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INTRODUCTION

Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) is one of the nomenclature in the


implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education Program (BEP) composed of four
components; namely, Agri-Fishery Arts, Home Economics, Industrial Arts and
Information and Communication Technology. In this module, the focus is on Home
Economics mini-course BREAD AND PASTRY PRODUCTION.
In this course, you will be exposed to different tools, instruments, proper
calculation and mensuration, and actual preparation of the different recipes that are
necessary in either putting up a specialty store that provides baked products or
performing the task of a baker or bakery aide. This will also be a venue for you to
assess yourself and identify aspects of business that you need to strengthen and
safeguard before you take the plunge into the world of work.
Now that the workforce is far behind in equating the number of available jobs,
the Department of Education is revitalizing its resources to lead the young minds and
to prepare them skillfully as future patty chef or the like, instead. It is in honing the
skills that learners can assure to have an edge of surviving the daily needs of oneself
and of others. It seeks to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and motivation
in the field of bread and pastry production.
This module is specifically crafted to focus on Process and Delivery. It is
enriched with different activities that will assess your level in terms of skills and of
knowledge that you are expected to demonstrate after going through this learning
materials. Learning procedures are divided into different sections - What to Know,
What to Process, What to Reflect and Understand, and What to Transfer. Go
over with the suggested tasks and accomplish them to practice developing a
sustainable program, prioritizing needs and building vision.
So, explore and experience the K to 12 TLE modules and be a step closer to
a successful producer of quality bread and pastry.

***
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this module, as a learner you are expected to:
1. Perform the task of a chef or a baker based on market needs and
demands.
2. Prepare and produce delicious quality, profitable and saleable baked
products.
3. Demonstrate understanding of concepts and principles of process and
delivery in the exploratory course in breads and pastry production.

***

At this point, you are heading into


meaningful
activities
and
learning
encounters. Complete the exercises and
answer the suggested worksheets to
experience lifelong, practical learning that
awaits at the end of this module.
ENJOY YOUR JOURNEY!

LEARNING GOALS/ TARGETS


K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

As you go through this module, you will be able to assess yourself with the
characteristics and competencies before getting into the world of baking industry.
You may now set your learning goals and targets so that you will be guided
accordingly as you go through this module.
Kindly provide honest answer on each item below.

MY
MYGOALS
GOALSARE
ARETHE
THEREFLECTIONS
REFLECTIONSOF
OFWHAT
WHATI IWANT
WANTTO
TOBE.
BE.
MY
MYGOALS
GOALSARE.
ARE.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
MY
MYTARGETS
TARGETSARE
ARETHE
THEMEANS
MEANSTOWARDS
TOWARDSTHE
THEACHIEVEMENT
ACHIEVEMENT
OF
MY
GOALS.
OF MY GOALS.
MY
MYTARGETS
TARGETSARE.
ARE.
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

PRE- ASSESSMENT
Direction: Read each statement below. Encircle the letter of the correct answer.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. Strong enough in dealing and solving the challenges you may undertake as you
go with running your business.
a. hard working
b. committed
c. risk taker
d. honest
2. A baker must build a good reputation; possesses the courage to do the right thing.
a. risk taker
b. reliable and has integrity
c. patient
d. committed
3. Successful business people base their work on strengths.
a. goal oriented b. hardworking
c. builds on strengths

d. patient

4. Know that in your business, personal needs, attachment to your friends, families
and relatives are set aside.
a. opportunity seeker b. hard working
c. committed
d. patient
5. Knows how to handle unusual events that may happen in the business which
include problems in managing the workers, problems on the delivery of goods and
services, and the problems on demand and production. You must be patient in
dealing with these uncertainties.
a. goal oriented b. hard working c. copes with uncertainty d. committed
6. Involves developing and using logical, step-by-step plans to reach the goals.
a. sets standards b. responsible
c. hard working
d. committed
7. Takes time to listen to the advice, suggestions, and recommendations of fellow
bakers.
a. responsible
b. willing to listen c. committed
d. hard working
8. A successful baker takes the initiative.
a. initiative
b. risk taker
c. opportunity seeker

d. committed

9. You must be concerned to know how well you are doing and keep track of your
performance.
a. future oriented b. hard working
c. open to feedback
d. committed
10. Learn from your mistakes.
a. copes with failure
b. honest

c. hard working

d. risk taker

11. It is an individual who differs in opinion and judgment.


a. goal oriented
b. committed c. takes initiative
d. persistence
12. A characteristic of a person who is forward looking.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

a. goal oriented

b. risk taker

c. persistence

d. committed

13. Looking for income because you know that this will be your bread and butter not
only for you but also for your family.
a. profit oriented
b. takes initiative
c. risk taker d. opportunity seeker
14. An individual who would like to engage in any business must possess a strong
faith in his / her ability and capabilities in dealing with the different problems that she
might encounter in running a business.
a. persistence
b. hardworking
c. self confidence
d. committed
15. Putting up your own business requires a lot patience integrity and dedication.
a. hard working b. committed
c. risk taker
d. persistence
16. Used for baking loaf bread.
a. loaf pan
b. muffin pan

c. tart molder

d. round pan

17. Pies that are large enough for individual serving.


a. tart
b. turnovers
c. pies

d. cakes

18. It enhances the flavors of the crust.


a. sugar
b. salt
c. egg

d. butter

19. Serves as toppings for pies and pastries.


a. meringue
b. creams
d. milk

d. eggs

20. Bread leavened by yeast.


a. quick bread
b. loaf bread

c. rich breads

d. dinner rolls

21. A type of shortening made from the side part of the hog.
a. butter
b. lard
c. oil
d. margarine
22. It is a soluble sweet crystalline organic compound that improves the taste of the
baked products?
a. salt
b. sugar
c. flour
d. shortening
23.It includes knife and chopping board used to cut glazed fruits, nuts, and other
baking ingredients.
a. spatula
b. rubber scraper
c. cutting tools
d. grater
24. These are used to slice rolls and delicate cakes.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

a. kitchen shears

b. knife

c. pastry wheel

d. grater

25. It comes in graduated sizes and has sloping sides.


a. flour sifter
b. mixing bowl
c. grater

d. spatula

26. Used in greasing pans or surface of pastries.


a. pastry tip
b. pastry wheel
c. pastry bag

d. pastry brush

27. It is used to flatten the dough.


a. rolling pin
b. spatula
c. wooden spoon

d. scraper

28. Caused by organisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites.


a. safety hazards b. chemical hazards c. physical hazards d. ergonomic hazards
29. Strips of dough placed on top of the pie.
a. lattice
b. butter
c. egg
30. It is used to strain or sift dry ingredients.
a. molder
b. strainer
c. wire whisk

d. tart

d. timer

***

LESSON 1. HISTORY OF BAKING AND ITS BASIC INGREDIENTS

Learning Goals and Targets

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

At the end of this lesson, the learner is expected to:


1. Recite the history of baking.
2. Discuss the major ingredients in baking according to their classification and
function.

Know
HISTORY OF BAKING
Baking is a cooking method using dry heat (Merriam-Webster, 2013). This
method could be applied to cooking different kinds of food products, such as fruits or
meat dishes. In this module, baking refers to the process of cooking breads, cakes
and pastries.
Baking evolved from mans innovation in the preparation and cooking of
grains. Grains are the seeds of cereal grasses, such as wheat and rice. When the
grains are pounded and ground, flour is produced. Flour is the basic ingredient of
baked products. Baking bread could have begun when man learned to pound or
mash grains and with the addition of water to make a paste. When this paste is
spread on a hot stone near a fire, flatbread is produced (Gisslen, 2001). Then came
the discovery of yeast, and other ingredients. New tools and equipment like ovens
and mixers were also invented. These discoveries and inventions resulted in the
variety of baked products we have today.
There is no clear record of when bread making actually began but it existed in
the ancient times. The earliest Biblical record of bread making is during the time of
Abraham (Genesis 14:8) more than 2000 years ago. Years later, the first reference to
baking as a profession occurred during the time of Joseph, when the Egyptian
Pharaoh jailed and later on, hanged his chief baker for offending him (Genesis 40:1
NIV). The chief baker was apparently regarded as a high official position in the
household of the Pharaoh. The production of large quantity of breads is said to have
started in ancient Rome where pastry cooking was a recognized occupation
(Gisslen, 2001) and the pastry cooks can become members of a formal organization
of professional bakers called a pastillarium.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

(Source: Wikipedia)

TRADITIONAL METHODS OF BAKING BREADS

BAKING INGREDIENTS
Baked products are made from essentially the same ingredients flour, fats,
sugar, eggs, water or milk, and leavening (Gisslen, 1995). Combinations of these
ingredients and preparation methods produce the various general classifications of
baked products we see today.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. Flour is the primary ingredient of most baked products because it provides the
structure of the product (Lauterbach and Albrecht, 1994). The kind of flour that is
commonly used in baking comes from the wheat grain. There are various kinds of
flour that comes from wheat but these can be generally classified as strong or
weak flour. This classification is based on the amount of protein present in the flour.
Flour is mostly starch but the protein content (7 to 14%) is important because it
determines the formation of gluten. Gluten determines the shape and texture of the
product. Strong flours come from hard wheat and have high protein content (whole
wheat and bread flours).These are best used for breads while weak flours from soft
wheat with lower protein content (all purpose flour and cake flour) are used in cakes,
quick breads, cookies and pies.

Kinds of
Flour
a. Whole
Wheat
Flour

Characteristics

Comes from wheat grains,


contains the whole part of the
grain including the bran
(outer part or cover of the
grain), the endosperm (the
fruit) and the germ or the
embryo (the inner part of the
whole grain).

Function and
Use
Best used in
preparing yeast
breads like
whole wheat
bread

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Proper Storage

Must be stored in
an air tight sealed
container in a cool
dry place or in the
refrigerator.

b. Bread

Has more gluten strength


and protein content than allpurpose flour. Bread flour
has 12 to 14% protein.

This is the best


choice for yeast
products like
pan de sal, pan/
sliced bread,
crusty breads
and rolls, and
buns.

Several months in
a cool, dry cabinet
when stored in a
sealed container
or if tightly
wrapped, and up
to one year in the
freezer.

c. All
Purpose
Flour

Is a combination of soft and


hard flours. It may be
bleached or unbleached. It is
one of the most commonly
used and readily accessible
flour. Protein varies from 8 to
11%.

Best for pie


crusts, cookies,
muffins,
cupcakes,
pancakes and
shortened cakes

Can be stored
inside the cabinet
using an airtight
container and be
kept for 6-8
months.

d. Cake

Is a fine-textured, soft-wheat
flour with high starch content.
It has the lowest protein
content of 7 to 9%. It is
chlorinated (a bleaching
process which leaves the
flour slightly acidic, sets a
cake faster and distributes fat
more evenly through the
batter to improve texture).

This flour is
excellent
for
baking
finetextured cakes
with
greater
volume and is
used in some
quick
breads
and cookies.

Store in an air tight


container not
exceeding for
more than 6
months.

Can be used as
substitute for
wheat flour but
the quality of the
product may
differ.

Can be stored in a
plastic container
and must not be
stored for a long
period of time.

Flour

Flour

Other kind of flour


e. Rice
Flour

Rice flour is made from finely


milled rice. It can be made
from either white or brown
rice. It has 6.5 to 7% protein
but it does not form gluten.

2. Liquids Liquid ingredients are


important for hydrating protein, starch
and leavening agents. Liquids
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

contribute to the moistness and texture of the products. Liquids also help in
leavening the product because it turns to steam and expands during baking.
Kinds of liquid
ingredients

Characteristics

Function and Use

Proper Storage

a. Water
b. Milk and
creams

Fresh whole milk is the Contributes


water,
form of milk most fats, nutrients and
commonly referred to in flavor.
recipes.
Evaporated
milk is milk with about
60% of water removed.
It can be diluted with
equal amount of water
when used in baking.

Fresh milk and


opened cans of
evaporated milk
has to be kept
refrigerated in an
airtight container.
Unopened evap
milk cans should
be stored in a
cool, dry place.
Adds
flavor
and Store in airtight
color. Best used in container in the
recipes with baking refrigerator.
soda as leavening.

c. Juice

Usually fresh fruit juices

3. Fat These may come from animal or vegetable fats. It can also be in liquid or
solid form. Fats generally help to tenderize the product and soften the structure, add
moistness and richness, increase keeping quality, add flavor, assist in leavening
when used as creaming agents (Gisslen, 2001).

Kinds of fat
a. Butter

Characteristics

Function and Use

Proper Storage

Made out of fatty milk


protein. It can be salted
or unsalted.

Good source of flavor


and melting quality
so these are good for
pastries and cakes

Butter must be
kept well
wrapped inside
the refrigerator
because it melts
at room

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

temperature and
to maintain its
good quality.
b. Margarine

Made from various


hydrogenated
vegetable or animal
fats, with flavorings
emulsifiers, coloring
agents and other
ingredients.

Bakers margarine
(bar margarine) are
very similar in
characteristic and
function to butter

Keep well
wrapped in
refrigerator.

Pastry margarine (in


containers) are
tougher and more
elastic and are used
for dough or pastries

Keep in tightly
closed container
in a cool, dry,
dark place.

c. Oil

Comes from vegetable,


nut or seed sources. It
is liquid fat.

Spreads to the
mixture too
thoroughly and can
shorten too much so
it is not commonly
used in cakes but in
pie dough and some
yeast breads.

Keep in tightly
closed container
in a cool, dry,
dark place.

f. Lard

Comes from the side


part of the hog.

Are commonly used


in making flaky crust
for pies.

Keep in tightly
closed container
in a cool, dry,
dark place.

g. Shortening

Group of solid fats,


usually white and
tasteless, and
especially formulated
for baking.

Used for flaky


products such as pie
crusts and biscuits

Keep in tightly
closed container
in a cool, dry,
dark place.

4. Sugar - or sweeteners have differing degrees of


sweetness and come in various forms from powder to
crystals to syrups. They generally add sweetness and
flavor, create tenderness and fineness of texture (partly
by weakening the gluten structure), give color to the
crust, increase keeping quality (by retaining moisture),
act as creaming agent with fats, and provide food for
yeast (Gisslen, 2001).
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Kinds of sweetener
a. granulated
or refined cane
sugar

b. confectioner or
powdered
sugar

Characteristics

Function and Use

Proper
Storage

Regular white sugar


also called table
sugar.
Caster sugar has finer
granules while
sanding sugar has
coarser granules than
regular white sugar.

Finer granulations
are better for mixing
dough and batters
because they
dissolve relatively
quicker.
Sanding sugar is
good for sprinkles
on top of cakes and
cookies and for
syrups.

Must be
kept in a
plastic
sealed
container
and stored
in a dry
place.

Sugar ground to a
fine powder mixed
with a small amount
of starch, also called
icing sugar.
c. brown sugar
the darker color has
(raw brown,
more impurities, it
light brown,
contains small
medium brown) amount of glucose
and fructose.
Contains a little
amount of molasses
and the natural fibers
of the sugar cane.

Used in icings,
toppings, cream
fillings, dusting.
Used in place of
white sugar when
its flavor and color
is desired. It also
contains a small
amount of acid so it
can be used with
baking soda to
provide leavening.

5. Leavening agents are responsible for


the production and
incorporation of gases during the baking
process. This is what makes baked products
rise. There are different kinds of leavening
agents. Yeast is a biological leavening agent
because it is a microscopic plant that
produces carbon dioxide gas and alcohol in
the process called fermentation. The
released gas during fermentation produces
the leavening action. Baking soda and baking powder are chemical leavening
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

agents. These produce gas from the chemical reactions that occur when there is
moisture and an acidic ingredient.
Kinds of
Leavening
Agents

Characteristics

Function and Use

Proper
Storage

Available as active dry yeast


or instant yeast. Active dry
yeast consists of coarse
oblong granules. Instant
yeast or rapid-rise yeast has
smaller granules and
dissolve faster.

Fermentation of yeast
is important in the
formation and
stabilization of gluten
thus it is best used for
breads and other yeast
products.

Yeast must
be kept in
an airtight
container
away from
heat and
light.

b. Baking
soda

Sodium bicarbonate, a fine


white powder that has a
slightly salty and alkaline
taste (mapakla)

c. Baking
powder

Mixture of baking soda plus


an acid to react with it and
starch to prevent lumping. It
is available as single-acting
or double-acting baking
powder. Single-acting
baking powder requires only
moisture to release gas.
Double-acting baking
powder release gas in two
stages. First, during mixing
then completes the reaction
with the addition of heat
during baking.

The fast action of


chemical leaveners
makes them very good
to use in muffins,
cakes, cookies,
pastries.

Must be
stored in
air tight
container
to maintain
freshness.

a. Yeast

6. Eggs eggs perform many functions in the


production of baked products. They come in
various sizes (small, medium, large, extra large)
and kinds (chicken egg, duck egg, native egg).
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Kinds of eggs

Fresh white
chicken eggs

Characteristics
Large and fresh
white eggs are the
standards for
baking. They
should be clean,
fresh-tasting, free
of bad odors, and
tastes.

Function and Use


Protein in eggs contributes
to structure.
Emulsifier (blending or
combining of substances
that are difficult to blend like
fats and liquid). This
contributes to volume and
texture.
Leavening when egg whites
are beaten, air is trapped in
the foam bubbles and
expand during baking.
Shortening due to the fat
content of the egg yolk.
Moisture due to the quantity
of water in eggs.
Flavor, color, nutritional
value.

7. Salt and other flavorings Salt enhances the


flavors and sweetness of other ingredients. Salt slows
down yeast fermentation and strengthens gluten
structure making it more stretchable (Lauterbach and
Albrecht, 1994). Other flavorings include vanilla, spices
(cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, etc.) and flavor extracts
(banana essence, pandan flavoring, lemon extract).

Process
Activity. Categorizing the baking materials
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Proper
Storage
Keep shell
intact and store
in the
refrigerator.

Direction: Categorize the following baking ingredients if they are liquid or solid.
Make two columns on your answer sheet and write on your first column the solid
ingredients and on the other side, your liquid ingredients.
Margarine

Lard

Fruit juices

Cake flour

Sugar

Coconut oil

Baking powder

Milk

Vanilla

Panutsa

Almond flavor

Butter

Salt

Chocolate bar

Brown sugar

Confectioner sugar

All purpose flour

Water

Baking soda

Condensed milk

Reflect and Understand


Activity. Collect and analyze
Direction:

Collect at least two wrappers of baked products that you can buy in a
grocery store. Locate the list of ingredients in the wrapper or food label.
Write on the space below the ingredients listed in the food label in
consecutive order.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Name of product _________________

Name of Product ___________________

List of ingredients

List of ingredients

The ingredients listed in food labels (wrappers) are arranged from the greatest
to the least amount present in the product. Analyze the list of ingredients above.
Based on the list, baked products are largely composed of (list the top three
ingredients that are commonly found in the two lists).
1.
2.
3.

Transfer

Activity. Lets bake


Direction: Suppose you want to make some cupcakes, what do you think are the
ingredients you will need to make the cupcakes? Make a list of
ingredients (in order from the biggest quantity to the least quantity) you
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

would need. Then write the use of the ingredient for the cupcake you
will bake.
Example: Salt gives flavor to the cupcake
MY CUPCAKE
Ingredients of my cupcake

Function of the ingredient

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

***

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

LESSON 2: BAKING PROCESS AND ITS BASIC PRINCIPLES

Learning Goals and Targets


At the end of this lesson, the learner is expected to:
1. Discuss each stage of the baking process.
2. Explain the importance of the basic principles of baking.

Know
THE BAKING PROCESS
Successful production of baked products requires an understanding of the
baking process. The baking process describes the changes happening to the
ingredients at each stage of the process and is basically the same in all baked
products. It is important to understand and learn how to control them.
1. Creation of dough or batter.
Dough or batter is the mixture that is created when flour and other dry ingredients
are mixed with liquid ingredients for the purpose of baking. When this mixture is
thick and firm enough to be kneaded or rolled, it is called dough. Batters are
mixtures that are thin enough to be poured or dropped from a spoon.
2. Formation and expansion of gases.
Gas (carbon dioxide) is released by the action of yeast, baking soda, and baking
powder (Gisslen, 2001). Gas (air) is incorporated into dough and batter during
mixing, and gas (steam) is formed during baking when water is vaporized into
steam. Carbon dioxide and air are already in the dough or batter during mixing.
They expand when heated and make the product rise. Yeast and baking powder
continue to form gases rapidly when first placed in the oven. Steam is formed
when the moisture in the dough is heated (Gisslen, 2001).
3. Trapping of the gases in air cells.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

As the gases are formed and expand, they are trapped in a stretchable network
formed by the proteins in the dough (Gisslen, 2001). These proteins are the
gluten and egg protein and without this network of protein structure, the gases
would escape making the product poorly leavened, heavy and hard.
4. Gelatinization of starches.
In this stage, the starches absorb moisture, expand and become firmer. This
process generally starts at about 60C (140F) (Gisslen, 2001).
5. Coagulation of proteins.
The gluten and egg proteins coagulate and solidify when they reach high
temperatures and this process begins at 74C (165F) (Gisslen, 2001).
6. Evaporation of some of the water.
This change happens throughout the baking process. Controlling the amount of
weight loss due to the evaporation of water may be crucial if a specific weight of
baked product is required (Gisslen, 2001), like in the case of Pinoy Pan de sal
which should not weigh less than 25 grams per piece (Aning, 2003).
7. Melting of fats.
When the fats or shortening melt, they release trapped gas. Different shortenings
melt at different temperatures (Gisslen, 2001).
8. Crust formation and browning.
Crust is formed as water evaporates from the surface and leaves it dry. Browning
occurs when sugars caramelize and starches and sugars undergo certain
changes caused by heat. This process also contributes to flavor. Milk, sugar, and
egg increase browning (Gisslen, 2001).
Staling
Baked goods lose its freshness over time resulting in stale products. Staling is the
process when changes in structure of the bread and loss of moisture cause the
texture and aroma to deteriorate (Gisslen, 2001). Stale baked goods have lost their
fresh-baked aroma and are firmer, drier, and more crumbly than fresh products.

Process
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Activity. Observe and describe


Direction: This activity investigates the crumb structure of bread so that you will know
the characteristics of quality bread. Get a piece of freshly baked pan de sal,
hamburger bun or pan de lemon from a nearby bakery.
Observe and describe the following characteristics of the bread:

How does the bread smell? ____________________________________

What is its shape? Does it hold its shape or is it deformed?


___________________________________________________________

If the bread is still hot, allow it to cool first before proceeding to the next steps.
Choose the piece of bread or part of the bread that that is not deformed. Slice the
bread across to reveal a cross section of the bread. It is important that the bread
retains its shape and does not get flattened so use sharp bread knife making sure
that the bread has cooled before slicing, and slice gently.
Observe the cross section of the bread. This is the crumb structure you can see the
formation of holes (cells) and the cell walls or grain.

Are there small or big holes? Are the holes spread across evenly or concentrated
in one area? _______________________________________________

Is the dough between the holes firm or too soft? Does it hold its shape or fall
apart easily? _______________________________________________

When it cools down, does it retain its softness or does it become hard? ______

TIP: Good quality yeast bread should have good volume (from leavening action). It
should have good structure and texture with evenly spaced cells surrounded by thin cell
walls that holds its shape and does not crumble on its own.

Reflect and Understand


Activity. Reading time!

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Direction: Go through the succeeding information about Basic Principles of


Baking.Then, write a five-sentence reflection/reaction of how the
narrated principles affect the quality of baking.

BASIC PRINCIPLES IN BAKING


In addition to understanding the baking process, producing quality baked products
also involves following several basic principles. Baking is one food preparation
method that requires a recipe. A recipe lists the ingredients with exact quantities and
the procedures for preparation and the temperature and time for baking.

1. Measure accurately.
The previous lesson showed that all the ingredients in baking has specific
functions or uses for the production of quality baked product. These ingredients
work together for the best results. These ingredients work perfectly together
when they are in correct proportion (amount of one ingredient in relation to
another). Exact quantity of ingredients is also necessary to bring about the
desired reactions and changes in the baking process. For example, Salt slows
down yeast fermentation (Lesson 1) and when the amount of salt is less than
what is required in the recipe, the dough would rise too quickly affecting the
shape and flavor of the bread (Lauterbach and Albrecht, 1994).
2. Use the exact ingredients as specified.
Aside from the proportion of ingredients, the kind of ingredient itself has specific
characteristics which work best with the other ingredients in the recipe. When an
ingredient in a recipe is changed, the resulting product may not be of the same
quality. For example, bread flour and all purpose flour have different
characteristics (see Lesson 1). When the all purpose flour in the recipe for muffin
is replaced with bread flour, the muffin would be as soft and light as expected.
3. Follow correct mixing methods and baking procedures.
There are appropriate mixing methods different types of bread products which will
be discussed in Lesson 6. When a different mixing method is used or when the
proper procedure for the method is not followed, poor quality product will be
obtained. Baking procedures are also specified in the recipe. The appropriate pan
for baking, the baking temperature and the time for baking must be correctly
followed. Varying the temperature would change the quality of the product.

Transfer
Activity. Setting a commitment
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Directio
n

The basic principles of baking are not suggestions only but a set
of rules that should always be followed. Write a statement
showing your commitment to a set of rules that you will follow in
the laboratory (actual preparation) part of the module.
Sample:
I, (write your name), promise to follow the following rules in order
to get the best results in the production of baked goods.

(write the rules here)

Signature
MY COMMITMENT

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

LESSON 3: BAKING TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

Learning Goals and Targets


At the end of the lesson the learner is expected to:
1. identify different baking tools and equipment.
2. explain the uses of the baking tools and equipment.

Know -

Baking tools and equipment

Baking tools and equipment make the preparation and cooking of each recipe
easier. It helps an individual in the kitchen to operate and prepare food more
efficiently. There are many kinds of kitchen tools and equipment at home, in the
market and at the mall. Being fully equipped with the right tools in the kitchen are the
basic steps to successful cooking and baking, whether you are a seasoned chef or
just new in the kitchen. Thus, the culture of maintenance or what to do with each tool
and equipment after use must be learned. Using the appropriate tools and
equipment will result to the accuracy of the output or finished product. Each tool and
kitchen utensil plays an important role in the baking process.

BAKING TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT AND THEIR USES


1. Baking wares made of glass or metals, they serve as containers for batter and
dough and is available in various sizes and shapes.
a. Tube center pan deeper than a round pan and it has a hollow
center which is removable. It is used to bake chiffon type cakes.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

b. Muffin pan - has formed cups for baking muffins and cup
cakes.

c. Pop over pan is used for cooking pop over.

d. Jelly roll pan is a shallow rectangular pan used for baking rolls.

e. Bundt pan is a round pan with scalloped sides used for baking
elegant and special cakes.
f. Custard cup is made of porcelain or glass used for baking.

g. Griddle pans are used to bake griddles.

h. Loaf Pan is used to bake loaf bread.

2. Biscuit and doughnut cutter is used to cut and shape biscuit


or doughnut.

3. Cutting tools include a knife and chopping board that are used
to cut glazed fruit, nuts, or other ingredients in baking.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

4. Electric mixer is used for beating, mixing and blending.

5. Flour sifter is used for sifting flour.

6. Grater is used to grate cheese, chocolate, and other fresh fruits.

7. Kitchen shears - are used for various cutting procedures.

8. Measuring cups they are used to measure dry and liquid ingredients. It consist
of two types namely:

a. A graduated cup- with measurements (1, 3/4, 2/3, , 1/3, , 1/8)


marked on each side.
b. A measuring glass - is made of transparent glass or plastic is used
for measuring liquid ingredients.
9. Measuring spoons consist of a set of spoons with different sizes
for measuring small quantities of ingredients.

10. Mixing bowl comes in graduated sizes and has sloping sides;
used for mixing ingredients.

11. Mortar and Pestle is used to pound or ground ingredients.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

12. Paring knife is used to pare or cut fruits and vegetables into
different sizes.

13. Pastry bag a funnel shaped container for icing or whipped cream.

14. Pastry tip- is a pointed metal or plastic tube connected to the


opening of the pastry bag and is used to form desired designs.

15. Pastry brush is used for greasing pans or surface of pastries


and pastries.
16. Pastry blender made of wires held together by a handle;
used for cutting in solid fat or shortening in the preparation
of pies, biscuits or doughnuts.

17. Pastry wheel round blade knife used to cut dough when
making pastries.

18. Rotary egg beater is used in beating eggs or whipping cream.

19. Rolling pin is used to flatten or roll the dough.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

20. Rubber scrapper is used to remove bits of food on sides


of the bowl.
21. Spatula comes in different sizes; Small spatula are used to
remove muffins and molded cookies from pans which is 5 to 6
inches; Large spatula for icing or frosting cakes; flexible blade
is used for various purposes.
22. Strainer is used to strain or sift dry ingredients.

23. Timer is used to in timing baked products, the rising of yeast


and to check the doneness of cakes.

24. Weighing scale is used to measure ingredients for accurate


measurements.
25. Utility tray is used to hold ingredients or utensils.

26. Wire whisk is used to beat or whip egg whites or cream.

27. Wooden spoon is also called mixing spoon which comes


in various sizes suitable for different types of mixing.
OTHER BAKING TOOLS
1. Cake decorator (Cylindrical) is used in decorating or designing
cake and other pastry products.

2. Cookie press is used to mold and shape cookies.


K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

OVENS
Ovens - are the workhorses of the bakeshop and are essential for producing the
bakery products. Ovens are enclosed spaces in which food is heated, usually by hot
air.
Several kinds of ovens are used in baking.
1. Deck Ovens - are so called because the items to be
baked either on sheet pans or in the case of some
bread freestanding are placed directly on the bottom,
or deck of oven. This is also called STACK OVEN
because several may be stacked on top of one
another. Breads are baked directly on the floor of the
oven and not in pans. Deck oven for baking bread are equipped with steam ejector.

2. Rack oven - is a large oven into which entire racks


full of sheet pans can be wheeled for baking.

3. Mechanical oven - The food is in motion while it bakes in this type of oven. The
most common types are a revolving oven, in
which his mechanism is like that of a Ferris
wheel. The mechanical action eliminates
the problem of hot spots or uneven baking
because the mechanism rotates throughout
the oven. Because of its size it is especially
used in high
volume operations. It can also be equipped with steam ejector.

4. Convection oven - contains fans


that circulate the air and distribute the
heat rapidly throughout
(Source: K12 LM TESDA)

Process
ACTIVITY. Identifying what is and what is it for
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Direction: Identify the different baking tools and equipments in the


laboratory areas and explain their uses in front of the class.

TOOLS/EQUIPMENT

Name of Tools/Equipment

Uses of Tools/Equipment

Reflect and Understand


Activity. Classification
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Direction
s:
Measuring Tools

Classify the baking tools and equipment into the following


categories. Classifying the tools will help you to gather and
organize the materials during the actual preparation.
Mixing tools

Baking tools

Transfer
Activity 3.

Role

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Playing
Directions: The class willl be divided into 5 groups. Each group will prepare a skit
demonstrating the proper use baking tools and equipments.

Scoring Guide
Description

Score

The group has demonstrated and


identified 15 baking tools and
equipment.
The group has demonstrated and
identified 14 baking tools and
equipment.
The group has demonstrated and
identified 13 baking tools and
equipment.
The group has demonstrated and
identified 12 baking tools and
equipment.
The group has demonstrated and
identified 11 and below baking tools
and equipment.

100

95

90

85

80

LESSON 4. MENSURATION

Learning Task
At the end of the lesson the learner is expected to:
1. Familiarize oneself with the table of weights and measures in baking.
2. Apply basic mathematical operations in calculating weights and measures.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

3. Demonstrate proper way of measuring ingredients.

Know
Different people may use the identical recipe for any baked products but they
could turn out differently because of measuring and mixing techniques. The following
section presents some important measuring equivalents, tables and conversions
which are an essential part of baking in order to achieve the accuracy of measuring
the needed ingredients for each recipe.

MEASURING INGREDIENTS CORRECTLY


Accurate techniques in measuring are as important as the tools for measuring.
Therefore, always observe the following procedures:

Rice and flour. Fill the cup to overflowing, level-off with a spatula or with a
straight edge of a knife
Sifted flour. Most cake recipes call for sifted flour. In this case, sift flour 2 or
3 times. Spoon into the cup overflowing, level off with a spatula.
Refined sugar. Sift sugar once to take out lumps, if any. Spoon into cup and
level off with a spatula. Do not pack or tap the sugar down.
Brown sugar. Pack into cup just enough to hold its shape when turned out
off cup. Level off with a spatula before emptying.
Level a measuring spoon with straight edge of a knife to measure small
amounts of salt, pepper, leavening agents or solid fats.
Liquid ingredients. liquid measuring cup -- a glass or plastic cup with
graduated markings on the side. Place the cup on a flat, level surface. Hold
the cup firmly and pour the desired amount or liquid into the cup. Lean over
and view the liquid at eye level to make sure it is the proper amount.
Check and calibrate timers/thermometers, scales and other measuring devices
according to manufacturers manual before using.
Ingredients which measure by volume and by weight demand standardized
measuring tools and equipment.
Do not shake the dry measuring cup to level off dry ingredients.
It is easier to weigh fat, butter, margarine if bought in pre-measured sticks. If fat
does not come in pre-measured sticks, use a scale to weigh the needed amount.
Liquids should be poured into cup in desired level. Cup should stand on a flat
surface.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Spring scales should be adjusted so that pointer is at zero (0). Place pan, bowl,
or piece of waxed paper on scale to hold ingredient to be measured.
When using balance scales, place the pan on the left-hand side of the balance
and the pan weight on the right-hand side. Add the required weights to the righthand side and adjust the beam on the bar so that the total is the weight needed.
Learn to match the size of pan to the size of the unit and to select the right
amount of heat for the cooking job to be done.
In microwave cooking, time schedules must be followed exactly because every
second is important. The microwaves shut off automatically when the door is
opened.

These easy-to-use conversion charts can help you convert your recipes to the
measuring system you're most familiar with.
TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Kitchen Term Abbreviatio
n
Table spoon
Tbsp. or T
Grams
g or gr.
Pounds
lb
Pint
pt.
Teaspoon
tsp. or t.
Cups
c
Ounces
oz.
Kilo/kilogram
k of kg
Quart
qt.

Kitchen Term

Abbreviation

medium
second
minute
hour or hours
square
gallon
degrees Fahrenheit
degrees Celsius
piece or pieces

med.
sec.
min
hr.
sq.
gal.
F
C
pc.

METRIC CUP AND SPOON SIZES*


Cup
cup
1/3 cup
cup
1 cup

Metric
60 ml
80 ml
125 ml
250 ml

Spoon
teaspoon
teaspoon
1 teaspoon
2 teaspoons
1 tablespoon (equal to 3

Metric
1.25 ml
2.5 ml
5 ml
10 ml
15 ml

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

teaspoons)
VOLUME: Metric, cup and US measurement conversion*
Metric
30 ml
60 ml
80 ml
100 ml
125 ml
150 ml
180 ml
200 ml
250 ml
310 ml
375 ml
430 ml
500 ml
625 ml
750 ml
1L
1.25 L
1.5 L
2L
2.5 L
4L

Cup
1/8 cup
cup
1/3 cup
cup
cup
1 cup
1 cups
1 cups
1 cups
2 cups
2 cups
3 cups
4 cups
5 cups
6 cups
8 cups
10 cups
16 cups

US
1 fl oz
2 fl oz
2 fl oz
3 fl oz
4 fl oz
5 fl oz
6 fl oz
7 fl oz
8 fl oz
10 fl oz
13 fl oz
15 fl oz
16 fl oz (1 pint)
20 fl oz
24 fl oz
32 fl oz (1 quart)
40 fl oz
48 fl oz
64 fl oz
80 fl oz
128 fl oz (1 gallon)

(Source: www.taste.com.au)

WEIGHT: Metric, pound and ounce conversion*


Metric
15 g
28 g
100 g
113 g
227 g
250 g (1/4 kilo or kg)
454 g
500 g (1/2 kilo or kg)
1000 g or 1 kilogram or kilo

Pound

pound
pound

Ounces
oz
1 oz
3 oz
4 oz
8 oz

1 pound

16 oz

2.2 pounds

*figures are rounded off for cooking purposes


K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

By weight, cup measurements are not the same for all ingredients. See the
table below for examples.
WEIGHT: Cup, metric, and ounce conversion*
Ingredients
1 cup plain flour
1 cup rice flour
1 cup brown sugar
1 cup white sugar
1 cup cocoa powder
1 cup sour cream

Metric
125 g
185 g
200 g
225 g
110 g
250 g

Ounce
4 oz
6 0z
6 oz
7 oz
3 oz
8 oz

(Source: www.chelsea.co.nz)

OVEN TEMPERATURES
FAHRENHEIT (OF)

CELCIUS (OC)

DESCRIPTIVE
TEMPERATURE

120

Very Slow

150

Slow

160-180

Moderately Slow

190-200

Moderate

220- 230

Moderately high

250
300
325-350
375-400
425- 450
CONVERSION TABLE

90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190

Degree Celsius C to Degree


Fahrenheit F
C to F
C to F
194
200
392
212
210
410
230
220
428
248
230
446
266
240
464
284
250
482
302
260
500
320
270
518
338
280
536
356
290
554
374
300
572

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Process
Activity 1. Conversion
Direction:

Convert the following ingredients as stated in each


number.
1)_______ quart = 4 gallons
2)______ grams = 3.5 Kilos
3) 64 tablespoon = _______ cups
4)______ teaspoon = 15 tablespoon
5)_____ tablespoon = 72 ounces
6)16 pounds =_________ ounces
7)___________ tablespoon = 7 cups
8) 8 quart = _______________ gallons
9)_________cups = 10.5 pint
10) 5 kilos = ___________ pounds

Reflect and Understand


Activity: INVESTIGATE
Direction: The cup and spoons we use at home are not standards measuring devices.
Lets test how much these ordinary household wares actually contain compared to
standard measuring devises. Materials needed: -ordinary cup (one that you use in your
home.
-Measuring cups (for liquid and dry)
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

-Weighing scale
-Water and flour
Procedure:
1.
Measure flour in the ordinary cup. Use proper procedure in measuring.
2.
Transfer the flour you measured from the ordinary cup to the measuring cup.
Does your cup contain more or less than the measuring cup?
____________________
3.
Weigh the flour that you measured in ordinary cup? How much does it weigh?
__________________
Is this more or less than the standard weight of 1
cup flour which is _____g?
4.
5.
6.

Measure water in the ordinary cup.


Transfer the water in the liquid measuring cup. What is the volume of the
water? _______________
Is this more or less than the standard volume of 1 cup of water which is
_______________________)?
Conclusion: The ordinary cup contains ____ g (more or
less) than the dry measuring cup.
The ordinary cup contains ____ ml (more or
less) than the liquid measuring cup.

Transfer
Activity 3. Building together
Direction: Assemble the measuring tools available in the
laboratory. Demonstrate the proper way of measuring
dry and liquid ingredients.

SCORING GUIDE
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Observe the proper way of measuring ingredients with no


mistake

100

Observe the proper way of measuring ingredients with 1


mistake

95

Observe the proper way of measuring ingredients with 2


mistake

90

Observe the proper way of measuring ingredients with 3


mistake

85

Observe the proper way of measuring ingredients with 4


mistake

80

LESSON 5: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY


Working inside the laboratory is necessary in any area of technology and
livelihood education. In every laboratory it is a must to impose and apply the basic
safety precautions and guidelines to be followed. Any individual is prone to
accidents, if he/she fails to observe the guidelines inside the laboratory. People
working in the laboratory area must observe not only their personal hygiene, the
facilities, the appropriate cooking outfit, but also the proper way of handling the
foods.

Learning Goals and Targets


At the end of the lesson the learner is expected to:
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. List good kitchen/laboratory and food safety and sanitation practices.


2. Demonstrate the proper way of handling the ingredients.

Know
Good kitchen and laboratory practices is essential before allowing the
learners to use it as their training ground during the application of the activities.
These includes the good kitchen and laboratory practices, keeping the sanitation
high in the laboratory,ang the proper way of keeping and handling the food.

GOOD KITCHEN AND LABORATORY PRACTICES


This means keeping things clean: and includes the following:
1. Maintain personal hygiene.
2. Keep and maintain the cleanliness in handling the food.
3.Keep and maintain the cleanliness of the laboratory equipment.
4. Keep and maintain the cleanliness of the working area and the laboratory.
Good kitchen and laboratory practices start with you. Personal hygiene is
health practices and habits which enable one to stay physically healthy. This means
keeping oneself clean to avoid transfer of harmful bacteria especially in food
preparation.

Ways to achieve personal hygiene.


1. Regularly wash and cut your hair to keep a neat appearance. If you have facial
hair, you can save money by maintaining it yourself with a set of quality clippers.

2. Visit the dentist at least once a year (twice a year is optimal). Though you are
brushing every day, your dentist will correct any dental problems you have.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

3. Bathe every day before school, or every night before you go to sleep.

4. Wear deodorant or antiperspirant daily if you tend to sweat heavily. Some people
can actually get away with wearing no deodorant, but most people, especially those
who have heavy duty jobs or work in warm climates, benefit greatly from it.
5. Scrub your hands with soap and water before you handle any food especially

when you have just come from the toilet, after touching your hair or other parts of
your body and after your hands cover your mouth or nose when you cough or
sneeze. Be sure to clean under fingernails where dirt and bacteria tend to
accumulate.

6. Trim your nails; especially if you work in the food service .This will help keep your

hands much cleaner and prevent the spread of the germs to the food.

7. Keep hand sanitizer and facial tissues near your work desk. If you do not work on
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

your desk, put travel sizes of these items in your pocket. Sanitizer and tissues will
come in handy when you're ill and can also prevent the spread of germs resulting
from touching items such as money and computer keyboards.

8. Use a separate towel or cloth wiping hands. Do not use cloth the same towel for

drying dishes and wiping countertops.

9. Avoid working with food when you have an open cut, sore, boil, or infected wound
in your hands. Pus and other liquids secreted by the wound contain millions of
harmful bacteria that can cause food poisoning.

10. Keep hands out of food as much as possible. Otherwise, wear disposable
gloves.

11. Avoid smoking while preparing or handling food as ashes may drop into the food .

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

12. Wear suitable clothes at work. Do not wear clothes with long sleeves when

working with food. Wear comfortable and clean shoes. Be sure aprons are always
clean.

Proper Hand washing


Washing is the single most effective way to prevent the spread of infections.
"Germs" (a general term for microbes like viruses and bacteria) can be spread
casually by touching another person. You can also catch germs when you touch
contaminated objects or surfaces and then you touch your face (mouth, eyes, and
nose). "Good" hand washing techniques include using an adequate amount of soap,
rubbing the hands together to create friction, and rinsing under running water.
The following are different situations where people can pick up "germs".
Hands are visibly soiled.
After using the washroom (includes changing diapers).
After blowing your nose or after sneezing in your hands.
Before and after eating, handling food, drinking or smoking.
After touching raw meat, poultry, or fish.
After handling garbage.
Visiting or caring for sick people.
Handling pets, animals or animal waste.
Ensuring that employees wash their hands properly after using the washroom is very
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

important in reducing disease transmission of stomach "flu" and other


gastrointestinal infections. Using soap and lathering up is very important (rinsing
hands in water only is not as effective). Use comfortably warm, running water. Hands
should be washed for a minimum of 15 -20 seconds, longer if the hands are visibly
oiled.
What is the right way to wash your hands?
Wet your hands with clean running water (warm or cold) and apply soap.
Rub your hands together to make lather and scrub them well; be sure to scrub the
backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails.
Continue rubbing your hands for at least 20 seconds.
Rinse your hands well under running water.
Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry.

KEEP SANITATION HIGH IN THE LABORATORY


A. Keeping Oneself Clean
1. Always wash your hand with soap and water before starting to work, after
wiping spilled foods or sweeping up or after sneezing.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

2. Always wear fresh, clean aprons and change or wash them whenever they
get dirty.
3. Keep fingernails short and clean.
4. Make it a habit to start the day with bath or shower and change into fresh
clothes everyday.
5. Comb or brush your hair neatly in place.
6. Do not wear jewelries, spangled hairnet or wristwatch in the laboratory.
7. Wear hairnet, cap or hat which covers the hair and prevents it from falling.
B. Keeping the range clean
1. Wait until the range is cool before starting to clean.
2. Remove burned food particles by scraping with the blunt scraper.
3. Wash range daily. Do not allow grease to collect on range.
4. Soak top grids in water to which a detergent has been added.
5. Use a stiff bristle brush or blunt scraper to remove cake- on materials.
6. Grates and burners from gas range by scouring in pot sink with an alkaline
type of detergent.
7. For electric ranges, remove grease films with the use of alkaline detergent
and warm water. Be sure water does not get into the electrical elements.
8. Rinse with clean water and dry with dry cloth.
9. Wipe surface made of iron with clothes treated with cooking oil to prevent
rusting.
C. Keeping the refrigerator clean
1.Defrost the refrigerator once a week. Remove from the electrical
connections and take out all foods in the shelves.
2. Throw away foods that are unusable. Most leftover foods should be used
up within 2 days unless the food has been quick frozen.
3. Thoroughly wash outside and inside walls and shelves with detergent and
warm water solution.
4. Rinse with clean water then wipe with a clean cloth to dry. Do not use
cleaning powders that will scratch the finish of the refrigerator. Neither should
ammonia and scouring pads be used.
D. Keeping the mixing machines clean
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. Wash bowl and beater after each use.


2. Dry beater and bowl with clean cloth before storage.
3. Clean beater shaft and body with warm water. Dry thoroughly and store.
E. Keeping the food clean
1. Do not handle foods and ingredients when hands are cut or infected.
2. Do not work around the products or ingredients when sick.
3. Keep perishable foods and food supplies either cold or hot.
4. Refrigerate foods properly.
5. Do not return materials that have dropped to the floor or which touch dirty
surface.
6. Do not store food supplies and equipment under possible points of
contamination.
7. Check pans and ingredients for any foreign materials during processing.
8. Fresh food should always be washed before use.
9. Keep all ingredients bin covered except when transfering the ingredients.
10. Kep partially used bags of ingrredients folded about.
11. Brush bags and wipe off dust from cans before opening.
12. Do not dump fresh vegetables on top of old ones. Use ingredients in
proper rotation.
13. Keep off all ingredient container off the floor, covered and upside down.
F. Keeping the laboratory clean
1. Do not chew, eat, smoke or play inside the laboratory.
2. Do not comb hair or make yourself up in the laboratory.
3. Always return tools and implements to their proper places.
4. Keep the cabinet doors closed to prevent accidents and rodents from
entering the cabinet.
5. Keep on hand a regular size notebook for notes and diagrams.
6. Keep personal belongings out of the working area.
7. Do not lean or sit on the equipments and work tables.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

8. Wipe off immediate any spilled water or oil on the floor, it might cause an
accident.
9. Floors should be swept after each laboratory session.
10. Provide waste container in convenient place.
( Source: Experience Baking, Carino C.,Lazaro, A. pp.21-22 )

WASTE MANAGEMENT
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing
and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by
human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on
health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from
resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural
resources. The management of wastes treats all materials as a single class, whether
solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, and tried to reduce the harmful
environmental impacts of each through different method.
Proper waste management plays a very important role especially in the kitchen
where foods are being prepared and cooked .

WASTE MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES AND TECHNIQUES


1. Waste avoidance is engaging in activity that prevents generation of waste. Waste
segregation is the process of dividing garbage and waste products in an effort to
reduce, reuse and recycle materials.

2. Waste reduction is the minimization of wasteful consumption of goods.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

3. Re-use is the process of recovering materials intended for some purpose without
changing their physical and chemical appearance.

4. Recycling is the treatment of waste materials through a process of making them


suitable for beneficial use and for other purposes.
5. Composting is the controlled decomposition of organic matter by microorganism
mainly bacteria and fungi into a humus like product.
6. Waste disposal refers to the proper discharge of any solid waste.

Transfer
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Activity 1. Poster M
Make a poster of good laboratory and food safety practices that you will actually
apply in the actual baking activity. You should put this poster in the laboratory room
or in your work space so that you are always reminded of these practices. Do not
simply copy the guidelines listed above but choose the ones most relevant to your
actual baking laboratory activity.

LESSON 6. TYPES OF BAKED PRODUCTS

Learning Goals and Targets


At the end of this lesson, the learner is expected to:
1. Identify the characteristics of pies and pastries, quick breads, cakes, cookies and
breads.
2. Differentiate the mixing methods for the different types of baked products.

Know
There are five general types or categories of baked products. These products
are classified based on the kind of finished product, the peculiar combination of
ingredients and the mixing methods employed in producing the baked goods.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Pies and pastries


Quick breads
Cakes
Cookies
Yeast breads

1. PIES AND PASTRIES


K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Pies are baked goods that have a crust and filling. The term pastry comes
from the word paste which refers to a mixture of flour, liquid and high amount of fat
than regular pie dough. The various kinds of sweet products made from these dough
and paste are commonly referred to as pastries.
TYPES OF PIES
1. One crust pie- is a type of pie that does not have a top crust. It only has the
bottom crust that lines the pie plate and holds the filling with a thin layer of dough.
The bottom crust is baked first then the filling is added to the pie shell for final
baking. The pie can be topped with meringue, whipped cream, nuts and other
toppings.
2. Double crust pie- is made of two crusts - the top and the bottom crusts that seal
around the fillings. It keeps the juice of the fruits inside the crust if you are preparing
a fruit pie. In sealing the edges of the crust you can use your finger or a fork in order
to make a decorative edge of your pie crust.
3. Turnovers are individual pies formed by folding the crust in half over a filling
(Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013). The open edges are pressed together to enclose
the filling. Turnovers are usually small enough to be held by hand and maybe baked
or fried. Fillings can be sweet or savory (example, meat fillings).Empanada is an
example of turnover.
4. Puff pastry- is a rolled dough formed from layers of fat in between layers of
dough. This produces very thin layers of dough which puffs up when the trapped air
expands during baking (Gisslen, 2001). It can be used as pie crust like the shell used
for Chicken a la King in some bakeshops and restaurants. Because it has a rich
flavor due to the amount of fat it contains it may made like a biscuit and prepared
with or without filling. Examples of these are the otap and the Napoleones of Bacolod
City,
TYPES OF PIE CRUST
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. Flaky crust made from flour, butter or shortening, and water. Shortening is cut
into the flour until the size of peas so the flour is not completely blended with the
fat. When the liquid is added, the flour absorbs it. When the dough is rolled out,
lumps of fat and moistened flour are flattened and become flakes of dough
(Gisslen, 2001). Flaky dough is preferred for top crusts.
2. Mealy crust made from the same ingredients as flaky crust but in this case, the
shortening is incorporated into the flour more thoroughly. The mixture should look

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

like cornmeal or it can even become so blended that it becomes paste-like. Less
water is needed because the flour wont absorb as much water. This crust is used for
bottom crust because it is not prone to sogginess.
3. Oil based crust instead of solid fat, oil is used in the mixture. The resulting
crust is less rich and more bland and flaky.
4. Crumb crust ground crackers or biscuits are used instead of flour. The
crackers most commonly used is Graham crackers and Oreo biscuits. This type
of crust is commonly used for no-bake pies like cheesecakes and refrigerated
desserts. The crumb crust can also be baked before filling to make it firmer and
less crumbly.
5. Puff pastry or phyllo dough puff pastry crust has high proportion of fat. It is
not very easy to do at home so commercially prepared and frozen phyllo dough
can be bought in specialty shops.
Properties of a well-made pie crust
1. A good pie crust must be crisp or tender. Mealy crusts tend to be more tender
while flaky crust are more crisp.
2. Has a golden brown color.
3. The crust must be fitted with decorated edges in the pie pan.
4. It must be retain its crispness and not become soggy especially when used with
juicy fillings.
5. It should not hard so it can be cut easily.

MIXING METHODS FOR PREPARING CRUST


Pastry Method (Crust using solid fat).
1. Measure all the ingredients accurately. Combine all the dry ingredients
together preferably in a cold mixing bowl.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

2. Cut in the shortening into the mixture of flour and salt using two knives or
pastry blender until small lumps the size of peas or cornmeal are formed.

3. Measure and sprinkle ice cold water gradually over the mixture of flour and
shortening. Shape your pastry dough into balls using your hand but avoid over
handling the dough that may cause tough dough.

4. Set the dough aside for 30 minutes to one hour preferably in the refrigerator.
This step is called resting the dough. This lets the flour become hydrated by
giving the flour time to absorb the liquid. If the dough is too cold and firm to be
rolled after resting in the refrigerator, allow it to come up to room temperature
before rolling.
5. Sprinkle flour on your working board and roll the pastry dough using your
rolling pin starting from the center forming a round shape one inch larger from
the size of your pie pan.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

5. Unfold the pastry dough gently over the rolling pin and unroll over the cold pie
plate. To avoid soggy bottom crust, you can apply or brush an egg wash over
the crust.

6. While preparing the filling you can put your crust in the refrigerator for 10-15
minutes. Shape the edges of the single crust before putting it inside the refrigerator.
7. To avoid shrinkage, fill up the crust with enough filling up to the sides of the crust.
Avoid stretching your dough. This might tear your bottom crust and may cause the
filling to spill out of the crust and stick to the pie pan.
8. For a double crust pie, multiply the measurements of the ingredients into 2 and
follow the steps from 1-4.
9. Divide the dough into 2, and roll the second part over the bottom crust with fillings
and cut it half inch bigger than the pie plate.
10. Fold and seal the edges using your finger or your fork to create attractive edge.

11. You can make a slit or make holes with design on the top crust to allow the steam
to escape. Bake your double pie crust as instructed by the recipe.

Oil Method (Crust using oil)


K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. Measure all the ingredients accurately. Combine all the dry ingredients
together preferably in a cold mixing bowl.
2. Combine the oil and water in a container. Oil will not completely combine with
water so just stir the mixture so that the oil is broken into smaller parts. Pour
this gradually over the flour mixture blending the liquid mixture into the flour
using a fork or by hand until small lumps the size of peas are formed.
3. Shape into a ball.
4. Follow the same procedure as steps 4 to 11 above (steps in making crust
using solid fat).

QUICK BREADS
Quick breads are breads that are quick to make. They are easy to make
because it uses chemical leavening agents that require no fermentation. Thus, once
it is mixed, it can be baked in the oven immediately (Wheat Foods Council). Quick
breads are also known as sweetened loaves because it usually contains more sugar,
fats and eggs than yeast breads but less than in cakes. In a broad sense quick
breads include all types of baked products that are leavened by baking powder or
baking soda, however, for this module; quick breads will be limited to biscuits,
muffins and sweetened loaves - such as banana bread.
Dough mixtures for quick breads are of two types: soft dough or batters.
There are three mixing methods for making quick breads: the biscuit, the muffin and
the creaming methods.

MIXING METHODS IN MAKING QUICK BREADS


Biscuit Method
This method is used for biscuits, scones and similar products. It sometimes called
the pastry method because it is similar to the procedure in making crust.
1. Measure ingredients accurately.
2. Sift the dry ingredients together into a mixing bowl.
3. Cut in the shortening by hand or pastry blender. Combine until the mixture
resembles a coarse cornmeal.
4. Combine the liquid ingredients.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

5. Add the liquid to the dry ingredients. Mix just until the ingredients are
combined and soft dough is formed. Do not over mix.
6. Bring the dough to a floured surface and knead lightly by pressing it out and
folding it in half. Rotate the dough 90 degrees between folds.
7. Repeat this procedure for about 10 to 20 times, or for 30 seconds. The dough
should be soft and slightly elastic, but not sticky. Over kneading toughens the
biscuits.
Characteristics of Good Baking Powder Biscuit.
1. Good volume.
2. Golden yellow crust which is fine and smooth.
3. A sheeted crumb of fine grain and even color with no yellowish spots of poorly
blended baking powder.
4. Delicate flavor, not alkaline or bitter due to excess baking powder.
(Source: Guzman M. and Fojas-Luna MV. 1985.
Introduction to Food Preparation, 5th ed. MM: Merriam-Webster Bookstore, Inc.)

Muffin Method
This is used for muffins, pancakes, waffles and many loaf-type quick breads. It is fast
and easy and over mixing must be avoided. Muffin batter should be mixed only until
the dry ingredients are just moistened. Do not worry if there are a few lumps in the
batter; a smooth batter is not the goal.
1. Sift together the dry ingredients. Set aside.
2. Combine all liquid ingredients, including melted fat or oil. Liquid fat is used in
this mixing method.
3. Add the liquids to the dry ingredients and mix just until all the flour is
moistened. The batter will look lumpy. Be careful not to over mix.
4. Pour the batter into the pan and bake immediately. The dry and liquid mixtures
may be prepared in advance, but once the mixtures are combined, the batter
should be baked without delay, or loss of volume may result.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Creaming Method
Cake mixing method is applied to muffins and loaf breads. This method is more
time-consuming than the muffin method but produces fine-textured goods. It is useful
for quick breads with higher fat and sugar content.
1. Sift together the flour and baking powder and other dry flavoring ingredients.
Set this aside.
2. Combine the solid fat and the sugar and mix or blend thoroughly until the
mixture becomes light and creamy. If butter or bar margarine is being used,
soften it first before blending in the sugar.
3. Add the eggs one at a time. Cream well after each addition before adding
more eggs.
4. Add the liquid ingredients and stir lightly.
5. Sift the flour and baking powder. Add and mix just until smooth.
(Source: Gisslen, 2001. Professional Baking. NY: John Wiley & Sons.)

CAKES
Cakes are very similar to sweetened loaves in and breads but it is the richest
and sweetest type of baked product. Cakes have high fat and sugar content and the
challenge for the baker is to have a structure that supports these ingredients while
keeping it as light and delicate as possible (Gisslen, 2001). Producing cakes require
well-balanced recipes and precision in measuring and mixing. Electric beater is a
useful tool in beating or whipping the egg mixture. There are numerous cake recipes
but these can be grouped into four types of cakes according to the mixing method
employed in making them shortened cakes, sponge cakes, angel food cakes
and chiffon cakes.
MIXING METHODS IN MAKING CAKES
Creaming Method
This method is also called conventional method because it is the standard method
for making butter cakes or shortened cakes. These cakes are called shortened
cakes because of the high solid fat content of the cake. This method is very similar to
the creaming method in making quick breads except for the addition of dry and liquid
ingredients to the batter mixture.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. Measure ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature.


2. Sift the dry ingredients flour, baking powder - together into a bowl. Set
aside.
3. Place the butter or shortening in another mixing bowl. Beat slowly using a
manual or electric beater until the butter is smooth and creamy.
4. Add the sugar and cream the mixture at moderate speed until the mixture is
light and fluffy. Some bakers prefer to add the salt and flavorings with the
sugar to ensure uniform distribution. If melted chocolate is used, it is added
during creaming.
5. Add the eggs one at a time. After each addition, beat until the eggs are
absorbed before adding more. The mixture should be light and fluffy after the
eggs are beaten in.
6. Scrape down the sides of the bowl to ensure even mixing.
7. Add the sifted dry ingredients (including the spices if they were not added in
step 4) alternately with the liquids. This is done as follows:
a. Add one fourth (1/4) of the dry ingredients. Mix just until blended in.
b. Add one-third (1/3) of the liquid. Mix just until blended in.
c. Repeat until all ingredients are used. Scrape down the sides of the
bowl occasionally for even mixing.
8. Immediately pan and bake the batter.

Sponge Method
This is the first of the three methods used in cakes that contain little or no shortening.
Leavening takes place due to the air trapped in the beaten eggs.
1. Measure all ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature.
If butter is included, it must be melted. If liquid and butter are included, heat
them together just until the butter is melted.
2. Combine the eggs and sugar preferably on a warm bowl and beat the eggs at
high speed until very light and thick. This may take 10 to 15 minutes.
This step is very important. One of the most frequent causes of failure in the
sponge method is not whipping the eggs and sugar enough. The foam must
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

be very thick. When the beater is lifted from the bowl, the foam falls slowly
from it and makes a ribbon that slowly sinks into the batter in the bowl.
3. Fold in the sifted flour, being careful not to deflate the foam. If dry ingredients
are used, such as cornstarch or baking powder, they are first sifted with the
flour.
4. If melted butter or a butter-liquid mixture is being used, fold in at this point. Be
careful not to over mix, or the cake will be tough (because of developed
gluten).
5. Immediately pan and bake the batter. Delays will cause loss of volume.

Angel Food Method


Angel food cakes are based on egg-white foams and contain no fat.
1. Measure ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature.
The egg whites may be slightly warmed for achieving better volume.
2. Sift the flour with half of the sugar. This step helps the flour mix more evenly
with the foam.
3. Beat the egg whites, until they form soft peaks. Salt and cream of tartar are
added before the beginning of the beating process.
4. Gradually beat in the sugar that was not mixed with the flour. Continue to beat
until the egg whites form soft, glossy peaks. Do not overbeat.
5. Fold in the flour-sugar mixture just until it is thoroughly absorbed but no
longer.
6. Pan and bake immediately.

Chiffon Method
Chiffon cakes and angel food cakes are both based on egg-white foams, but in
chiffon cakes, a batter containing flour, egg yolks vegetable oil, and water is
folded into the whites. Egg whites for chiffon cakes should be whipped until they
are a little firmer than those for angel food cakes, but do not over whip them until
they are dry. Chiffon cakes contain baking powder, so they do not depend on the
egg foam for all their leavening.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. Measure ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature.


Use good quality, flavorless vegetable oil.
2. Sift the dry ingredients, including part of the sugar, into the mixing bowl.
3. Mixing at medium speed, gradually add the oil, then the egg yolks, water, and
liquid flavorings, all in a slow, steady stream. While adding the liquids, top the
machine several times and scrape down the bowl and the beater. Mix until
smooth, but do not over mix.
4. Whip the egg whites until they form soft peaks. Add the cream of tartar, and
sugar in a stream and whip to firm, moist peaks.
5. Fold the whipped egg whites into the flour-liquid mixture.
6. Immediately put the batter in ungreased center-tube pans (like angel food
cakes) or in layer pans that have the bottoms greased and dusted, but not the
sides (like sponge layers).
(Source: Gisslen, 2001. Professional Baking. NY: John Wiley & Sons.)

COOKIES
Cookie means small cake or a small, flat baked product. In some countries, they
call this product biscuits instead of cookies. In the Philippines, we use both cookies
and biscuits to refer to cookie products. There are many kinds of cookies based on
the how it is shaped.
1. Pressed cookies made from soft dough. The dough must be soft enough to be
forced through a pastry bag of cookie press but stiff enough to hold its shape.
Some butter cookies are made this way.
2. Dropped cookies these are also made from soft dough that is dropped to the
baking sheet with a spoon or scoop. The dough may be of the same consistency
as for pressed cookies but dropping the cookie is preferred when the dough
contains pieces of fruits, nuts or chocolate or when you want the cookies to have
a rough, homemade look. Chocolate chip cookies, oatmeal cookies are usually
made this way.
3. Rolled cookies cookies that are rolled and cut from stiff dough. This method
produces cookies which can have a variety of shapes either hand cut or using a
cookie cutter. Christmas cookies with different shapes and designs are examples
of rolled cookies.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

4. Molded cookies the cookie dough is first divided into equal portions then each
piece is molded into the desired shape by flattening the pieces out with a weight
in which the design is embossed or carved out like a stamp. Some butter cookies
or locally made cassava cookies are molded cookies.
5. Icebox or refrigerator cookies the rolls of dough may be made in advance
and stored, and then it can easily cut and baked as needed. Pinwheel and
checkerboard cookies are made this way.
6. Sheet cookies commonly called bar cookies. The batter is baked in a shallow
pan and then cut into bars. Brownies, lemon squares, fudge bars are examples of
this type of cookie.

MIXING METHODS
One-stage Method
Cookies usually have lower liquid content than cakes and quick breads so all
ingredients can be mixed all in one stage.
1. Measure ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature.
2. Place all ingredients in a mixing bowl. Blend the ingredients together by
hand or with an electric mixer at low speed.
3. Shape and bake.
Creaming Method
This is similar to the creaming method in quick breads.
1. Measure ingredients accurately. Have all ingredients at room temperature.
2. Place the fat, sugar, and spices in the mixing bowl. Cream the ingredients
by hand or at low speed in an electric mixer.
For light cookies, cream until the mix is light and fluffy; in order to
incorporate more air for leavening. For denser cookies, blend to a smooth
paste, but do not cream until light.
3. Add the eggs and liquid, if any, and blend in at low speed.
4. Sift in the flour and leavening. Mix until just combined. Do not over mix, or

gluten will develop.


K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

5. Shape and bake.

Sponge Method
The method is similar to the egg-foam methods for cakes. The procedure varies
considerably, depending on the ingredients.
1. Measure ingredients accurately. Have all the ingredients at room
temperature.
2. Whip the eggs (whole, yolks or whites) and the sugar to the proper stage:
soft peak for whites, thick and light for whole eggs or yolks.
3. Fold in the remaining ingredients as specified in the recipe. Be careful not
to over mix or to deflate the eggs.
4. Shape and bake.

(Source: Gisslen, 2001. Professional Baking. NY: John Wiley & Sons.)

YEAST BREADS
Bread is baked dough made of flour and water and leavened by yeast. Other kinds of
bread are produced with the addition of other ingredients like sugar, shortening,
eggs, milk, and a variety of flavorings. Breads can also have fillings like in the case
of Spanish bread, pan de coco or asado bread.
TYPES OF YEAST DOUGHS
1. Lean dough one that has low fat and sugar content. Examples of this are hardcrusted breads and rolls like French bread, baguettes and pizza dough. Other
white and whole wheat breads and rolls such as pan de sal and buns have a
higher fat and sugar content that the hard crusted breads. They may also have
eggs and milk so they are slightly richer and generally have softer crusts. Locally,
lean dough is used for breads that we put spreads or filling (palaman) on.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

2. Rich dough dough that has higher proportion of fat, sugar, and sometimes
eggs. There are many kinds of sweet breads and rolls available in local bakeries.
Examples of these are ensaymada, Spanish bread, mongo bread, ube bread and
many others. These rich dough breads are popular because they are sweet
enough or have some filling incorporated in the bread that it can be eaten without
added spreads or filling (palaman).
STEPS IN BREAD MAKING
There are eight steps to bread making. These steps are generally applied to all yeast
products, with variations depending on the particular product.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Preparation of ingredients
Mixing and kneading the dough
Fermentation
Punching
Make-up or shaping
Pan-proofing
Baking
Cooling and storing

MIXING METHODS
Mixing methods in yeast bread making is done to combine all ingredients into
uniform, smooth dough; to distribute the yeast evenly throughout the dough and to
develop gluten.
Straight Dough Method
It consists of only one step of combining all ingredients in the bowl and mixing.
1. Soften yeast in a little lukewarm water.
2. Combine the remaining ingredients including the rest of the water in the
mixing bowl. Add the dissolved yeast, taking care not to let it come in contact
with the salt.
3. Mix to a smooth, developed dough.

Sponge Method
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Dough preparation occurs in two stages. The procedure gives the yeast action a
head start.
1. Combine the liquid, the yeast, and part of the flour (and sometimes, part of the
sugar). Mix into a thick batter or soft dough. Let ferment until double in bulk.
2. Punch down and add the rest of the flour and the remaining ingredients. Mix
to a uniform, smooth dough.
Once the ingredients are mixed, it is ready for kneading, which develops the dough
by distributing the yeast well into the dough.
KNEADING
Knead the dough using the palm of your hand. Fold the opposite side towards you
and push it away gently from you. Repeat the same process for the proper
distribution of the ingredients. After one motion, the dough is rotated a quarter turn.
Kneading is stopped when blisters appear on the dough when folded. This takes
about 10 minutes of kneading by hand.
Under kneading results in a heavy loaf with small volume compact cells and
irregular crumb with uneven breaks along the side of the loaf. Over kneading
produces bread with thick cell walls and small volume and dry crumb (Claudio,
1977).
FERMENTATION
Fermentation occurs when yeast acts on the sugars and starches in the dough to
produce carbon dioxide and alcohol. At this stage, the gluten becomes more elastic
and creates the lightness and porous structure of the product. An under fermented
dough will not develop good volume and the texture of the product will be coarse.
This is calledyoung dough. Old dough is over fermented and produces bread with
small volume, cracked crust, coarse, and yellowish crumb (Claudio, 1977).
Allow the yeast to grow in a warm place until it doubles in size. When you press the
dough using your two fingers and a dent is left, the dough has reached the desired
time for the fermentation.
PUNCHING
Punch the dough to expel excess carbon dioxide and in order to incorporate oxygen.
Punching also helps to develop the elasticity of the gluten and uniform fermentation.
MAKE UP AND SHAPING
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

This includes the time consumed in dividing, scaling, shaping or molding and
panning. Shaped or cut the bread into the desired size.
PROOFING
After arranging the bread on the pans, let it rest and rise again. The temperature for
proofing is slightly higher that the temperature for fermentation.
BAKING
Bake the bread in a pre heated oven. For the first few minutes of baking oven
spring occurs. This is the rapid rising of the bread due to the production and
expansion of gases
COOLING AND STORING
Allow the breads to cool completely before wrapping, use a wax paper or aluminum
foil and keep it at room temperature.
(Sources: Gisslen, 2001 and Claudio, 1977)

CHARACTERISTICS OF WELL-MADE YEAST BREAD


1. Well-shaped for its kind with a delicately golden yellow crust.
2. The crumb structure show fine grain, thin cell walls and uniform texture
3. Pleasing flavor, neither yeasty nor sour.
4. Thoroughly baked crumb, not sticky or gummy.

***

Process
Activity. Jot it down!
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Direction: List down at least 5 varieties of different baked products that you can buy
in bakeshops based on the categories listed in each box.

cakes

pies & pastries

cookies

quick breads

yeast breads

Reflect and Understand

Activity. Its time to reflect!


Answer the following questions:
It is important to be able to know or classify the baked products we see, eat or
buy everyday. What is the difference among the general classification or general
types of baked products? Differentiate by writing the peculiar characteristics of each
type of product.
Classification /general
types of baked
products

Characteristics

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Transfer

Activity. Fill up the table!


Direction: You have studied so many kinds of products and methods. In
order to have a quick reference for this lesson, complete the summary table
below.
Classification/general
types of baked products

Different types of this


product

Mixing methods

Pies and pastries

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.
Quick breads

Cakes

Cookies

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.
5.
6.
Yeast breads

1.

1.

2.

2.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

LESSON 7: PRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF BAKED

PRODUCTS

Learning Goals and Targets


At the end of this lesson, the learner is expected to:
1. Follow proper procedures in baking different types of baked products.
2. Demonstrate proper procedures in measuring accurately.

3. Evaluate sensory characteristics of finished products.


4. Analyze characteristics of finished products based on the functions of ingredients.
5. Perform laboratory activities following good kitchen/laboratory and food safety
practices.
6. Recognize the value of applying basic principles of baking.
7. Demonstrate retail and selling skills by selling finished product.

Know
GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION AND BAKING
Before the actual preparation and baking, it is important to know the general
procedure for bakeshop production.
MISE-EN-PLACE
Mise-en-place (pronounced miz on plas) is a French word which means everything
in place. It literally means, you have to set everything in place before starting the
actual baking procedures. This includes:

Review the baking principles in Lesson 1.

Studying the recipe carefully and be sure you have the recipe during the
laboratory work. Take note of the ingredients, the quantities and the
procedure. Make a mental walk through of the procedure, that is, picture

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

yourself doing the procedure step by step. This allows you to move fast and
make fewer mistakes during the actual baking.

Prepare the ingredients. Make sure you have all the ingredients specified in
the recipe.

Gather all the tools and equipment you will need. Clean these materials and
make sure they are of good condition and ready to use.

Organize your workspace. Put the ingredients, tools and materials you will
need in your workspace to ensure flow of work. Remember that during the
actual mixing procedures, once you begin you must continue through the
whole procedure until the end. You cannot stop in the middle just because you
dont have the ingredients or the proper tools ready.

CLEAN AS YOU GO (CLAYGO)


Good kitchen and laboratory practices have to be followed but one very
simple rule to remember is to clean as you go. Have a plan for keeping your
workspace clean. Clean up as

BAKING
The oven is preheated before food is put in the oven for baking. This is done
to ensure that the oven has reached the specified temperature when the food is put
in it. Time indicated for baking in the recipe is a guide but actual baking time often
varies so it is advisable to check the food if it is cooked. When the food starts to get
fully baked, it often gives off a pleasing aroma. When you begin to smell this, wait a
few minutes and check if it is done baking. To check, insert a toothpick or a piece of
thin barbecue stick in the center of the product, if it comes out clean and dry, then
the baked product is fully done.

Now you are ready for the actual preparation and baking.
PIES AND PASTRIES
Causes of Failure in Baking Pies and Pastries
Result

Causes

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. Tough crust

1. Too much water, over handling, insufficient


fats, too much flour.

2. Too pale crust

2. Under baked, over handling, wrong


temperature or insufficient heat.

3. Too dark bottom crust

3. Wrong temperature, over baked,

4. Soggy bottom crust

4. Too much filling, over mixing, uneven heat of


the oven.

5. Thick and soft crust

5. Wrong measurement of fat, use of warm


water, low oven temperature.

6. Thin, brittle, and easily 6.pastry dough is rolled too thin, too much fat
burn crust
7. Pie shrinks in pastry pan
7. improper measurements of the ingredients.

BUKO PIE RECIPE


Ingredients:
2 cups all-purpose flour
1/3 cup butter
1 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup vegetable shortening
6 to 8 tablespoons cold water
2 cups young coconut meat
3/4 cup granulated white sugar
1/2 cup cornstarch diluted in 1/2 cup young coconut water
1/2 cup evaporated milk
Procedure:
1. Create the crust

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1.1 Combine flour and salt then mix using a wire whisk.
1.2 Cut in butter and shortening then mix using a pastry blender.
1.3 Gradually sprinkle cold water a tablespoon at a time while mixing the ingredients.
1.4 When everything is completely mixed, gather the mixture and divide into two
equal parts.
1.5 In a flat surface roll out each of the dough and using a rolling pin until wide
enough to fit an eight or nine inch pie pan. Note: Sprinkle flour over the flat surface to
prevent the dough from sticking or use a silicon mat.
1.6 Arrange the first dough over the pie pan for the bottom crust.
1.7 Set the second flattened dough aside. This will be needed after arranging the
filling in the pie pan.
2. Make the filling
2.1 Heat a saucepan and pour-in the milk. Let boil.
2.2 Add the granulated white sugar and stir.
2.3 Put-in the young coconut meat and cook for 3 minutes.
2.4 Pour-in the cornstarch diluted in young coconut water and stir thoroughly
while cooking. Cook until the texture thickens.
2.5 Turn-off the heat and allow the mixture to cool down.
3. Preheat oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit.
4. Arrange the cooked filling in the pie pan.
5. Put the second crust on top of the filling and flute the edges to the sides.
6. Create holes on the secondary crust using a fork. This will serve as exhaust vents
that will prevent the crust from deforming.
7. Bake for 45 to 55 minutes or until the color turns golden brown. Note: Baking time
may vary; make sure to check the color of the crust to determine if baking is
complete.
8. Let cool and serve. Share and enjoy!
EMPANADITAS
Ingredients:
Filling:
can condensed milk
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

2 pcs. of eggs
1 bar of butter
tsp.vanilla
1tbsp. chopped nuts

Procedure:
1. In a double broiler ,combine milk and yolk
2. Cook in a sauce pan over low heat or use a double broiler stirring it
continuously to avoid sticking from the sauce pan.
3. Add vanilla, butter, and nuts and mix it well. Then set it aside.
Crust:
Ingredients:
2 1/3 cups sifted all -purpose flour
2/3 cup margarine
4-5 tbsp. cold water
Melted butter
Refined sugar for finishing
Procedure:
1. Cut margarine into flour until crumbs by pea sized.
2. .Sprinkle cold water while tossing mixture with a dull knife, until moist and
enough to handle.
3. Put inside the refrigerator to chill for an hour.
4. Roll out the dough on floured board up to thick inches.
5. Cut the dough with 2 in round cutter.
6. Fill each round with cooked and cooled filling then fold into half.
7. Seal edges by pressing with tines of a fork.
8. Place on a slightly greased flat or cookie sheet and bake in a pre-heated
oven at 375 degree for 20 minutes.
9. Cool. Brush with melted butter and roll in sugar.
10. Wrap in a colored cellophane about 5x 6.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

BOAT TARTS
Tarts Crust
Ingredients:
3 cups all- purpose flour
1 cup margarine
1 cup refined sugar
1 pc. egg (extra large size)
1 tsp. vanilla
Procedure:
1. Mix all the ingredients together in a mixing bowl.
2. Beat until smooth.
3. Roll about 1/8 inch thick and cut with cutter and fit it into boat tarts molder.
4. Baked at pre heated oven 350* F for 10-15 mins. Until golden brown .Fill
with cashew nut filling.

QUICK BREADS
APPLE MUFFINS
Ingredients:
1 pc. egg
cup milk
1 cup chopped fresh apple
2 cups flour
1/3 cup sugar
3 tsps. baking powder
1 tsp. salt
tsp. vanilla
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Pre heat the oven at 400F.


Beat egg in a bowl and add milk, oil and apple.
Add dry ingredients and mix lightly.
Pour into muffin cups about to 2/3 full.
Bake for 20 minutes.

CINNAMON MUFFINS
Ingredients:
1 cups flour
cup sugar
cup brown sugar
2 tsps. baking powder
tsp. salt
1 tsp. cinnamon
1 pc. egg beaten
cup oil
cup milk

Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Heat oven to 375F.


Sift all the dry ingredients together.
Combine beaten egg, oil, and milk. Add to dry mixture and mix lightly.
Pour into muffin cup, 2/3 of full.
Bake for 20-25 minutes.

BANANA CAKE
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Ingredients
2/3
1 2/3
2
2
1
1
1
1
2/3
2/3

cup
cup
pieces
cup
teaspoon
teaspoon
teaspoon
cup
cup
cup

shortening
sugar
eggs
all purpose flour
baking powder
baking soda
salt
fully ripe bananas, mashed
milk
chopped nuts

Procedure
1. Preheat oven to 325F.
2. Follow the creaming method of mixing cakes.
3. Divide the banana and nuts into three portions and add them into the mixture
with the milk.
4. Pour into wax paper-lined pans and bake for 40 to 50 minutes.

***

CAKES
BUTTER SPONGE CAKE
Ingredients
1 cup

sifted cake flour

1 teaspoon

baking powder

cup

butter, melted

teaspoon

vanilla

cup

milk

6 pieces

egg yolks

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1 cup

sugar

Procedure:
1. Follow the sponge method of preparing cakes.
2. Pour in a greased pan.
3. Bake at 350F for 30 to 35 minutes.

COCOA DROPS
Ingredients
cup

shortening

cup

sugar

1 piece

egg

cup

milk

1 teaspoon

vanilla

2 cups

all purpose flour

teaspoon

salt

1
teaspoon

baking powder

6 tablespoon cocoa powder


cup

nuts

Procedure
1. Sift the flour, salt, baking powder and cocoa powder together.
2. Follow the sponge method of making cookies.
3. Drop the batter into greased cookie sheet.
4. Bake at 350F for 15 minutes.

COOKIES
OATMEAL COOKIES
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Procedure

Ingredients

1. Follow the creaming method of

cup

shortening

1 cup

sugar

1 pc

egg

cup

evaporated milk

1 cup

uncooked oats

1 cup

all purpose flour

teaspoon

salt

bake at 375F until golden

1 teaspoon

cinnamon powder

brown.

1 cup

raisins

making cookies. Adding the


oats in the shortening mixture.
2. Add the raisins last, after the
dough is mixed.
3. Drop into greased pans and

YEAST BREADS
BASIC YEAST BREAD
Ingredients
1 tablespoon

active dry yeast

cup

water

cup

evaporated milk

1 teaspoon

salt

cup

shortening or cooking oil

3 to 4 cups

flour

2 pieces

egg

Procedure
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

1. Follow the procedure of making bread using the straight method.


2. Follow the kneading, fermentation, punching, shaping, proofing and baking
procedures.
3. Dough may be shaped in loaf pans or in individual buns.
4. Bake at 375 to 400 F .

***

Process

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Activity: Baking Activity Plan


Direction: In order to help you perform the activity efficiently and to ensure that
nothing is forgotten and everything will go smoothly, accomplish the baking activity
plan below.

Ingredients list: ingredient and amount in the recipe


Market list: quantity to be bought in the market and the price of the item
Purchasing plan: who is in charge of buying and when they will be purchased
Tools and materials list: utensils, materials needed for the activity
Materials plan: who is responsible for bringing and organizing the materials
Procedure: list all the procedures from mise-en-place to actual baking procedure to
clean-up
Production plan: distribution of tasks for the actual activity.
BAKING ACTIVITY PLAN
Recipe
Ingredients list

Date of activity
Market list

Purchasing plan

Tools and materials list

Materials plan

Procedure

Production plan

Reflect and Understand


Activity 2. Checking your list!
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Direction: During and after each actual baking performance, accomplish this
checklist. This checklist allows you to reflect on how well you have followed the
guidelines given in the previous lessons. This checklist could also be used to
analyze the outcome of your sensory evaluation of the finished product. These
procedures and guidelines may contribute to the causes of success or failure of your
finished product.
CHECKLIST OF BAKING/PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE
Recipe/Product Recipe/Product Recipe/Product
1:__________
2: __________
3: ___________
Procedure/guideline

D done
ND not done
PD partially
done

D done
ND not done
PD partially
done

MISE-EN-PLACE
CLAYGO
MENSURATION
measuring accurately
-using appropriate
measuring tools
-performing correct
measuring procedures
PROPER USE AND CARE
OF EQUIPMENT
-used appropriate tools
-used the tools correctly
-cleaned and stored the
tools after using
FOLLOWED GOOD
KITCHEN/LABORATORY
PRACTICES
FOLLOWED FOOD
SAFETY AND SANITATION
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

D done
ND not done
PD partially
Done

PRACTICES
FOLLOWED PROPER
MIXING AND BAKING
PROCEDURES
( write mixing method used)
-performed mixing method
according to standard
procedure
-preheated oven
-used appropriate baking
temperature
-baked the product just until
it is done

Transfer
SENSORY EVALUATION OF BAKED PRODUCTS
In doing the sensory evaluation of the products, write the closest description
you can use. The real test of your success as a baker is the finished product. The
product should be evaluated on key characteristics. The critical characteristics of
baked products are:
Appearance descriptions of the external part of the product like the height of the
baked good, the crust.
Flavor
flavor is a composite of taste, odor and touch (mouthfeel).
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Taste

descriptions for sweetness, sourness, saltiness, bitterness, or


combination (bitter-sweet)
Odor
descriptions for food odors like burnt, smoky, moldy, musty, yeasty,
rancid, sour, lemony etc.
Touch, mouthful descriptions for mouthful: greasiness, metallic, astringent, sharp,
spicy etc.
Texture
descriptions for the crumb structure (the internal part of the baked
product): crumbly, gritty, tender, short, soft, firm, elastic, mealy, chewy,
gummy, hard, brittle, tough, pasty, sticky, coarse, dry, moist, oily etc.
Activity: Getting involved!
Direction: Perform sensory evaluation on your product. Use the tool below.
Rating: Rate the product from 1 to 7, with 7 having the best quality or characteristic.
Provide descriptive words besides each corresponding rating.
SENSORY EVALUATION TOOL
CRITERIA

PRODUCT 1

PRODUCT 2

PRODUCT 3

Rating and
description

Rating and
description

Rating and
description

APPEARANCE
TEXTURE
TASTE
ODOR
MOUTHFEEL
OVERALL REMARKS: Write what you think are the possible causes of the quality of
your product.
LESSON 8. OPPORTUNITIES IN HOME BAKING

Learning Goals and Targets


At the end of this lesson, the learner is expected to:
1. Identify ways of applying baking skills at home considering available resources.
2. Appreciate benefits of producing baked products for home consumption for
individual and family wellbeing.
3. Apply skill in home baking.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Know
HOME BAKING
Do you think you can apply what you have learned in baking in your own
homes? Do you bake at home? What other skills have you learned in baking that you
can also apply to other home activities?
One of the limitations of home baking is the presence of oven. The
standard oven is rather expensive equipment and it is not found in majority of homes
in the Philippines. Because of this, some people think that baking skills are not
relevant to in their lives since they cannot practice it at home. That is a mistake
because there are products we make at home that can be classified as baked
products even though it is not cooked in an oven. They use the same basic
ingredients and the production follows principles of the baking process.
Pancakes and waffles are examples of quick breads. Waffle biscuits or
waffle cones can be made using a waffle griddle or ordinary skillet. Empanadas are
turnovers. There are various kinds of empanadas that are made in different places in
the Philippines. In the northern part of the Philippines, the Ilocos empanada is a
popular delicacy. The crust is made of rice flour and water and the savory filling is
made of the local sausage (longganisa), egg and grated papaya. Doughnuts and
bitso-bitso are deep-fried breads
There are also substitutes for the conventional gas or electric ovens. Portable
ovens (also called camp ovens) that are placed on top of a regular stove are
available at a relatively inexpensive price. These are commonly used by small scale
pizza stalls. It uses the same principle as a gas stove but it is limited in size. Another
alternative to the conventional oven is the Dutch oven. The Dutch oven is a cast-iron
casserole cooking pot. Locally, the kaldero (rice pot) and kawali (frying pan/wok) are
cast-iron materials that can function like the Dutch oven. With a tight lid and good
thickness, it can be used for baking.

Process
Activity 1: INTERVIEW
Directions: Interview at least three students (from other sections and year levels
and not your own classmates) about their experiences of baking at home.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Questions:
1. Do you or your family does home baking? (Note: if they immediately say no,
probe further. Ask if they prepare pancakes, empanadas, doughnuts or other
bread-like product at home.)
2. What products do you or your family make?
3. Which among the products that you make at home do you like?
4. What do you like about them?
5. Do you participate in preparing these products?
6. What are your positive experiences in home baking?
7. What do you think are the benefits of home baking?
SUMMARY SHEET OF RESPONSES
Questions

Student 1

Student 2

Question 1
baking at home

Question 2
products made

Question 3 - like or
dont like

Question 4 what
is liked
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Student 3

Question 5
participate in home
baking or not

Question 6
positive
experiences in
home baking

Question 7
benefits of home
baking

Reflect and Understand


Reflection Questions
Do students from the same school have the same experiences in home baking?
Cam we make a general statement about the benefits of home baking among
families of students in your school?
Activity 2
Direction: Make a summary of the responses to Question 6 and 7 your interview
and the interviews of all your classmates. To summarize, make a tally sheet of all the
responses. Group those that are similar. Rank the responses i.e. make a final list
that is arranged from the most common to the least common response. Use the table
below for the summary
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Benefits to the individual

Benefits to the family

BENEFITS OF HOME BAKING

Home baking has a number of benefits for the individual and the family. It can
contribute to the wellbeing of the family in the following ways.
1. Freshly baked products are a treat.
There is nothing like the taste and aroma of freshly baked breads. The aroma
of freshly baked bread is associated with warm, homey feelings. A lot of
breads are also best eaten hot off the oven while theyre still warm and soft.
2. More nutritious ingredients can be used.
When you make your own product, you have control over the recipe and the
ingredients. You can choose to make cakes with less sugar or use whole
wheat flour which contains more nutrients that white flour.
3. Products are additive-free.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Baked products for home consumption do not use additives because it is


often consumed quickly. Additives are chemical compounds added to the
dough to prevent spoilage. Look at your answers to Activity 2 in Lesson 1.
Which of the ingredients is the additive?
4. It develops family bonding
Baking can become a family activity where even small children can do easy
tasks like shaping cookies of pouring batters into muffin pans. Children also
love to lick leftover batter after panning although care must be ensured to
prevent salmonella poisoning due to uncooked eggs in the batter.
5. It provides practice to improve baking skills.
Practice makes perfect; the more baking you do at home, the more skillful you
can become.

Transfer
Activity 3.

Challenge

Direction: Practice applying baking skills at home. This week and next week,
prepare a baked product at home. Choose any type of baked product pie, quick
bread, muffin, cookie, yeast bread. You can use any recipe. You may search
cookbooks, the internet or ask your teacher for a recipe you can use at home. Write
about your baking experience below.

MY BAKING ADVENTURE
Product: __________________________________
Date: ____________________________________
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Recipe: (attach a copy of the recipe)


My experience: write a short story of what happened in your baking experience.

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

LESSON 9: CAREER OPPORTUNITIES AND FURTHER EDUCATION

IN BAKING AND BAKESHOP PRODUCTION

Learning Goals and Targets


At the end of this lesson, the learner is expected to:
1. Recognize different kinds and levels of jobs available in the baking industry.
2. Identify characteristics and traits that lead to job success in the baking career.
3. Identify vocational courses and degree programs related to bakeshop production.

Know
JOB OPPORTUNITIES IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY
There are many job positions related to a baking career such as baking
assistants, pastry cook, executive pastry chef, cake decorator, wholesale baker,
baking production supervisor and many others.
Pastry chef specializes in making pastries, cakes and desserts. They may also
be adept at assembling and decorating pastry products being very skillful in using
fillings, icings, sugars and chocolate.
Bread baker makes various kinds of breads. Making various kinds of bread
whether by hand or with the use of machinery requires specific skill and an
experienced baker is often in demand.
Bakery chef an experienced, educated baker who is in charge of the daily
operations of a bakeshop. They manage bakers, monitor quality of products, take
care of inventory and do product development.
For industrial (mass production) bakery, other jobs include:
Product development researcher professional research is needed to develop
new products for industrial production.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Production supervisor oversees the production line making sure the products
meet quality standards and works with engineers to ensure equipment needs are
met.

FURTHER EDUCATION IN BAKING


Becoming a professional baker requires skills and work ethics. In order to
improve skills you can get basic and advanced training in vocational schools or
culinary schools. The Grades 9 10 modules in Bakeshop Production will enable
you to get National Certification I or II levels. After you finish your K-12 program,
you may further enroll in culinary schools that offer specialized courses in production
of different types of baked products.
Becoming a bakery chef or supervisor requires management skills on top of
baking skills. This may necessitate higher degrees in related fields such as Hotel
and Restaurant Administration.
Baking is both an art and a science. As you may have already recognized
from the beginning of this module, baking requires knowledge of chemistry and
physics to fully understand gluten development and the interactions of ingredients.
Product development researchers may require higher degree in Food Science or
Food Technology.
Teaching HE and TLE courses is also a viable career. Becoming a
professional teacher in the various levels of education require a degree in Home
Economics or Technology and Livelihood Education.

Reflect and Understand


K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Do you have what it takes to become a professional baker?


Activity: Interview
Direction: Interview a baker in your community.
Questions:
1. How long have you been a baker?
2. How did you become a baker?
3. What are the important knowledge, skills and attitudes (work ethics)
necessary to become a successful baker?
4. From the characteristic mentioned in Q3, which of these do you think you
already have and which do you think you want to further develop?
5. Can you see yourself becoming a professional baker? Why? Why not?

***

K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

GLOSSARY
Airborne - carried by air and especially to those associated with the carrying of
disease
Antidote a remedy counteracting a poison
Assigned
Batter a mixture of dry ingredients with a pouring consistency.
Breads- a staple food made from flour, shortening, liquid ingredients and other dry
ingredients form in a dough, kneaded and shaped into different forms and flavors.
Caramelize to melt sugar with or without water until it becomes golden brown in
color and develops a characteristics flavor.
Cream to mix fat and sugar until it become smooth at the same time incorporating
air into the mixture.
Cream Filling - a combination of beaten egg yolk blended with a hot mixture and
cooked at correct time and temperature.
Crust - the outer part or covering of the pastry or pies.
Cut in to distribute fat in flour particles until pea-sized crumbs are obtained. They
may be done using a pastry blender, the tines of a fork or 2 knives.
Dredge to coat the surface with a dry ingredient like flour.
Egg wash a combination of 1 egg yolk and 2 tablespoons milk use for brushing
pastry and bread dough to have a shiny, golden baked surface.
First aid the provision of initial care for an illness or injury.
Fold in to mix delicately textured ingredients. Using a spatula cut down through a
mixture, go across the bottom of the bowl and up over close to the surface while
turning the bowl frequently.
Frothy- when bubble starts to appear during the process of beating the egg whites.
Glaze a glossy coating.
Greased to brush a surface with butter, margarine shortening or oil to prevent
sticking.
Let rise to allow the yeast dough to ferment and double its volume.
Meringue- toppings used for pastries and pies made up of egg whites and sugar.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Occupational hazards - refer to various environmental factors or stresses that can


Pastry - these are baked products that serves as dessert which is made out of flour
sugar, shortening and water.
Pies - are made of pastry dough lined in pie pan, filled with different fillings and can
be prepared with or without toppings.
Pipe out to squeeze out a mixture from a pastry bag.
PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) refers to devices worn by workers to protect
Pre- bake - to bake a crust without the filling or to half bake.
Pre- heat to light the oven about 10 mins. In advance to allow the oven
temperature to reach a desire degree of heat before the cake is baked.
Prick to bore a hole in a cake to test if it is ready done. It can also mean to makes
holes on an unbaked pastry using a fork to prevent ballooning.
Punch down to deflate risen dough using the fist to break down large air spaces.
Quality standard set of exact specifications to become pattern of action.
Safe free from danger, risk or injury
Sanitation the practice or measure to create an environment conducive to good
health.
Shortening - fat that came from and animal or vegetable fat which can be in a form
of solid or liquid fat.
Tarts - are smaller than the single pie crust and it is served for an individual only.
them against hazards in the work environment including but not limited to safety
Thread like stage where sugar syrup when dropped from a spoon spins a
thread.
Turnovers - a type of pastry for individual serving, the filling is placed on half of the
dough and folds another half of the dough and seal.
Vermin a term applied to various animal species regarded as pests or nuisances.
Workplace refers to the office, premises or worksite where a worker is temporarily

REFERENCES
Cruz, Duran et.al.1998. Home Economics IV. Manila. Adriana Publishing Co. Inc.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Diaz Eden, Soriano, Nora.1995. Home Technology III.Phoenix Publishing House Inc.
Claudio, Virginia S. et al.1982. Basic Nutrition for Filipinos. Manila. Merriam School
and Office Supplies Corp.,
De Guzman, Matilde P. et al.1989. Basic Foods for Filipinos. Manila. Merriam School
and Webster Inc.
Carino, Celia E., Lazaro, Amor S., Experience Baking
Chelsea. Weights, measures and conversions. Retrieved from http://www.chelsea.
co.nz/content/baking-guide/weights-measures-conversions.aspx on January
28, 2013.
Gisslen, Wayne.2001. Professional baking. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Gisslen, Wayne.1995. Professional cooking. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Gonzales, Gene R. Fundamentals of Professional Cooking, Manila. Anvil Publishing.,
2012
Lallemand. Pie Crust Production. Lallemand Baking Update. Vol 2. No.3. 1996.
Lauterbach, Sharon and Albrecht, Julie. NF94-186 Functions of Baking Ingredients.
Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension. Paper
411. 1994. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/extensionhist/411 on
January 20, 2013.
Mavantas, Victoria T.2002 Food Management and Service II., Quezon City. Phoenix
Publishing House Inc.,
Merriam-Webster. 2013. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary
on January 20, 2013.
Talde, Julieta D. Culinary Arts. Quezon City. Phoenix Publishing House Inc., 1995
Taste.com.Weight and Measurements Chart. April 2007. Retrieved from
http://www.taste.com.au on Jannuary 24, 2013.
Wheat Foods Council. Flour 101. Retrieved from http://www.wheatfoods.org/sites/
default/files/atachments/flour-101.pdf on January 20, 2013.
Wheat Foods Council. Grains of Truth about Quick Breads. Retrieved from
http://www.ndwheat.com/uploads%5Cresources%5C419%5Cquickbreads.pdf
on January 21, 2013.
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Weaver, Dennis. All About Baking: Quck Breads. Retrieved from


http://www.preparedpantry.com/How-to-Bake-Quick-Breads-Recipe.htm on
January 23, 2013.
Woods, Mollie. and Thornsby, Suzanne. The Philippine Bakery Sector.Michigan.
Michigan State University. 2009.
Other Printed Materials
Aning J. Government, Bakers Launch Pinoy Pan de sal project. Philippine Daily
Inquirer, June 16, 2003. p.1,20.
Food Service and Catering Management, A Practical Guide, Liberty Commodities
Corp., Manila, Anvil Publishing., 2004
Best Recipes for the Home, Philippine Publishing House, Manila, 1970

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Panlasang Pinoy.com
My Stock Vector.com
Graphic & Animation.gif
About.com. Culinary Arts
Joe Pastry
E orchids
Article.wn.com
Dreamtime.com
Bransontourist.com
Library kv pattom.com
Penardmoon.com
PIcstopin.com
Baking 911
Recipe 4 us.co.uk
K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production

Epicuruous.com
http://www.wikipedia.com
http://www.ehow.com
http://www.recipetime.com
http://www.homecooking.about.com
http://www.housewares.about.com
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K12 Learning Module in Basic Baking and Bakeshop Production