give

infonnation about adjectives, as in (c).

tomorrow.

Adverbs are also used to express time or frequency. Examples:

(ADVERB)

tomorrow, today, yesterday, soon, neyer, usually, always, yet.

MIDSENTENCE ADYERBS
(e\ Ann always comes on time.
(f) Ann rs a/ruays on time.
(g) Arn has always come on time.

(h) Does she always corne on time?

Some adverbs may occur in the middle of a sentence. Midsentence


adverbs bave usual positions; they

(1)

in front of simple present and simple past verbs


,z), as in (e)'

come

(except

(2) follow De (simple present and simple past), as in (f);


(3) come between a helping verb and a main verb, as in (g).
In a question, a midsentence adverb comes directly after the
subject, as in (h).

COMMON MIDSENTENCE ADYERBS


Ever, always, usually, often, frequently, generally, sometimes, occasiondlly, seldom, rarely,
Hardly ever, neyer, not ever, already, finally, just, probably

Exercise 2: Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) in parentheses.

1. George is a (careless, carelessl) witer. He writes (careless, carelessl).


2. Frank asked me an (easy, easfly) question. I atswercd it (easy, easil).

3. Sally speaks (soft, softl). She has a (sol, softly) ,toice.


4. I entered the classroom (quiet, quietly) because I was late.
. Ali speaks English very (good, well) . He has very (good, wel[) prontnciation.
5

100

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PU

AN WERWEW OF ENGLISH VERB TAiTSES

THESIMPI.ETENSES
TENSE
SIMPLE PRESENT

,II{EANING

ETAJTTPI.BS

(a) It srca, h Alaska.


(b) I sE cl tetevision evcry

In grnenl, &e simple present


day.

exprcsscs cvents or siruedons

th6t drin d&r,aj6, rnully, ln-'


biwdl; fiey sxi* nox, havc
cxistcd in the pasr, and prob-

ibly wi[ exi$ h rhe fudrc.

(c) It rndr,rd yestcrdey.


(d) I tooocld tclevision last night.

,4t one ganbultr titne

,arr, dds hBppcned. It

ifi thc
bcgan

and cnded in drc prsr.

SIMTLE FUTURE

(c) lt rriu mre bmorrow.

(f) t oi,, pr&t

oru,qrtifu

A,

rchvision toriSht.

titne

itt t, fu-

a.rr, thh will hrppen.

TIIE PROGBESSIVE TENSEST


Form: h + *g @tty;rrtMb)

Mcaning: Thc progrcssivc renxa givc the ider lh$ rr .cthtr ii rt rr1r87r$ during a panicul0r timc.
fhe icnsis sry thrt en sction begist beforc, h pttga$ fuiirrg, and, coatiwts o{ur atother

time or 8c'tionPRESEI,IT PROGRESSIVE

(a) He fu rla?ig right now.

He went to slcep ar 10:00

tonighr.

o
5

lt

is now ll:00

and he iB ftill rsleep. His

slecp bcgan in the prrt, ir


in grogrxs at rte pfisant
rirz?, and probably will

continuc,
PAST PROGRESSIVE

(b) He rrdr-rrr?irrr nhcn'I arrived.

He

$lnt lo shep rt

10:00

arrived at

I 1 :(D. He was

still aslcep.

lar

night.

His slecp began bcforc


aad sus i, ptogrust a, d
Wtkulg tirne h th. Pdn,ll
probably continued.

FUTI,'RE PROGRESSIVE

(c) $c

w[lh *qhs

wben l,c arivc,

Hc will go to sleep
10:00 tomorrow night.

ar

'l[b

lvill rrrive at ll:fr). The

action of sleepinS lflill begin before we arrivc and ir


uill be in Fqres at d Par-

titulu

dma ia thc fuure.


Probably his slcep will
cominue.

'Tbc progrcsivc tcnscs rrc dio crllcd thc coBtiDuous tqrrcli Jrtlt
cqqtir$ort.

FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

rl

co*inuotlJ, Fn

cntiaww,zrtdlaarz

101

IilN
TTIEPENFECTTENSES

Form:

tu'c +

putpndigtt

Meaning: The perfect rcnses a, grvc the ider rhat


one thiog rtalpenr

PRESENIPERFECT

(z)

hm

akeady

lrc.yhc

anothcr dme or event.

utat.

I filnfud cling

somc-

tintc bcluc noo. Thc ex.

act dmc is not impor.


ttntPASTPERFECT

(b) I lad

alrcady

aer

First I finishcd eadnc.


Latcr they arrived. M-y
eatlng was comolctelv
fuished bclorc inothir

when rhcy rrrived.

tinu ia

(c) I orill alrcady lcrr aoar whcn

rhey

rrive.

fu

pulrt.

Firsr I will linish cedng.

L.rcr ticy will rtrive.


My cating rvill bc complcrcly farrr;lud
lrtrr-

kht

ott-

dn h h. t;onc.

IHE PENTECT PNOGrcSSWE IENSES


Form: bn + ba +.hg@rceilrcrtisa!)
[rlszning:

I]c perfc.ct progresivc rcnscs givc tic id* that one event is hrrogrr$ innediutU
q u, uril adw titu or cocru. fu crrxs.r. used to.rpr.siii'#rrIn ;iii; l#

PRESEMPERFECT
PROGRESSryB

(r) I hw fur ffihqfor

two houre.

befon,

ffi;;:

Evcnt in progrcss: studying.

Vbct? Belon ,.0u, ui

to

,tow,
How long? For nro hours.
PASTPERTEC-T
PROGRESSN'E

O) I lcdb+a

$$ert

for rwo hours

beforc my fricnd crmc.

Evenr in progress: srudying.

Yhen?

Belw

h.Nta

anotler wntin

Hon' long! For mo hours.

FUTUREPERTECT
PROGRESSIVE

(c) lwill raucbeatrefirqf for rwo


hours by rhc rime you rnive.

Event in progress: srudying.


Vltrea? Beloe anotha

ma

rtrfuam.
How long? For tno hours.

102

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Exercise

Fill in the blanlrs with the appropiate

form ofthe verbs given in the brackets.

':
I

. A student who (suffer)

. 2.

from test anxiety (tend)

success in school, especially doing

to worry

about

the feasibility. of'

three-

well on tests.

Eleckonic engineers (currently, investigate)


dimensional television.
The Nobel Prize (award)

to over 500 scientists.

The issue of a second raise in the price


of oil (fiercely, be opposed)
(officially, be executed)

5.

Inflation (cause)
bad effect on the

before it

commodity prices to rise which (have)

life ofpeople many of whose income (be)

intuma
not likely to cope with

these rising prices.

When the U.S World Trade Center (suddenly,


be attacked)
hundreds of people (work)
usual in their

by

terrorists,

offices so that they (be trapped)

inside the building.

7.

The role of blood clots in heart attack (not, yet,

determine)

. But since a clot

ftlock) ......'..............-......-- blood flow to a part of the heart muscle,


thereby killing it, researchers
hope that removing a clot within the first
hour will (resupply)
the area with

blood.

i'
,

Paleontologists

oflife

(discover)

what they (believe)

on earth. Life, in the form of bacterial cells, (exist)

only one billion years after the earth

(discover)
1'different forms of bacteria

than (previously think)

..............--......--_

to be oldest form
3.5 billion years ago,

The fossilized bacteria


by examining old sedimentary rocks in Australia. About
five
(identifr)
tlat are aknost identical to their modern

" day cousins. The discovery


Oush)
',

(form)

....-=._-

--.=..-

back the origiri of life 1.2 billion years earlier

ACADEMIC PURPOSES
103

REVIEW OF TENSES
In the following passage, a journalist describes virtual reality (VR) and her experience with it at Cyberthon, a
twenty-four-hour marathon computer demonstration.
Underline the progressive verbs. Then discuss why the writer uses'thbm in the first paragraph and why she
shifts from simple pas tense verbs to past progressive verbs in the second and third paragraph.
(1)

Some architects are using VR (also called "cyberspace", a term coined by writer William Gibson,
who dreamed up VR in his novel Neuromance) to show clients what structure will look like before it's built.
(3)
(2)
And of course, NASA and the
Doctors are using it to practice surgery without making a single cut.
Defense Department (which hope to replace jet pilots with \rR screens) have been following-and funding-

VR since its inception.


(a)
I waited in line impatient\ for my tum at the Cyberhood, which focuses your eyes on a corryutergenerated 3-D image; you manipulate yourself, or "fly", by gripping a ball to the left ofthe machine. '') The
ball, SenseS* President Eric Gullichsen kept repeating to the users, is like your head; think of it as your head.
(6)
The trouble with this notion is that most people don't yank, twist, twirl, and push their heads, so most
people were having trouble with the image: They were flipping it upside down, pulling their head back so far
that the image became tiny and distant, hitting the floor with their wide-open eyeballs.
(1
The man in front of me, a shortish, plump guy in a blue shirt and jeans, was muttering to himself
(8)
He turned out to be Robin Williams,
as he yanked his "head". Finally he gave in ind siraightened up.
t*but no one paid much attention in this crowd-the machine were the celebrities.
*SenseS is a virtual rcality company.

**A well-known American comedian

add actor.

Exercise I
Decide whether a simple tense or progressive tense is appropriate for each blank and give the correct
.form of the verb in parentheses. The f.rst one has been done for you.

1.

a native speaker of Portuguese.

Andre (a) (come) comes formBrazil and (b) (be)

English at the University of Colorado. He (d) (take)

Cunently he (c) (study)

tow courses: composition and American culture.

2.

my church group. Right now we (b)

One of my most impofiant in-groups (a) (be)

lunches for homeless people in the cily park. Also, some of us (c

(provide)
(tutor)

junior high students in math and English for the summer. Others in
part of the summer doing volunteer work at senior citizen

group (d) (spend)

that we

We all (e) (feel)

(f)

a great deal

(gain)

ourselves

participating in these activities.


-1-

a reunion during the July 4m holiday

Next summer our familY (a) (have)

My uncle from Finland (b) (try)


business this year so
(spend)

to come, but he (c) (start)

it (d) (be)

difficult fot him to get awaY.

the whole summer with us' I{e (f) (wotk)

mother's travel agency ftom June tkough August'

ENGLISH
104

4.
o,&
she

For many immigrants to the United States, their ethic associations (a) (remain)
important in-groups long after they have left their home countries.
Even while they (b) (learn)
a new language, many (c) (look to)
speakers of their native
language as an in-group that (d) (understand)

their struggles to adapt to a new way

oflifeson,

,uilt.

utetThe
read.

most
io

underline the prese,tt perfect and past p^erfect verbs in the


fotlowing passages. Explain what information
is
by the perceptive asped fo; these verbs. wilat ur"r-rit"d in Fo"i, 3 are
Trresse!
i)pressed? (A
perfect verb can convqt more than one kind of information).
The
has been
done as

Jirsr

Example:

fat

a, eimpt".

(dlhad

1.
seen. heard. leamed _ past perfect
lnforrnation: descibe even_ts that happen before the moment offocus
the age of nineteen) qnd that are relevant to the moment of
focus.

(Fa Hing at

(a) By 1851, in a matter ofthree years, there were 25,000


Chinese in Califomia. (b) Fatt Hing was one ofthese

25'000. (c) His story is tlpical of the pioneer Chinese, many who
came with him ard many who came after
him (d) As a lad of nineteen, Fatt Hing had already seen and heard and leamed more
about the world than
most ofthe men in his village, who had seldom set foot beyond the
nearest towr square. (e) For Fatt Hing was
a fish peddler who went frequently from Toishan to Kwanghai
on the coast to buy his fish to sell at the market.
(f) Down by the whavers, where the fishing boats came in, Fatt Hing
had often seen foreign ships with their
sails fluttering in the wind. (g) He had seen hairy white men on the
decks, and he had often wondered and
dreamed about the land they came from.
(a) The dog has gout more fun out of Man than Man has got
out ofthe dog, for the clearly demonstrable reason
that Man is more laughable ofthe two animals. (b) The dog has
long been bemused by the singular activities
and the curious practices

of men, cooking his head inquiringly to one side, intentty watching and listening
to
the strangest goings-on in the world. (c) He has seen men sing together
and fight one another in the sarne
evening. (d) He has watched them go to bed when it is time
to get up, and get up when it is time to go bed. (e)
He has observed them destroying the so areas, ard nurhring it

in smarl patches. (f) He has stood by while

men built strong and solid houses for rest and quiet, and then
s

Thurber, Thurber's Dogr , A

co ectiotl

filled them with lights and be[s and machinery.

of the Masrer's Dogs, wrtfieh and Dlawn, Real atld Imaginary, Living
ahd Long Ago, New

york,

Schuster, 1955.

blank below, choose a simpre present, present


one has been done for you.
Alftedo

(oin)

joined the

Friends

perfect, or present perfect progressive verb.

of the Theatre in his community five

an active participant in this group ever since. (2)


favourite spare time activities even though he (stop
because he (be)

lhe plays. (4) At times. he llook [or)


's play, he (work)

ACADEMIC PURPOSES

It

(remain)

years ago and (be)

one

of

trying out for roles in the plays last

too busy. (3) As a member, he (help)


costumes for the actors. (5) For

with the props crew to get fumiture and other props for

105

Ix

the stage sets. (6) He (find)


(make)

ar antique desk to use for one of the


a fueplace. (7) Most rccently, he (try)

sets, and he also

to get more

business to advertise in the playbills.


H

ri

l
i

Exercise 4

choose simple present, present progrcssive, prusent perfect, or present perfect prugressive
for each
blank. More than one answer could be cotect; be prepared to explain yourihoiies.-The
firsi one has
been done for you.

(1) Ines (consider)

considefs

her neighborhood in East Lost Angeles to be one of her most imporrant

in-groups. (2) She (live)

almost everyone

in it.

this neighborhood since birth, and she (know)


(3) Most of the people in the neighborhood fte)

from Mexico, but some (be)


(4) Mr. Hemandez, who (live)
that he (tive)

next door to Ines, always (insist)


the longest time in the neighborhood. (5) However, Mrs. Chavez, whom

everyone (call)

"Tia," usually (tell)

(6) Mrs. Chavez (claim)


Ines (watch)

ftom Central American countries.

him to stop spreading tales.

that sle (be)

around longer than anyone. (7)

many of the childrcn younger than herself grow up, an she often (think)

that is. (8) Just as her older neighbors (do)

her younger neighbors keep out oftrouble and (give)

106

for her, she now (help)


them advice.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

ThePosstve
T,3IilGTIIE PIIS!ilI'E

.i" *L.
"L
nrsrvr: GtrtcL
-i+, ,r*ry.
ACT^.E: (e)

AGTIVE: (c)

D$SPE: (O

l, rtidGdft-d.
(ri)

Foro ottlc porirt:

Il rb gcsir:, ft

frdicof

!r

+ ,{g,n,,ri,ic,.

olf,rr of ea ectirc vcrb 6c.or6

rtcfEi,rc rcrt: ,.rbc boy,'in (r) b+


obiccr
of rhc persiw icrt iir'Oj.
:99.r. lbc
(r)anlG)t.t36.
remiq.

Olbrruddr rtrbr (rt b. ttrr uc folloy,.d b,


.! d*xr) c ud b te perdw. ft b mr pmUi
ro E_ lrqt
-EGh rr 1414 rrrit, o;., rld
r.EE!-uddr!
wrt!) ia rhc pr:rivc. (Src Ap
Frdix I, Cbrn Al.)

t 4lr ptw

gt','lialrolr,si0

Frsiltdfu

tWW

ACIIYI
Mrry r4F
Mlry &&
Mrry f.! f.t

Mery
Mery
Merv

patpogr.,Jli*

Ftieafrd

rtebllet

heiryb

ldtrrbd

A..t

rry sdf &uc tclfd

fravr.?afn

,-..

ftf*-ta

f.btd
m lcpil3

Mrry zraOlcb
Mtry nfDfo,b
of

nsllvE

htn.

,ohtr
John

John.

JonD

far Daet

John.
John.

,ota

!!at

Iohr.

,ohtr

Io,hrr.

John

,ohn

h,Irkn.
bt'jlhr!.
b1'lflrrl'.

hdb.i

by

siBD.

lohn

John.

by Men:

mhir

Johtr

lsln.

by MerV.

it it

Joh.

irfoirr

ro D,

by Irle4'.

lrlr?b.b

rtc arrcar pcrfc<, 9rn DcrkEr, frnrt!, and furur!


Dqrfc.r

ilarl:

b.\'Itar-y.

h'Itarv.

.'t

rar,v

r..!ll.urcd ia tlc

FONilTNGTHENASSIVE
(t) &cc

irrm

in tndir,

(b) Our housc

Er !dr,

{c) This olivc

oit

ur

in 1990.

L4orad

frora Speia-

Ururlty- Oc pesrivc is usd sirbour s ..tJ,


ptrue." Tlc t!.ivE is nocr frrqucndy usri
wmr tt ts oot k[osn or lot imporent to knos
crrcdy rto pcrforru rn rcrior.
ir glorn
("1'
Indir by pcoplc, by
nnDcl8, bf ro|Drm. -in
ln scaroct (r), ir b nor
xtrowl.or. ropomml ro ktor cxecdy rho
3rovr ricc in lodie,
(r), O), rad (c) illrstIrrc thc mo|l cooruon usc
of Uc p$!iw, i.c., withorr rhc ..| phnrc.,J

ll

(d,

Iili

ot.rt. Mirdcfioar

wbn

by

Mert

!*

Tic

'

!l

Ctrrq"

is rngludcd onty if ir is

inpor-

unt rollote rrho pcrforar aa rcdoa. tu (d),

(c) My

rur;dr tlt

rug- (oqa!r)

(0 Thir rqs..4rhy ay runr.


lnrr rug r rda by Ey !oorb.r.

&1

.it{art

Iqrh

If

rFrklr/wrhcr lrosr rho Dcrformc rn

thc

i5

inpoflrnr bfofitr.iotr.

ffiion, rBu.ey rt..crivr i. u!.d, d h

Tlc Fcsiw-Ery

bE uscd

rirh

lt

(c).

h, phnrc,'

inrtcrd of the rctivc stcu rhc rpcrlciivriar

wrlE

to tocut ruaadoa on Gc nrticcr

cncc. In (f) rhc

ru&.

PURPOSES

ofr rcn.

fcur of rlllBd,oa ir

oq nro

107

III{DITEGT OB'EGTS AS PASSIVE SI.]E'ECTS

u).
ilir.Ia

(a) Somconcgrvc
(b) l&r. L., s.s giY.n rn

(c)
(d)

fic

Somcone

ft

cead

grvc cr

omisrioa of

tst'd.

esd

was givcn ro

ic Ulorc

D.o.

rn rwrrd.

to Mrs. Lcc.

Mn, Lec,

. indireq obicct, D.O.


Either rn indiiccr obicct or

I.O,

dirtcr obiccr.

dircc obiccr may be.

comc thc subiecr of a parsivc scnr.occ.


(r), (b), (c), ind (d) hrve thc same meaning.
Noac in (d): \FlBn Ui direcr obiccr bccomts rhc subicr, b is usurlly u!.d in fronr of the indirect obiccr.r

coonon ia Eritirh Englith

rtt!

Arrcricrr

Eo Blhht

A,

or,,{f {.uq

tiq,, Nn. t2..

Exercise

:'
(

Change the following sentences from active to passive.

1.

Beavers use trees to build dams.

2.

The supervisor ignored the employees' request for a raise in salary.

The students have taken two quizzes since the beginning of this term.

4.

The oflice manager

5.

The patient must send the medical insurance forms to the insurance company.

6.

People check the machinery five times before they put it in a box for shipping.

7.

The school gave scholarships to many students from low-income families.

8.

Hey! The police are towing your car!

9.

The museum gave the old book to the university.

will make an announcement

about sick leave next week.

10. Someone is going to cut down the weeds on the hill tomorrow.

108

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES

Add the correct form ofthe passive auxiliary


De to the following sentences.

l. Aluminum

produced from bauxite.

2.

The first locomotives

3.

Hundreds ofpeople

4.

A lot ofcoffee

5.

The solar system

6.

The brain chemical that regulates growth

7.

The next space module

sent to Venus.

8.

The pores in a leaf

called stomata-

9.

Microcomputers

10.

A pound of potatoes

powered by
.stearn

killed because of storms this winter.


grown in South America.
formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago.
recently synthesized.

used more and more in the futrre.


needed for the experiment.

OF ACTIVE-PASSIVE
this excerpt from an introductory sociology -textbook.
Choose one paragraph, and underline all the
e constructions that you frnd. With a partnei,
decide wby the author chose to use passive constructionsCHAPTER 3: SOCIAL MINOR|T|ES aruO
O|SCR[vrtNenou
INTRODUCTION
(r)

In most societies, certain social minorities are


sometimes discriminated against by
(2)

society as a whole.

Discriminat:

,;;;';'.#:,'"T"J.:"":Th"J?:[*:fl:ir;uffif ii'l*;,r;"i:
''
,icil, l;c;ffi;,;.;ionr, o, u"".r. ro rhe same
facilities as rhe general pubric. or rn ,,*i -.o.i"',ilr.''ii'ffiii"i*
is stowry being
eliminated-at
c,rtr.rar background,
Such groups are sometimes denied basic
least in termi

quick and easilv.

of regal and e;""*""t"I

pir;;'6i'sut

these have nor come

{6)

The ilnited States. for example, has made a great


deal of progress in eliminating
discrimination against some of its .o"iut
the r950s bracks and
-iro.iti.r. ,a

iri"*rv

",
-ury-."*tfr"_';#l 6iil;;;";::Ji;
fountains, rest rooms, and even schools anJ rit*.i"r.-irl
;;;";;;';
result of active protest and nolitical
demonshatr, r""i". airi*"i."t
laws
are changed,
ry
and segregation based on race is
no longer permitted.
") But other groups have beenless successful. (u) Women have mdde
marry gains in
(,2)
*g
r".'ll"',"i""
n.a,
orwork.
Gay
H:i:fl,i?;:.;t;::l:r,:::,'11,,0,r0.,:.:
.;;l
people still face enormoui lesal an
dtu:d.ination. (ts)They are not allowed to
in the armyarmv or
nr join
inin organizattn
,,j1T:t{
tlr" Bti;";;;;;.n_y;,#J;#:ffi:'.;::Tff
^,_.-;--i- Lk"
of their sexual Lrient;ii;;.',iffiG;not have
the same kind
iSTJ:I-lf.:Tt!I"..^l"T
of legal protection for familv relarionrfrip.
p.p.rty
allowed to get ma'ied i,
.*iit"..u.g.o9l
lseparate drinking

,fr"rri?rlJ, if ,f," society takes for


r.6*i",i".",,;lp;;;.,
vr deny
uvu,,ursrrlduue
inheritance
f,T;:*,(]]",::S::1I^,.*:-"!il&*
ights to,lifelong partners when one partner
"i,"yiies. -._."-^*^ v."v'ue' or
uoa

,,, ,"'"",S""";1j:f-P::1^Tll:Ti:.
l,
be a long time before social attitudes
protections.

fte united states

seem to be improving although

it

""t"h;;;th;il;;;;;;ffiffi:#;il-,i',X

ACADEMIC PURPOSES
109

Exercise

Decide wheth* active or passive forms should be used in these sentences , and write the conect form in the
blank There are more than one correct choice.
The age of pyramid building in Eg)"t

prramids (2)

(l)

(begih) about 2900 B.C. The Great

(intend) to serve as burial places for the Pharaohs, as tle kings of Egypt
(start)

(call). Consfuction on the largest pyramid (4)

(3)

around 2800 B.C. for Khufu, the King

(refer to) by Greek historians. It (6)

ofthe Fourth Dynasty, or Cheops,

as he

(be) 482 feet high and 755 feet long. The Pyramids as a

(comprise) one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The other Six

group (7)

(stand), and modem archaeologists (9)

Wonders no longer (8)

(write) at the time they still

(know) of them only through the descriptions that (10)


(11)

(exist).

Exercise 2
Change the following active sentences into passive.

1.

The World Bank provides easy loans to developing countries in need of firnds for economic

development.

Producers have to improve the quality ofgoods for exports in order to penetrate increasingly

competitive world markets.

3.

Bank Prima has to provide a larger parking site for the gtowing number of customers.

4.

The value oftextile exports dropped significantly last year because certain buying countries had
implemented quota systems.

5.

The govemment officials are examining the project proposals before they select

particular

contractor.

6.

We need to manage companies professionally as poor management may create big problems.

7.

The Indonesian Hotel Association has developed


the increasing number of tourists, and the hotel

110

new, advance reservation system to accommodate

will implement it early next

year.

ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC

8.

Our company is intensiffing quality control to meet increasingly tough competition in the global
market.

Some rivers are badly polluted because the governmeit fias not taken strict measures against

factories dumping unprocessed wastes into rivers.

10.

Last year Australia and Indonesia signed a memorandum of cooperation after they recordqd 59 cases

related to violations of air traffic regulation.

11.

The Senior researcher has to make a slight adjusfinent to the data before the computer can process
them.

12.

The managers are analyzing all of the data before they can submit a proposal for business expansion.

FORACADEMIC PURPOSES

111