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IB#Higher#Level#Chemical#terminology#list#to#memorize#

!
This!is!not!a!comprehensive!list!of!all!the!words!you!need!to!know!for!IB!chemistry.!The!words!in!this!list!have!been!selected!because!they!may:!be!generally!
important)in)chemistry!(used!in!various!topics),!have!a!relatively)specific)definitions!(there!is!not!much!freedom!to!change!it!into!your!own!words)!or!they!are!
required!on!the!IB)Chemistry)syllabus)(2009).!The!definitions!have!been!adapted!from!IB!mark!schemes!and!an!IB!textbook!to!include!all!the!ways!of!gaining!
marks!but!avoiding!overBcomplication.!
!
Term#
Definition#
!
!
Relative!atomic!mass!
The!average!mass!of!an!atom,!taking!into!account!the!abundance!of!all!the!naturally!occurring!isotopes,!compared!to!
!
1/12th!of!the!mass!of!a!carbon=12!atom.!
!
!
!
Relative!molecular!mass!
The!average!mass!of!a!molecule!compared!to!1/12th!of!the!mass!of!a!carbon=12!atom.!
!
!
!
Group!
A!vertical!column!of!elements!on!the!periodic!table!with!similar!chemical!properties!and!the!atoms!have!same!
valance!shell!electron!configuration.!!
!
!
!
Period!
A!horizontal!row!of!elements!on!the!periodic!table,!across!a!period!from!left!to!right!successive!atoms!have!one!extra!
!
proton!and!one!extra!electron!in!the!same!outer!shell.!!
!
!
!
Molecular!formula!
The!formula!of!a!molecule!that!shows!the!actual!number!of!each!type!of!atom!in!the!molecule.!!
!
!
!
Empirical!formula!
The!formula!of!a!compound!that!shows!the!lowest!whole!number!ratio!of!each!type!of!atom.!
!
!
!
Isotopes!
Atoms!of!the!same!element!with!the!same!number!of!protons!but!a!different!number!of!neutrons.!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!

!
Orbital!
!
!
Continuous!spectrum!
!
!
Line!spectrum!
!
!
Ionic!bonding!
!

!
!
!
A!region!of!space!in!which!the!probability!of!finding!an!electron!is!greater!than!or!equal!to!95%;!each!orbital!can!hold!
a!maximum!of!two!electrons!with!opposite!spin.!
!
!
An!emission!spectrum!that!has!all!frequencies!of!visible!light.!
!
An!emission!spectrum!that!has!only!certain!frequencies!of!visible!light!that!appear!as!coloured!lines.!!

!
The!electrostatic!force!of!attraction!between!oppositely!charged!ions!arranged!in!a!regular!3D!structure!called!an!
ionic!lattice.!!
!
!
!
Covalent!bond!
A!shared!pair!of!electrons!that!holds!two!atoms!together.!
!
!
!
!
Dative!(coordinate)!covalent!! A!shared!pair!of!electrons!that!holds!two!atoms!together!and!both!electrons!come!from!one!atom.!
bond!
!
!
!
!
Sigma!bond!
The!head!on!over!lap!of!two!orbitals!along!the!inter=nuclear!axis.!
!
!
!
!
Pi!bond!
Parallel!P=orbitals!overlap!sideways!on,!above!and!below!the!inter=nuclear!axis.!
!
!
!
Hybridization!
The!mixing!of!atomic!orbitals!to!form!the!same!number!of!new!orbitals!which!are!equal!in!energy!to!one!another.!
!
!
!
Free!radical!
A!species!with!one!or!more!unpaired!electron.!
!
!
!

!
Resonance!
!
!
Delocalisation!
!
Hydrogen!bond!
!
Van!der!Waals!forces!
!
Electronegativity!
!
!
Polar!bond!
!
Ligand!
!
Periodicity!
!
Endothermic!reaction!
!
!
!

!
!
!
Occurs!when!one!or!more!valid!Lewis!structures!can!be!drawn!for!a!molecule!or!ion!and!the!electrons!are!delocalized!
so!that!they!are!arranged!in!an!average!of!the!possible!Lewis!structures.!
!!
!
A!stable!bonding!arrangement!in!which!electron!pairs!are!not!confined!to!two!adjacent!bonding!atoms!but!extend!
over!three!or!more!atoms.!
!
!
A!strong!intermolecular!force!of!attraction!between!a!delta!plus!hydrogen!and!a!lone!pair!of!electrons!on!a!very!
electronegative!atom!such!F,!O!or!N.!
!
!
A!weak!intermolecular!force!of!attraction!that!acts!between!non=polar!molecules!in!the!solid!and!liquid!state.!
!
!
A!measure!of!the!ability!of!an!atom!to!attract!a!bonding!pair!of!electrons.!
!
!
A!bond!in!which!the!electrons!are!not!equally!distributed!between!the!two!atoms!in!the!bond;!the!more!
electronegative!atom!will!have!the!greater!electron!density.!
!
!
A!species!that!uses!a!lone!pair!of!electrons!to!form!a!dative!covalent!bond!with!a!central!metal!ion!to!form!a!complex.!
!
!
Repeating!pattern!of!physical!and/or!chemical!properties!of!elements!or!their!compounds!as!a!function!of!their!
arrangement!in!the!periodic!table.!
!
!
A!reaction!in!which!heat!energy!is!absorbed!from!the!surroundings!causing!the!temperature!to!drop.!!
!
!

!
!
!
A!reaction!in!which!heat!energy!is!released!to!the!surroundings!causing!the!temperature!to!increase.!

!
Exothermic!reaction!
!
!
!
Standard!enthalpy!of!reaction! The!enthalpy!change!of!a!reaction!using!the!amounts!of!reactants!in!a!specified!stoichiometric!equation!under!
!
standard!conditions!(298K,!101.3KPa).!
!
!
!
Standard!state!
A!reference!state!for!a!particular!substance!under!standard!thermodynamic!conditions!(298K,!101.3KPa,!1moldm=3)!
!
!
!
!
Standard!Enthalpy!of!
The!energy!change!when!one!mole!of!compound!is!formed!from!its!elements!in!their!standard!states!under!standard!
formation,!Hf!
conditions!(298K!and!101.3KPa).!
!
!
!
Standard!enthalpy!of!
The!energy!released!when!one!mole!of!a!compound!is!completely!burned!in!excess!oxygen!under!standard!conditions!
combustion!
with!no!change!in!pressure.!!
!
!!
!
!
Bond!enthalpy!
The!energy!needed!to!break!1!mol!of!a!specific!covalent!bond!between!two!atoms!in!a!molecule!in!the!gaseous!state!
!
averaged!over!several!similar!compounds.!
!
!
!
First!ionization!energy!
The!energy!needed!to!remove!one!mole!of!the!highest!energy!electrons!from!one!mole!of!neutral!atoms!in!the!
gaseous!state!under!standard!conditions!(298K,!101.3KPa).!
!
!
!
Lattice!enthalpy!
Energy!released!when1!mole!of!a!solid!ionic!compound!is!formed!from!its!constituent!ions!in!the!gaseous!state!under!
standard!conditions!(298K,!101.3KPa).!
!
!
!
Enthalpy!of!electron!affinity! The!energy!released!when!one!mole!of!electrons!are!added!to!one!mole!of!atoms!in!the!gaseous!state!under!standard!
!
conditions!(298K,!101.3KPa).!
!

!
Activation!energy!
!
!
Catalyst!
!
!
Hetrogenous!
!
Standard!entropy,!S!
!
Spontaneous!reactions!
!
!
Rate!of!reaction!
!
Rate!constant,!k!
!
!
Order!of!reaction!
!
!
Overall!order!of!reaction!
!
!
!
!
!

!
The!minimum!energy!needed!for!the!reactants!to!react!upon!collision!/!The!difference!in!energy!between!the!
reactants!and!transition!state.!
!
!
A!substance!that!increases!the!rate!of!reaction!by!providing!an!alternative!reaction!pathway!with!a!lower!activation!
energy!and!it!is!not!consumed!in!the!overall!reaction.!
!
!
Usually!applied!to!a!catalyst;!in!a!state!or!phase!different!to!the!reactants.!
!
!
A!quantity!that!is!related!to!the!disorder!or!randomness!of!particles!of!an!element!or!compound!in!its!standard!state!
at!298K.!
!
!
Occur!when!the!reactants!are!mixed!together!under!standard!conditions!(298K,!101.3KPa,!1moldm=3!solutions)!
!
The!decrease!in!concentration,!mass!or!volume!of!reactant!with!time!or!the!increase!in!concentration,!mass!or!
volume!of!product!with!time.!
!
!
An!experimentally!determined!constant!of!proportionality!that!relates!rate!of!reaction,!at!a!particular!temperature,!to!
the!concentration!of!the!species!that!are!involved!in!the!reaction.!!
!
!
The!power!of!an!individual!concentration!term!in!the!rate!expression.!
!
The!sum!of!the!powers!of!concentration!terms!in!the!rate!expression.!
!
!

!
!
Rate!determining!step!
!
!
Molecularity!
!
Half!life!
!
Chemical!equilibrium!
!
Equilibrium!constant,!kc!
!
!
Bronsted=Lowry!acid!
!
!
Lewis!acid!
!
Bronsted=Lowry!base!
!
Lewis!base!
!
Weak!acid!
!

!
The!slowest!step!of!a!reaction.!
!
The!number!of!particles!in!the!slowest,!rate!determining!step!of!the!reaction!/!The!number!of!particles!participating!
in!an!elementary!step!of!the!mechanism.!
!
!
The!time!taken!for!the!concentration!of!a!reagent!to!decrease!to!half!its!original!value.!
!
!
A!chemical!reaction!is!in!equilibrium!when!the!rate!of!the!forward!reaction!is!equal!to!the!rate!of!the!reverse!reaction!
and!the!concentrations!of!the!reactants!and!products!do!not!change.!
!
!
The!value!obtained!when!the!equilibrium!concentration!of!the!products!are!multiplied!together!and!divided!by!the!
equilibrium!concentration!of!the!reactants!multiplied!together!and!all!concentrations!are!raised!to!the!power!of!their!
stoichiometric!coefficients!from!the!balanced!equation.!!
!
!
A!specie!that!donates!a!proton.!!
!
A!specie!that!accepts!an!electron!pair.!
!!
!
A!specie!that!accepts!a!proton.!
!
!
A!specie!that!donates!an!electron!pair.!
!
!
An!acid!that!partially!dissociates!in!solution.!
!
!

!
!
!
Strong!acid!
!
!
Conjugate!acid=base!
!
!
Buffer!solution!
!
!
Monoprotic!acid!
!
Diprotic!acid!
!
!

Equivalence!point!
!
!
End!point!
!
Oxidation!
!
!
Reduction!
!
!

!
!
!
An!acid!that!fully!dissociates!in!solution.!
!!
!
A!pair!of!species!whose!formulae!differ!by!H+.!
!
!
A!solution!that!resists!change!in!pH!when!small!amounts!of!acid!or!alkali!are!added,!usually!made!from!a!weak!acid!
and!a!salt!of!its!conjugate!base!or!a!weak!base!and!a!salt!of!its!conjugate!acid.!
!
!
A!specie!with!one!replaceable!hydrogen!atom!per!molecule.!
!
!
A!specie!with!two!replaceable!hydrogen!atoms!per!molecule.!
!
!
The!point!in!an!acid=base!titration!when!the!acid!and!base!are!present!in!stoichiometric!amounts!and!all!the!acid!and!
base!has!been!reacted;!it!is!not!necessarily!at!pH!7.!!
!!
!
When!an!indicator!changes!colour!suddenly!during!a!titration!and!both!the!acidic!and!basic!forms!of!the!indicator!are!
present!in!equal!concentration.!!
!
!
When!a!substance!combines!with!oxygen!/!When!a!substance!loses!hydrogen!/!When!a!specie!loses!electrons!/!When!
the!oxidation!number!of!an!element!increases.!
!
!
When!a!substance!loses!with!oxygen!/!When!a!substance!combines!with!hydrogen!/!When!a!specie!gains!electrons!/!
When!the!oxidation!number!of!an!element!decreases.!
!
!
!

!
!
Oxidizing!agent!
!
!
Reducing!agent!
!
Disproportionation!
!
!
Standard!electrode!potential!
!
!
Hydrocarbon!
!
Saturated!
!
Unsaturated!
!
Dehydration!
!
Homologus!series!
!
Nucleophilic!substitution!
!
Isomers!
!

!
!
A!species!that!causes!oxidation!by!gaining!(an)!electron(s)!from!other!species!and!is!itself!reduced.!
!
A!species!that!causes!reduction!by!donating!(an)!electron(s)!to!other!species!and!is!itself!oxidized.!
!
!
The!simultaneous!oxidation!and!reduction!of!atoms!of!a!single!chemical!element!in!a!reaction.!
!
The!potential!difference!measured!under!standard!conditions!(298K,!101.3KPa,!1moldm=3!solutions)!when!a!half!cell!
is!connected!to!a!standard!hydrogen!electrode.!
!
!
A!compound!containing!hydrogen!and!carbon!only.!
!
!
Molecules!that!contain!only!carbon=carbon!single!bonds.!
!
!
Molecules!that!contain!at!least!one!carbon=carbon!multiple!bond.!
!
!
The!removal!of!hydrogen!and!oxygen!from!a!compound!in!a!2:1!atomic!ratio,!respectively.!
!
!
A!family!of!compounds!with!the!same!general!formula!where!successive!members!differ!by!one!CH2!group.!!
!
!
The!replacement!of!an!atom!or!group!within!a!molecule,!by!a!species!with!a!lone!pair!of!electrons,!which!is!attracted!
to!an!electron!deficient!part!of!the!molecule.!!
!
!
Forms!of!a!compound!with!the!same!molecular!formula!but!different!structural!formulae.!
!

!
!
!
Stereoisomerism!
!
!
Geometrical!isomerism!
!
!
Chiral!carbon!
!
Optical!isomerism!
!
!
!
!

!
Enantiomer!
!
Condensation!reaction!
!
Addition!polymerisation!
!
Nucleophile!
!
Functional!group!

!
!
!
Compounds!with!the!same!molecular!formula!and!structural!formula!but!different!arrangements!of!atoms!in!space.!
There!are!two!types!of!stereoisomerism;!geometrical!and!optical.!!
!
!
A!type!of!isomerism!that!occurs!when!particular!atoms!or!groups!are!joined!to!atoms!at!each!side!of!a!bond!that!has!
restricted!rotation.!
!
!
A!carbon!atom!that!has!four!different!groups!attached!causing!the!molecule!and!its!mirror!image!to!be!non=
superimposable.!
!
!
A!type!of!isomerism!that!occurs!when!a!molecule!has!no!plane!of!symmetry!and!can!exist!in!left!and!right!handed!
forms!that!are!non=superimposable!mirror!images!of!each!other.!!
!
!
A!molecule!that!has!no!plane!of!symmetry!and!is!non=superimposable!on!its!mirror!image.!
!
!
When!two!small!molecules!combine!to!form!a!larger!one!with!the!elimination!of!a!smaller!molecule!(such!as!water).!
!
!
Process!in!which!a!large!number!of!unsaturated!monomers!combine!to!form!a!polymer!without!the!elimination!of!any!
atoms!or!molecules.!
!
!
Negatively!charged!or!neutral!species!containing!an!electron!pair!that!is!attracted!to!and!can!form!a!covalent!bond!to!
electron!deficient!(delta!plus)!atom!in!another!molecule.!!!!
!
!
An!atom!or!group!of!atoms!responsible!for!the!characteristic!reactions!of!the!molecule!or!homologous!series.!
!

IB#HL#Chemistry#mathematical#relationships#to#memorize#
!
You!are!required!to!memorize!the!following!equations!and!apply!them!correctly!in!questions.!You!should!therefore!practice!rearranging!these!equations!and!using!them!to!
solve!problems.!!The!use!of!square!brackets![X]!indicates!the!molar!concentration!of!X!(moldmA3)!
!
Description!
Equation!
!
!
To!calculate!the!number!of!moles.!Relative!molecular!mass!and!relative!
Moles!=!mass(g)!/!Relative!molecular!mass!or!relative!atomic!mass!
atomic!mass,!are!determined!using!the!periodic!table.!
!
!
!
To!calculate!the!number!of!specified!particles!in!a!substance.!Avogadros!
Number!of!particles!=!Moles!x!Avogadros!number!
number!NA!=!6.02!x!1023!is!given!in!the!data!booklet.!
!
!
!
!
To!calculate!molar!concentrations!(molarity).!
Concentration(moldm=3)!=!Moles!/!Volume(dm3)!
!
!
!
To!convert!volumes!from!cm3!into!dm3!for!use!in!calculations.!
Volume!(dm3)!=!Volume!(cm3)!/!1000!
!
!
!
Used!for!dilution!calculations.!Units!can!vary!but!should!be!used!
Initial!concentration!x!Initial!volume!=!Final!concentration!x!Final!volume!
consistently!in!the!equation.!!
!
!
!
!
Used!to!calculate!the!moles!of!gas!under!standard!conditions!(298K,!
Moles!=!Volume(dm3)!x!22.4dm3mol=1!
101.3KPa)!
!
!
!
The!temperature!dependent!equilibrium!constant!for!the!reaction:!!!
Kc!=![C]x[D]Y/[A]m[B]n!
!mA!+!nB!!!!!!!!!!!! xC!+!Yd!
!
!
!
To!calculate!the!standard!entropy!change!of!a!reaction!from!the!standard!
Srxn!=!S(products)!=!S(reactants)!
entropies!of!the!reactants!and!products.!
!
!
!
!
!

!
To!calculate!the!standard!enthalpy!change!of!a!reaction!from!the!standard!
enthalpy!of!formation!of!the!reactants!and!products.!
!
!
To!calculate!the!heat!energy!transferred!to!change!a!particular!mass!of!
material!by!a!particular!temperature.!!
!!
!
To!calculate!the!charge!transferred!in!a!certain!amount!of!time.!!
!
!
To!calculate!the!moles!of!electrons!transferred!in!electrolysis.!Avogadros!
number!and!the!charge!of!an!electron!are!given!in!the!data!booklet.!
!
!
To!work!out!the!Ka!(acid!dissociation!constant)!of!a!weak!acid!HA.!The!
higher!the!Ka!the!stronger!the!acid.!
!
!
Used!to!calculate!Ka!from!Kb!or!vice!versa.!Kw!=!1x10=14!(298K,!101.3KPa)!
!
!
To!calculate!pKa!from!pKb!and!vice!versa!
!
Used!to!calculate!pH!from!pOH!and!vice!versa.!!
!
Used!to!calculate!pH!from![H+]!and!vice!versa:!
!
Used!to!calculate!pOH!from![OH=]!and!vice!versa!
!
!
The!Henderson=Hasslebach!equation!is!used!to!calculate!the!pH!of!a!buffer!
solution.!!
!
!
!

!
Hrxn!=!Hf(products)!=!Hf(reactants)!!
!
Heat!energy(J)!=!Mass(g)!x!Specific!heat!capacity(JK=1g=1)!x!Temperature!change(K/oC)!
!
!
Charge(C)!=!Current(A)!x!Time(s)!!
!
Moles!of!electrons!=!Charge(C)!/!Charge!of!an!electron(C)!x!Avogardos!number!
!
Ka!=![H+][A=]!/![HA]!
!
Ka!x!Kb!=!Kw!
!
pKa!+!pKb!=!14!
!
!
pH!+!pOH!=!14!
!
!
pH!=!=log10[H+]!and![H+]!=!=10x(pH)!!
!
!
pOH!=!=log10[OH=]!and![OH=]!=!=10x(pOH)!
!
pH!=!pKa!!log10![Salt]/[weak!acid!or!base]!!

!
!
!

These#equations#are#given#in#the#data#booklet#
!
From#data#booklet#
!
!

!
!
!
!
!
!

!
!

!
!

Common#use#
Used!to!calculate!the!pressure,!volume,!
temperature!or!number!of!moles!of!an!ideal!
gas.!

!
Gibbs!free!energy!change!(KJmolA1)!=!Enthalpy!change(KJmolA1)!!Temperature(K)!x!Change!in!
! entropy(JKA1molA1)!

Used!to!calculate!the!Gibbs!free!energy!
change.!If!the!value!is!negative!the!reaction!
will!be!spontaneous!under!those!
conditions.!!
Used!to!calculate!the!energy!of!a!single!
photon!from!its!frequency.!!

!
Energy(J)!=!Plank!constant(Js)!x!Frequency(Hz)!

!
Half!life(s)!=!0.693!/!Decay!constant(sA1)!

Used!to!calculate!the!half!life!of!a!reaction!
or!radioactive!isotope.!First!order!reactions!
have!a!constant!half!life.!!

!
Rate!constant!=!PreAexponential!factor!x!base!of!natural!logsA(activation!energy/Molar!gas!constant!x!Temperature)!

The!Arrhenius!equation!is!used!to!calculate!
the!rate!constant!k!and!predict!how!it!will!
change!with!activation!energy!and!
temperature.!
The!logarithmic!form!of!the!Arrhenius!
equation.!When!LnK!is!plotted!against!1/T!a!
straight!line!graph!is!produced!with!a!
gradient!=!AEa!/!R!

!
!

Expanded#
!
Pressure(Nm=2)!x!Volume(m3)!=!Moles!x!Molar!gas!constant(JK=1mol=1)!x!Temperature(K)!
!

!
Ln(rate!constant)!=!A(Activation!energy/Molar!gas!constant!x!Absolute!temperature)!+!Ln(PreA
exponetial!factor)!
!
Log10(Initial!intensity!/!Final!intensity)!=!Molar!absorption!coefficient!(dm3molA1cmA1)!x!Path!
length(cm)!x!Concentration(moldmA3)!

BeerALamberts!law!is!used!in!colorimetry!to!
calculate!concentration!of!a!solution!when!
its!absorption!coefficient!is!known.!Cells!
normally!have!a!path!length!of!1cm!and!
absorbance!is!measured!by!the!colorimeter.!
(Log10!Io/I!is!the!absorbance)!
!