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Construction and Building Materials 26 (2012) 96101

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Construction and Building Materials


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

Compressive strength and resistance to chloride penetration of mortars using


ceramic waste as ne aggregate
Hiroshi Higashiyama a,, Fumio Yagishita a, Masanori Sano a, Osamu Takahashi b
a
b

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577-8502, Japan
The Kanden L&A Company, Ltd., 1-3-12, Shinmachi, Nishi-ku, Osaka 550-0013, Japan

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 25 December 2010
Received in revised form 16 April 2011
Accepted 27 May 2011
Available online 21 June 2011
Keywords:
Ceramic waste
Mortar
Compressive strength
Chloride penetration

a b s t r a c t
This paper presents the results of experimental investigation on compressive strength and resistance to
chloride ion penetration of mortars made of ceramic waste as ne aggregate. The ceramic waste of electrical insulators provided from an electric power company in Japan has been crushed and ground to produce ne aggregates for mortars in this study. In the process of crushing and grounding, ceramic powder
is discharged as a by-product. The effects of mixing with the ceramic powder in mortars have been also
investigated. Compression tests of mortars are conducted at 7, 28 and 91 days curing. Moreover, the
resistance to chloride ion penetration of mortars has been determined by two methods: the spraying
of a 0.1 N silver nitrate solution and the X-ray uorescence spectrometry. The compressive strength of
mortar made of the ceramic waste aggregate increases and the resistance to chloride ion penetration
is signicantly higher in comparison with mortar made of the river sand. It is also conrmed that a partial
replacement of cement by the ceramic powder up to 20% by weight is effective with respect to the compressive strength and the resistance to chloride ion penetration.
2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
Industrial wastes have continued to increase due to the continued demands of resource use. With increasing restrictions on landlls, industries have to nd effective ways for recycling their
wastes and by-products. From the viewpoint of the sustainable
society, recycle of ceramic wastes from ceramic industries and
electric power companies is one of the most important purposes
as the global environmental problem. In the year 2009, electric
power companies in Japan have discharged ceramic wastes of
3300 t from The Tokyo Electric Co. Inc. [1] and 3100 t from The
Kansai Electric Co. Inc. [2].
Some researchers in the world have investigated the effects of
using ceramic wastes, such as blocks, bricks, roof tiles, sanitary
ware or electrical insulators, as aggregates and/or pozzolanic
admixtures in mortar and concrete. There are a number of studies
on mechanical properties of mortar or concrete made of ceramic
wastes as aggregates [313]. The pozzolanic reactivity of ceramic
powders from ceramic roof tiles or ceramic electrical insulators
has been conrmed [911]. Several authors [57,12,13] have also
investigated on permeability, abrasion resistance, and chloride
ion penetration depth of concrete with crushed ceramic wastes.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 6 6721 2332; fax: +81 72 995 5192.
E-mail address: h-hirosi@civileng.kindai.ac.jp (H. Higashiyama).
0950-0618/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.05.008

Compressive strength increased and chloride ion penetration


depth signicantly reduced with the increase in crushed ceramic
percentages [6]. However, the effects and mechanical properties
on ceramic wastes of electrical insulators provided from electric
power industries in mortar and concrete are still limited [4,10,13].
In the present study, the ceramic waste of electrical insulators
provided from an electric power company in Japan was used as ne
aggregate in mortar. The ceramic powder produced in the process
of crushing and grounding of the ceramic waste was also used with
a partial replacement of cement or as an admixture. The aim of this
investigation is to study the compressive strength and the resistance to chloride ion penetration of mortars containing the ceramic
waste aggregate and powder.
2. Experimental programs
2.1. Materials
Ceramic electrical insulators as shown in Fig. 1 were broken by a hammer into
smaller pieces with 50100 mm length. These pieces were crushed using a specially
assembled crushing machine into under 30 mm particle size. These ceramic particles had very sharp edges like a knife edge, which were still dangerous to supply
as aggregates for mortar and concrete. Therefore, the ceramic particles were ground
by an originally developed grinding machine with a 160 L capacity such as Los
Angeles abrasion testing machine (Fig. 2). The relation between the particle edge
width and grinding time [14] is given in Fig. 3. The safety shape of particle, which
has the particle edge width of greater than 0.5 mm, is sufciently obtained by
grinding for 4560 min. The grain size distribution of ceramic waste ne aggregate

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H. Higashiyama et al. / Construction and Building Materials 26 (2012) 96101

100

Passing (%)

80

60

40

Ceramic

20

River sand
0
0.075

0.15

0.3

0.6

1.2

2.5

5.0

10.0

Sieve size (mm)

Fig. 1. Ceramic electrical insulator.

Fig. 4. Grain size distributions of ceramic waste aggregate and river sand.
The chemical composition of ceramic waste from electrical insulators is presented in Table 1. Maximum particle size, specic gravity, water absorption, and
neness modulus of the ceramic waste aggregate and the river sand are presented
in Table 2. In this study, the particle size ranging from 5.0 to 0.075 mm was used as
ne aggregate and that with smaller than 0.075 mm was employed as a partial
replacement of cement or as an admixture. The cement used was an ordinary Portland cement (specic gravity: 3.15, specic surface area: 3360 cm2/g).
2.2. Mixture proportions
A constant water to cement ratio (W/C) of 0.5 by weight and sand to cement ratio (S/C) of 2.0 by weight were chosen as the basic mixture proportion of mortar.
Mixture proportion ratios by weight are summarized in Table 3. A partial replacement of cement by the ceramic powder with the particle size smaller than
0.075 mm was at 10%, 20% or 30% of cement by weight and the addition of ceramic
powder to mortars was also at 10%, 20% or 30% of cement by weight. The river sand
was mixed in saturated surface-dry condition. On the other hand, the ceramic waste
aggregate and powder were mixed in air-dry condition owing to lower water
absorption.
2.3. Specimens preparation and test procedures
Fig. 2. An originally developed grinding machine.

after grinding for 60 min is shown in Fig. 4 with that of river sand and Japanese
Industrial Standards (JIS A 5005). The grain size distribution of ceramic waste aggregate used was adjusted to correspond with that of the river sand for specimens of
compression tests in order to provide a direct comparison of their effects on the
compressive strength. The ceramic waste aggregate of mortar for the chloride ion
penetration test, however, was supplied without making an adjustment of the grain
size distribution.

2.3.2. Pore size distribution test


The pore size distribution test was performed using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. The samples were obtained from each broken cylinder of 50 mm diameter
and 100 mm height after 28 days curing. Pore volume of pore size ranging from
0.01 to 10 lm was measured. Specimens, S-1, G-1, GI-2 and GE-2 shown in Table
3, were chosen considering the results of compression test.

Particle edge width (mm)

0.7

Safety shape area

0.6

2.3.1. Compression test


For each mixture, ve cylindrical specimens of 50 mm diameter and 100 mm
height were cast to determine the compressive strengths after 7, 28 and 91 days
curing. The specimens were covered with a plastic waterproof sheet for 24 h after
casting and then were demolded and cured in water at 20 2 C of room temperature until the test age. Compressive load was applied by using a 500 kN capacity
universal testing machine and loading speed was a constant of 0.6 N/mm2/s. Only
the specimens at 28 days curing were attached two strain gauges on the side surface to determine the elastic modulus.

0.5

2.3.3. Chloride ion penetration test


In this study, the chloride ion penetration test referred to the procedures described in the literature [6,15,16] was conducted. Mortar cylinders of 100 mm
diameter and 200 mm height were demolded after 24 h of casting and cured in
water at 20 2 C of room temperature for 7 days. After that, they were cut into
150 mm height with the 50 mm end discarded and were left to dry in laboratory
condition for 24 h before application of epoxy coating. The specimens were

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1

Table 1
Chemical composition of ceramic waste from electrical insulators.

0
0

15

30

45

60

Grinding time (min)


Fig. 3. Particle edge width and grinding time.

Chemical composition (%)

75
SiO2

Al2O3

Fe2O3

CaO

MgO

Na2O

K2O

TiO2

70.9

21.1

0.81

0.76

0.24

1.47

3.57

0.33

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H. Higashiyama et al. / Construction and Building Materials 26 (2012) 96101

Table 2
Physical properties of ceramic waste aggregate and river sand.
Physical properties

Ceramic waste

River sand

Maximum size (mm)


Specic gravity
Water absorption (%)
Finess modulus

5.0
2.30
0.47
3.74

5.0
2.59
1.73
2.39

Table 3
Mixture proportion ratios of mortars (by weight).
Specimen

Ceramic powder

Fine aggregate

S-1
G-1
GI-1
GI-2
GI-3
GE-1
GE-2
GE-3

1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

2.0
2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
2.0
2.0
2.0

4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

0.2
0.4
0.6
0.2
0.4
0.6

RS
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA
CWA

W is water, C is cement, S is ne aggregate, RS is river sand, CWA is ceramic waste


aggregate.

epoxy-coated leaving only one sawn surface free of coating and were fully immersed in a 5.0% NaCl solution for 3 months and 6 months in hermetic tanks at
20 2 C of room temperature as shown in Fig. 5. Specimens, S-1, G-1, GI-2 and
GE-2, were chosen as well as the pore size distribution test.
At each age, after spraying of a 0.1 N silver nitrate solution on a cross section of
split mortar [17], white silver chloride precipitation was measured by a caliper at
three points (mid and its both sides apart from 25 mm) as shown in Fig. 6. Furthermore, to determine the concentration and penetration depth of chloride ion, mortar
powder samples taken from ve drilled holes (in 10 mm depth increments) were
analyzed by using the X-ray uorescent spectrometer (OURSTEX 101FA) which
can accurately measure the chloride ion concentration of 0.1 kg/m3.

3. Results and discussion

of specimens made of the ceramic waste aggregate and powder except for a replacement ratio of 30% at earlier age became higher at
each age. The compressive strengths of GI series decreased gradually with the increase of a replacement ratio except for a replacement ratio of 30% at 28 days curing. However, differences of the
compressive strengths of GI series in comparison with that of specimen G-1 became smaller at long curing age. From these results, it
might be said that the ceramic powder has the pozzolanic reactivity. Furthermore, the compressive strengths of GE series with an
addition of the ceramic powder increased slightly with the increase
of its amount at each age. In addition, since the elastic modulus of
the ceramic waste aggregate itself from electrical insulators is considerably high, the elastic modulus of the specimens made of the
ceramic waste aggregate tested were relatively higher than that
of the specimen made of the river sand (Table 4).
3.2. Pore size distribution
It is well known that the compressive strength and chloride diffusion of hardened cement paste depend on the porosity and pore
size distribution [1820]. The relations between the pore volume
and pore diameter ranging from 0.01 to 10 lm at 28 days curing
in comparison with specimen S-1 made of the river sand are given
in Fig. 8. Pore volume ranging from 0.03 to 1.0 lm of pore diameter
in mortars containing the ceramic waste aggregate decreases than
that of specimen S-1. Furthermore, the histogram of cumulative
pore volume ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 lm of pore diameter, which
highly correlates with chloride ion ingress [20], is given in Fig. 9.
Each cumulative pore volume of specimens G-1, GI-2, and GE-2 decreases by 30%, 28%, and 43% in comparison with that of specimen
S-1. These results are in agreement with the results of increasing
the compressive strength as presented in Fig. 7. Consequently, it
can be said that mortars made of the ceramic waste aggregate lead
to superior durability concerning not only the chloride ion penetration but also water absorption and vapor permeability.

3.1. Compressive strength

3.3. Resistance to chloride ion penetration

The results of compressive strengths of mortars at 7, 28 and


91 days curing and the elastic modulus at 28 days curing are summarized in Table 4. The histogram of compressive strengths at 7, 28
and 91 days curing is also shown in Fig. 7. In comparison with
specimen S-1 made of the river sand, the compressive strengths

3.3.1. Chloride ion penetration depth


The split surfaces of specimens (focused around white silver
chloride precipitation), after spraying a 0.1 N silver nitrate solution, are shown in Fig. 10. The white silver chloride penetration
depth (lower side of Fig. 10) in all the specimens was clearly visible

5 % NaCl solution

Fig. 5. Immersion of mortars in a 5.0% NaCl solution.

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H. Higashiyama et al. / Construction and Building Materials 26 (2012) 96101

Pore volume (ml/g)

0.008

S-1
0.006

G-1

0.004
0.002
0
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

Pore diameter ( m)

(a) G-1
Fig. 6. Measured positions of white silver chloride precipitation.

Pore volume (ml/g)

0.008

Compressive strength (N/mm )

100
80

7 days
28 days
91 days

60

S-1
0.006

GI-2

0.004
0.002
0
0.001

40

0.01

0.1

10

Pore diameter ( m)

20

(b) GI-2
0
GI-1

GI-2

GI-3

GE-1

GE-2

GE-3

Fig. 7. Compressive strengths of mortars.

Table 4
Compressive strengths and modulus of elasticity.
Specimen

S-1
G-1
GI-1
GI-2
GI-3
GE-1
GE-2
GE-3

Compressive strength (N/mm2)

Elastic modulus (kN/mm2)

7 days

28 days

91 days

28 days

31.8
38.3
34.7
33.3
25.9
34.8
34.4
36.3

51.6
58.7
57.2
53.1
32.6
61.5
62.8
67.4

58.0
70.3
71.4
66.5
62.3
77.1
81.5
83.7

26.4
30.1
30.8
31.7
28.2
34.8
34.5
35.7

and almost uniformly distributed. The results of chloride ion penetration depths at each immersion age are presented in Table 5. It
can be seen that the chloride ion penetration depths of mortars
containing the ceramic waste aggregate were considerably less
than that of mortar made of the river sand at each immersion
age. The difference of chloride ion penetration depth between mortars containing the ceramic waste aggregate with a replacement by
or an addition of the ceramic powder was insignicant. Researchers [1820] state that the chloride diffusion is strongly dependent
on the porosity of hardened cementitious matrixes. As shown in
Figs. 8 and 9, the pore volume in mortars containing the ceramic
waste aggregate was lower than that of mortar made of the river
sand. The chloride ion penetration depth correlates well with the
cumulative pore volume.
3.3.2. Chloride ion concentration
Total chloride ion proles of specimens determined by the Xray uorescence spectrometry at each immersion age are given

0.008

Pore volume (ml/g)

G-1

S-1
0.006

GE-2

0.004
0.002
0
0.001

0.01

0.1

10

Pore diameter ( m)

(c) GE-2
Fig. 8. Pore volume and pore diameter at 28 days of curing.

in Fig. 11. At both 3 months and 6 months immersion, the chloride


ion in specimen S-1 penetrated into a greater depth from the ex-

Cumulative pore volume (ml/g)

S-1

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

S-1

G-1

GI-2

GE-2

Fig. 9. Histogram of cumulative pore volume ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 lm of pore
diameter.

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H. Higashiyama et al. / Construction and Building Materials 26 (2012) 96101

S-1

G-1

GI-2

GE-2

GI-2

GE-2

3 months immersion

S-1

G-1
6 months immersion

Fig. 10. Split surface of specimens after sprayed a 0.1 N silver nitrate solution.

Table 5
Chloride penetration depths.
Chloride ion penetration depth (mm)

S-1
G-1
GI-2
GE-2

3 months

6 months

12.3
7.2
7.3
6.0

18.4
7.6
6.1
6.5

Chloride ion content (kg/m 3)

Specimen

20

S-1
G-1

15

GE-2
10

10

20

30

40

50

Depth from sufrace (mm)

GI-2
GE-2

(a) 3 months immersion

10
20

S-1
5

10

15

20

25

30

Depth from sufrace (mm)

(a) 3 months immersion


20

Chloride ion content (kg/m 3)

GI-2

S-1

GI-2
GE-2

10

10

20

30

40

50

Depth from sufrace (mm)

(b) 6 months immersion

10

Fig. 12. Curve tting by Eq. (1) of total chloride proles.

G-1

15

G-1
GI-2
GE-2

15

Chloride ion centent (kg/m 3)

Chloride ion content (kg/m 3)

20

S-1
G-1

15

10

20

30

Depth from sufrace (mm)

(b) 6 months immersion


Fig. 11. Total chloride proles.

40

50

posed surface than that in the other specimens. It can be seen that
specimens G-1, GI-2 and GE-2 exhibited a better resistance to the
chloride ion penetration than specimen S-1. These results correspond to the white silver chloride penetration depths shown in
Fig. 10 and Table 5. Although the chloride ion concentration of
specimen GI-2 was greater than that of specimens G-1 and GE-2
at 3 months immersion, those chloride ion proles expressed almost the same proles at 6 months immersion.
Both the apparent chloride diffusion coefcient and the surface
chloride concentration for each specimen at each immersion age

H. Higashiyama et al. / Construction and Building Materials 26 (2012) 96101


Table 6
Apparent chloride diffusion coefcients.
Specimen

3 months
3

S-1
G-1
GI-2
GE-2

6 months
2

C0 (kg/m )

D (cm /year)

C0 (kg/m3)

D (cm2/year)

23.63
34.34
30.24
32.85

4.85
0.92
1.67
0.93

22.91
26.31
29.78
32.80

2.70
0.67
0.58
0.46

were determined by tting Eq. (1) to the corresponding measured


chloride ion proles for a relative comparison on the resistance to
chloride ion penetration. The chloride concentration C (x, t) is given
by



x
Cx; t C 0 1  erf p
2 Dt

101

(3) From the results of the spraying a 0.1 N silver nitrate solution and the X-ray uorescence spectrometry, the ceramic
waste aggregate and powder used in mortars signicantly
restrains chloride ion penetration. The chloride ion penetration depths of mortars made of the ceramic waste aggregate
and powder were about half and one third of that made of
the river sand at 3 months and 6 months immersion, respectively. Apparent chloride ion diffusion coefcients of mortars made of the ceramic waste aggregate and powder
signicantly decreased in comparison with mortar made of
the river sand. Consequently, it is concluded that mortars
made of the ceramic waste aggregate and powder lead to
superior durability concerning the chloride ion ingress.

where, C (x, t) is the chloride concentration (kg/m3) at depth x (cm)


and time t (year), C0 is the surface chloride concentration (kg/m3), D
is the apparent chloride diffusion coefcient (cm2/year), and erf is
the error function.
From the results of the curve tting by Eq. (1), the apparent
chloride diffusion coefcient and the surface chloride concentration for each specimen at each immersion age are determined as
shown in Fig. 12 and Table 6. The apparent chloride diffusion coefcients of all the specimens decreased with the immersion period
(Table 6). The apparent chloride diffusion coefcients of mortars
containing the ceramic waste aggregate were much lower than
that of specimen S-1 made of the river sand. In comparison with
specimen G-1, an addition of the ceramic powder with respect to
the resistance to chloride ion penetration had only a minor effect
in this study. It was revealed that mortars containing the ceramic
waste aggregate from electrical insulators exhibit a higher performance against the chloride ion penetration as well as using ceramic bricks, tiles or sanitary ware [6,7,12]. Further studies,
however, are needed for a better understanding of this chloride
resistance of mortars made of the ceramic waste aggregate with respect to the chloride binding properties.
4. Conclusions
This study investigated the compressive strength and resistance
to chloride ion penetration of mortars made of the ceramic waste
from electrical insulators as ne aggregate and powder. The following conclusions can be drawn.
(1) No harmful inuence with respect to the compressive
strength of mortar made of the ceramic waste aggregate
was found. On the contrary, the compressive strength of
mortars made of the ceramic aggregate and powder except
for a replacement ratio of 30% at earlier age became higher
than that of mortar made of the river sand at each age. It
is concluded that the ceramic waste aggregate investigated
herein can be supplied as ne aggregate for mortar.
(2) The pore volume distribution ranging from 0.03 to 1.0 lm of
pore diameter in mortars made of the ceramic waste aggregate and powder at 28 days curing decreased than that of
mortar made of the river sand.

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