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element method

Richard Malm

April 2009

TRITA-BKN. Bulletin 97, 2009

ISSN 1103-4270,

ISRN KTH/BKN/B97SE

c

Richard

Malm 2009

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering

Division of Structural Design and Bridges

Stockholm, Sweden, 2009

The men of experiment are like the ant, they only collect and use; the

reasoners resemble spiders, who make cobwebs out of their own substance. But the bee takes the middle course: it gathers its material from

the flowers of the garden and field, but transforms and digests it by a

power of its own.

Francis Bacon 1561 -1626

Abstract

In this thesis, the possibility to numerically describing the behaviour that signifies

shear type cracking in concrete is studied. Different means for describing cracking

are evaluated where both methods proposed in design codes based on experiments

and advanced finite element analyses with a non-linear material description are

evaluated. It is shown that there is a large difference in the estimation of the crack

width based on the calculation methods in design codes. The large difference occurs

due to several of these methods do not account for shear friction in the crack face.

The finite element method is an important tool for analysing the non-linear behaviour caused by cracking. It is especially of importance when combined with

experimental investigations for evaluating load bearing capacity or establishing the

structural health. It is shown that non-linear continuum material models can successfully be used to accurately describe the shear type cracking in concrete. A

method based on plasticity and damage theory was shown to provide accurate estimations of the behaviour. The methods based on fracture mechanics with or without

inclusion of damage theory, overestimated the stiffness after crack initiation considerably. The rotated crack approach of these methods gave less accurate descriptions

of the crack pattern and underestimated the crack widths.

After verification of the material model, realistic finite element models based on

plasticity and damage theory are developed to analyse the cause for cracking in two

large concrete structures. The Storfinnforsen hydropower buttress dam is evaluated

where the seasonal temperature variation in combination with the water pressure

have resulted in cracking. With the numerical model the cause for cracking can be

explained and the crack pattern found in-situ is accurately simulated. The model

is verified against measurements of variation in crest displacement and crack width

with close agreement. The construction process of a balanced cantilever bridge,

Grndal Bridge, is numerically simulated and a rational explanation of the cause

for cracking is presented. It is shown that large stresses and micro-cracks develop

in the webs during construction, especially after tensioning the continuing tendons

in the bottom flange. Further loads from temperature variation cause cracking in

the webs that is in close agreement with the cracking found in-situ. The effect of

strengthening performed on this bridge is also evaluated where the vertical Dywidag

tendons so far seem to have been successful in stopping further crack propagation.

Key words: Non-linear finite element analysis, concrete, crack width, crack propagation, shear, time-dependant properties, thermal loads, serviceability state,

Sammanfattning

I freliggande avhandling studeras mjligheten att numeriskt beskriva uppsprickning

i betong, orsakat av en kombination av normal- och skjuvspnningar. Olika metoder

fr att beakta uppsprickning utvrderas, dr bde metoder i dimensioneringsnormer

som r baserade p experiment och avancerade finita element analyser med en ickelinjr beskrivning av materialet studeras. Studien visar att det r en stor variation p

den berknade sprickbredden bland de metoder som finns i dimensioneringsnormer.

Denna stora skillnad mellan normerna beror frmst p att flera av dessa metoder

inte beaktar skjuvfriktion mellan sprickytorna.

Finita element metoden r ett viktigt verktyg fr att analysera det icke-linjra beteendet hos betong som orsakas av uppsprickning. Den r srskilt viktig vid kombinering med experimentella underskningar, fr utvrdering av brfrmga eller

fr tillstndsbedmning av en konstruktion. I denna avhandling illustreras att ickelinjra kontinuumbaserade materialmodeller med stor framgng kan anvndas fr

att noggrant beskriva initiering och propagering av skjuvsprickor orsakade av kombination av normal- och skjuvspnningar. Srskilt en metod, baserad p plasticitetsoch skadeteori, gav en mycket god uppskattning av beteendet. De metoder som r

baserade p brottmekanik, med eller utan skadeteori, verskattade styvheten hos materialet efter uppsprickning. Den roterande sprickmetoden i dessa materialmodeller

gav dessutom mindre noggranna uppskattningar av sprickmnster och underskattade

sprickbredder.

Efter att materialmodellen verifierats, har realistiska finita element modeller baserade p plasticitets- och skadeteori utvecklats fr att analysera orsaker till uppsprickning i tv stora betongkonstruktioner. Storfinnforsens kraftverksdamm r en lamelldamm av betong, dr den rliga temperaturvariationen i kombination med vattentryck har orsakat uppsprickning. Med den numeriska berkningsmodellen gr det att

frklara orsaken till sprickorna samt att sprickmnster, variation in krnfrskjutning

och sprickbredd stmmer vl verens med observationer och fltmtningar. Konstruktionsprocessen hos en konsolutbyggd bro, Grndalsbron, har simulerats och

dr en rationell frklaring till den observerade uppsprickningen presenteras. Hga

spnningar och ven microsprickor uppkommer i balkliven till fljd av konstruktionsprocessen, srskilt i samband med efterspnningen av kontinuitetskablarna i

underflnsen. Ytterligare belastning av temperaturvariation orsakar uppsprickning

i balkliven som stmmer vl verens med det observerade. Frstrkningstgrden som genomfrts p bron har ocks utvrderats dr de vertikala Dywidagstagen

verkar, n s lnge, begrnsa fortsatt sprickpropagering.

vii

Preface

The research work presented in this thesis was carried out from January 2004 to

February 2009 at the Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Royal

Institute of Technology (KTH). The research have been carried out under supervision

of Prof. Hkan Sundquist and Assoc. Prof. Anders Ansell, and was financed by the

Swedish research council Formas.

First of all, I express my gratitude to my supervisor Hkan Sundquist and my assistant supervisor Anders Ansell for their guidance, support and valuable discussions.

I especially thank Hkan Sundquist for giving me the opportunity to work in this

research area and for providing inspiring research environment. I am very grateful

to my assistant supervisor Anders Ansell for his encouraging support and our long

and fruitful discussions.

A special thanks to the people who have been co-authors or in some other way been

of great assistance regarding the papers in this thesis. Adj. Prof. Bo Westerberg

and Prof. Jonas Holmgren for their valuable advice and discussions regarding design

in the serviceability state and behaviour of concrete. In addition, I thank Adj. Prof.

Costin Pacoste for reviewing the thesis and his valuable advice.

I would also like to thank my colleagues at the Division of Structural Design and

Bridges and the Division of Concrete Structures that have assisted me in the work

with this thesis. I especially thank the PhD students of these divisions, for providing

a friendly atmosphere. I am forever grateful to Andreas Andersson for our interesting

and sometimes endless discussions, regarding our research projects.

Last but not least, my warmest gratitude to my family and friends and especially

to my beloved fiance Grel Lindstrm.

Richard Malm

ix

List of Publications

This thesis is based on the work presented in the following publications:

I Malm, R. and Holmgren, J., 2008 Cracking in deep beams owing to shear

loading. Part 1: Experimental study and assessment. Magazine of Concrete

Research, Vol. 60, No. 5, 371379.

II Malm, R. and Holmgren, J., 2008 Cracking in deep beams owing to shear

loading. Part 2: Non-linear analysis. Magazine of Concrete Research, Vol. 60,

No. 5, 381388.

III Malm, R. and Ansell, A., Nonlinear analysis of thermally induced cracking of

a concrete dam, Submitted to ACI Structural Journal, July 2008

IV Malm, R., James, G. and Sundquist, H., 2006. Monitoring and evaluation of

shear crack initiation and propagation in webs of concrete box-girder sections.

In: International Conference on Bridge Engineering - Challenges in the 21st

Century. Hong Kong.

V Malm, R. and Sundquist, H., Time-dependent analyses of segmentally constructed balanced cantilever bridges. Submitted to Engineering Structures,

January 2009

VI Malm, R. and Ansell, A., Non-linear analyses of cracking in segmentally constructed concrete box-girder bridges. Submitted to Engineering Structures,

January 2009

The planing, numerical implementations and analyses as well as the main part of the

writing have been performed by Malm in all the papers. The co-authors have guided

the work and contributed to the papers with comments and revisions. In paper III

the planing and writing of the paper have been done in collaboration with the coauthor. Malm has not been performed the experimental tests presented in paper I,

IV and in section 3.2, but is responsible for the evaluation of all experimental data

presented.

In addition to the publications mentioned above, some additional publications have

been made during the project. These publications are:

Malm, R. 2008. FE Analysis of Cracking in Concrete due to Shear Loading.

In: XXth Symposium on Nordic Concrete Research & Development, Blsta,

June 2008.

xi

Concrete Buttress Dam. In: XXth Symposium on Nordic Concrete Research

& Development, Blsta, June 2008.

Ansell, A. and Malm, R. 2008. Modelling of Thermally Induced Cracking of

a Concrete Buttress Dam. Nordic Concrete Research, Vol. 38, No. 2, 69-88.

Ansell, A., Ekstrm T., Hassanzadeh M. and Malm R. 2009. Verification of

the cause of the cracks in a Buttress Dam. Accepted for the 23rd ICOLD

CONGRESS, Brazil, May 2009

Malm, R., 2005. Analys av sprickbildning och sprickbredd vid plant spnningstillstnd i balkliv av armerad betong (In Swedish). Tech. report 88,

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.

Malm, R., 2006. Shear cracks in concrete structures subjected to in-plane

stresses. Lic. Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm.

Ansell, A., Ekstrm, T., Hassanzadeh, M., Malm, R. 2009. Cracked concrete

buttress dams Part 2. Elforsk Report, Stockholm (in press)

xii

Contents

Abstract

Sammanfattning

vii

Preface

ix

List of Publications

xi

1 Introduction

1.1

Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

1.3

1.4

Research contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1

2.1.1

2.1.2

2.1.3

Plasticity theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.1.4

Damage theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.1.5

2.2

2.3

Numerical instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

3 Numerical studies

3.1

23

xiii

3.2

3.3

4 Conclusions

35

4.1

General conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4.2

Further research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Bibliography

43

Appended Papers

45

45

and assessment

III Nonlinear analysis of thermally induced cracking of a concrete dam

67

webs of concrete box-girder sections

83

bridges

97

109

xiv

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1

Background

Limiting the crack width or the reinforcement stress to a predefined value in the

serviceability state is a requirement in most design codes. The proposed methods

in most of these codes are based on experimental data where the cracks are results

from bending or tensile loads. These methods do not thereby include the effect of

internal friction and aggregate interlocking. Inclined cracks, initiating from tensile

stresses and propagating due to a combination of shear and tension, can be significantly affected by aggregate interlocking. Cracking in concrete is different from that

in materials such as metal and glass, characterised by continuous formation and

bridging of micro-cracks that develop into a macro-crack. The formation of microcracks in concrete is macroscopically represented as a softening behaviour, which

causes localisation and redistribution of strain. The softening behaviour also causes

a stiffness degradation, which is evident in cyclic tests. These tests also show that

concrete under tensile loading is characterised by plastic deformations, i.e. permanent deformations. A detailed description of the constitutive behaviour of concrete

should account for stiffness degradation, permanent residual strains and aggregate

interlocking. The latter can be implemented in several different ways, through shear

retention factor, dilation, frictional stresses in the crack plane, etc.

The finite element method (FEM) is an important tool for analysing the non-linear

behaviour caused by cracking. This is of great importance when combined with

experimental investigations to evaluate load bearing capacity or establishing the

structural health. Large concrete structures seldom collapse due to exceeding the

ultimate load capacity. Instead, it is more common that these are not able to satisfy

the requirements in the serviceability state with deflections or crack widths that

may compromise the durability. In this thesis it will be shown that non-linear finite

element analyses successfully can be used to predict these cracks and deflections

with sufficient accuracy.

Cracks were found on two newly built balanced cantilever bridges, Grndal and

Alvik bridges, after two years of service. A photo of the Alvik Bridge is shown

in Figure 1.1. Subsequent inspections showed that the number of cracks increased

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

as well as the crack widths. This initiated discussion regarding available methods

for estimating crack widths of inclined shear type cracks and their reliability. The

idea of this PhD project was to use the Grndal and Alvik bridges as a reference to

study shear type cracking which hopefully could lead to recommendations of suitable

methods.

Figure 1.1: The balanced cantilever constructed Alvik Bridge. Photo S. Trillkott

1.2

The thesis consists of the introductory part and six appended papers. Most of the

results are presented in the papers. The introductory part summarise the main

aspects of the papers and also contribute with additional information. The theories

that constitute the background to the numerical methods used in the papers are

also presented in the introductory part. Because the introductory part includes

additional information, references not included in the appended papers are given.

The main purpose of the introductory part of this thesis is to describe the role each

paper has for the PhD project. A reader may start with the introductory part for

an overview and after this continue with the papers.

In all papers, the possibility of numerically describing the behaviour that signifies

concrete cracking is studied. In Paper I and II, finite element material models and

simplified calculation methods of deep beams subjected to shear type loading are

compared to experiments. Paper III presents finite element analyses of temperature

induced cracking in a concrete buttress dam. In Paper IV, numerical methods in

several design codes for the crack width estimation are studied. In Paper V and VI,

finite element analyses of the construction process of a balanced cantilever bridge

are presented.

1.3

The objective of this PhD project was to increase the understanding of cracking in

concrete structures, where different means for estimating this is analysed. Describing

cracks that propagate in combination of shear and tension is the main focus in the

thesis. These are primarily studied in the serviceability state, but when evaluating

different non-linear numerical methods the analyses are performed up to the load

carrying capacity.

The aim of this work is to study shear type crack initiation and propagation in

concrete structures. In the first part of this thesis the possibility of using finite

element analysis as a tool for predicting shear type cracking is studied. The fundamental theories that form the basis for the constitutive concrete material models are

described. Recommendations regarding some specific material parameters and procedures to avoid convergence difficulties are presented. A selection has been made

to the theories implemented in the commercial finite element programs Atena and

Abaqus, two of the programs used for analyses in this thesis. The purpose of the

numerical studies is to analyse concrete beams from crack initiation and follow the

crack propagation towards shear type failure. The models are used to compare their

numerical response with the experimentally obtained. The reason for this is that

the capability of the finite element programs to describe the shear crack initiation

and propagation must be studied and compared. It is also of importance to study

how shear type cracks are treated in the concrete design codes. Numerical studies

are performed on the Grndal Bridge based on design loads in the serviceability

state, as well as an estimation of the actual crack widths for load conditions that is

probable during the first years of the bridge.

When a reliable modelling method is chosen, the next phase is to develop realistic

finite element models to analyse the cause for cracking in large concrete structures.

The knowledge from performed measurements may act as input but is especially used

for verification of the calculated results. The studied objects are verified against insitu observations of crack patterns and crack widths. One of the structures is also

verified against measured displacements and variations in crack width.

One of the limitations in this thesis is that only shear type cracks are studied. These

are except for flexural or tensile cracks, i.e. cracks that both initiate and propagate

in tension, probably the most common type of cracks. Cracks that initiate and

propagate from direct shear are hence not studied here. Only continuum based

material models are studied in this thesis, as distinct from discrete or cohesive

interface material models. The continuum based models are more computational

effective and cracks can initiate anywhere within the structure, not only at predefined

interface elements. Already available methods for describing the cracking behaviour

are analysed. The thesis focus on the evaluation and application of these methods

and how drawbacks in the methods can be avoided.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1.4

Research contribution

From a scientific point of view, the original feature of this thesis is that non-linear

finite element analysis is shown to estimate crack widths of shear type cracks more

accurately than the commonly used methods in the design codes. The finite element

material model used for evaluation is compared to other methods and verified against

laboratory test. From a practical point of view, the original feature is that the

numerical modelling method is used to analyse to two large concrete structures

where the cause for cracking is evaluated and verified against observations made

in-situ and experimental data.

Different methods for describing cracking in concrete are critically evaluated. When

comparing the methods, it was important that all were created with as similar

material description as possible. In other studies found in the literature only one

modelling approach is usually presented. In their studies, it is not always evident

whether the material properties have been altered to give as good fit to an experiment as possible. The purpose of the numerical results presented in this thesis is

not to receive an exact fit to measured data. Instead, it is of importance that the

material models can predict the behaviour and give a good result even if the material properties are not entirely accurate. The material parameters in all presented

analyses have been kept constant throughout each of the separate projects, even

though a better fit could be received if any of the parameters were changed. For

instance, in Paper II a perfect fit would have been possible to achieve with all the

different programs, but then each program would have used a different description

of the material, i.e. different values of tensile strength, fracture energy, etc.

The same procedure was utilised in the comparison of the calculation methods in

the design codes for crack width estimation. All preconditions have been assumed

equal in the calculations when comparing the methods. These calculations also have

been made with material properties based on each of the studied codes to determine

whether differences in the material definition could result in a different conclusion

regarding which method is most suitable.

When a suitable modelling method was chosen and it was verified that it could describe shear type cracking, cyclic thermal cracking was studied. The Storfinnforsen

hydropower dam, see Figure 1.2, is evaluated where the seasonal temperature variation in combination with the water pressure have led to cracking in the buttress

dam. It was shown that the installation of an insulation wall has resulted in formation of new cracks. It was also shown that an alternative placement of the wall

would have been more suitable and would not have caused these new cracks.

As the modelling method was verified against cracking due to shear and thermal

actions, it was used to analyse the construction of the Grndal Bridge. In this

thesis a rational explanation of the cause for cracking is presented. It is shown that

large stresses and micro-cracks develop in the webs during construction, especially

after tensioning the continuing tendons in the bottom flange. Temperature variation

causes cracking in the webs that is in close agreement with the cracking found insitu. The effect of the strengthening on this bridge is also presented where the

vertical Dywidag tendons so far seem to have been successful to stop further crack

propagation.

Figure 1.2: Storfinnforsen hydropower plant in the Faxlven River. Photo from

P. Stenstrm, WSP.

Chapter 2

Numerical models of concrete

2.1

The material models used in the finite element analyses are described in the appended papers. This section is intended to be a compliment to the descriptions

presented in the papers, where a wider description of the theories behind the constitutive material models is presented.

The behaviour at failure of concrete differs, depending on if it subjected to low or

high pressures. At low pressures the failure is typically brittle in nature, which is

the case for tensile stresses and compressive stresses at low hydrostatic pressures. If

concrete is subjected to higher hydrostatic pressures, on the other hand, the material

can deform plastically on the failure surface like a ductile material before failure

strains are obtained, Chen (1982). This section is intended for readers familiar with

the non-linear behaviour of concrete and describes the implementations and the

theories used to simulate the non-linear behaviour of concrete. There are several

textbooks and journal papers on this matter and an interested reader is referred

to the following literature regarding the numerical implementations studied in this

thesis for describing concrete mechanics; Malm (2006); Chen (1982); Chen and Han

(1995); Elfgren (1989); Bangash (2001); Jirsek and Baant (2002); de Borst (1986);

Rots (2002); Mang et al. (2003); Karihaloo (2003) and Weihe et al. (1998).

The three main theories for continuum mechanics describing concrete cracking are

fracture mechanics, plasticity theory and damage theory. Combinations of these theories are implemented in the finite element programs used for the analyses presented

in the appended papers.

2.1.1

Attempts to describe concrete with linear elastic fracture mechanics have been made

since the 1950s. In the early applications of fracture as a constructive phenomenon,

the material was considered to be totally brittle, i.e. a complete loss of stiffness

at failure, Rashid (1968); Cervenka (1970). These models was shown to have nu-

merical difficulties and also problems with stress singularity at the crack tip and

was sensitive to the size and direction of the mesh. The first non-linear theory of

fracture mechanics was proposed by Hillerborg et al. (1976). It includes the tension

softening fracture process zone through a fictitious crack in front of the pre-existing

crack whose faces are acted upon by certain closing stresses such that there is no

stress concentration at the tip of this extended crack, as shown in Figure 2.1. The

stress increases from zero at the tip of the pre-existing traction-free macro-crack to

the full strength of the material ft . The proposed model assumes that the fracture

process zone is of negligible thickness and thereof the alternative name discrete crack

model. (Karihaloo, 2003)

Studies of the behaviour of the fracture process zone subjected to combined normal and shear displacements is given by Hassanzadeh (1991a,b); van Mier et al.

(1991). From the experiments it can be seen that essentially the same mechanism

of aggregate interlock occurs between surfaces of micro-cracks and macro-cracks.

s(w)

wc

ft

w

KI = 0

a0

lp

crack length

residual stress transfer capacity (w) whose faces close smoothly near

its tip (the critical stress intensity factor KI = 0). Reproduction from

Hillerborg et al. (1976); Karihaloo (2003).

lp

the length of the fracture process zone,

w

inelastic crack opening displacement, and

wc

the crack opening displacement when the crack can be considered as

traction-free.

Two material parameters are essential to describe the material behaviour in the

discrete crack model; the stress-displacement relation (w) in the softening zone

and the fracture energy Gf , which is defined as the area under the tension softening

curve, Karihaloo (2003). The fracture energy defines the amount of energy that is

needed to open a unit area of a crack to obtain a stress free crack. The fracture

energy can be determined according to the test method designed by RILEM 50FMC (1985) for a beam subjected to three-point bending. For ordinary concrete

the fracture energy is normally between 50 and 200 N/m depending on concrete

strength and the size of the ballast, Bangash (2001). The three most common

numerical descriptions of the softening are a linear, a bilinear or an exponential

function. The linear softening behaviour can in most cases provide a solution that

gives accurate results, even though the material response tends to be slightly too stiff.

The stiffness problem with the linear softening reduces with decreased element size,

as shown by Malm (2006). The bilinear description was derived by Hillerborg (1985)

and have been shown for several cases to be sufficiently accurate, e.g. by Gylltoft

(1991). The exponential function was experimentally derived by Cornelissen et al.

(1986) and is considered by to be the best and most accurate description, according

to Karihaloo (2003).

2.1.2

Micro-cracking and the bridging in the fracture process zone is not continuous and

it does not necessary develop in narrow discrete regions in line with the continuous

traction-free crack. Because of this, it has been argued that the tension softening

relation (w) can equally well be approximated by a strain softening relation (),

i.e. decreasing stress with increasing inelastic strain. However, this strain is related

to the inelastic crack opening displacement w and the fracture energy. This means

that the ultimate strain at rupture, c is related to wc and in other words the strain

is now defined by a fracture criterion. Characterisation of the tension softening

behaviour of concrete in this smeared manner through a strain softening constitutive

relation, was introduced by Baant (1979) and was further developed by Baant and

Oh (1983). To relate the inelastic strain to the crack opening displacement w and

the fracture energy Gf , a width h had to be defined where = w/h. It is assumed

that the micro-cracks in the fracture process zone are distributed over a band of

width h, hence the name crack band model. As the micro-cracks are assumed to

be smeared over an element, the whole element fractures as the tensile strength is

reached. (Karihaloo, 2003)

The total strain in an element is defined as the sum of the elastic strain and the

inelastic strain. There are two approaches for determining the crack direction in the

smeared crack methods. The first method, called the fixed crack model, is obtained if

the smeared cracks in the crack band are normal to the principal tensile stress at the

moment of crack initiation and their direction do not change during the subsequent

growth of the crack band even when the direction of the principal stress changes. In

the second method the crack rotates as the direction of the principal stress changes.

With this approach, the crack is therefore always normal to the principal tensile

stress direction, hence the name rotated crack model. One main difference between

these two approaches is how the shear stresses and shear strains are treated at the

smeared crack bands. In the fixed crack model the need for a shear retention factor

which reduces the shear modulus is needed to avoid convergence difficulties and

to avoid physically unrealistic and distorted crack patterns. In concrete the shear

retention factor allows for the roughness of crack faces due to aggregate interlocking,

etc. The shear modulus is normally reduced with increasing strain, which represents

a reduction of the shear stiffness due to crack opening. In the rotated crack model

no shear stresses can occur in the crack plane since the crack follows the direction of

the principal stress. In this case an implicit shear modulus is calculated to provide

co-axiality between the rotating principal stress and strain. (Rots, 2002)

2.1.3

Plasticity theory

Plasticity is a tool for describing ductile material behaviour. It is, however, also

used for finite element analysis of brittle behaviour. The classical theory of plasticity, like any mathematical representation of the mechanical behaviour of solids, may

be viewed in two ways; as a translation of the physical reality or as a model that

approximates the behaviour under certain circumstances. Regarding concrete it has

generally been acknowledged that such prominent features of plasticity theory as

a well-defined yield criterion and a strictly elastic unloading are approximations at

best. Nevertheless, many problems involving brittle materials have been quite successfully treated by means of plasticity theory, according to Lubliner et al. (1989). In

problems in which tension, with the attendant crack development, plays a significant

role - such as shear failure in reinforced concrete structures - the usual procedure is

to apply plasticity theory in the compression zone, and treat the zones in which at

least one principal stress is tensile by one of several versions of fracture mechanics.

(Lubliner et al., 1989)

Yield and failure functions

In biaxial tests on concrete and geomaterials it is usually found that the various

critical surfaces in stress space are similar. Concrete can exhibit a significant volume change when subjected to severe inelastic states. In Figure 2.2 (a) it can be

seen that the increase in volume can be more than twice as large for the hydrostatic compressive stress state, illustrated as 1 /2 = 1/ 1 in Figure 2.2, as

for uniaxial compression 1 /2 = 1/0. In Figure 2.2 (a) the points marked on

the stress-volumetric strain diagrams indicate the limit of elasticity, the point of

inflection in the volumetric strain, the bendover point corresponding to the onset

of instability or localisation of deformation and the ultimate load. The critical surfaces corresponding to these material states are illustrated in Figure 2.2 (b). The

surfaces give an indication of the expansion of the failure surface, i.e. the reserves

of strength that concrete has from the moment its elastic limit is reached until it

completely ruptures. (Karihaloo, 2003)

The same result is not found in triaxial compression tests, at least not for sufficiently

high hydrostatic pressures. This means that, while the yield surface (however defined) is closed, the failure surface is open in the direction of hydrostatic pressure,

Lubliner et al. (1989). Since the critical surfaces are similar in the biaxial behaviour

of concrete, a yield function is used in the plasticity based models. This yield function is initially defined to correspond to the elastic limit and the surface expands

during subsequent loading up to failure. The size of the yield function is based on

the material properties defined for the uniaxial behaviour of concrete. The yield

surface is based on the strengths defined as the material no longer acts elastic and

the failure surface is based on the ultimate strengths. In uniaxial tension, the material is normally defined to be elastic up to the tensile strength. This means that

in the biaxial tensile meridian the yield surface is equal to the failure surface. In

compression the material is usually assumed to be initially elastic up to 30 60 %

of the compressive strength, Chen (1982).

10

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.2: (a) Volumetric strain in biaxial compression, (b) typical loading curves

under biaxial stresses. From Karihaloo (2003).

Several different failure (or yield) criteria have been developed for concrete materials. In Figure 2.3 some common failure surfaces are presented together with

experimental data from Kupfer and Gerstle (1969). For steel usually the von Mises

failure criterion is used, see Figure 2.3 (a). The yield criteria most often used for

concrete materials are the Drucker-Prager and Mohr-Coulomb criteria, see Figure

2.3 (b) and (c), respectively. According to Lubliner et al. (1989), these criteria do

not represent experimental results for concrete very well unless suitably modified.

One modification is for instance to use a combination of the Mohr-Coulomb and

the Drucker-Prager yield functions, where the Drucker-Prager is used for biaxial

compression and the Mohr-Coulomb is used otherwise.

s/fc

s/fc

s/fc

-1

-1

-1

-0.5

-2

-2

-2

-1

-3

-3 -2 -1

1

s/fc

-3

-3 -2

1

s/fc

(b) Drucker-Prager

-1

-3

-3 -2

s/fc

0.5

0

1

s/fc

(c) Mohr-Coulomb

-1

Figure 2.3: Failure criteria for biaxial stress state illustrated for plane stress state.

Reproduction from Jirsek and Baant (2002).

11

-1.5

-1.5 -1 -0.5

Hardening

The strain tensor in plasticity based models is decomposed into an elastic part and

a plastic part. Plasticity theory permits a description of the dependence of strain in

the material on its history through the introduction of an internal scalar variable,

here denoted as . The internal variable usually describes irreversible material behaviour and its evolution is expressed by means of rate equations which are functions

of the plastic strain rate, = f (p ). In both the work-hardening hypothesis and

the strain-hardening hypothesis the internal parameter, called hardening parameter

is integrated along the loading path to give the scalar hardening variable, . The

hardening rule defines the motion of the subsequent yield surfaces during plastic

loading. The yield condition generalises the concept of yield stress to multi-axial

stress states and includes the history dependence through the scalar hardening variable. Since the yield function is dependent on the loading history through it can

only expand or shrink in the stress space, not translate or rotate. Such hardening

is called isotropic hardening, whether the work-hardening or the strain-hardening

approach is used. The direction of the plastic strain tensor p is determined from

the derivative of the plastic potential function which is illustrated in Figure 2.4.

(Karihaloo, 2003)

Flow rule

As previously mentioned the shape of the yield surface at any given loading condition

can be determined by the hardening rule. The connection between the yield surface

and the stress-strain relationship is determined with a flow rule.

Concrete can exhibit a significant volume change when subjected to severe inelastic

states. This change in volume, usually referred to as dilation, is caused by plastic

distortion and can be reproduced by using an adequate plastic potential function G,

Lubliner et al. (1989). The evolution of the inelastic displacements in the fracture

process zone is defined through the flow rule. The flow rule is defined as

p =

(2.1)

where 0 is a scalar hardening parameter which can vary throughout the straining

process. The gradient of the potential surface G/ defines the direction of the

plastic strain increment vector p , and the hardening parameter determines its

length. (Chen and Han, 1995)

The most simple case is when the plastic potential function coincides with the yield

surface, i.e. has the same shape. The plastic flow develops along the normal to

the yield surface. This is called an associated flow, because the plastic flow is

connected or associated with the yield criterion. The other approach where two

separate functions are used for the plastic flow rule and the yield surface, and where

they do not coincide is called a non-associated flow. In this case the plastic flow

develops along the normal to the plastic flow potential and not to the yield surface.

(Glvez et al., 2002)

12

Hardening

.

ep

_

q

Hyperbolic Drucker-Prager

flow potential

_

p

Figure 2.4: The Drucker-Prager hyperbolic plastic potential function in the meridional plane. From Hibbitt et al. (2007).

is the Drucker-Prager hyperbolic plastic potential function used in the material

model concrete damaged plasticity in the finite element program Abaqus, (Hibbitt

et al., 2007). In the figure hardening through the scalar hardening parameter is

illustrated. This function will be described in more detail in Section 2.2. The

parameters in Figure 2.4 are:

p

2.1.4

the hydrostatic pressure stress, which is a function of the first stress invariant I1 , defined as

p = I1 /3 = (11 + 22 + 33 )/3

the Mises

equivalent effective stress, described as

q

2

2

J2 = 11

+ 22

11 22 for biaxial loading

and S is the effective deviatoric stress tensor S = pI +

Damage theory

The progressive evolution of micro-cracks and nucleation and growth of voids are

represented in concrete damage models by a set of variables which alter the elastic

and/or plastic behaviour of concrete at the macroscopic level. In practical implementation, the damage models are very similar to the plasticity theory described in

Section 2.1.3. In all concrete damage models, unloading leaves no residual damage

regardless of the degree of damage induced up to the instant of unloading. This

means that there is no plastic deformation, which is rather unrealistic. For this

reason there are theories that couple the stiffness reduction with the plastic deformation, later described in Section 2.1.5. (Karihaloo, 2003)

In damage models the total stress-strain relation have the following form

= Ds :

13

(2.2)

where is the stress tensor, is the strain tensor. The secant stiffness tensor Ds of

the damaged material depends on a number of internal variables which can be tensorial, vectorial or scalar. The expression in Eq. (2.2) differs from classical non-linear

elasticity by a history dependence, which is introduced through a loading-unloading

function F . This function vanishes upon loading and is negative otherwise. It is the

counterpart of the yield function in plasticity theory. For damage growth, F must

remain zero for an infinitesimal period, so that its derivative dF/dt = 0. The theory

is completed by specifying the appropriate material dependent evolution equations

for the internal variables. (de Borst, 2002)

Isotropic damage models

For the case with isotropic damage evolution, the total stress-strain in Eq. (2.2) specialises so that the initial shear modulus and the initial bulk modulus are degraded

with separate scalar damage variables d1 and d2 . A simplification of the isotropic

model can be made by assuming that the degradation of the secant shear stiffness

(1 d1 )G and the secant bulk moduli (1 d2 )K degrade in the same manner during damage growth, i.e. d d1 = d2 . This means that the Poissons ratio of the

material remains unchanged during damage growth and leads to

= (1 d)D0 :

(2.3)

where the damage variable d grows from zero at an undamaged state to one at

complete loss of integrity. The stiffness tensor D0 represent the stiffness of the

undamaged material. (de Borst, 2002)

In case of proportional loading of concrete structures, where cracking often results

from a practically uniaxial tensile stress, isotropic models are generally considered as

sufficiently accurate. It should be noted that the stiffness of the compressive struts

in reinforced concrete members may be considerably underestimated, according to

Mang et al. (2003). According to Grassl and Rempling (2007), isotropic damage

models often fail to describe realistic crack patterns in mixed mode fracture tests.

In these cases, an anisotropic damage model or damage-coupled plasticity is needed.

2.1.5

The damage strain described in Section 2.1.4 is not a permanent strain. It is fully

recovered on unloading unlike the equivalent plastic strain. It is known that for

concrete after unloading some permanent strains remain due to sliding and friction

in the micro-cracks. Since failure mechanics of concrete in tension as well as in

compression for low levels of confinement is associated with stiffness degradation

as well as with inelastic deformations, models characterised by a coupling between

damage and plasticity have been developed.

In continuum damage mechanics, the stiffness degradation can be modeled by defining the relationship between stresses and effective stresses. The simplest mode of

coupling between damage and plasticity is a scalar damage elasto-plastic model

14

equation for the model is

= (1 d)D0 : ( p )

(2.4)

According to the effective stress concept, the plastic yield function is formulated in

terms of effective stress. The effective stress is calculated according to

2.2

1d

(2.5)

The constitutive concrete model used in most analyses presented in this thesis, is the

concrete damaged plasticity model in Abaqus. A detailed description of this method

is presented in Paper VI. In this section only some additional information will be

given, aiming at describing a suitable choice for the dilation angle. In this section,

parameter studies for dilation angle in shear type cracking problems and description

of measurements and observations regarding dilatancy are presented. The uniaxial

behaviour of this model is presented in Papers II, III and VI. The biaxial yield

function used in concrete damaged plasticity was developed by Lubliner et al. (1989)

and includes the modifications that later were proposed by Lee and Fenves (1998).

The yield function is a combined geometric shape of two different Drucker-Prager

type functions as illustrated in Figure 2.5. The equation for the yield function is

presented in Eq. (3) in Paper VI.

>

uniaxial tension

s2

1

(q -3 a p + bs2 ) = fc0

1-a

ft0

s1

uniaxial compression

biaxial tension

>

1

(q -3 a p + bs1 )=fc0

1- a

sc0

(f b0 ,f b0)

biaxial compression

1

1-a (q -3 a p ) = fc0

Figure 2.5: Biaxial yield surface in the constitutive model concrete damaged plasticity. From Hibbitt et al. (2007).

The yield criterion is based on an invariant function of the state of stress, i.e. independent of the choice of the coordinate systems. The parameters in Figure 2.5 are:

15

fb0 fc0

where 0 0.5

=

2fb0 fc0

fc0

the initial uniaxial compressive yield stress.

fb0

the initial equibiaxial compressive yield stress

ft0

the uniaxial tensile stress at failure

c (

pc )

=

( 1) ( + 1)

t (

pt )

c (

t (

Dilation

The Drucker-Prager hyperbolic plastic potential function used in concrete damaged

plasticity in Abaqus is illustrated in Figure 2.4 and defined as

p

(2.6)

G = (ft0 tan )2 + q2 p tan

where,

is the eccentricity, which defines the rate at which the plastic potential

function approaches the asymptote. Increasing value of provides more

curvature to the low potential, and

is the dilation angle, measured in the p q plane at high confining pressure.

The flow in the Drucker-Prager function is non-associative (not identical with the

yield surface) in the meridional plane if the dilation angle and the material friction

angle are different.

The dilation angle is used as a material parameter in Abaqus. It measures the

inclination the plastic potential reaches for high confining pressures. Low values of

the dilation angle will produce brittle behaviour while higher values will produce

more ductile behaviour. A parameter study on a reinforced beam subjected to fourpoint bending presented in Malm et al. (2006) is shown here in Figure 2.6. In the

figure it can be seen that the difference in behaviour is rather small between 20

and 40 and especially between 30 and 40 where the difference is only marginal.

The best agreement with the experimental response was reached for a dilation angle

between 30 and 40 . In the verification of the material model developed by Lee

and Fenves (1998), the dilation is defined as 31 to describe both uniaxial tensile

and compressive failure, while a slightly lower dilation of about 25 for verifying

the biaxial compressive failure with the experimental curves from Kupfer et al.

(1969). Their material properties was assumed equal to ft = 3.5 MPa and fc =

27.6 MPa for the tensile and compressive strength respectively. The initial elastic

modulus was 31.7 MPa in their analyses. Jankowiak and Lodygowski (2005) presents

a study with parameter identification of the dilation angle used in Abaqus. In

their study, it was determined to 38 based on a minimisation of the error of the

biaxial failure envelope of Kupfer et al. (1969) and the yield surface in Abaqus.

The properties of the concrete was experimentally determined to ft = 2.8 MPa

16

Jankowiak and Lodygowski (2005). A rather low elastic modulus of E = 19.7 GPa

was determined in their experiments. These studies shows that the dilation angle

in concrete damaged plasticity should be defined between approximately 25 and

40 to describe normal grade concrete to describe both tension and compression in

biaxial stress states. Choosing a dilation in the higher range will result in a better

description for the behaviour for a low degree of confining pressure. In the analyses

presented in the appended papers the dilation angle is chosen within 35 and 38 .

In the next part of this section, measurements and observation of the dilation angle

found in the literature are presented.

80

70

Load [kN]

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0

3

4

5

Mid deflection [mm]

Experiment

y = b = 56.3

y = 50

y = 40

y = 30

y = 20

y = 10

6

7

Figure 2.6: Parameter study of the dilation angle, from Malm et al. (2006).

In rock mechanics, roughness is often introduced where frictional forces are transmitted along the inclined sliding surfaces of the asperities, Patton (1966). In the

case of a smooth joint, i.e. with no relevant asperity effect, the response is characterised by no dilatancy coupled with constant shear effect. In rough joints the

response depends on the slip direction, forward or backward. In forward slip, the

joint dilates and its shear strength is also higher. On the contrary, in backward slip

the joint contracts and slides at a lower shear force. Puntel and Saouma (2008)

measured the shear response of a sandblasted specimen under confining pressure,

the roughness was laser-scanned and varied only about 4 mm along the crack. In

this case the confining pressure might besides this have smoothen the contact points

and hence resulting in a smooth joint where nearly no dilation was measured. They

measured a dilation angle of about 10 that reduced during subsequent load cycles.

Alejano and Alonso (2005) states that the peak dilation angle at very low stress

levels can be equal to the material friction angle. Increasing degree of confinement

and plastic strain reduces the dilation angle. It is shown for several tests that the

dilation angle is above 50 for a low degree of confinement and axial plastic strain.

The dilation angle reduces to only a few degrees for high plastic axial strain and

confining compressive stress.

17

In the analyses presented in the appended papers, the size of ballast will produce

a roughness that is much larger than in the case presented by Puntel and Saouma

(2008). Furthermore, according to Johansson and Stille (2009), a small variation in

the matedness of the crack will have a significant impact on the dilation angle. This

means the better two crack faces fit together, the higher dilation angle. The cracks

studied in this thesis, will have a high degree of matedness, or even be perfectly

mated, i.e. a perfect fit between the two crack faces. This is since the cracks

develop from tensile stresses and propagate from tensile and shear stresses. This

means that the normal stress, i.e. confinement, is small which is also a factor that

indicates that the dilation angle should be much higher than presented by Puntel and

Saouma (2008). According to Johansson and Stille (2009) a perfectly mated crack

in hard rock under low normal stresses could have a dilation angle of approximately

35 , which is similar to the values of the dilation angle presented by Jankowiak and

Lodygowski (2005); Malm et al. (2006). In shear test results made for asperities of

nine granite samples presented by Grasseli (2001) a dilation angle between 29 and

39 was found. These experiments were conducted with a rather low normal stress

of about 1.1 MPa to 2.3 MPa.

2.3

Numerical instability

localised material failure. When local instabilities develop, it may not be possible

to obtain a converging solution. At a brittle failure, the diagonal shear type crack

usually initiates rapidly, from nearly invisible just before the peak load and after the

peak load it dominates the appearance. This may result in convergence difficulties

if an implicit solution scheme is used.

For models where there is no reinforcement in significant regions of the model, the

tension softening approach based on a stress-strain relationship will introduce unreasonable mesh sensitivity into the results, according to Hibbitt et al. (2007) and

Cervenka et al. (2005). For these cases it is better to define the fracture energy

or defining the stress and crack opening displacement curve. According to Elfgren

(1989) the element size dependency can be reduced if associated with a regularisa-

18

tion technique, thereby distributing the dissipated energy over the elements. The

localised crack is distributed over a continuum finite element, provided that the crack

opening w is equal to the element strain times the crack band width h, which for

low order elements often is equal to the element length, according to Rots and Ivernizzi (2004). The size of the crack band is associated with the size, orientation

and integration scheme of the finite element.

Avoiding convergence difficulties

Avoiding convergence difficulties can be done in several ways. The most obvious

method is to define the mesh, boundary conditions and loads to minimise potential

numerical singularities. Another technique is to change the convergence criteria and

allowing a larger number of iterations before convergence is checked. If possible, the

problem might be converted into a quasi-static analysis where an explicit solution

scheme can be used. Point loads and distributed loads can be converted to velocities

of a small magnitude, hence ensuring small kinematic energy content compared to

the strain energy. Regularisation techniques mentioned above, may also help to

improve the convergence. Another way to overcome convergence difficulties is to

introduce artificial damping. This reduces the rate of energy dissipation from one

cracked element to its surroundings.

Most analyses presented in the appended papers are performed with an implicit

solution scheme. The simulations performed in Abaqus had a tendency to interrupt

due to convergence difficulties. The most effective method to continue beyond this,

is in the authors opinion, reducing the tolerances and increasing the number or

iterations performed before the rate of convergence is checked. Typically, the tolerances are reduced to 10 % of the default values and limiting the maximum number of

iterations between two and four times the default values. This results in small time

increments when reaching a point where convergence might be compromised and

thereby increasing the cpu-time. In combination with these measures, a small fraction of visco-plastic regularisation of the constitutive equations was used. A small

fraction of stabilising energy also was included. It is shown in Paper III, Malm and

Ansell (2008), that even with a high content of stabilising energy, the crack pattern

could still be accurately described.

Mesh dependency

The results showed that the order of the element was found to be of no importance.

In the analyses, only finite-strain elements were used and all element types had

passed both force and displacement patch tests, for both membrane and plate bending. Patch test in the finite element method is a simple indicator of the quality of

an element, developed by Irons and Razzaque (1972). The patch test uses a partial

differential equation on a domain consisting from several element set-ups so that the

exact solution is known. Elements pass the patch test, if the finite element solution

is the same as the exact solution. The shell elements presented in the appended

papers are all modeled with general purpose elements that allow transverse shear

19

deformation. They use Mindlin thick shell theory as the shell thickness increases and

becomes discrete Kirchhoff thin shell elements as the thickness decreases, i.e. the

transverse shear deformation becomes very small as the shell thickness decreases.

The presented results in Paper III and Papers V - VI are mainly shown for triangular

three node elements (S3) or hexahedral four node elements with reduced integration

(S4R), respectively.

The analyses also showed that the results in Abaqus was not especially dependent on

the element size or element direction. This may be a result of the tension softening

being defined in displacements or fracture energy and that the damage is isotropic

which means that it is damaged in all directions. The difference in results based on

a fine and a coarse mesh presented by Malm (2006) is shown in Figure 2.8.

Experiment

ABAQUS fine mesh, L = 5 mm

ABAQUS coarse mesh, L = 50 mm

60

Load [kN]

50

ABAQUS fine mesh, L = 5 mm

40

30

20

10

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Figure 2.8: Calculations with a fine and a coarse mesh made with the concrete damaged plasticity material model, from Malm (2006).

In Atena the following failure band approach is utilized to reduce the effect of mesh

sensitivity, both for element size and element orientation for skew meshes. This

approach was also used in Abaqus when calculating the crack widths. The element

length for skew meshes was calculated as

L

= L

= 1 + (max 1)

where

,

45

0 45

(2.7)

the failure plane and the element sides, see Figure 2.9.

0

is the length of the crack band with skew mesh. The length is denoted Lt

0

for tension and Lc for compression.

is a factor accounting for skew mesh, the recommended value of max = 1.5.

The crack width is calculated as the total crack opening displacement within the

crack band

0

(2.8)

w = cr Lt

20

where

cr

is the crack opening strain, which is equal to the strain normal to the

crack direction in the cracked state after the complete stress release.

4 noded element

y

crack

direction

q2

q1

Lc

Lt

Figure 2.9: Definition of localization (crack) band. From Cervenka et al. (2005).

21

Chapter 3

Numerical studies

Analysing crack initiation and crack propagation is not an easy task even though

commercial finite element codes with highly sophisticated material models for describing the behaviour exist. This PhD project was initiated as a result of analysing

the means for estimating crack initiation and propagation in concrete structures.

After two years of service cracks were found on two newly built balanced cantilever

bridges, called the Grndal and Alvik bridges. These cracks are a result of several

combined effects such as time-dependent material effects, thermal and shear loads.

The problem has been divided into steps where the different causes for cracking

can be studied separately. This is done by starting with analyses of deep beams

where cracking is governed by shear loading. After this, a case study of the inclined cracking due to thermal effects in the Storfinnforsen hydropower dam was

analysed. The last case study is the Grndal Bridge where the experience from the

previous case studies constitutes the starting point, where the combined effects from

time-dependent material effects, thermal loads and shear loads are studied.

3.1

The first two numerical studies of deep beams are presented in Papers I and II,

(Malm and Holmgren, 2008a,b). The experimentally obtained crack pattern is illustrated in Figure 3.1 for one of the studied beams. In Paper I the laboratory

experiments are presented along with calculations based on truss and strut-and-tie

models. The most accurate method, developed by Zhang and Tan (2007), gave an

average calculated ultimate load for the ten beams equal to 0.9 of the experimental load. The accuracy of the different methods and for the different beams varied

considerably. Almost all estimations were conservative and sometimes very conservative. It was interesting to note that the EC 2 (2004) model gave the best result for

the beams with higher reinforcement ratio and therefore resulted in a shear compressive failure. The Zhang and Tan (2007) method, however, gave the best estimations

of the beams with the lower amount of web reinforcement which therefore resulted

in the diagonal tensile failure.

Paper II presents non-linear numerical analyses of the experiments. Two different

23

finite element programs Abaqus, (Hibbitt et al., 2007), and Atena, (Cervenka et al.,

2005), and one program based on sectional forces called Response, (Bentz, 2000),

are studied. These programs are chosen both due to accessibility and since these

are some of the most respected and widely used for concrete analyses. The Abaqus

model is primarily based on plasticity and damage theory, but it also includes the

fracture process zone from fracture mechanics. The theories behind the concrete

damaged plasticity material model are presented in the following sections 2.1.3, 2.1.4

and the combination of these theories in 2.1.5. The Atena models are based on

fracture mechanics and damage theory for the tensile behaviour of concrete where

the direction of a crack can be either fixed or rotating in respect to a changing

stress state. The theories behind the material model SBETA in Atena are presented

in the following sections 2.1.2 and 2.1.4. The Response model is based on the

modified compression field theory, Vecchio and Collins (1986), and is similar to the

rotating crack model in Atena. The purpose with these calculations was to study

the difference in calculation methods. Therefore, all material data was described as

equal as possible in all analyses.

300

B5

375

300

225

(190)

225

300

(260)

300

300

375

300

225

300

300

300

300 300

225

225

225

300

300

300

Figure 3.1: Illustration of a studied deep beam and the experimentally obtained crack

pattern.

The analyses showed that one of the strut-and-tie models estimated the ultimate

load, almost as accurately as the more complicated non-linear numerical analyses.

These deep beams may be considered as rather straightforward, hence it is not surprising that a well-defined strut-and-tie model could be sufficient to receive accurate

estimations of the ultimate load. The analyses with the different numerical programs

all showed good agreement with the measured ultimate load. One exception was

the beams without web reinforcement that could not be analysed accurately with

Response, where the analyses ended prematurely. Cracking was shown to be more

complicated to accurately describe numerically with some methods and the deflections too, as shown in Paper II. The material models based on fracture mechanics

gave too stiff behaviour while the model based on plasticity instead gave slightly too

soft behaviour. Crack pattern and crack widths could not be successfully captured

with the rotating crack models. The fixed crack approach gave a much better representation of crack pattern and crack widths. The overall behaviour with ultimate

load, deflection, crack pattern and crack widths was best described with the damaged plasticity model in Abaqus. This is the reason all following analyses are made

with this material model.

24

These two papers contribute to the thesis through the verification of the calculation

method used in future papers compared to experiments, other non-linear numerical

methods and simplified design calculation methods. The results in these papers

show that the studied smeared crack models, i.e. based on fracture mechanics, with

either rotating or fixed crack models are not to prefer, due to the over stiff behaviour.

The rotated models also gave a less accurate description of the crack pattern and

especially crack widths. The rotating crack models, missed the shear type failure in

some cases, because the crack direction rotated. With the rotating model in Atena,

the estimation of crack width could be corrected, if the user manually added the

calculated crack width from all adjacent cracked elements that described the same

physical crack.

3.2

The presented analyses in Paper III, Malm and Ansell (2008), were made as part

of an Elforsk1 project to explain and numerically describe the crack pattern found

in the Storfinnforsen buttress dam. A photo of the storfinnforsen hydropower dam

is shown in Figure 3.2. The results should be able to describe the development

during 60 years of the service life of the dam to describe the crack pattern found

in-situ. This has numerically been done covering five years of thermal steady state

calculations through changing from summer to winter conditions respectively.

Figure 3.2: The monoliths of Storfinnforsen hydropower plant in the Faxlven River.

Photo from T. Ekstrm.

It is shown that seasonal thermal variation initiates cracks in the same region that

was found in the late 1980s cracks on the Storfinnforsen dam. A stabilised crack

pattern, i.e. no new cracks are initiated or propagates, was reached after two years in

the finite element (FE) analyses. At this point, the front-plate and the buttress wall

1

25

of the dam had extensive cracking. When these cracks were found on the real dam,

an insulation wall was installed to reduce the temperature gradient over the frontplate. This was also included in the FE analysis and it is shown that this insulation

wall is the cause of several new cracks. The final crack pattern that occurs in the

FE analysis after years of cycling the temperature corresponds with the observed

in-situ. The use of three-dimensional shell models proved to very accurate although

rather computationally demanding with a CPU time of approximately 7.5 hours for

the seasonal analysis.

The contribution of this paper to the thesis, is a verification that the modelling

method accurately can describe crack initiation and propagation due to thermal

cyclic loads. The results presented in this paper is only verifying the crack pattern.

Hence, in the next section calculated behaviour is compared to measurements of

variation in crest movement and crack width.

Verification of the FE model

This analysis starts with the fully cracked dam presented in Paper III where a

detailed simulation of a year with transient heat transfer analysis is simulated. This

is done with a restart analysis of the previous model presented in the paper where

a detailed transient temperature variation is introduced as predefined fields in the

cracking model. The purpose is to verify the numerical model with the in-situ

measurements of the variation in crest movement and the crack widths.

The instrumentation and measurements are performed by the company EnergoRetea

AB and included as a separate part of the Elforsk project. To verify the finite element model the measured data have been given to the author. The measurements

are presented in mainly internal reports, made to the dam owners E.ON Vattenkraft

Sverige AB. The measurements performed on the dam consists of temperature measurements, pendulum measurements of the crest displacement and variation in crack

width measured with linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensors. The

two largest monoliths, monolith 42 and 43, are monitored where the FE-model is

most similar to monolith 42. A description of the measurement setup and results is

given by Ansell et al. (2007).

The measured temperature signal is shown in Figure 3.3 together with a smoothen

curve with averaged weekly variation. Measurements of the outside air temperatures

at Storfinnforsen hydropower dam are unfortunately not complete, since for some

periods of time the thermal gauges failed to record the temperature. The time

period between 2008-01-26 and 2008-04-08 (ten weeks) is the longest period without

available data. In addition to this period, the measurements are incomplete between

2007-12-13 and 2008-01-20 (5 weeks). The temperature measurements are sampled

six times each day. The dam seems to be mainly dependent on the seasonal variation,

hence the measured temperatures are smoothened to weekly average values.

26

30

25

Measured temperature

Smoothen temperature

Temperature (C)

20

15

10

5

0

-5

-10

-15

11/01 12/01 01/01 02/01 03/01 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01

2007

Date

2008

Figure 3.3: Temperature measured at Storfinnforsen and the smoothen weekly average temperature.

To receive complete temperature signals, the measured temperatures were compared with the temperatures for the same period at stersund, obtained from an

online temperature database (http://www.temperatur.nu, 2009). The dam is located close to stersund, within a distance of approximately 100 km. As shown in

Figure 3.4 the temperatures are very similar for these two regions, hence including

the temperatures measured in stersund for the parts where the measured signal

at Storfinnforsen is incomplete will give sufficient accuracy. The temperature signal measured at Storfinnforsen contains less scatter and is slightly lower than the

measured temperature at stersund, mainly an effect due to averaging.

Storfinnforsen.

27

Local peaks where sorted out from the smoothen data, in order for the FE input to

include as much of the variation as possible, when decimating the signal one value

per week. The finite element calculation would take an unreasonable amount of

cpu-time if more than one calculation per week was made. The temperature input

data in the FE analysis is shown in the upper graph of Figure 3.7. From studying

the measured signals, it looks like a sample frequency of once per week seems to be

sufficient to capture the main behaviour. Daily effects are not visible in the variation

of the crack width. Besides this, the crest movement was measured less than twice

per month.

Along with the outside temperature, the temperature within the thermally isolated

area is also measured. This signal is also incomplete for the time periods mentioned

earlier. Hence, some procedure has to be done to create a complete signal. In

this case, the temperature within the isolated area seems rather similar from one

year to another. Therefore, the indoor temperature for the missing parts have been

taken from the previous years of measurements. The indoor temperature from the

previous year shows that the temperature varies about 2 C during December to

April. The temperature changes slowly and hence a possible error in the input data

to the FE analysis may not affect the results. The measured indoor temperature for

the specific time period with incomplete measurements is shown in Figure 3.5.

14

13

Temperature (C)

12

2006 - 2007

2007 - 2008

Combination of the two years

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

12/01

01/01

02/01

03/01

04/01

05/01

06/01

Date

14

Temperature ( C)

2006 - measured

2007

Figure 3.5: Temperature

in the isolated area 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 re2007In- 2008

13 spectively.

addition to this, the combined temperature curve used in

Combination of the two years

the

FE

analysis

is shown.

12

11

Temperatures that also affect the behaviour of the dam are the water temperature

10

and the temperature of the bedrock. These temperatures have been described in

Bjrnstrm et al. (2006); Ansell et al. (2007) where both can be

accordance with

9

assumed to follow a sine curve varying from +2.5 C to +12.5 C and 2.5 C to

8

+12.5 C for the surface water and the bedrock respectively. The surface water is

7 water in the top 10 metres from the crest. The water below this is

defined as the

assumed have a constant temperature of +4 C.

6

5

12/01

01/01

02/01

03/01

28

Date

04/01

05/01

06/01

In Figure 3.6 the fully cracked dam presented in Paper III, is the initial state for

the analysis presented in this section. The variation in crack width is illustrated for

the inclined crack that originates from the inspection gangway, the crack referred to

as crack 3 in Paper III. The measured variation in crack width is measured with a

LVDT that is 0.4 m long and hence indirect also measuring the variation in strain in

the un-cracked concrete near the crack. The LVDT is placed at the distance of 1.1 m

and 1.3 m from the inspection gangway on monolith 42 and 43, respectively. In the

FE model this has been taken at the widest representation of the crack, 1.2 m from

the inspection gangway. The crack width is calculated as the maximum principal

strain multiplied with the characteristic length of the element.

Crest displacement

Crack width

Figure 3.6: Illustration of the cracked buttress wall, showing the definition of positive

crest displacement and point where the crack width is calculated.

The calculated and the measured crest displacement is illustrated in the centre graph

in Figure 3.7. The displacement when the measurements started is initially defined

as the zero level in the measurements. It is unknown at exactly which position the

dam crest was at this time. Therefore, the measured displacement has been added

a constant value to define the zero level in the same way as the FE model, i.e.

according to the design drawings. The measured total displacement during a year

is 9.6 mm while the peak to peak value from the finite element analysis (FEA) is

10.4 mm. A positive displacement is defined in the downstream direction, i.e. when

the dam is moving away from the water.

29

Temperature ( C)

30

Measured

FEA

20

10

0

-10

11/01 12/01 01/01 02/01 03/01 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01

0

FEA

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10

-12

11/01 12/01 01/01 02/01 03/01 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01

0.15

Measured (monolith 42)

FEA

0.10

0.05

0

-0.05

-0.10

11/01 12/01 01/01 02/01 03/01 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01

2007

Date

2008

Figure 3.7: Comparison of the measured and calculated behaviour of the dam. The

upper graph shows the outdoor temperature, the centre shows the crest

displacement and the lower graph shows the variation in crack width.

The variation in crack width is shown in the bottom graph of Figure 3.7. The

initial value of all curves is adjusted so their average value is equal to zero. It is

only the variation in crack width that is measured and hence only the variation is

compared. The measured

variation in crack width, especially in monolith 42, and the

Measured (monolith 43)

0.15

calculated

variation

shows

good

Measured (monolith

42) agreement. During the summer, the measured crack

0.10

FEA

width on

0.05 monolith 42 is slightly higher and the calculated crack width variation is

in closer 0agreement with the measured on monolith 43. The peak to peak variation

of the -0.05

measured crack width on monolith 42 is 0.34 mm while it is 0.26 mm for the

-0.10

calculated variation. Due to the incomplete measured signal of monolith 43 within

-0.15

this period,

the minimum crack width variation that occurred in the winter was not

11/01 12/01 01/01 02/01 03/01 04/01 05/01 06/01 07/01 08/01 09/01 10/01 11/01

measured.

measured during the previous winter,

a

2007Considering the minimum value

Date

2008

peak to peak variation of 0.24 mm for monolith 43 is obtained.

Good agreement is found between measured and calculated displacement as well as

crack width. The largest deviation between the measured crest displacement and

the calculated can be found from approximately 2008-04-01 to 2008-06-01. During

this period the measured crest displacement increases much faster than the calculated displacement. There could be several reasons for this deviance between the

30

measured and the calculated behaviour. Especially one measured value deviate the

most, the measurement performed 2008-04-24. In fact, at this date the measurement

technicians attached a LVDT to the pendulum, to receive continuous measurements

of the crest displacement. It was noticed that the LVDT sensor caused significant

disturbance to the measurement, resulting in almost twice as large crest displacements as expected. When they noticed this, the LVDT was removed. It is possible

that there still is some disturbance due to this which may have increased the displacement, even though the measured value from 2008-04-24 shown in Figure 3.7 is

made 15 minutes after the LVDT was removed. Comparing the measured behaviour

in crest displacement and crack width, it can be seen that the crack width does

not increase until the outdoor temperature increases. This also implies that the

measured value of the crest displacement in the end of April could be wrong. Other

reasons for the difference may be that the crest displacement is always measured

during daytime when the temperature is as highest. During this period there is

a large difference in daily temperature variation and since the calculation is made

with averaged weekly values some thermal effects may have been missed. Another

probable reason for this difference is that the temperature sensors are isolated to not

include the additional temperature from the sun radiation. This means that in the

finite element analysis, the effect of solar radiation is not included, only the actual

air temperature.

3.3

The Grndal Bridge and the Alvik Bridge are studied in Papers IV, V and VI,

Malm et al. (2006); Malm and Sundquist (2009); Malm and Ansell (2009). The

Grndal Bridge is shown in Figure 3.8. In Paper IV, measurements performed on

the bridges and methods in design codes for crack width estimations are evaluated.

The monitoring of the bridges shows that the strengthening with post-tensioned

Dywidag tendons seems to have been successful, but the carbon fibre laminates

have a questionable effect regarding limiting the crack widths in the serviceability

state. The results show that the temperature is the main cause for crack width

variation. Two sensors on the Alvik Bridge, sensors MP1 and MP5, showed large

increasing trends in crack width variation. The sensor MP1 is the only sensor located

in a section not strengthened with Dywidag tendons. The sensor MP5 is measuring

the horizontal displacement between the top flange and the web. In Paper IV this

sensor is referred to as having a decreasing crack sliding displacement which is not

the case. The crack sliding is increasing but in the opposite direction of sensors

positive direction. Both the Grndal Bridge and Alvik Bridge show large horizontal

sliding movement in the cracks at the conjunction between the top flange and the

webs. High stresses in this region are shown in both Paper V and VI. Analyses

performed on the Kllsundsbron, a bridge of similar type and dimensions but with

a hinge in midspan, shows also high stresses in the conjunction between web and

top flange, Plos and Gylltoft (2004, 2006); Broo (2008).

31

It is also shown in Paper IV that the crack width estimations in the national codes,

BBK 04 (2004); NS 3473 (2004); EC 2 (2004), are often sensitive to how the reinforcement stresses/strains are calculated. This can result in large differences in

estimation of crack width, depending on which method is used. An extensive description and comparison of the methods in design codes presented in this paper is

given by Malm (2005, 2006). The calculation methods in the national codes where

the direction of the crack is equal to the principal stress direction, i.e. a rotating

crack approach, that does not account for the shear stresses in the crack plane therefore give results that are conservative. In this case, these methods gave crack widths

and reinforcement stresses several times larger than the other, more realistic models.

The calculation methods that in some way include the effect of shear forces in the

crack plane, give much more realistic estimations of crack widths and reinforcement

stresses. For a load combination that describe the state at Grndal Bridge after two

years, gives crack widths of 0.13 and 0.23 mm with one method in BBK 04 (2004)

and the general method in NS 3473 (2004), respectively.

Paper V presents results from simulation of the construction process of the Grndal Bridge with time-dependent material properties. The calculated displacement

during construction is compared with measured displacements with good agreement. Creep and non-uniform drying shrinkage will affect the behaviour significantly. Creep has a large impact, even during cantilevering and the non-uniform

shrinkage will result in increasing displacements and stresses when the superstructure is complete. Creep resulted in a underestimation of the deflections of the cantilever of approximately 30 % if it neglected and the effect of creep resulted in three

times higher displacements in the mid span after two years of service, if creep was

included. The combined effect of creep and shrinkage is larger than their separate

effects, hence superposition will underestimate the result. The non-uniform drying shrinkage must be accounted for if detailed stresses and deflections are wanted,

when there is a large difference in thickness between the bottom and top flange.

32

Significant effect of creep appearing only a short time after casting, can be found

in experiments presented in the literature, e.g. Scordelis et al. (1979). In their experiments, prototypes of two-span box-girder bridges were studied. The measured

displacements increased by 50 % due to creep after only 27 days in their experiment.

In the last paper of the thesis, Paper VI, the segmental construction is analysed

where areas subjected to high tensile stresses are defined with material models for

describing cracking. It is shown that cracks initiate during construction, especially

when the continuity cables in the bottom flange are post-tensioned. During thermal

loads those cracks propagate and new cracks initiate. During the summer, crack

widths of similar size as observed in-situ are found in the web on the side facing

inwards. The cracks calculated from the finite element model are up to 0.24 mm in

the most severely cracked section. Calculating the cracks based on the reinforcement

stresses in this section gives crack widths of 0.15 0.18 mm with the methods in

the design codes, BBK 04 (2004); NS 3473 (2004); EC 2 (2004). The crack widths

presented in this paper agree with the estimations in Paper IV and with the crack

widths found in this section in-situ, which mainly are 0.1 0.2 mm. The sensor

MP1 on the Alvik Bridge is located near the centre of gravity of the cross-section

at the distance 0.1L from the pier, where L is the length of the span as shown in

Paper IV. In Figure 11 of Paper V and in Figure 6 of Paper VI it can be seen that

rather large tensile stresses in the web at this position are found on the Grndal

Bridge. This confirms that there are large stresses within this region which could

be the reason for the increasing crack width measured at the sensor MP1.

33

Chapter 4

Conclusions

4.1

General conclusions

From a scientific point of view, the original feature of this thesis is that non-linear

finite element analysis was shown to estimate crack widths of shear type cracks

more accurately than the commonly used methods in the design codes. The finite

element material model used for evaluation is compared to other non-linear methods

and verified against laboratory test. From a practical point of view, the original

feature is that the numerical modelling method is used to analyse to two large

concrete structures where the cause for cracking is evaluated and verified against

observations made in-situ and experimental data.

There is today not one universal numerical model that in every aspect perfectly can

describe cracking in concrete. Some material models have much better means to

give good estimations than others. In this thesis solutions and recommendations to

avoid convergence difficulties are presented. If non-exclusively monotonic loading is

to be studied, the numerical methods should be able to describe both the stiffness

degradation and the plastic deformations that real concrete exhibit in experiments.

One big disadvantage with most numerical models is that they can not be combined

with the visco-elastic material description of creep. After comparing material models

based on different theories and verifying these against laboratory tests, one modelling approach seems to be especially superior. Even though most of the material

models could predict the ultimate load accurately, the predictions in crack pattern

and especially the crack widths and deflections differed considerably. The studied

methods primarily based on fracture mechanics gave too stiff behaviour after cracks

had initiated. It is commonly known that fixed crack models, can overestimate the

stiffness as an effect of stress-locking. This is not the case here since both the fixed

and the rotated model experienced about the same overestimation of the stiffness. It

is likely to assume that these models overestimate the aggregate interlocking effect

in the cracks, which in the fixed crack model is govern by the shear retention factor

and in the rotated model through an implicit reduction of the shear modulus based

on the principal stresses.

The rotated crack models also distributed physical cracks over several elements, re-

35

CHAPTER 4. CONCLUSIONS

gardless of element size. This resulted in that all these parallel cracks had to be

summarised to receive a reasonable crack width. The most severe problem with

rotating crack models is that shear type failure can be missed and the analysis continues past the real failure load. This is because the crack direction rotates and a

false equilibrium state can be found making it possible to continue past the point of

failure. The material model based on plasticity in combination with isotropic damage proved to be accurate in describing crack initiation and propagation. With the

constitutive model the non-linear behaviour of concrete, including crack pattern,

crack widths, load and displacements could be accurately predicted. The drawback of this model was the risk of convergence difficulties which might interrupt a

simulation.

There is a large difference in the estimation of the crack width based on the calculation methods in various design codes. The large difference appears since several of

these methods do not account for shear friction in the crack face. The calculation

methods that in some way include the effect of shear forces in the crack plane, give

much more reasonable estimations of the crack width and reinforcement stresses.

Implicit inclusion of the effect of aggregate interlocking could be made by changing

the angle of the cracks by a few degrees. Changing the direction so that equal reinforcement stresses in the two directions appears, as showed for the case presented in

Paper IV, can be sufficient to receive realistic estimation of the crack widths. This

method was only studied for this case and it is not certain that it works properly

for all cases. The more advanced method based on the modified compression field

theory, but assumed as initially cracked, is superior since it include the aggregate

interlock effects in a more precise matter.

When a suitable modelling method was chosen and it was verified that it could

describe shear type cracking, cyclic thermal cracking was studied. The analyses of

Storfinnforsen hydropower dam show that the calculated response is in good agreement with the measured variation in crack width and displacement and the observed

crack pattern. It was shown that the dam cracks due to seasonal temperature variation and the modification with an insulating wall have resulted in formation of

new cracks. Some of the new cracks seems to be of more serious nature regarding

the dam safety. It is also shown that an alternative placement of the insulation

would have been more suitable and would not have caused these new cracks. The

calculated crack pattern after temperature variation is compared to the observed

in-situ. In addition to this the crest movement and crack width variation for a year

are compared with measured data. All the calculated results are in close agreement

with the measured in-situ. The dam owners E.ON are now planing to strengthen

the Storfinnforsen dam and a similar dam in Ramsele both crossing the Faxlven

River for approximately 1500 million SEK.

As the modelling method was verified against cracking due to shear and thermal

actions, it was used to analyse the construction of the Grndal Bridge. It was

shown that creep is important already during cantilevering. For the Grndal Bridge

it resulted in a underestimation of the deflections of the cantilever of approximately

30 % if it was neglected. Creep was of even greater importance on the long-term

displacements. After two years of service, which corresponds to the age of the

Grndal Bridge when the cracks were first found, the displacement was three times

36

higher in the mid span if creep is included. The effect of non-uniform shrinkage rate

due to the time it takes for the drying shrinkage to occur is significant especially after

two years of service. The results showed that to create a finite element model of the

Grndal Bridge that accurately could describe the cracking in the webs, the timedependent effects have to be included. The analyses of the Grndal Bridge show that

cracks initiate during construction, especially when the continuing tendons in the

bottom flange are tensioned. Further thermal loads propagate the cracks and initiate

new cracks. The calculated behaviour of the bridge is similar to the observations

made on both the Grndal Bridge and the Alvik Bridge. Both crack pattern and

crack widths are in agreement with those found in-situ. Calculated displacements

during construction is in close agreement with the camber measured in-situ. The

monitoring of the bridges shows that the strengthening with post-tensioned Dywidag

tendons seems, so far, to have been successful. The carbon fibre laminates have a

small effect regarding limiting the crack widths in the serviceability state.

4.2

Further research

Continuum material models can successfully be used to accurately describe the shear

type cracking in concrete. However, there is still a need for large amount of research

regarding the development of numerical material models for non-linear finite element

methods. There are drawbacks regarding all present models whether it is computational efficiency, convergence difficulties, accuracy or the possibility of combining

cracking with other inelastic effects such as creep. The discrete crack models will

surely at some point be enough computational effective for analyses of large structures. Their drawback today is, in addition to long cpu-times required, that the

user manually have to define interface elements where cracks can initiate. Discrete

models would be very promising to use for large structures, if this procedure could

be simplified and if it is used in combination with adaptive meshing. Of especial

interest would be numerical material models that could describe the long-term behaviour of concrete structures by capturing the deterioration process with chloride

penetration that results in reinforcement corrosion. It is not evident that discrete

material models will be better in describing the crack initiation and propagation

than the continuum approaches. Concrete is an in-homogenous material where local

material variations can initiate cracks. This is one reason why continuum approaches

probably always will be most suitable for describing the cracking in concrete.

According to the design codes, crack widths should be limited to a predefined value

depending on the environmental conditions. In reality it is the crack width at the

level of reinforcement that should be limited and not the crack width at the face

of the concrete member. The corrosion of reinforcement is governed by the amount

of chloride ions reaching the reinforcement. It would be interesting with statistical

studies of the variation in crack width along the crack direction. In this way it

should be possible to determine better criteria for maximum allowed crack widths

in the serviceability state.

The methods available in design codes are based on laboratory experiments where

initially un-cracked concrete beams are loaded, usually in tension. Several experi-

37

CHAPTER 4. CONCLUSIONS

ments of shear type cracking can be found in the literature where calculation methods such as the modified compression field theory, Vecchio and Collins (1986), and

the softened-truss models, Hsu (1993), are developed from these experiments. It

is seldom that experiments of initially cracked concrete structures are presented in

the literature. Experiments of this type usually are intended to analyse the effect

of aggregate interlock such as the work presented by Walraven (1980). Puntel and

Saouma (2008) presents results from cyclic shear tests of concrete members with

a predefined crack subjected to compressive confinement. The results in this paper intend to show the frictional behaviour of a predefined crack. Pimanmas and

Maekawa (2001) presents tests where the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams

that have been pre-cracked is studied. These beams have been pre-cracked in directions opposite to the direction for failure loading. Experiments of pre-cracked

concrete can be made to study the dilation of concrete during shear type loading.

These tests should be conducted for varying concrete quality and size of ballast. The

cracks should be scanned with an optic scanner to determine the roughness of the

crack faces. These experiments should also be performed with different specimen

sizes to determine the size effect.

Probabilistic models are used to account for uncertainties regarding material properties and loads. The probabilistic models are used to develop standards and construction codes in the area for dam safety. To apply these probabilistic models,

predefined failure modes are necessary. Combining the non-linear finite element

method with probabilistic models has great advantages. The failure mode and load

can be determined with the non-linear finite element model and with the means of

probabilistic method variations of material properties and loads can be investigated.

Combining these two methods should result in more reliable determination of the

safety index, as long as a proper finite element model and reasonable variations are

considered.

38

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43

The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm

TRITA-BKN. Bulletin

Pacoste, C., On the Application of Catastrophe Theory to Stability Analyses of Elastic Structures.

Doctoral Thesis, 1993. Bulletin 1.

Stenmark, A-K., Dmpning av 13 m lng stlbalk "Ullevibalken". Utprovning av dmpmassor och

faststtning av motbalk samt experimentell bestmning av modformer och frlustfaktorer. Vibration tests

of full-scale steel girder to determine optimum passive control.

Licentiatavhandling, 1993. Bulletin 2.

Silfwerbrand, J., Renovering av asfaltgolv med cementbundna plastmodifierade avjmningsmassor.

1993. Bulletin 3.

Norlin, B., Two-Layered Composite Beams with Nonlinear Connectors and Geometry Tests and

Theory.

Doctoral Thesis, 1993. Bulletin 4.

Habtezion, T., On the Behaviour of Equilibrium Near Critical States.

Licentiate Thesis, 1993. Bulletin 5.

Krus, J., Hllfasthet hos frostnedbruten betong.

Licentiatavhandling, 1993. Bulletin 6.

Wiberg, U., Material Characterization and Defect Detection by Quantitative Ultrasonics.

Doctoral Thesis, 1993. Bulletin 7.

Lidstrm, T., Finite Element Modelling Supported by Object Oriented Methods.

Licentiate Thesis, 1993. Bulletin 8.

Hallgren, M., Flexural and Shear Capacity of Reinforced High Strength Concrete Beams without

Stirrups. Licentiate Thesis, 1994. Bulletin 9.

Krus, J., Betongbalkars lastkapacitet efter miljbelastning.

1994. Bulletin 10.

Sandahl, P., Analysis Sensitivity for Wind-related Fatigue in Lattice Structures.

Licentiate Thesis, 1994. Bulletin 11.

Sanne, L., Information Transfer Analysis and Modelling of the Structural Steel Construction Process.

Licentiate Thesis, 1994. Bulletin 12.

Zhitao, H., Influence of Web Buckling on Fatigue Life of Thin-Walled Columns.

Doctoral Thesis, 1994. Bulletin 13.

Kjrling, M., Dynamic response of railway track components. Measurements during train passage and

dynamic laboratory loading.

Licentiate Thesis, 1995. Bulletin 14.

Yang, L., On Analysis Methods for Reinforced Concrete Structures.

Doctoral Thesis, 1995. Bulletin 15.

Petersson, ., Svensk metod fr dimensionering av betongvgar.

Licentiatavhandling, 1996. Bulletin 16.

Lidstrm, T., Computational Methods for Finite Element Instability Analyses.

Doctoral Thesis, 1996. Bulletin 17.

Krus, J., Environment- and Function-induced Degradation of Concrete Structures.

119

Editor, Silfwerbrand, J., Structural Loadings in the 21st Century.

Sven Sahlin Workshop, June 1996. Proceedings. Bulletin 19.

Ansell, A., Frequency Dependent Matrices for Dynamic Analysis of Frame Type Structures.

Licentiate Thesis, 1996. Bulletin 20.

Troive, S., Optimering av tgrder fr kad livslngd hos infrastrukturkonstruktioner.

Licentiatavhandling, 1996. Bulletin 21.

Karoumi, R., Dynamic Response of Cable-Stayed Bridges Subjected to Moving Vehicles.

Licentiate Thesis, 1996. Bulletin 22.

Hallgren, M., Punching Shear Capacity of Reinforced High Strength Concrete Slabs.

Doctoral Thesis, 1996. Bulletin 23.

Hellgren, M., Strength of Bolt-Channel and Screw-Groove Joints in Aluminium Extrusions.

Licentiate Thesis, 1996. Bulletin 24.

Yagi, T., Wind-induced Instabilities of Structures.

Doctoral Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 25.

Eriksson, A., and Sandberg, G., (editors), Engineering Structures and Extreme Events proceedings

from a symposium, May 1997. Bulletin 26.

Paulsson, J., Effects of Repairs on the Remaining Life of Concrete Bridge Decks.

Licentiate Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 27.

Olsson, A., Object-oriented finite element algorithms.

Licentiate Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 28.

Yunhua, L., On Shear Locking in Finite Elements.

Licentiate Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 29.

Ekman, M., Sprickor i betongkonstruktioner och dess inverkan p bestndigheten.

Licentiate Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 30.

Karawajczyk, E., Finite Element Approach to the Mechanics of Track-Deck Systems.

Licentiate Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 31.

Fransson, H., Rotation Capacity of Reinforced High Strength Concrete Beams.

Licentiate Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 32.

Edlund, S., Arbitrary Thin-Walled Cross Sections. Theory and Computer Implementation.

Licentiate Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 33.

Forsell, K., Dynamic analyses of static instability phenomena.

Licentiate Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 34.

Ikheimonen, J., Construction Loads on Shores and Stability of Horizontal Formworks.

Doctoral Thesis, 1997. Bulletin 35.

Racutanu, G., Konstbyggnaders reella livslngd.

Licentiatavhandling, 1997. Bulletin 36.

Appelqvist, I., Sammanbyggnad. Datastrukturer och utveckling av ett IT-std fr byggprocessen.

Licentiatavhandling, 1997. Bulletin 37.

Alavizadeh-Farhang, A., Plain and Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Combined

Mechanical and Thermal Loading.

Licentiate Thesis, 1998. Bulletin 38.

120

Eriksson, A. and Pacoste, C., (editors), Proceedings of the NSCM-11: Nordic Seminar on Computational

Mechanics, October 1998. Bulletin 39.

Luo, Y., On some Finite Element Formulations in Structural Mechanics.

Doctoral Thesis, 1998. Bulletin 40.

Troive, S., Structural LCC Design of Concrete Bridges.

Doctoral Thesis, 1998. Bulletin 41.

Trno, I., Effects of Contour Ellipticity upon Structural Behaviour of Hyparform Suspended Roofs.

Licentiate Thesis, 1998. Bulletin 42.

Hassanzadeh, G., Betongplattor p pelare. Frstrkningsmetoder och dimensioneringsmetoder fr plattor

med icke vidhftande spnnarmering.

Licentiatavhandling, 1998. Bulletin 43.

Karoumi, R., Response of Cable-Stayed and Suspension Bridges to Moving Vehicles. Analysis methods

and practical modeling techniques.

Doctoral Thesis, 1998. Bulletin 44.

Johnson, R., Progression of the Dynamic Properties of Large Suspension Bridges during Construction

A Case Study of the Hga Kusten Bridge.

Licentiate Thesis, 1999. Bulletin 45.

Tibert, G., Numerical Analyses of Cable Roof Structures.

Licentiate Thesis, 1999. Bulletin 46.

Ahlenius, E., Explosionslaster och infrastrukturkonstruktioner - Risker, vrderingar och kostnader.

Licentiatavhandling, 1999. Bulletin 47.

Battini, J-M., Plastic instability of plane frames using a co-rotational approach.

Licentiate Thesis, 1999. Bulletin 48.

Ay, L., Using Steel Fiber Reinforced High Performance Concrete in the Industrialization of Bridge

Structures.

Licentiate Thesis, 1999. Bulletin 49.

Paulsson-Tralla, J., Service Life of Repaired Concrete Bridge Decks.

Doctoral Thesis, 1999. Bulletin 50.

Billberg, P., Some rheology aspects on fine mortar part of concrete.

Licentiate Thesis, 1999. Bulletin 51.

Ansell, A., Dynamically Loaded Rock Reinforcement.

Doctoral Thesis, 1999. Bulletin 52.

Forsell, K., Instability analyses of structures under dynamic loads.

Doctoral Thesis, 2000. Bulletin 53.

Edlund, S., Buckling of T-Section Beam-Columns in Aluminium with or without Transverse Welds.

Doctoral Thesis, 2000. Bulletin 54.

Lfsjgrd, M., Functional Properties of Concrete Roads General Interrelationships and Studies on

Pavement Brightness and Sawcutting Times for Joints.

Licentiate Thesis, 2000. Bulletin 55.

Nilsson, U., Load bearing capacity of steel fibree reinforced shotcrete linings.

Licentiate Thesis, 2000. Bulletin 56.

Silfwerbrand, J. and Hassanzadeh, G., (editors), International Workshop on Punching Shear Capacity of

RC Slabs Proceedings. Dedicated to Professor Sven Kinnunen. Stockholm June 7-9, 2000. Bulletin 57.

121

Wiberg, A., Strengthening and repair of structural concrete with advanced, cementitious composites.

Licentiate Thesis, 2000. Bulletin 58.

Racutanu, G., The Real Service Life of Swedish Road Bridges - A case study.

Doctoral Thesis, 2000. Bulletin 59.

Alavizadeh-Farhang, A., Concrete Structures Subjected to Combined Mechanical and Thermal Loading.

Doctoral Thesis, 2000. Bulletin 60.

Wppling, M., Behaviour of Concrete Block Pavements - Field Tests and Surveys.

Licentiate Thesis, 2000. Bulletin 61.

Getachew, A., Trafiklaster p broar. Analys av insamlade och Monte Carlo genererade fordonsdata.

Licentiatavhandling, 2000. Bulletin 62.

James, G., Raising Allowable Axle Loads on Railway Bridges using Simulation and Field Data.

Licentiate Thesis, 2001. Bulletin 63.

Karawajczyk, E., Finite Elements Simulations of Integral Bridge Behaviour.

Doctoral Thesis, 2001. Bulletin 64.

Thyr, T., Strength of Slotted Steel Studs.

Licentiate Thesis, 2001. Bulletin 65.

Tranvik, P., Dynamic Behaviour under Wind Loading of a 90 m Steel Chimney.

Licentiate Thesis, 2001. Bulletin 66.

Ullman, R., Buckling of Aluminium Girders with Corrugated Webs.

Licentiate Thesis, 2002. Bulletin 67.

Getachew, A., Traffic Load Effects on Bridges. Statistical Analysis of Collected and Monte Carlo

Simulated Vehicle Data.

Doctoral Thesis, 2003. Bulletin 68.

Quilligan, M., Bridge Weigh-in-Motion. Development of a 2-D Multi-Vehicle Algorithm.

Licentiate Thesis, 2003. Bulletin 69.

James, G., Analysis of Traffic Load Effects on Railway Bridges.

Doctoral Thesis 2003. Bulletin 70.

Nilsson, U., Structural behaviour of fibre reinforced sprayed concrete anchored in rock.

Doctoral Thesis 2003. Bulletin 71.

Wiberg, A., Strengthening of Concrete Beams Using Cementitious Carbon Fibre Composites.

Doctoral Thesis 2003. Bulletin 72.

Lfsjgrd, M., Functional Properties of Concrete Roads Development of an Optimisation Model and

Studies on Road Lighting Design and Joint Performance.

Doctoral Thesis 2003. Bulletin 73.

Bayoglu-Flener, E., Soil-Structure Interaction for Integral Bridges and Culverts.

Licentiate Thesis 2004. Bulletin 74.

Lutfi, A., Steel Fibrous Cement Based Composites. Part one: Material and mechanical properties.

Part two: Behaviour in the anchorage zones of prestressed bridges.

Doctoral Thesis 2004. Bulletin 75.

Johansson, U., Fatigue Tests and Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Models.

Licentiate Thesis 2004. Bulletin 76.

122

Licentitate Thesis 2004. Bulletin 77.

Hedebratt, J., Integrerad projektering och produktion av industrigolv Metoder fr att frbttra

kvaliteten.

Licentiatavhandling, 2004. Bulletin 78.

sterberg, E., Revealing of age-related deterioration of prestressed reinforced concrete containments in

nuclear power plants Requirements and NDT methods.

Licentiate Thesis 2004. Bulletin 79.

Broms, C.E., Concrete flat slabs and footings New design method for punching and detailing for

ductility.

Doctoral Thesis 2005. Bulletin 80.

Wiberg, J., Bridge Monitoring to Allow for Reliable Dynamic FE Modelling - A Case Study of the New

rsta Railway Bridge.

Licentiate Thesis 2006. Bulletin 81.

Mattsson, H-., Funktionsentreprenad Brounderhll En pilotstudie i Uppsala ln.

Licentiate Thesis 2006. Bulletin 82.

Masanja, D. P, Foam concrete as a structural material.

Doctoral Thesis 2006. Bulletin 83.

Johansson, A., Impregnation of Concrete Structures Transportation and Fixation of Moisture in Water

Repellent Treated Concrete.

Licentiate Thesis 2006. Bulletin 84.

Billberg, P., Form Pressure Generated by Self-Compacting Concrete Influence of Thixotropy and

Structural Behaviour at Rest.

Doctoral Thesis 2006. Bulletin 85.

Enckell, M., Structural Health Monitoring using Modern Sensor Technology Long-term Monitoring of

the New rsta Railway Bridge.

Licentiate Thesis 2006. Bulletin 86.

Sderqvist, J., Design of Concrete Pavements Design Criteria for Plain and Lean Concrete.

Licentiate Thesis 2006. Bulletin 87.

Malm, R., Shear cracks in concrete structures subjected to in-plane stresses.

Licentiate Thesis 2006. Bulletin 88.

Skoglund, P., Chloride Transport and Reinforcement Corrosion in the Vicinity of the Transition Zone

between Substrate and Repair Concrete.

Licentiate Thesis 2006. Bulletin 89.

Liljencrantz, A., Monitoring railway traffic loads using Bridge Weight-in-Motion.

Licentiate Thesis 2007. Bulletin 90.

Stenbeck, T., Promoting Innovation in Transportation Infrastructure Maintenance Incentives,

Contracting and Performance-Based Specifications.

Doctoral Thesis 2007. Bulletin 91

Magnusson, J., Structural Concrete Elements Subjected to Air Blast Loading.

Licentiate Thesis 2007. Bulletin 92.

123

Pettersson, L., G., Full Scale Tests and Structural Evaluation of Soil Steel Flexible Culverts with low

Height of Cover.

Doctoral Thesis 2007. Bulletin 93

Westerberg, B., Time-dependent effects in the analysis and design of slender concrete compression

members.

Doctoral Thesis 2008. Bulletin 94

Mattsson, H-, Integrated Bridge Maintenance. Evaluation of a pilot project and future perspectives.

Doctoral Thesis 2008. Bulletin 95

Andersson, A., Utmattningsanalys av jrnvgsbroar. En fallstudie av stlbroarna mellan Stockholm

Central och Sder Mlarstrand, baserat p teoretiska analyser och tjningsmtningar.

Licentiate Thesis 2009. Bulletin 96

The bulletins enumerated above, with the exception for those which are out of print, may be purchased

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