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Journal oI lbk'anologv and Geothermal Research.

54 ( 1993 ) 2 2 1 - 2 4 5

22 l

Elscx ier Science Publishers B.V., A m s t e r d a m

The volcanic and magmatic evolution of Volcfin Ollagiie, a


high-K, late Quaternary stratovolcano in the Andean Central
Volcanic Zone
T o d d C. Feeley a, J o n P. D a v i d s o n a a n d A d o l f o A r m e n d i a b
1)eparlment q/Earth and Space Science.s. University o f ( "a/~li)rnia, Los lngek'~. ( . 1 90024. ~ .SI
b ,5"o'vicio Geologieo de Bolivia. Callc k)ederico Zua:~ 1673, ('asi//a 5'729. La Par. B~divm
( Received March 23, 1992: revised version accepted June 23, 1992

ABSTRACT
Fecley, T.C., Davidson, J.P. and Armendia, A., 1993. ]-he volcanic and magmatic evolution of Volc~in Ollagfie, a high-K
iale Quaternary' stratovolcano in the Andean Central Volcanic Zone. J. ! blcanol. (i'eoH~erm. Res.. 54:221 245.
Volcfin Ollagfie is a high-K, calc-alkaline composite volcano constructed upon extremely thick crust in the :\ndean Central Volcanic Zone. Volcanic activity commenced with the construction of an andesilic to dacitic composite cone composed of n u m e r o u s lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of the Vinta Loma series and an ox erlying coalescing dome and
coulee sequence of the Chasca Orkho series. Following cone construction, the upper western flank of Ollagiie collapsed
toward the west leaving a collapse-amphitheater about 3.5 km in diameter and a debris avalanche deposit on the lowe~
western flank of the volcano. The deposit is similar to the debris avalanche deposit produced during the Ma? 18. 1980
eruption of Mount St. Helens, U.S.A., and was probably formed in a similar manner. It presently covers an area of 100
km 2 and extends 16 km from the summit. Subsequent to the collapse event, the upper western flank was reIbrmed via
eruption of several small andesitic lava flows from vents located near the western summit and growth of an andesitic dome
within the collapse-amphitheater. Additional post-collapse activity included construction of a dacitic dome and coulde ol
the La Celosa series on the northwest flank. Eield relatinns indicate that vents for the Vinta Loma and post-collapse series
were located at or near the s u m m i t of the cone. The Vinta Loma series is characterized by an anhydrous, two-pyroxenc
assemblage. Vents for the La Celosa and Chasca Orkho series are located on the flanks and strike N55 W, radial to the
volcano. The pattern of flank eruptions coincides with the distribution in the abundance of amphibole and biotite as the
main marie phenocryst phases in the rocks. A possible explanation for this coincidence is that an unexposed fracture or
fault beneath the volcano served as a conduit for both magma ascent and groundwater circulation. In addition to the lava
flows at Ollagfie, magmas are also present as blobs of vesiculated basaltic andesite and marie andesite that occur as inclusions in nearly all of the lavas. All eruptive activity at Ollagiie predates the last glacial episode ( ~ 11.000 a B.P. ), because
post-collapse lava flows are overlain by moraine and are incised by glacial valleys. Present activit~ is restricted to emission
of a persistent, 100-m-high fumarolic steam plume from a vent located within the summit andesite dome.
Sr and Nd isotope ratios for the basaltic andesite and marie andesite inclusions and lavas suggest that they haxe assimilated large a m o u n t s of crust during cDstal fractionation. In contrast, narrow ranges in 143Nd/144Nd and sTSr/~%r in the
andesitic and dacitic lavas are enigmatic with respect to crustal contamination.

Introduction
Previous discussions of magmatism in the
('orrcspondence to. T.C. Feeley, D e p a r t m e n t o f Earth artd
Space Sciences. Universit? o f California, Los Angeles. CA
90024, USA,

Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) have


focused on regional-scale isotopic and wholerock geochemical studies of the volcanic rocks
(e.g., Siegers et al., 1969; James et al., 1976;
Thorpe et al., 1976, 1982; Francis et al., 1977;
Klerkx et al., 1977; James 1981, 1982; Harmon et al., 1984; de Silva, 1989; Rogers and

0 3 7 7 - 0 2 7 3 / 9 3 / $ 0 6 . 0 0 ~ 1993 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.

"T'.(. FEELf'~ ET At..

222

Hawkesworth, 1989; W6rner et al., 1991 ).


These discussions center on the relative contributions and compositions of mantle wedge,
continental crust, and slab-derived sources to
the andesitic volcanic rocks in light of high
87Sr/S6Sr ratios, ~180, and incompatible element concentrations. To date, there is no consensus regarding the nature of the mantle
source (s) of these magmas or the location and
mechanism of crustal contamination of primary mantle-derived melts (c.f., Davidson,
1988; Rogers and Hawkesworth, 1989; Davidson et al., 1990b; Davidson et al., 1991b;
Stern, 1991 ). In addition, on the basis of the
isotopic compositions of young volcanic rocks
collected during a north-south traverse of the
17.5-22 S segment of the CVZ, W6rner et al.
( 1991 ) suggested a major crustal lithologic and
age boundary at about 20S, which may correlate with the southern limit of Proterozoic
basement beneath the CVZ.
In contrast to these predominantly regionalscale studies, comprehensive studies of individual CVZ volcanoes combining detailed
field, geochemical, and mineralogic data on the
same set of samples are few. North of the 20 S
crustal boundary only Volcfin Parinacota
( 18 S) has received detailed examination
(Fig. 1; W/Srner et al., 1988; Davidson et al.,
1990b). Volcanoes studied in detail south of
the 20 S boundary include Purico-Chascon at
23 S (Hawkesworth et al., 1982; Francis et al.,
1984), Cerro Galan at 26S (Francis et al.,
1980, 1983) and San Pedro at 22S (Fig. 1;
Francis et al., 1974; O'Callaghan and Francis,
1986). Purico-Chascon and Cerro Galan are
atypical of late Cenozoic CVZ volcanic centers, however, because both are large ignimbrite shield volcanoes surmounted by later intermediate and silicic composition domes and
flows. They, therefore, may not record the same
volcanic and magmatic processes operative at
the more abundant andesitic stratovolcanoes
during the late Cenozoic in the CVZ.
Because of the lack of comprehensive studies at individual stratovolcanoes in the CVZ,

74"
I

--L

7(3
I
"\.

6,
I

~,~12

PERL
/
(

BOld\' i\

IJarirlacota l i ~

[ aclfic Ocean

San Pedro ~"~

CenozoicRecent
Volcanic
Series
-

International
frontier
0i ,

200 km

Capricorn

j'~, ~ ,.-

...,./,'

__

24

t CHILE ~i I :~

/'

)
ARGEN FINA

Fig. 1. Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Stars show the


locations of Volc~ins Parinacota, Ollagtie, and San Pedro.
After de Silva and Francis ( 1991 ).

we embarked on a detailed field, petrologic,


and geochemical study of Volc~in Ollagtie
(5863 m) located at 2137'S (Fig. 1). The
purpose of this study is to better understand
the volcanic evolution of an individual stratovolcano, and to quantify petrogenetic processes that affect magma compositions in the
CVZ. Our choice of Ollagtie for detailed study
is a result of reconnaissance investigations that
showed the lava suite to have a large compositional range and isotopic ratios that appear to
be correlated with indices of differentiation,
unlike San Pedro and Parinacota (Francis et
al., 1977; Davidson et al., 1990b; W6rner et al.,
1991 ). The apparent correlation of isotopic
ratios may be linked with the geographic position of Ollagiie, which is located slightly to the
east of the main axis of Quaternary volcanoes
in this region of the CVZ. In this report we discuss the volcanic history, field relations, and
petrography of volcanic rocks at Ollagtie, and
present a simple geochemical model to explain

V()lX 'ANIC A N D M A G M A T I C E V O L U T I O N O F V O L ( ~ N ( ~L[ A G l ; E

their compositional diversity. Detailed discussions of the geochemistry, petrology including


mineral chemistry, and petrogenesis of the
rocks are left to a forthcoming paper.

Regional tectonic and geologic setting


]-he Central Andes at 21 S are divided into
three NW-SE-trending geological provinces
(Fig. 1 ). From west to east they are: ( 1 ) the
Cordillera Occidental composed of the active
volcanic arc bounded on the west by a westward-dipping monocline and on the east by (12)
the Altiplano, a broad plateau where undeformed late Miocene and younger ignimbrites
overlie variably folded and faulted mid-Miocene and older sedimentary and volcanic rocks;
and (3) the Cordillera Oriental, a major eastverging thrust complex involving Paleozoic to
Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.
The belt of active composite volcanoes at 21 S
lies approximately 130 km above the WadatiBenioff zone, which dips about 30E (Barazangi and Isacks, 1976). The crust here is extremely thick, averaging about 70 km (James,
1971 ). Uplift of the modern Central Andes and
development of the present-day anomalou,;ly
thick crust likely resulted from Miocene and
younger tectonic episodes (Isacks, 1988). Deformation occurred along the western margin
of South America during the Paleozoic to
Eocene (Coira et al., 1'982; Jordan and Gardeweg, 1989), although tectonic quiescence
and erosion during the Oligocene beveled the
Central Andes to a low-lying, subdued landscape (Noble et al., 1979; Tosdal et al., 1984).
Volcfin Ollagfie is part of a broad NW-trending belt of late Cenozoic calc-alkalic and aikalic volcanic centers that extends from southern Peru to northern Chile, southwest Bolivia,
and northwest Argentina (Fig. 1 ). Late Cenozoic volcanic activity appears to have initiated
during the Miocene (Baker and Francis, 1978 ).
Older igneous rocks (Jurassic through Eocene)
are exposed at lower elevations to the west of
the currently active volcanic front, although

223

they are usually considered separate in most


models of magmatism and tectonism for the
central Andes because of a period of Oligocene
magmatic quiescence followed by eastward
migration of the arc (e.g., Coira et al., 1982).
The late Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the CVZ
can be divided into three broad groups on the
basis of composition and eruptive style
(Thorpe et al., 1982). First, large-volume
( >/10,000 km ~' in total ), regionally extensive
ignimbrite volcanism has persisted almost
continuously since 23 Ma, although units older
then 15 Ma are only present north o f 2 l S (de
Silva, 1989). The tufts are calc-alkaline dacires to rhyolites that form ignimbrite shield
volcanoes sometimes with well-defined central
collapse structures (e.g., Cerro Galan). Fhe
second group consists of basaltic andesitc to
dacitic lavas ranging in age from 23 Ma to the
present, although the largest volumes were
erupted during the past 6 million years. Units
are not-regionally extensive, usually form large
stratovolcanoes, and are generally confined to
the Cordillera Occidental (Thorpe et al.,
1982 ). Ollagiie, San Pedro, and Parinacota are
included in this group. Third, volumetrically
minor alkali basalt lavas are present in small,
isolated fields located mainly to the east of the
main arc in Bolivia (Thorpe et al., 1982; Davidson et al., 1991a). The age of these lavas is
not well constrained although the presence of
associated morphologically young maars and
tephra cones suggests that they are young. Most
of the alkali basalt fields are located within NS-striking structural depressions and they may
be related to rifting (Thorpe el al., 1982 ). ['he
late Cenozoic volcanic stratigraphy of the ('VZ
indicates that early volcanism was dominantly
silicic and that a greater percentage of more
marie compositions has been erupted with
time.
Volc~in Ollagiie was constructed upon the
western edge of the Altiplano about 25 km east
of the main axis of Quaternary volcanoes. Although few radiometric age data are available
for Ollagiie rocks, the young age ( < 1Ma i of

224

Y.C. FEELE~ ET AI_.

68:21'W
21 10'S

68 05'W

7y

\
Sahtr de ( Uhtgt7~"

Explanation
Salar

t ~

,s~

Chile
"x,

/ /

,:~i

[~

colluvitlm arid
alluviuna

salar
deposits

gtacial
moralrle

)
N
(

/ J

[] LaseriesCelosa
[] post-collapse
series

debris ax,alanchc
deposit

i[]
,

/
(
(

7J
r,)
(

Chasca Orkho
series

altered pyroclaslic
deposits

Vinta 1.oma
series

older volcanic
rocks

i/

ignimbrite
Salar
de
San Mart{n

exposed VCIII-,

Cerro

WS::5:SL#~

LkL=::;:W:2:kW:::: ~ -- . . . . .

................................
....................
.- i'J~77 7:777 ;7 7777777 "'(~
/

=================================================

1"

2126'S
68:~21'W

"~ t

!(i ~IT!L~!))
~

~[::

hnnarolc

)i

~ ' ~ inlerred trace ,,I

l
:0

~,,,a,~nch
........
2

6805'W

Fig. 2. Simplifiedgeologic map of VolcfinOllagiie and the surroundingarea based on field workand photo interpretation,

the volcano is indicated by the pristine morphology o f the lavas and persistent fumarolic
emissions from a summit vent. The lava flows,
domes, and pyroclastic deposits of Ollagiie overlie the regionally extensive 5.9 to 5.5 Ma old
Carcote ignimbrite, which is exposed on its
eastern side (Fig. 2; Baker and Francis, 1978 ).
Older, extensively glaciated lavas and domes
(e.g., Cerro Huanaco, Cerro Chanchajapichina, Cerro Chijiliapichina; Fig. 2) not related to the main volcanic center are exposed
to the east and south of Ollagtie but are not
considered in this study.

Geology and eruptive history of Voican


Ollagiie
In this section we summarize the stratigraphy and petrographic features of the lavas at
Ollagiie. Volc~in Ollagiie is a complex composite cone with evidence for a multistage eruptive history. It has a summit elevation of 5863
m and a maximum edifice height of about 2065
m above the Altiplano. Slow erosion rates due
to the~trid climate that has persisted in the CVZ
for much of the Late Tertiary (Galli-Oliver,
1967 ) have resulted in excellent preservation

O F VOLC,&N ( - ) L L A G O E

225

of lhe 80-90 km 3 of volcanic material that


constitute the edifice of Ollagiie. However, the
lack of erosion has prevented exposure of the
oldest rocks at the volcano and thus the earliest eruptive history is inaccessible.
The geology and eruptive history of Volc~in
Ollagiie are summarized in Figures 2 and 3.

The lavas and pyroclastic rocks have been divided into four eruptive series. In ascending
stratigraphic order they are: (1) the Vinta
Loma series; (2) the Chasca Orkho series; (3)
the post-collapse series; and (4) the La Celosa
series. Compositional and modal data for individual eruptive series are illustrated in Fig-

V()L( NNIC AND MAGMATIC

EVOLUTION

D. Post-Collapse and
La Celosa stage

~0...... i[ ....... ~'.


~:tllll~ll'OlC
d({l~ ~ re! "[;{i
~'~

'

C. Debris Avalanche stage

B. Chasca Orkho stage

San Maiim

A. Vinta Loma stage

- - (~ll{)O i

\Vcsl

......... ] + >'"' '


i

l \Clli<al C\it~L'l{lliOll ~Xi

I ~

k,~,

Fig. 3. ( A - D ) Schematic cross-sections showing the eruptive history of Ollagiie. Note that the vertical scale is 2 times the
horizontal. Patterns are the same as in Fig. 2. Question marks indicate rocks erupted during the early stage of Ollagfie's
history, which are not exposed at the surface.

226

T . C FEELEY EI',At..

8
7

La Celosa series

c/3

<

:~

8
7

<

Post-Collapse series

ures 4 and 5, respectively. Grouping of the lavas into the eruptive series was based
principally on vent locations and contact relationships. Due to the difficulty in correlating
individual flows and domes where the vents are
covered or where stratigraphic position is not
obvious from contact relationships, a few lavas were assigned to eruptive series on the basis of flow morphology, mineral mode, and unpublished 4Ar/39Ar age determinations (G.
W~Srner, pers. commun., 1992). Andesites of
relatively uniform composition were the dominant magmas erupted, although significant
volumes of dacite vented on the flank of the
volcano (Fig. 4).

4
3

The Vinta Loma series

8
7

Chasca Orkho series

6
<

4
3
2

8
7

<

ca:

Vinta Loma series

50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70
SiO 2 wt.%

Fig. 4. Histograms of SiO2 contents for lavas from Ollagiie


by eruptive series. The data represent approximately 80%
of exposed lavas at the volcano.

The numerous andesitic and dacitic lava


flows of the Vinta Loma series are the oldest
exposed rocks and they represent the main
phase of cone growth at OllagiJe (Fig. 3 ). They
are presently exposed at the summit and in the
eastern one-half sector of the volcano where
they comprise about 60% of exposures by volume (Fig. 2 ). The predominant rock types are
medium-grey, blocky to platey, cliff-forming
two-pyroxene andesites and dacites. About
80% of the lava flows are andesites (Fig. 4).
Flow widths and thicknesses (20-90 m) vary
inversely with ground slope; on gentler slopes
flows are commonly 2-3 times wider and
thicker than on steep slopes. Many flows have
well-developed internal flow folds and terminal exposures may be autobrecciated. Rare
basal exposures reveal oxidized flow breccias
up to several meters thick. Primary surface flow
features are typically not exposed due to burial
by a thin mantle of colluvium. Above about
5000 m elevation the colluvium completely
buries some flows giving them a rootless appearance lower on the volcano (Fig. 2 ). Given
the slow rates of erosion in the CVZ the colluvium may have accumulated over a considerable length of time, which is consistent with the

~7
=~

V{)L{ "ANIC AND MAGMATIC EVOLUTION OF VOL( :~N (}LLAG [JE

relatively low stratigraphic position of the


Vinta Loma series.
Exposed in the wall of a large cirque at the
summit of Ollagfie is a 60-m-thick section of
strongly altered pyroclastic deposits interbedded between Vinta Loma lava flows. Comprising the bulk of this unit are small volume, 1--5
m thick, poorly sorted pyroclastic flow deposits alternating with thin, well-sorted pumice Fall
deposits. These pyroclastic deposits record intermittent episodes of small-volume plinian
eruptions during the Vinta Loma stage. The lavas and pyroclastic deposits of the Vinta Loma
series dip outward and are radially distributed
around the present summit region, indicating
that they were erupted from a central summit
vent.
Mineralogically and petrographically, most
Vinta Loma lavas are porphyritic to seriate,
sparsely glomeroporphyritic with 22 to 41%
phenocrysts of plagioclase (An6o_37) > > pyroxene > Fe-Ti oxides + amphibole (Figs. 5
and 6). Rare quartz, biotite, and olivine are
present in some samples and in most cases are
probably xenocrystic. In addition, a few of the
older flows on the northwest flank contain significant amphibole relative to pyroxene (Fig.
6). Microphenocrysts of plagiociase, pyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides are abundant in the
groundmass of all lavas; amphibole is absent
in the groundmass.
The Chasca Orkho series
Subsequent to the main phase of cone
growth, eruptive activity shifted from the summit area to locations on the southeast flank of
Ollagiie. Here a distinctive lava field overlies
Vinta Loma flows (Figs. 2 and 3) and is referred to as the Chasca Orkho eruptive series,
after a 300-m-thick dacite dome named Cerro
Chasca Orkho. The Chasca Orkho series contains the most mafic and most silicic lavas
erupted at Ollagfie (Fig. 4). Vents for the
Chasca Orkho flank eruptions strike radial to
the summit of Ollagfie (Fig. 2 ).

60
q

40

30

{5~i{ Olivine
':!~ Clinopyr{}xenc
Orthopyroxcn{'
I'lagioclasc
i: Amphibole
ii Biotit{.'
[]
Oide
I

(b

-~ rJ
~
~l
i

3()
20
ll)
i

()0

(-/mSCa ()rkllo
50

e-

40

r,

4{)

-r
1. ,

5
r-

I0~1 C }lhi'pse se "i '/

BO
u

5o

~C

I A C{'[oszl 5 e r i c 5

serie>

li
i

,-~

30
ca

20

I0

'o
O
o
2~

~0

q2

54

[~6 $8

f3(} (,2 {34 I~h

7{3

SiO, wt/./~
Fig. 5. Volume% of phenocrysts versus wt.% SiO2 of representative Ollagfic lavas b.~ eruptive series. Data determined by point counting > 1000 points per thin section.
Phenocrysts are defined as larger than 0.3 mm.

228

T.C. FEELEY ET AL.

II

,Amph
"

io yx

Pyx > A m p h + Bio

S~ale(km)
[~

Fig. 6. Spatial distribution of Ollagiie lavas in which amphibole and biotite are present in greater proportions than pyroxene and vice versa. Compare with Fig. 2.

The stratigraphic sequence within the Chasca


Orkho series is relatively well established by
contact relationships, especially in the southern part of the field. Three small-volume, darkgrey, vesiculated, olivine-phyric basaltic andesite lava flows, each about 1 to 2 m thick, are
at the base of the sequence. They are the most
mafic lavas exposed at Ollagiie. Overlying these
flows is a 20-m-thick flow of platy basaltic andesite. Texturally and mineralogically this flow
resembles the underlying basaltic andesite
flows except that it contains more modal clinopyroxene. The stratigraphic position of the
basaltic andesites at Ollagiie is significant because it contradicts the claim of Thorpe et al.
(1982) that mafic lavas are never erupted from
a CVZ composite volcano after eruption of
more silicic lavas (Fig. 4).
Following eruption of the basaltic andesite
flows, a sequence of 10 coalescing crystal-rich
andesitic to dacitic domes and lavas (coul4es)
was erupted. These lavas are morphologically
distinct from the Vinta Loma lavas because
they are short and steep-sided and commonly

have flow-front scree of autobrecciated lava.


Aspect ratios of individual domes and coul6es
range up to 0.15. Coul6es were erupted on the
mid-slope of Ollagiie and are elongate downslope. A thin veneer of colluvium usually covers the upper surfaces of the coul6es. Lavas
erupted near the base of Ollagiie form domes
that are circular to elongate in plan, sometimes
with concentric pressure ridges on their upper
surfaces. Cerro Chasca Orkho has an 80-mdeep axial rift, which probably formed as a result of lateral spreading during dome growth.
This rift strikes N55 W, parallel to the alignment direction of the other exposed vents on
Ollagiie (Fig. 2). In the western part of the
dome and coul6e field, where contact relationships are relatively well exposed, the lavas progressively increase in SiO2 content upsection
from 63.5% to 67% SiO2. The domes and cou14es of the Chasca Orkho series do not appear
to have flowed very far (if at all) from their
vents. They record a stage in the evolution of
Ollagiie when eruptive activity shifted from
central summit vent eruptions of the Vinta

VOLt'ANIC AND MAGMAT1C EVOLUTION OF V()L(7/~N OLLAG()E

229

Loma series to flank eruptions of more viscous


magma.
In hand specimen, Chasca Orkho series rocks
range from medium-grey andesites to light-grey
dacites. In thin section, textures range from
porphyritic-seriate to nearly vitrophyric. Plagioclase (An6o_3o), which may have sieve textures, is the most c o m m o n phenocrystic phase
in the andesites and dacites, and is accompanied by lesser amphibole, biotite, pyroxene,
and Fe-Ti oxides (Fig. 5). A few of the more
silicic samples contain trace quartz and sphene.
A notable difference between Chasca Orkho
series rocks and Vinta Loma rocks is the appearance of biotite phenocrysts, and the increase in amphibole relative to pyroxene in
rocks with similar SiO2 contents (Figs. 5 and
6 ). The amphibole and biotite phenocrysts are
typically quite distinctive in hand specimen,
rarely occurring as megacrysts 5 to 10 m m
across in radiate splays. One dacite
(OLA9021 ) contrasts with the other andesites
and dacites because amphibole and biotite are
absent (Figs. 5 and 6). Groundmass textures
range from hypocrystalline to trachytic, defined by subparallel alignment of stubby plagioclase microlites. The basaltic andesites are
porphyritic with 8 to 11% modal phenocrysts
of olivine >/ Fe-Ti oxides > clinopyroxene set
in a trachytic groundmass of plagioclase
(An64), clinopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxides (Fig.
5 ). Xenocrysts of spongy textured plagioclase
(An37) and quartz with clinopyroxene reaction coronae are sparse but conspicuous.

( 1988 ). The debris avalanche deposit is presently only preserved west of Ollagiie in the San
Martin basin where it extends 16 km from the
summit and covers an area of approximately
100 km 2 (Fig. 2). Morphologically it forms a
h u m m o c k y terrain similar to the deposit produced during the May 18, 1980 eruption of
Mount St. Helens, and it was probably formed
in a similar manner (Fig. 7; Francis and Wells,
1988). Reconnaissance sampling within the
debris avalanche deposit suggests that most of
the megablocks are lithologically similar in
composition and phenocryst mode to the older
amphibole-bearing lavas of the Vinta Loma series on the northwest flank (G. W~Srner pets.
commun., 1991 ). The extent of these lavas was,
therefore, likely to have been greater than those
presently exposed. Polygonally jointed andesite bombs are occasionally found on top of the
debris avalanche deposit. It is unclear, however, if these bombs represent a juvenile magmatic component associated with the collapse
event.

Debris avalanche
Late-stage volcanic activity commenced with
sector collapse of the western flank of Ollagiie.
Although the sector collapse event did not destroy the actual summit, it probably resulted in
formation of a collapse-amphitheater about 3
km in diameter on the upper western flank
(Figs. 2 and 3). The collapse event also produced a debris avalance deposit, which was first
recognized and described by Francis and Wells

Post-collapse series
Contemporaneous with a n d / o r following
sector collapse of the upper western flank,
eruptive activity continued with extrusion of
numerous short flows of grey andesitic lava,
which are well preserved on the western flank
of the volcano, and with growth of an andesitic
dome within the inferred collapse amphitheater (Figs. 2 and 3). All of these extrusions are
compositionally very similar (Fig. 4). The lava
flows erupted from the western summit area
and flowed toward the west over the debris avalanche deposit. Young morphological features such as well-developed lev6es and pressure ridges on upper flow surfaces, and Iowalbedo (Rothery et al., 1986) on satellite imagery suggest that these lavas are younger lhan
Chasca Orkho series lavas, although this evidence is not conclusive.
The presently exposed volume of the summit dome is about 0.35 km 3. At its base are

F.C. FEELEY El A I .

~30

Fig. 7. View of the debris avalanche deposit from the western flank of Ollagfie. The deposit forms the hummock) terrain
in front of the white salar deposits in the San Martin basin. Note Cerro La Porufiita, a phreatomagmatic tephra cone
constructed on top of the deposit, on the right. Peaks in the background are Volcans Chela (right) and Palpana (left).
piles a n d t o n g u e s o f a n g u l a r b l o c k s as large as
l 0 m in d i a m e t e r t h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m s m a l l r o c k
a v a l a n c h e s d u r i n g d o m e g r o w t h (Fig. 8; c.f.,
S w a n s o n et al., 1987 ). T h e d o m e p r o b a b l y fills

a c o l l a p s e - a m p h i t h e a t e r in a m a n n e r analog o u s to the l a v a d o m e at M o u n t St. H e l e n s , bec a u s e w e s t - d i p p i n g V i n t a L o m a l a v a s a n d pyroclastic d e p o s i t s at the w e s t e r n s u m m i t are

Fig. 8. View of summit andesite dome from the north. Note the small rock avalanche at the right base of the dome and
the active summit fumarole. The arrow points to a young post-collapse lava flow that underlies the dome.

?_31

V()LCANIC AND MA(;MATIC EVOLUTION OF VOLCAN OI.LAG()E

abruptly truncated at the eastern margin of the


dome. Conclusive evidence for formation of a
collapse-amphitheater and presence of a collapse scar at Volc~in Ollagfie has, however, been
obscured by post-collapse eruption of the
younger lavas and glacial erosion. The dome is
probably the youngest extrusion exposed on
Ollagfie because its western edge overlies a relatively young post-collapse lava flow (Fig. 8 ).
Additional late-stage activity included construction of small-volume andesitic phreatomagmatic tephra cones (e.g., Cerro La Porui]ita; Figs. 2 and 7) on the debris avalanche
deposit in the San Martin basin, although it is
presently unclear how or if these cones are related to the main volcanic center.
Modal compositions of post-collapse series
lavas are variable and suggest the possibility of
two distinct post-collapse eruptive phases on
the western flank (Figs. 5 and 6). In all lavas,
crystal contents range from 30 to 42%; plagioclase (An6o 40) dominates the mode as both
phenocrysts and as a groundmass phase. In
older post-collapse lava flows low on the western flank, pyroxene is a more abundant phenocrystic phase than amphibole and biotite ( Fig.
6). These flows are overlain by shorter, amphibole- and biotite-bearing flows at topographically higher levels on the volcano. For
example, the summit dome (OLA9037; Fig. 5 )
is a coarse-grained porphyritic to glomeroporphyritic, amphibole- and biotite-bearing andesire that contains little pyroxene.
All eruptive activity at Ollagfie predates the
last glacial episode ( ~ 11,000 a B.P.; Mercer
and Palacios, 1977) because some post-collapse lava flows are incised by glacial valleys
and the reformed western flank is mantled in
places by a girdle of moraine (Fig. 2). Volc~in
Ollagiie is, nonetheless, classified as potentially active in a recent compilation of CVZ
volcanoes by de Silva and Francis ( 1991 ) because of persistent emission of a 100-m-high
fumarolic plume from a vent located within the
summit dome (Fig. 8 ).

The La Celosa series


The La Celosa series consists of a dacitic
dome and coul6e that erupted on the lower
northwest flank of Ollagfie (Fig. 3). It is difficult to be certain what the relative age of the
La Celosa series is from field relationships, because Cerro La Celosa is isolated from contact
with other units. 4Ar/3'~Ar age determinations
(G. W6rner, pers. commun., 1992) suggest
that the La Celosa series lavas are similar in
age to the post-collapse lavas.
The La Celosa series lavas retain many of
their primary flow features due to the absence
of glaciation on the lower flanks of the volcano. Cerro La Celosa is lobate in plan and has
a 1.5-km-long, north-striking axial rift on its
upper surface. The rift probably formed as a
result of lateral spreading during dome growth
as also noted at Cerro Chasca Orkho. The cou16e is a composite unit of two lavas that erupted
from two closely spaced but separate vents
(Fig. 2). Lava erupted from the older, topographically lower vent flowed down slope and
presently partially encircle this vent with a series of concave upslope pressure ridges. Lava
erupted from the topographically higher vent
flowed down the backside of the older flow toward the southwest (Fig. 2 ). The lavas erupted
from both vents are compositionally and petrographically indistinguishable.
Textures of La Celosa rocks range from porphyritic to vitrophyric. Plagioclase (An6o_ ~o)
is the most c o m m o n phenocrystic phase tollowed by amphibole, biotite, and Fe-Ti oxides
(Fig. 5 ). The Cerro La Celosa dacite is similar
to the more silicic Chasca Orkho dacites because it contains trace, yet conspicuous sphene
phenocrysts. Pyroxene is, in general, absent in
La Celosa rocks (Fig. 5 ).
Inclusions
A particularly striking feature of the volcanic rocks at Ollagiie is that nearly every lava,
excluding the basaltic andesite lavas in the

232

Chasca Orkho series, contains ellipsoidal to


spheroidal mafic inclusions. Inclusions with
vesiculated interiors and nearly vesicle-free,
glassy margins are the most common. In most
Vinta Loma and post-collapse lavas these inclusions are relatively rare and small ( < <
1.0%; ~< 5 cm). In lavas of the Chasca Orkho
series and La Celosa series they commonly
make up from 1 to 3% of the rock and may be
as large as 15 cm across. Such inclusions are a
common feature in many intermediate lavas of
the CVZ (Davidson et al., 1990a).
The vesiculated inclusions have microporphyritic to porphyritic textures characterized
by up to 10% euhedral, paragenetically early
phenocrysts ( < 2.0 m m ) of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and basaltic amphibole in varying proportions (Fig. 9A). Pyroxene phenocrysts are typically surrounded by a reaction
rim of amphibole (Fig. 9A). Xenocrysts of
plagioclase, biotite, and quartz (surrounded by
cpx coronae) occur in nearly all inclusions.
Most of the large plagioclase grains are interpreted as xenocrysts because they have albiterich cores (mn3o_60) that are riddled with
abundant, irregularly shaped glass inclusions,
and rims that are euhedral and strongly reversely zoned (Fig. 9A; An6o_71). The groundmasses of the vesiculated inclusions are intergranular to hyalopilitic and are composed of
microlite-sized, acicular laths of plagioclase
(Anso-7o) + amphibole _+ orthopyroxene and
more equant microphenocrysts of Fe-Ti oxides in a brown glass matrix (Fig. 9A). Vesiculated mafic inclusions with similar textures
have been described from many other continental magmatic fields and are recognized as
blobs of mafic magma quenched in cooler,
more silicic magma (e.g., Eichelberger, 1975;
Bacon and Metz, 1984; Bacon, 1986; Grove
and Donnelly-Nolan, 1986; Davidson et al.,
1990a; Feeley and Grunder, 1991 ). This is also
our interpretation for the vesiculated inclusions in Ollagiie lavas.
The second type of inclusions are unvesiculated gabbroic clots containing plagioclase

T.C. FEELE~ ET AI..

(An35_40) -bclinopyroxene+Fe-Ti oxides _+


orthopyroxene _+ amphibole (Fig. 9B). This
type of inclusion has been found in only a few
lavas, although they may have been overlooked owing to their small size. They are usually less than 1 cm in diameter, although one,
sample OLA9027i (Table 1 ), is 5 cm across.
Margins of these inclusions are not spheroidal
like margins of the vesiculated inclusions described above; they are angular and defined by
crystal boundaries (Fig. 9B). The small gabbroic clots are distinguished from glomerocrysts because clinopyroxene in the gabbroic
clots commonly forms oikocrysts enclosing
plagioclase (Fig. 9B). The unvesiculated nature of these inclusions and the cumulate textures suggest that they are magmatic cumulate
residues. If so, they may preserve evidence of
the phases that precipitated from a precursor
magma to generate the silicic andesites and
dacites (c.f., Grove and Donnelly-Nolan,
1986). OLA9027i is a nearly holocrystalline
anorthositic gabbro composed principally of
elongate, randomly oriented phenocrysts of
plagioclase as large as 2 mm. Many of these
plagioclase grains have small, included apatite
needles. Interstices between the plagioclase
crystals are filled with small, granular microphenocrysts of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene,
Fe-Ti oxides, and sparse brown glass. In addition, a few large oikocrysts of amphibole are
present either partially or wholly enclosing
small, equant plagioclase grains. This texture,
and the chemical composition of OLA9027i
(see below) suggest that it is plagioclase
accumulative.
Summary and discussion of the geology and
eruptive history of Ollagiie
The earliest exposed stage of eruptive activity at Ollagiie (Vinta Loma series) produced
two-pyroxene andesitic and dacitic lavas and
pyroclastic deposits from a central summit
vent. A few amphibole and biotite-bearing lavas appear to have been erupted early in the

VOLCANIC AND MAGMATIC EVOLUTION OF VOLC-i~N OLLAG()E

233

Fig. 9. Photomicrographs of inclusions found in Ollagiie andesitic and dacitic lavas. Width of both photomicrographs is
2.5 ram. Crossed-polarized light. (A) Clinopyroxene phyric andesite inclusion OLA9021i. Euhedral clinopyroxene phenocrysts (center and right) are surrounded by reaction rims of amphibole and are set in a vesiculated glassy groundmass
with acicular plagioclase and amphibole, and more equant Fe-Ti oxide microphenocrysts. To the lower right of center is
a plagioclase xenocryst with sieve-textured core and euhedral overgrowth. (B) Gabbroic inclusion (center) in post-collapse lava OLA9054. Early grown plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxide phenocrysts are partially and completely surrounded by
large clinopyroxene oikocryst.

234

Vinta Loma series. Through time, eruptive activity migrated to the southeast flank where a
sequence of olivine basaltic andesites to amphibole and biotite-bearing andesites and dacites (Chasca Orkho series) was erupted on top
of Vinta Loma flows. The trend toward eruption of more silicic compositions with time in
the Chasca Orkho series implies that crystal
fractionation was operating within a magma
chamber to produce the intermediate composition lavas (c.f. Volc~n Colima; Luhr and
Carmichael, 1980). In this model the tavas
represent leaks from the magma chamber during progressive degrees of differentiation. The
culmination of magmatism to date at Ollagiie
occurred following collapse of the upper western flank. At this stage, eruptive activity largely
returned to the summit area and modal compositions of the lavas became highly variable,
although bulk compositions of erupted magmas were relatively restricted (Figs. 4 and 5 ).
During all of the stages, andesites were the
dominant magmas erupted, although flank
vents produced basaltic andesites and a higher
proportion of dacite than summit eruptions.
Vesiculated inclusions are found in nearly all
of the lavas suggesting that a subvolcanic
magma chamber, from which the andesitic and
dacitic lavas were derived, was repeatedly
fluxed from below with parental mafic lavas.
Vents of the Chasca Orkho and La Celosa series are aligned and strike radial to the volcano
(Fig. 2). In particular, those from the La Celosa series and the southern part of the Chasca
Orkho series are aligned with the summit vent
and strike N55W. The alignment of the La
Celosa, Chasca Orkho, and summit vents suggests that an unexposed NW-striking structure
beneath Ollagiie may have served as a principal conduit for magma ascent and surface
eruption. Similar linear zones of flank vents at
Medicine Lake volcano (Fink and Pollard,
1983), Mount Mazama (Bacon, 1983), and
South Sister volcano (Scott, 1987) have also
been interpreted to result from magma ascent
along fractures radial to the volcanoes. Lavas

T.C. FEELE~ ET AL,

erupted from all flank vents are characterized


by abundant amphibole and biotite phenocrysts (Fig. 6). Although it is presently difficult to test, the large proportion of amphibole
and biotite in these lavas relative to lavas
erupted from the summit may also provide
evidence for an unexposed lineament beneath
Ollagiie (Fig. 6). Fracture or fault controlled,
localized addition of groundwater to magmas
erupted from shallow reservoirs on the periphery of the magmatic system may have been sufficient to stabilize hydrous phases relative to
pyroxene. Luhr and Carmichael (1980) have
argued on the basis ofKuno's (1950) work that
near surface addition of water at Hakone Volcano was responsible for stabilizing hornblende. Furthermore, they contend that a similar near surface addition of groundwater to the
magma system beneath Volc~in Colima was responsible for the relatively hydrous nature of
some hornblende andesites. It is important to
point out, however, that this model does not
account for the presence of the amphibole- and
biotite-bearing lavas in the Vinta Loma and
post-collapse series. A detailed stable isotopic
study is currently in progress and may constrain the origin of the water in OllagiJe tavas.
Geochemistry of the volcanic rocks

Major- and trace-element compositions


Representative major- and trace-element
compositions oflavas and inclusions are illustrated in Figures 10 and 11 and are given in
Table 1. Compositions are similar to intermediate volcanic rocks from San Pedro, Parinacota, and other CVZ volcanoes (Fig. 10 ). They
define a high-K, calc-alkaline suite (Fig. 10).
SiP2 contents of the lavas range from 52 to 67
wt.% with a large compositional gap between
54 and 60%. Compositions of all the inclusions
range from 53 to 61 wt.% SiO2 and fill the gap
in SiO2 content of the lavas. For the suite as a
whole contents of CaP, FeO*, TIP2, MgO, Ni.
and Cr decrease, and K20, Na20, and Rb in-

V()LCa.NIC AND MAGMATICEVOLUTION OF VOLC,g,NOLL&GI~IE

0.40

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

235

10

'

0.35

~ ,

,T-

o"!.

0.30

o*" d

0 ~

i::L~ 0.25

t3~

0.20

mE]

0.15
20

2,0

"~""~

19

T r ' l , , , [ , , ' ~ - , , ~ ! , ~ r

OLA9027i
1,6

-,-:18

1.2

O e

--~17
<

0.8

16

0.4

O []

0" D
15

@.0
1o
0

orqo

o~

Ii

. . . .

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

m_

X [~a r i n a c o t a
[~

+ Sail Pedro
I
+4-+

~ 3
0

[]

~ ~i[:]
X

' - ~

Cumulate inc!uston

zk

Magmatic Inclusions

La Celo sa

Post Collapse

[]

Chasca Orkho

Vinta Loma

~2
mK

basaltic

and~sit~

50

Low-K

andesite

dacite

58
SiO

62
2

wt%

66

;'~

i
i

54

70

50

54

, =J

58
SiO

62
2

L ~_J_~

66

70

wt.%

Fig. 10. MaJor-element oxide variation versus SiO2. K2O classification b o u n d a r i e s ( italics ) are from Peccerillo and Taylor
(1976). N o m e n c l a t u r e for the volcanic rocks is indicated along the b o t t o m of the diagram. Circled field indicates the
range of inclusion compositions. On the K 2 0 versus SiO2 diagram, represents Parinacota lavas from I)avidson et al.
( 1 9 9 0 b ) and X represents San Pedro lavas from O'Callaghan and Francis ( 1 9 8 6 ) for comparison with Ollagtie data.

T.C. FEELEY ET AL.

236
TABLE 1

Representative major (wt.%) and trace (ppm) element analyses of Ollagiie rocks
Vinta Loma series
Sample:
SiO2
TiO2

AI203
FeO*
MgO
MnO

CaO
Na20
K20
P205
LOI
Total
Rb
Sr
Cr
Ni

OLA9014
60.9
0.89
16.9
5.2
2.6
0.07
5.1
4.0
2.7
0.32
1.0
99.6
77
530
25
8

OLA9023

OLA9031

63.0
0.82
16.6
5.0
2.4
0.07
4.9
3.9
3.0
0.23
1.1
101.0
91
527
17
5

58.6
0.95
16.7
5.7
3.5
0.11
6.0
3.7
2.5
0.25
0.9
99.0

OLA9032
64.4
0.86
16.7
5.1
1.4
0.10
4.0
4.1
3.2
0.24
0.7
100.8

OLA9056
62.2
0.85
16.4
4.9
2.3
0.09
4.9
3.5
3.2
0.28
1.2
99.9

OLA9058
~0,2
ii.84
i(~.7
~.8
3.2
~LII
L5
',.8
2.8
i).22
i~2
lo0.?,

69
547
43
8

96
494
6
4

95
722
11
6

,';4
>~8
B~
:,

OLA9020

OLA902 t

OLA9026

Ol, A9027

Chasca Orkho Series


Sample:
SiO2
TiO2
AI203
FeO*
MgO
MnO

OLA9015

Na20
K20
P20~
LOI
Total

67.0
0.55
15.4
3.3
1.2
0.05
3.1
4.1
3.8
0.17
1.2
99.7

Rb
Sr
Cr
Ni

118
422
6
3

CaO

OLA90 t 6
52,7
1.33
16.1
8.6
6.6
0.12
8.5
3.4
1.6
0.24
0.1
99.3
37
702
221
75

65.6
0.57
15.5
3.5
1.4
0,06
3.5
4.1
3.7
0.18
1.3
99.5
126
441
10
25

crease with increasing SiO2 (Figs. 10 and 11 ).


A1203 and P205 contents are roughly constant
until about 60% SiO2 and then decrease
strongly. Consistent with its petrography, the
chemical composition of inclusion OLA9027i
indicates that it is a magmatic cumulate composed principally of plagioclase (with apatite
inclusions); A1203 and P205 are significantly

63.5
0.77
16.2
4.6
2.1
0.06
4.4
4.4
3.2
0.25
0.7
100.0
117
451
14
6

60,1
0.91
16.8
5.4
2.9
0.08
5.2
3.6
2.9
0.23
1.4
99.7
89
485
30
7

62 7
(!.80
i6.3
47
2.3
007
45
L0
~i
0 22
i.3
q99
1~5
436
,

elevated and elements not compatible in plagioclase are depleted relative to other samples
(Fig. 10).
The compositional variations highlight the
importance of crystal-liquid fractionation as a
petrological process in the evolution of the
Ollagiie rock suite. For example, the strong decrease in A1203 and P205 in samples with

~3 7
.._

V{)I_Ca,NIC AND MA(iMATICEVOLUTIONOF VO1.CANOLLAG()E

La Cclosa series

Post-collapse series
Sample:

OLA9037

OLA9047

OLA9054

()LA31

OLA33

Sit),
TiO2
AI:O?.
FeO*
MgO
MnO
CaO
NaeO
K20
P205
k()l
Tolal

62.6
0.79
16.6
4.9
2.3
O. 11
4.6
4.3
2.9
0.27
1.2
100.8

60.5
0.90
16.6
5.4
3.1
0.09
5.5
3.6
2.8
0.22
1.4
100.1

60.8
0.94
16.8
5.4
2.7
O. 10
5.2
4.1
2.7
0.26
1.1
100.2

64.7
0.67
16.2
3.~I
1.8
0.06
3"
4.0
3.6
0.19
0.9
100.1

66.4
0.57
15.7
3.3
1.2
0.OS
3.0
4.1
3.8
0.1 ~
1.3
100.0

Rb
Sr
Cr
Ni

93
506
15
5

89
491
23
6

82
490
30
8

116
460
25
7

123
424
14
4

Inclusions
Sample:
SiO2
TiO2
AI20:~
FeO*
Mg()
MnO
CaO
Na20
K20
P2Os
L()I
Total
Rb
Sr
(7I'
Ni

OLA901 li
59.7
0.90
16.5
5.5
3.0
0.09
5.3
3.3
2.8
0.24
1.8
99.2
71
652
78
9

OLA9015i
56.2
1.16
17.1
7.5
3.3
0.10
6.0
3.6
2.3
0.36
1.4
99.0
63
610
7
8

OLA9021i
57.1
0.94
16.8
5.7
3.8
0.08
7.6
3.5
1.9
{).26
1.9
9~).6
43
650
5 "v
27

OLA9025i
59.2
0.97
16.8
5.9
3.5
0.08
6.1
3.9
2.3
0.27
0.7
99.9
54
600
53
13

OLA9026i
57.1
1.18
16.6
6.6
4.0
0.09
6.7
3.1
2.0
0.26
1.5
99.2
59
520
79
13

OLA14

()LA32

56.4
1.07
17.4
7.3
3.9
0 1
6.8
3.7
2.2
0.28
0.5
99.7

53.1
1.42
173
8.3
5.2
0.11
8.7
3.5
1.5
0.27
1.4
100.8

55
603
31
14

45
641
69
15

OLA91)27i
53.1
1.03
19.7
7.8
2.1
0.13
8.5
3.9
1.0
(}.37
1.5
99.1
32
813
7
11

All data collected by standard XRF techniques on dried rock powders using a Rigaku 3070 X-rat spectrometer at the University
of Southern California. Precision on major and trace elements is estimated at 1% (one-sigma standard deviation ) except for Cr
( < 3.5%). Analyses of Ni less than 30 p p m are regarded as semiquanlitative. LOI determined by igniting at 900:C a separate
aliquot of powder. FeO* is total Fe as Fe 2+. Samples without -90- prefix are from W6rner et al. ( 1992 ).

greater than 60% SiO2 reflects the large amount


of plagioclase and apatite in the fractionating
assemblage of these compositions. Trends fix
MgO, FeO*, Ni, and Cr are slightly concave
upward indicating fractionation of pyroxene

and olivine in mafic compositions (Figs. 10


and 11 ). The curved trends for these and other
elements such as Rb and A1203 are additionally significant because they indicate that the
compositional trends of the mafic vesiculated

238

T.C.

140
o

120

~m D

IOO
E

O.

o. 80
J~
rr

60
40

20

9O0
800

E 700

El.

C~ 600
500

400

300
g

250

D
[]

[]

200
E

(D..
Q-150

c3
IO0

50

lOO
[]

8o
E6o
Q..
c~

FEELEY

El

A1.

inclusions cannot be produced by simple twocomponent mixing of mafic magmas (e.g.,


Chasca Orkho basaltic andesites) with the exposed andesitic and dacitic lavas at Oltagfie.
Magma mixing has been invoked to explain
petrographic features and compositional trends
of vesiculated inclusions at other localities
(Bacon and Metz, 1983; Bacon, 1986; Davidson et al., 1990a; Feeley and Grunder, 1991 ).
Closed-system crystal fractionation cannot be
the only petrologic process operative, however. Petrographic features of the vesiculated
inclusions such as the large volume of xenocrysts indicate large degrees of crustal contamination during differentiation of inclusionforming magmas. Furthermore, variations in
radiogenic isotopic compositions preclude differentiation by closed-system processes alone
(Fig. 12).
Rocks of all four eruptive series have indistinguishable bulk compositions at similar SiO2
contents (Fig. 10). This is significant because
as discussed above, among different eruptive
series there is a change in mineralogy from twopyroxene-dominated assemblages to amphibole- and biotite-dominated assemblages (Fig.
5 ). Factors that control the stability of amphibole in andesites include bulk composition,
.[o2, Pn2o, Ptotab and temperature (Gill, 1981 ).
Because the change in mineralogy coincides
with no change in bulk composition of the
rocks, a change in either temperature, pressure, fo2, and (or) fluctuations in the water
content of the magmatic system beneath
OllagiJe are implied.

Isotopes

Z40
[]

20
0

5O

54

58

62

66

SiO wt.%
2

Fig. 11. Trace-element variation versus SiO2. Data symbols are the same as in Fig. 10. Circled field indicates the
range of inclusion compositions.

Covariation of 875r/86Sr and t43Nd/]44Nd


ratios of Ollagiie rocks are illustrated in Figure
12. A more complete data set will be published
in a subsequent paper detailing the geochemistry and petrology of the rocks. The range in
875r/86Sr and Ja3Nd/144Nd ratios for Ollagiie
rocks is small compared to the overall range
from CVZ centers (Fig. 12). In common with

239

VOL{ "AN1C AND MAGMATIC EVOLUTION OF VOLC&N ()LLAGI~E

0.5125

0.5124

[T[~

,\/fiplano Puna ~tQcal/i~C;llllp]f ~ l

0.5123

0.51300
0.51280
0.5126{)

,
//
/L 5 1 2 2

0.51320

~ ~ A v
7 --~

i
.~_~__-

~'~F Ax~k.

/
NVZ
(0-2S)

0,706

_ 0.707

0,708

0.709

0.71 I)

g33_42S)

" ~ 0.51240

~Z
~

0.31220

0.51200 _--0.51180 _._.t


0.7020

cvz
0.7060

(17.5-26%)

0.7100

0.7140

0.7180

",~Sr/~',Sr
Fig. 12. Isotope data for select Ollagtie lavas and inclusions compared with island-arc tLlt') data and data from the
Andean Northern (NIT), Central (C17), and Southern (SIT) volcanic zones. Diagonall? ruled field in inset sho~s the
compositions of rocks of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex from de Silva (1987). Symbols are the same as in Fig. 10.
Arrows point to assumed composition of bulk Earth (BE). After Davidson et al. {1990b ).

other CVZ centers, the Ollagiie rocks have


higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 143Nd/144Nd than
late Cenozoic volcanic rocks from island arcs
and the Northern and Southern Volcanic Zones
of the Andes (Fig. 12; Davidson et al., 1991b).
Isotopic compositions for inclusions and
mafic lavas (basaltic andesites) are systematically correlated, in contrast to compositions
for the andesitic and dacitic lavas (Fig. 12).
Inclusions and mafic lavas together have a large
range in isotopic compositions whereas isotopic compositions of the andesitic and dacitic
lavas are more restricted (Fig. 12). Feeley and
Davidson ( 1991 ) have explained these trends
by differentiation of inclusion-forming magma
deeper in the crust where thermal conditions
permit large degrees of assimilation relative to
fractionation. The restricted range in isotopic
compositions o f the andesitic and dacitic lavas
suggests lower rates of assimilation under shallower (cooler) crustal conditions (DePaolo,
1981 ; Gans et al., 1989; Feeley and Davidson,

1991). This idea will be discussed further


below.

Petrogenesis of magmas at Volcfn Ollagiie: a


working model
In this section we describe a simple model to
explain the compositional diversity of the
magmas at Ollagi,ie. The model is not meant to
be a rigorous description of the petrogenesis of
the magmas nor are the values of the variables
selected in the assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC; DePaolo, 1981 ) calculations
intended to quantitatively describe the magmatic system beneath Ollagtie. It is intended to
constrain processes taking place in the magmatic system and to serve as a point of reference for future studies of the rocks.
The magmatic inclusions and the basaltic
andesite lavas of the Chasca Orkho series have
a large range in Sr isotopic compositions over
a relatively narrow range in R b / S r (Fig. 13A).

240

T . c , F E E L E Y E T AL.

0.709

A
0.708

{)

r.g3

~.: ~

(I.707 -

r./3

/....x

{17

~ 1/ / ~ 0795

0.706 -

0.00

[]

o6

/ .-" ;-'--~1
~"- II{}{}

"

AFC

~- 7/ /"./.- - " / /

Model

.'/-.,Z tr~-~o 95
/

1
2

Ds,

l)m, Ma/Mc ~r}

I ~2 5 0.3
1.25 {}.3
0.3

0.8
{}.5
{}.5

0.05

0.10

0. t 5

0.20

0.25

{}.3{}

Rb/Sr
0.709

0.708

--

,c~./~
g

0.707

A2ZX

0q

~i~- ch .... o,'u~. ~,-,~,_[~

....F C ' a

[]

t-CoU~p,~

<>

st-iie ~

r,3
0.706 -

0.00

0.05

0.10

O. 15

0.20

0.25

0.30

Rb/Sr
Fig. 13. (A) Sr isotope constraints on bulk mixing and assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC; DePaolo, 1981 )
models for Ollagiie inclusions and basaltic andesite lavas. The assumed contaminant in all of the models has aTSr/
S6Sr=0.725 and Rb/Sr ~ 0 . 4 (Kntiver and Miller, I981 ). The legend shows the bulk distribution coefficients (Ds, and
DRb ) and r values used to calculate the model curves. Tic marks on Bulk Mixing curve indicate the percentage of silicic
endmember in the mixture. Tic marks on AFC curves indicate the amount of original magma remaining (F). Symbols
are the same as in Fig. 10. See text for discussion. (B). Sr isotope constraints on differentiation models for Ollagtie
andesitic and dacitic lavas. See text for discussion.

This trend can be explained by assimilation of


a large mass of crustal rocks during crystal
fractionation. In Figure 13A, four crustal contamination cases are illustrated. Because of the
large number of unconstrained variables inherent in AFC models, the contaminant used
to calculate all of the model curves is an average composition of Paleozoic metamorphic
rocks exposed in basement uplifts of the Pampean Ranges in northwest Argentina, about 400

km south of Ollagtie (Kniiver and Miller,


1981 ). This contaminant has a 87Sr/86Sr ratio
of about 0.725 and a Rb/Sr ratio of about 0.4.
The dotted model curve (Bulk Mixing ) in Figure 13A illustrates bulk mixing between the isotopically least evolved inclusion (OLA9027i)
and the crustal contaminant. The solid model
curves depicting combined assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC 1 and AFC 2; Fig.
13A) show the effect of decreasing the r value

V( }i (" XNI(7 AND MAGMATIC EVOLUTION OF VOLC-ixN ()[_I_~GI~'E

~4 ]

(the rate of the mass of crust assimilated relative to the mass of crystals fractionated; DePaolo, 1981 ). The dashed model curve (AFC
3 ) shows the effect of simultaneously decreasing r and increasing the bulk distribution coefficient for St.
Model curves labeled Bulk Mixing and AFC
1 were constructed to simulate the effect that
differentiation under deep crustal conditions
has on isotopic compositions and trace element ratios. In the deep crust we assume that
ambient temperatures are high, allowing large
amounts of assimilation relative to crystallization. Although a bulk distribution coefficient of 1.25 for Sr is moderate to somewhat
high for basaltic andesite to andesite systems,
Sr decreases with increasing SiO2 and was
therefore compatible during differentiation
(Fig, 11 ). The curves AFC 2 and AFC 3 were
constructed to simulate the effect of AFC at
shallower crustal levels where temperatures are
lower so the a m o u n t of crust assimilated for a
given a m o u n t of crystallization (r) is less, and
plagioclase constitutes a larger percentage of
the crystallizing assemblage. We interpret the
data for the magmatic inclusions and mafic lavas to be more compatible with deep-crustal
differentiation involving large amounts of
crustal assimilation.
In contrast to the data trends for the inclusions, Figure 13B illustrates that when viewed
on the scale of individual eruptive series where
field evidence indicates that the rocks are comagmatic, the andesitic and dacitic lavas have
little isotopic variability. It is, therefore, possible that these lavas have undergone little to
no crustal contamination during differentiation. It is especially difficult to demonstrate
AFC trends for Ollagiie andesitic and dacitic
lavas on Figure 13B because at any point along
the data array of the inclusions, which we inter
to be parental magmas to the andesite and dacire lavas, it is possible to begin a horizontal
fractionation trend through the compositions
of the lavas.
In addition to a major change in the a m o u n t
of assimilation, there is a change in the type of

crust assimilated. On Figure 12 the steep data


array of the inclusions actually extends to Nd
isotopic ratios that are lower, and Sr isotopic
ratios that are as high as those of the most silicic lavas present at Ollagtie. This trend is consistent with assimilation of old basement rocks
with relatively nonradiogenic Nd and radiogenic St, There is some suggestion that the Sr
isotopic compositions of the andesitic and
dacitic lavas trend to more radiogenic compositions at roughly constant t43Nd/144Nd. This
feature indicates that if these rocks have
undergone some crustal contamination, Miocene ignimbrites of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex upon which Ollagtie is constructed are a possible contaminant (Fig. 12 ).
Ollagfie may then be a case where AFC and
fractional crystallization are difficult to tell
apart because the upper crust is isotopically
similar to previously contaminated parental
magmas feeding the upper crustal system. The
shift in r and nearly certain change in contaminant are consistent with a change from differentiation at deep crustal levels to differentiation at shallower crustal levels.

Comparison with other CVZ stratovolcanoes


The CVZ contains over 1,100 late Cenozoic
volcanic edifices (de Silva and Francis, 1991 ).
Until recently, however, only two andesite
stratovolcanoes have been studied in sufficient detail to permit speculation about magma
chamber processes and volcanic evolution: San
Pedro (Francis et al., 1974: Thorpe et al., 1982:
O'Callaghan and Francis, 1986) and Parinacota (W6rner et al., 1988: Davidson et al.,
1990b). Observations from these volcanoes
and Ollagtie indicate that there are regular volcanological and petrological processes that occur over large distances along strike in the CVZ.
All three volcanoes are classified as composite
volcanoes by de Silva and Francis ( 1991 ) because they were constructed in two stages separated by collapse of their western flanks with
resultant debris avalanches. The formation of
large debris avalanche deposits late in the his-

242

tory of these and other CVZ volcanoes probably results from oversteepening of the edifices
due to eruption of viscous andesitic and dacitic magma, as discussed by Francis and Wells
(1988).
Lavas preceding the debris avalanche at San
Pedro are predominantly basaltic andesites,
whereas those erupted after the debris avalanche are mainly andesites and dacites
(O'Callaghan and Francis, 1986). At Parinacota, lavas erupted prior to the collapse event
are generally more silicic (andesites to rhyolites) and have a larger compositional range
relative to post-collapse lavas (andesites to basaltic andesites; W6rner et al., 1988). O'Callaghan and Francis (1986) found that postcollapse magmatism at San Pedro produced a
succession of four eruptive groups. Within each
group increasingly more silicic compositions
were erupted with time, similar to the pattern
for the Chasca Orkho series at Ollagfie. These
field observations are consistent with chemical
data suggesting that crystal fractionation, with
or without crustal contamination, is an important petrologic process in upper crustal magma
chambers beneath stratovolcanoes in the CVZ
and elsewhere. The significance of amphibole
in CVZ andesites and dacites is presently unclear and requires additional work. At Parinacota, amphibole is an abundant phenocryst
phase in pre-collapse lavas, yet it is virtually
absent in post-collapse lavas (W6rner et al.,
1988 ). Data on the abundances of phenocrysts
in San Pedro lavas are not available.
A persistent problem in CVZ magmagenesis
is the extent to which the andesitic and dacitic
lavas have been affected by crustal contamination. Thorpe et al. (1976), Francis et al.
( 1977 ), and O'Callaghan and Francis ( 1986 )
published rare earth element, Sr isotopic, and
major- and trace-element data, respectively, for
San Pedro lavas. 87Sr/S6Sr ratios of San Pedro
lavas are high (0.7055 to 0.7070) although they
are systematically lower than those of Ollagfie
lavas (Fig. 14; Francis et al., 1977). Like
Ollagiie andesites and dacites they also do not
exhibit a clear correlation with any index of

T.C. FEELEYET At..


0.7090

0.7080
bhi
0.7070

O.7060

0.7050

~
50

I
54

I
58

~_ ,

62

I
66

.......
71)

SiO2 w t . %
Fig. 14. Comparison of Sr isotopic compositions of lavas
from Parinacota, San Pedro, and Ollagtie. Data from
Davidson et al. (1990b) and Francis et al. ( 1977 ).

differentiation (Francis et al., 1977). Nonetheless, Francis et al. (1977) infer that San
Pedro lavas were contaminated by lower continental crust because Sr isotopic ratios are elevated relative to Sr isotopic ratios of lavas
from Ecuador (87Sr/86Sr "~ 0.7044), where the
crust is 20-30 km thinner than in northern
Chile. O'Callaghan and Francis (1986) successfully duplicated major- and trace-element
trends of San Pedro lavas by fractional crystallization calculations without accompanying
crustal assimilation. They also infer crustal assimilation, however, mainly on the basis of
disequilibrium phenocryst textures. At Parinacota, 87Sr/86Sr ratios are very similar to those
from San Pedro and also show little correlation with differentiation (Fig. 14). Davidson
et al. ( 1990b, 1991 b ) explained this feature as
a result of the establishment of "baseline" isotopic compositions in parental mafic magmas
during contamination in deep-crustal magma
chambers, followed by rise and further differentiation of magmas in shallower crustal
magma chambers with or without subsequent
contamination. This model is very similar to
the one proposed here, except that parental
mafic magmas that fed shallow crustal magma
chambers at Oltagiie were not isotopically homogeneous. It thus appears that shallow-level
magma-chamber processes do not result in significant or systematic changes in radiogenic
isotopic compositions. This may result from

v( )L( a~NICAND MAGMATI("EVOLUTION OF VOLCAN ()LLAG{~TE

closed-system crystal fractionation. An alternative and more likely explanation is that


crustal contamination is difficult to detect because the upper crust is isotopically and chemically similar to magmas previously contaminated deeper in the crust. Future geochemical
work on the stable isotopic systematics of
Ollagtie lavas will be aimed at documenting in
more detail the amount of shallow crustal contamination they have undergone.

Conclusions
Field relations indicate that cone growth at
Volc~in Ollagiie evolved during at least four
main eruptive stages with an intervening sector collapse event between the second and third
stage. During all of the stages, andesitic magma
of relatively uniform composition was the
dominant eruptive product, although magmas
that vented on the flanks included more mafic
types and a higher proportion of dacite.
Quenched mafic inclusions in nearly all lavas
preserve evidence that the magmatic system
beneath Ollagiie was repeatedly fluxed from
below with parental basaltic andesites and
mafic andesites. Petrographic features such as
the large proportion of xenocrysts in the inclusions indicate that crustal contamination was
an important process in their petrogenesis.
Whole-rock geochemical and isotopic trends of
the inclusions indicate they are not simple twocomponent mixtures between a more mafic
magma and exposed andesite and dacite lavas,
however.
It is possible to explain geochemical trends
of the basaltic andesites and mafic andesites by
differentiation at deep crustal levels where
thermal conditions permit large degrees of assimilation relative to factionation. The restricted range in isotopic compositions of the
andesitic and dacitic lavas suggests that these
rocks may have undergone smaller amounts of
crustal assimilation during differentiation at
shallow (cool) crustal conditions. Large
amounts of crustal assimilation are possible if
the upper crust is chemically and isotopically
similar to the andesites and dacites. The pres-

243

ent data set for Ollagtie lavas does not permit


distinction between these two alternatives. Future geochemical work will concentrate on
evaluating in more detail the amount of upper
crustal contamination at Ollagtie.

Acknowledgements
Supported by National Science Foundation
grant EAR-8915808 to Davidson. We thank the
Servicio Geologico de Bolivia (GEOBOL) for
arranging field logistics, Peter Holden for assistance in the isotope lab, Dave Mayo for help
with the XRF analyses, and Anne Loi for computer support. Wendy Bohrson assisted during
field work. This work benefitted from discussions with Gerhard WiSrner, Shan de Silva, and
Mary Reid. Unofficial reviews by Anita Grunder and Gerhard W6rner and official reviews
by Jim Luhr and Bill Rose resulted in significant improvements to this manuscript.

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