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Reliability Excellence Single Point Lessons

A collection of quick reference tools you can use to improve reliability

www.LCE.com

These Single Point Lessons (SPLs) are examples of the practical, need-to-know information provided in Life Cycle Institute courses.
Please feel free to share them with members of your team that can benefit from just-in-time learning on this wide variety of topics.
From Reliability Excellence for Managers Course

Criticality Analysis Single point lesson


Analyzing Business Practices Single point lesson

pg 3
pg 4

From Reliability Engineering Excellence Course

FRACAS

Single point lesson

pg 6

From Maintenance Planning & Scheduling Course

Detailed Job Plans

Single point lesson

pg 7

From Risk-based asset management Course

Bills of Materials

Single point lesson

pg 8

From Materials Management Course

Cycle Counting Single point lesson


Obsolescence Review Single point lesson

pg 9
pg 10

From Predictive Maintenance Technologies Course

Spectrographic Analysis

Single point lesson

pg 11

Resources

Life Cycle Institute Solutions and Resources

www.LCE.com

pg 13

2009 Life Cycle Engineering

Single Point Lesson:

Criticality analysis
From Reliability Excellence for Managers Course

What is it?

A tool used to evaluate how equipment failures impact organizational performance in order to systematically rank plant assets for the purpose of work
prioritization, material classification, PM/PdM development and reliability improvement initiatives.

Why use it?

Formal criticality analysis, something other than a simple 1-5 ranking, allows reliability leaders to determine the leading characteristic that makes each
asset critical, be that production throughput, maintenance cost, utilization rate, or safety impact, to ensure that reliability improvements are made based
on risk rather than perception.

What factors are critical for success?

The criticality analysis process should be executed in two phases. The first phase is the initial analysis which requires cross-functional input from
Operations, Maintenance, Engineering, Materials Management and EH&S representatives. Cross-functional analysis is required to build buy-in and
overcome perceptions of criticality. The second phase is evergreen, meaning that the criticality analysis process must be maintained and re-evaluated
throughout the asset or plant life cycle period to determine when risk has been mitigated and the significance of each asset has changed.

How do you use it?

Step 1 Define those characteristics that will be used to analyze each maintainable asset. These characteristics should cover a wide range

of business attributes, such as:





Mission impact
Customer impact
Environmental, Health, and Safety impact
Ability to isolate/recover from single-point-failures
Preventive Maintenance (PM) history
Corrective Maintenance (CM) history

Step 2

Each characteristic should then be weighted using a scale from 0 to 10 to identify significance to the business. The greater the
scale the easier it will be to accurately identify critical assets, however, the total score possible should not exceed 100. By
setting a limit of 100, you are re-enforcing the weight of each characteristic.

Step 3 Add definition to each delineation point of the weighting scale to accurately score each characteristic.
Step 4 Import asset hierarchy into criticality analysis tool.
Step 5 Define the Primary Function for each asset to easily identify the impact of a single-point functional failure.
Step 6 Analyze the effects of a single-point failure for each asset across all characteristics.
Step 7 Calculate the composite score, or Criticality Rating, for each asset by dividing the raw score (sum of all characteristics) by

the total weighted points possible, multiplied by 100.
Step 8 Identify the top 10% - 20% Critical assets.
Step 9 Looking back through the analysis, identify those characteristics that make each asset critical.

Asset ID

Equipment Type

Description

Mission Impact

Customer Impact

Safety Impact

Environmental
Impact

Regulatory Impact

Single Point Failure

PM / PdM History

CM History

Reliability

Spares Lead Time

Asset Replacement
Value

Planned Utilization

Raw Score

Criticality Rating

Step 10 Identify those assets which are significant in areas like Reliability, cost, or replacement value and flag for PM/PdM development

and/or reliability improvement initiatives.

CS16789

Caster

To poor molten metal into ingot casts at a rate


of 495 tons per day

10

40

83

CS16791

Accumulating
Conveyor

To accumulate cast ingot from the Caster at a


rate of 165 tons per shift

27

56

CS16824

Cooling
Conveyor

To cool molten metal in casts to solidify ingot


within a 24 foot run

37

77

CS16852

Casting Wheel

To remove skim material from molten ingot


casts before solidification

10

23

48

CS16882

Hydraulice
Power Unit

To turn the Casting Wheel at a rate equal to the


speed of the Caster

24

50

CS17031

Conveyor Scale

To verify the weight of ingot bundles


exiting the Accumulating Conveyor

31

65

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

Single Point Lesson:

Analyzing Business Practices via


Business Process Mapping
From Reliability Excellence for Managers Course

What is it?
Process mapping is the art of capturing day-to-day, often routine, practices on paper to illustrate the connections between steps or tasks and highlight
gaps that prevent ideal performance.

Why use it?


The ultimate goal of process mapping is to develop a common understanding of the current or as-is state so systematic improvements can be made to
drive sustainable performance improvements.

What factors are critical for success?


Create a cross-functional group to participate in the process mapping to gain a complete picture of current state
Select a Facilitator who is furthest from the control function within the process
Capture all ideas and suggestions for improvement; prioritization will take place prior to development
Validate the process, and opportunities, through >26% of the affected organization

How do you use it?

Step 1 Using packaging paper (brown paper), roll out about 12 feet of paper, long enough to capture the entire process. Tape the paper to the wall

so that everyone can see the entire map. Notice Im recommending that you not use a computer or overhead projector. This limits visibility of

the process. Its extremely important that everyone be able to see the process in its entirety.
Step 2 Identify the physical boundaries of the process, the start and end points to narrow the groups focus and discussion.
Step 3 Define the process so that every person will understand the purpose or end result. For example, the engineering Criticality Analysis

process might be defined as to identify the significance of plant assets in order to prioritize maintenance and capital expenditures.
Step 4 Ask the team members to sign the map; create a sign in box near one of the bottom corners of the map itself. This practice adds

credibility to the map those who will see it as part of the validation and improvement activities will understand the perspective of

the individuals and are less likely to challenge the outcome.
Step 5 Using yellow Post It note pads, capture those tasks that are associated with the business process between the start and end points. If

you prefer, facilitate the groups discussion to build the map sequentially, but if this proves difficult based on the dynamics of the group,

simply, through a roundtable format, ask each member to capture what tasks they routinely perform within the boundaries of this process.
Then, through group discussion, sequence the activities, realizing that there may be duplication by some roles, which is another gap (pink

Post it). Continue to capture the decision-making steps or tasks (blue Post it) within the process, and all related documentation (orange

Post It) that currently exists in order to execute any task within the process.
Contd on next page

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

Single Point Lesson:

Analyzing Business Practices via


Business Process Mapping
From Reliability Excellence for Managers Course
Step 6 Now its time to discover the strengths and weaknesses of this process. Using pink Post It note pads for weaknesses, gaps, or

opportunities for improvement, and green for strengths, ask the group to post their comments associated with each task. If individuals

perceive the task or step to be necessary and working well, they might place a green Post It on the task and explain their reasoning. On

the other hand, if an individual thinks a step is unnecessary, or if the step is out of sequence, then a pink note is placed alongside the task

or step, again explaining the justification. Others may agree with already posted notes and should simply sign their initials in acceptance

of the recommendation.
Step 7 The final step in the current or as-is process mapping workflow is to capture all opportunities, pink Post It gaps for improvement

and document the process flow electronically to preserve data for future reference.

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

Single Point Lesson:

Failure Reporting, Analysis, and


Corrective Action System (FRACAS)
From Reliability Engineering Excellence Course
What is it?

It is a continuous improvement system utilizing a closed-loop feedback path in which the maintainer and operator work together to collect and record
data relating to failures of assets. This data is then reviewed and analyzed by a reliability engineer, considering such factors as Failure Rate, MTBF,
MTTR, MTBM, Availability, Cost, etc. The resulting analysis identifies corrective actions that should be implemented and verified to prevent future
failures from recurring.

Why use it?

FRACAS promotes reliability improvement throughout the life cycle of the asset. Considering a standard asset life cycle from cradle to grave, the following
phases occur:

Corrective actions and the impact to total cost of ownership are small during the conceptual design phase and then have greater impact as the asset gets
farther along in its life cycle. The earlier the failure cause is identified and positive corrective action implemented, the greater the asset utilization and the
lower the total cost of ownership.
Some of the benefits include:
Regulatory compliance such as ISO 9000
Access to historical performance data
Trending asset types and failure types
Identifying patterns of deficiencies
Ease of statistical analysis

What factors are critical for success?







Have formalized and documented procedure for your FRACAS


Ensure that value and ease of reporting is emphasized to ensure active involvement of all stakeholders
Create business process linkages to EAM systems, RCM software, PdM databases, etc to ensure consistent data
Provide indoctrination and annual training on your FRACAS
Generate audit and surveillance program to ensure compliance and proper use
Design a tie to your Management of Change or Configuration Control process to ensure accuracy of asset data

How do you use it?

Failure Reporting
Established procedure that includes collecting and
recording corrective maintenance information and times
Data should be submitted on simple, easy-to-use format
Consolidate all the data into a central data logging
system
Failures should also be ranked in terms of the criticality
or severity of the error
Failure Analysis
Review, in detail, the failure reports.
Capture historical data from the database of any
related or similar failures.
Do a root cause analysis (RCA).
Obtain the failed items for analysis required beyond your
resources for external support (as needed).
Corrective Actions
Develop corrective actions.
Assign owners for action items.
Track actions to completion
Measure results

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

Single Point Lesson:

prepare a detailed job plan


From Maintenance Planning & Scheduling Course

What is it?
A method of describing in detail what steps need to be done and the order to do them in so that a specific task can be completed in the most efficient
manner possible.

Why use it?


A properly prepared, detailed job plan will anticipate all discernible delays in an effort to maximize the most efficient use of the craftpersons time. This will
eliminate most non value-added effort when completing tasks.

What factors are critical for its success?


When a planner prepares a detailed job plan, the most important aspect of preparation is to visit the job site. It is essential to visualize the task being
carried out and to examine the barriers that will need to be overcome or allowed for. Additionally, the planner needs to be able to make an educated
analysis of the crafts that will be needed and man-hours necessary to complete the task.

How do you do it?


Step 1 Planner reviews work order and determines correct level of detail needed for task to be performed and tools needed for analysis.
Tools may include a tape measure, camera, calipers, mirror, flashlight, and voice recorder.
Step 2 Planner visits job site and analyzes the anticipated steps necessary to complete the task.
Step 3 Planner determines which crafts will be involved in completing the task and how many man-hours will be needed.
Step 4 Planner determines if the job task will require special clearances or permits.
Step 5 Planner determines if special tools or equipment will be required.
Step 6 Planner determines what parts, if any, will be needed.
Step 7 Planner evaluates asset history to determine similar previous tasks.
Step 8 Planner utilizes the technicians to ensure steps are a viable job task method.
Step 9 Planner lists all steps necessary for completing the job task, including operations tasks and feedback entry by craft.
Step 10 Planner adds all estimated parts to asset BOM.
Step 11 Planner saves file either electronically or in paper format for future use and evaluation after task is complete.

Example
1

LOTO, DECONTAMINATE, DEPRESSURIZE, FILL AND DRAIN VESSEL

3.0

3.0

$25.00

$75.00

Operator Technician

REVIEW JOB PLAN, OBTAIN PERMITS, OPTAIN PARTS, OBTAIN TOOLS,


TRAVEL TO SITE

0.3

0.9

$30.00

$27.00

Maintenance Mechanic

OPEN TOP AND SIDE MANWAYS

0.4

1.2

$30.00

$36.00

Maintenance Mechanic

BLIND/BLANK/MISALIGN PIPING TO PREPARE FOR VESSEL ENTRY

3.0

9.0

$30.00

$270.00

Maintenance Mechanic

SET UP COPUS BLOWER

0.3

0.3

$25.00

$7.50

Operator Technician

OBTAIN VESSEL ENTRY PERMIT

0.1

0.3

$30.00

$9.00

Maintenance Mechanic

CONDUCT INTERNAL VESSEL INSPECTION, ESTABLISH HOLE WATCH

2.0

4.0

$45.00

$180.00

Specialty Contractor

REMOVE BLINDS AND ALIGN PIPING, INSTALL NEW HARDWARE AND


GASKETS, FOLLOW MANUFACTURER'S TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS

4.0

$30.00

$360.00

Maintenance Mechanic

RE-INSTALL MANWAY GASKETS AND CLOSE MANWAYS, FOLLOW


MANUFACTURER'S TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS

1.0

3.0

$30.00

$90.00

Maintenance Mechanic

10

PRESSURE TEST/HYDRO TEST VESSEL PER BURKVILLE PROCEDURE

1.5

3.0

$25.00

$75.00

Operator Technician

11

DE-LOTO VESSEL AND ASSOCIATED PIPING

3.0

3.0

$25.00

$75.00

Operator Technician

12

CLEAN UP AREA, TURN TOOLS BACK IN, ENTER FEEDBACK AND


COMPLETE WORK ORDER

0.5

0.5

$30.00

$15.00

Maintenance Mechanic

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

Single Point Lesson:

Bill of material
From Risk-based asset management Course

What is it?
Equipment Bill of Materials (BOM) is the list of parts, developed by the reliability engineering team using equipment hierarchy and part criticality for each
identified asset group.

Why use it?


Accurate BOMs reduce the chances of buying incorrect parts. This allows for improved planned and unplanned work processes by minimizing research
time and providing easy access to required material data.

What factors are critical for success?


The criticality analysis process should be executed in two phases. The first phase is the initial analysis which requires cross-functional input from
Operations, Maintenance, Engineering, Materials Management and EH&S representatives. Cross-functional analysis is required to build buy-in and
overcome perceptions of criticality. The second phase is evergreen, meaning that the criticality analysis process must be maintained and re-evaluated
throughout the asset or plant life cycle period to determine when risk has been mitigated and the significance of each asset has changed.

How do you do it?


Step
Step
Step

Step



Step
Step

1
2
3
4

5
6

Develop the process for determining BOMs.


Define, based on Criticality Analysis, which asset types will have BOM development.
Use ABC analysis to determine the relative priority of items in a storeroom based on their criticality to the support of operations.
Using this information, set up store room minimum and maximum levels.
Collect technical data to support BOM development, referencing:
Equipment drawings
Documentation from suppliers, distributors and manufacturers
Other historical data pertaining to the asset
Develop a BOM template supported by your EAM system for ease of data migration and populate the template from data above.
Continuous improvement with periodic reviews of suppliers, lead times, and obsolescence, including a configuration management process.

Benefits of an accurately maintained BOM process include:


Reduced production downtime and maintenance overtime
Reduced inventories and lower carrying cost
Obsolete materials removed from stores
Reduced inventory write-off
Reduced expedited freight costs

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

Single Point Lesson:

Cycle counting
From Materials Management Course

What is it?

A method used to routinely and periodically conduct physical inventory of all items in a storeroom throughout the year.

Why use it?

Many people think that the primary purpose of cycle counting is to simply identify and correct any errors in the on-hand balances in the inventory control
system. While that is an expected outcome of the activity, another important objective of a robust cycle counting program is to identify and correct the root
causes of the errors to prevent them from recurring. The true benefit of cycle counting is in being able to trust the information in the system, even to the
point where a sample or full physical inventory of the storeroom is not required to satisfy financial and auditing requirements at the close of the fiscal year.
A secondary benefit of cycle counting is that it provides an opportunity for storeroom personnel to verify the contents and quality of items in storeroom
bins, as well as the physical quantity.

What factors are critical for success?

Storeroom items should be prioritized using an ABC classification or other method so that the most critical and/or most active items are counted more
frequently throughout the year.
Cycle count frequencies should be established so that the total number of required counts each day is manageable with the current level of staffing. Once
the storeroom staff gets behind the process, it can be difficult to catch up.
The items to be counted each day should be selected randomly and determined by the inventory control system. If possible, the system should prevent any
transactions from occurring on items to be cycle counted until the results of the count have been entered.
Counts should be blind. In other words, the person performing the physical count should not know what the current on-hand balance is in the system.
Any variations between physical inventory and current on-hand balance should be investigated on a timely basis (e.g. within 24 hours) to determine the
root cause of the error.

How do you use it?

Step 1 Determine cycle count frequencies. If an ABC classification is used, the typical frequencies are:

A Items once per quarter

B Items semi-annual

C Items once per year

If no prioritization scheme is used, all items are usually counted at least once per year. Frequencies may need to be adjusted based on

cycle counting results, staffing levels, local policy or other factors.
Step 2 Determine daily count requirements
Step 3 Generate the daily count list
Step 4 Perform physical counts
Step 5

Enter the results of the count into the system

Step 6 In the event of a discrepancy, the item should be recounted to verify the physical count
Step 7 Update the system on-hand inventory if necessary
Step 8 Investigate the reason for the discrepancy
Step 9 Implement corrective actions as necessary to minimize the potential for the same error to recur.
Step 10
Report balance accuracy metrics as a percentage based on the number of accurate counts vs. the total number of items counted.
Cumulative target accuracy rates for all inventory classifications are a minimum of 95%. If an ABC classification is used, the minimum target

for critical & insurance items is 100%; A Items is 98%; B Items 95%; and C Items 90%.

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

Single Point Lesson:

Obsolescence Review
From Materials Management Course
What is it?
A method used to identify and dispose of outdated, damaged, or otherwise unusable storeroom material.

Why use it?


There is a common misconception that once an item has been paid for and stocked in the storeroom, it no longer costs money to keep it, no matter how
long it has been around. In many cases this couldnt be further from the truth. The fact is that the cost of capital (i.e. interest rate on borrowing money),
insurance, taxes, and factors combine to result in annual inventory carrying costs of as much as 20% or more. In other words, every year you hang onto a
purchased item, it costs an additional 20% of the original purchase price to maintain it. In addition to the financial impact and the obvious implications of
space utilization, an obsolescence review also helps to identify and reduce overstocks, as well as ensure that the latest version of each part is being used.

What factors are critical for success?


Accurate usage history is essential to an effective obsolescence review.
Evaluation of inactive material and all recommendations regarding whether to keep or dispose of particular items should not be done in a vacuum or by
storeroom personnel alone. These activities should be completed by a cross-functional team with all of the pertinent information about the items to make
an informed intelligent decision.
For any items which are determined to be obsolete, follow up action must be completed to ensure that the obsolete items are deleted/deactivated from the
inventory control database, and that the impact on any Bills of Materials is assessed.
In order to eliminate obsolete inventory without a significant negative impact on plant financials, an obsolescence budget should be established and
managed in much the same way as any other line item in the budget.
Most important is to keep documentation of all evaluation details so that the same level of effort is not duplicated should the same item appear in a
subsequent obsolescence review.

How do you use it?


Step 1

Establish the criteria for determining which items to evaluate. Typically, this is based on activity levels (or lack of activity)
over the prior 3-5 years.

Step 2 Generate a list of the storeroom items fitting the criteria.


Step 3

Review the inactive items to see if they appear on any active Bill of Material (BOM).

Step 4 Verify the BOM data and make changes as necessary.


Step 5

Flag any obsolete item (in the inventory control system if possible) to prevent any further activity while existing inventory is depleted.

Step 6 Determine the best method of disposition for any unusable stocks:

Return to Supplier

Sell

Recycle

Scrap
Step 7 Document all relevant information pertaining to any item in the review, whether it was determined to be obsolete or not.
This includes rationale for disposition, and documentation of any follow up activities.
Step 8

Record any carrying cost savings resulting from reduction/elimination of obsolete materials.

Step 9

Establish the time line for the next review. Typically an obsolescence review should be done once per year.

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

10

Single Point Lesson:

Spectrographic Analysis
From Predictive Maintenance Technologies Course
What is it?
An analysis of lubricating oil using either a Rotrode Emission Spectrometer or an Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrometer.

Why use it?


Twenty or more metals can be simultaneously identified. The analysis includes wear, additive, and contaminant metals, and results are reported in parts
per million (ppm).

What factors are critical for success?


















Consider the following:


Life of a particle
Effects of in-line filters
Location of sampling
Safety
Average number of time particle is filtered
Volume per unit time divided by total volume
Detergent additives prevent agglomeration
Particles may settle out or adhere to surfaces
Taken from a single location in a system
Taken before in-line filters
Taken during normal operating conditions
In piping systems, consider:
No more than 15 minutes after shutdown
Samples should be taken from the return line following the last wearing part and before entering an in-line filter
Do not sample from the bottom of the pipe
Sample ports should be purged before sampling

How do you use it?


The following guide identifies the types of elements that may be identified by this test procedure. A brief description explains where the metal comes from
for engines, transmissions, gears and hydraulics.

Metal

Engines

Transmissions

Gears

Hydraulics

Iron

Cylinder liners, rings, gears, crankshaft, camshaft,


valve train, oil pump gear, wrist pins

Gears, disks, housing,


bearings, brake bands, shaft

Gears, bearings,
shaft, housing

Rods, cylinders, gears

Chrome

Rings, liners, exhaust valves, shaft


plating, stainless steel alloy

Roller bearings

Roller
bearings

Shaft

Aluminum

Pistons, thrust bearings, turbo bearings, main


bearings (cat)

Pumps, thrust washers

Pumps, thrust
washers

Bearings, thrust plates

Nickel

Valve plating, steel alloy from crankshaft,


camshaft, gears from heavy bunker-type
diesel fuels

Steel alloy from roller bearings


and shaft

Steel alloy from roller


bearings and shaft

Copper

Lube coolers, main and rod bearings, bushings,


turbo bearings, lube additive

Bushings, clutch plates (auto/


powershift), lube coolers

Bushings, thrust
plates

Bushings, thrust plates, lube


coolers

Lead

Main and rod bearings, bushings, lead solder

Bushings (bronze alloy), lube


additive supplement

Bushings (bronze
alloy), grease
contamination

Bushing (bronze alloy)

Tin

Piston flashing, bearing overlay, bronze alloy, babbit


metal along with copper and lead

Bearing cage metal

Bearing cage metal,


lube additive

Cadmium

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Silver

Wrist pin bushings (EMDs), silver solder (from lube


coolers)

Torrington needle bearings


(Allison transmission)

N/A

Silver solder (from lube


coolers)

Titanium

Gas turbine bearings/hub/ blades, paint (white lead)

N/A

N/A

N/A

Vanadium

From heavy bunker-type diesel fuels

N/A

N/A

N/A

Contd on next page


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11

Single Point Lesson:

Spectrographic Analysis
From Predictive Maintenance Technologies Course

Contaminant Metals
Metal

Engines

Transmissions

Gears

Hydraulics

Silicon

Dirt, seals and sealants,


coolant inhibitor, lube
additive (15 ppm or less)

Dirt, seals and sealants, coolant


inhibitor, lube additive (15 ppm or
less)

Dirt, seals and sealants, coolant


additive, lube
additive (15 ppm or less)

Dirt, seals and sealant, coolant


additive, lube
additive (15 ppm or less)

Sodium

Lube additive, coolant


inhibitor, salt water
contamination, wash
detergents

Lube additive, coolant inhibitor, salt


water contamination, wash
detergents

Lube additive, salt water contamination, airborne contaminate

Lube additive,
coolant inhibitor, salt water contamination, airborne contaminate

Multi-Source Metals
Metal

Engines

Transmissions

Gears

Hydraulics

Molybdenum

Ring plating, lube additive,


coolant inhibitor

Lube additive, coolant inhibitor

Lube additive, coolant inhibitor,


grease additive

Lube additive, coolant inhibitor

Antimony

Lube additive

Lube additive

Lube additive

Lube additive

Manganese

Steel alloy

Steel alloy

Steel alloy

Steel alloy

Lithium

N/A

Lithium complex grease

Lithium complex grease

Lithium complex grease

Boron

Lube additive, coolant inhibitor

Lube additive, coolant inhibitor

Lube additive, coolant inhibitor

Lube additive, coolant inhibitor

Additive Metals
Metal

Engines

Transmissions

Gears

Hydraulics

Magnesium

Detergent dispersant additive,


airborne contaminant at
some sites

Detergent dispersant additive,


airborne contaminant at
some sites

Detergent dispersant additive,


airborne contaminant at
some sites

Detergent dispersant additive,


airborne contaminant at
some sites

Calcium

Detergent dispersant additive,


airborne contaminant at some
sites, contaminant from water

Detergent dispersant additive,


airborne contaminant at some
sites, contaminant from water

Detergent dispersant additive,


airborne contaminant at some
sites, contaminant from water

Detergent dispersant additive,


airborne contaminant at some
sites, contaminant from water

Barium

Usually an additive from


synthetic lubricants

Usually an additive from


synthetic lubricants

Usually an additive from


synthetic lubricants

Usually an additive from


synthetic lubricants

Phosphorus

Anti-wear additive (ZDP)

Anti-wear additive (ZDP)

Anti-wear additive (ZPD), EP


additive (extreme pressure)

Anti-wear additive (ZDP)

Zinc

Anti-wear additive (ZDP)

Anti-wear additive (ZDP)

Anti-wear additive (ZPD)

Anti-wear additive (ZDP)

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

12

Life Cycle Institute


Online Resources

High Impact Learning Customized Training Solutions


High Impact Learning is learning that changes behavior to achieve desired results and
is a process, not just a single event like taking a class. The Life Cycle Institute helps
organizations determine if learning/training is the answer to a performance shortfall and
can design a High Impact Learning solution. This involves:
Defining competencies and skills
Assessing gaps
Learning Impact Maps
Creating High Impact Learning interventions that produce results
Documenting application of new abilities.
When retention strategies and support beyond the classroom experience are included
in the learning initiative, the application of new knowledge and skills can increase by
up to 80%. Ask us how the Life Cycle Institute can design a High Impact Learning
solution that delivers maximum results to your organization.

Private Classes
Your training needs are unique. Unique needs may require private, on-site training.
Learn from the leaders in Reliability Excellence at your site at a time convenient for
you tailored for your environment. All open enrollment public classes are available
as private on-site classes led by the same highly qualified, practicing reliability
professionals. These private classes are often coupled with High Impact Learning
facilitation, Follow Through support, and professional application guidance to insure
that the knowledge and skills are applied in the workplace.
Perhaps you want to enhance the skills of your entire team or create a shared learning
experience quickly and effectively. The Life Cycle Institute also offers on-site half-day
and full-day overview seminars. These seminars feature:
Full coverage of the business topics our clients request most
Delivered at your site or any location you choose
Customizable for your organizations culture, practices and needs
The on-site-only seminar topics include:
Reliability Excellence Introduction for Executives
Reliability Excellence Introduction for Operations
Change Management
Maintenance Planning and Scheduling for Managers

IMPACT e-Newsletter
IMPACT is a free, monthly
e-newsletter focused on
learning that drives results.
Each issue includes an article
that explores topics like how
learning impacts business
performance, and the latest
learning strategies instructors
and communicators can use
to reach people more effectively.
IMPACT Webinars
IMPACT Webinars offer insights and
recommendations presented by experienced subject
matter experts, presented in a brief, interactive format.
In these free, monthly Webinars you can learn from
the pros without even leaving your desk.
Reliability Excellence
(Rx) Blog
The Rx blog is authored
by professionals from the
Life Cycle Institute and the
Reliability Consulting Group
at Life Cycle Engineering.
The blog posts have a
common goal helping
individuals and organizations
achieve excellence by creating a solid foundation of
reliability that supports continuous improvement.
e-Institute Live Online Training
Life Cycle e-Institute courses are live, instructorled classes delivered in a virtual classroom. Our
online classes are highly interactive and combine
the elements of social, facilitated and self-directed
learning to maximize training effectiveness. During
an e-Institute class, you will gain tools and practical
guides to implement learning in the workplace.
Whiteboard Videos
Get inspired to improve
organizational performance
by watching some of
Life Cycle Engineerings
experts discuss a variety
of topics.

To learn more about Life Cycle Institute, contact: 800-556-9589 | education@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

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Life Cycle Engineering

Our mission is to enable people and organizations to achieve their full potential.
For more than 30 years, Life Cycle Engineering has provided engineering solutions that deliver lasting results for private industry, public entities,
government organizations and the military. Founded in 1976, LCE is headquartered in Charleston, South Carolina, with offices across North America.
As a professional services organization our mission is focused on our clients people and organizations. It is our companys cornerstone belief that we
will not lead the industry in assisting our clients unless we excel at helping our own people and teams reach their full potential.
As a privately held firm, our business vision is shaped by this mission and influences both our short and long-term planning and decision-making. In
every aspect of our business our actions always drive people and organizations to achieve their long-term performance capability (not solely their
short-term profit or cost-cutting targets.)

Since 1976, LCE has grown to include the following solutions & services:
Reliability Consulting & Services

Net-Centric Solutions

Engineering & Technical Services

Reliability and maintenance solutions for


industrial and government markets that
help public and private enterprises gain
improved financial performance through
greater capacity, lower total cost, improved
quality and an engaged workforce.

Net-Centric solutions that combine


Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)
engineering, network engineering,
information assurance, test and evaluation
services, documentation support and
configuration management.

Shipboard engineering and technical


support services for U.S. and foreign
navies, providing expertise in electrical
and mechanical engineering, systems
engineering and software development.

ILS Services

Program Support Services

Education

Acquisition, logistics planning and life


cycle support services for military ships
and shipboard support systems, shipboard
combat systems and aviation systems.

A full spectrum of program management


capabilities, from financial management
and project plan development to planning
and estimating for industrial projects.

The Life Cycle Institute is a life-long


learning resource for people engaged in
optimizing asset reliability and performance.

All LCE groups embrace our people-focused model of building strengths and employee engagement so that we can deliver successful and
sustainable solutions for our clients. Visit www.LCE.com to learn more.

To learn more about Life Cycle Engineering, contact: 843.744.7110 | info@LCE.com | www.LCE.com

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www.LCE.com

2009 Life Cycle Engineering