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The Indian Parliament (Hindi: (Bharatiya Sansad)), is the

supreme legislative body in India. Parliament comprises


* The President of India
* Lok Sabha (House of the People)
* Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
The President in his role as head of legislature has full powers to
summon and prorogue either House of Parliament or to dissolve Lok
Sabha. However, in keeping with Westminster Model of governance,
the President rarely exercises such powers without the advise of the
Prime Minister.
India's government is bicameral; Rajya Sabha is the upper house and
Lok Sabha is the lower house. The two Houses meet in
separate chambers in theSansad Bhavan (located on the Sansad
Marg or "Parliament Street") in New Delhi. Those elected or
nominated (by the President) to either house of Parliament are
referred to as members of parliament or MPs. The MPs of Lok Sabha
are directly elected by the Indian public and the MPs of Rajya Sabha
are elected by the members of the State Legislative Assemblies, in
accordance with proportional representation. The Parliament is
composed of 790 MPs, who serve the largest democratic electorate
in the world; 814.5 million Indians registered to vote in the 2014
general elections.
Contents
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1 Composition
1.1 President of India
1.2 Lok Sabha
1.3 Rajya Sabha
2 Architecture
2.1 General layout of the building
3 Working, procedures and committees
3.1 Session of parliament
3.2 Lawmaking procedures
3.3 Parliamentary committees
3.4 Standing committees
3.5 Ad hoc committees

4 2001 Parliament attack


5 See also
6 References
7 External links
Composition[edit]
The Indian Parliament consists of two houses called as Lok
Sabha and theRajya Sabha with the President of India acting as their
head.
President of India[edit]
Main article: President of India
Similar to most Commonwealth countries, India also includes the
presidentHead of State (the President of India in India's case) as a
component of Parliament. The President of India is elected from a
group of nominees, by the elected members of the Parliament of
India (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) as well as of the state
legislatures, and serves for a term of five years. Historically, ruling
party (majority in the Lok Sabha) nominees have been elected and
run largely uncontested. The members of Lok sabha can also be a
part of assembly. Incumbents are permitted to stand for re-election,
but unlike the president of the United States, who can be elected just
twice, incumbents can be elected for any number of terms. However,
by convention, only the first President of India has held office for twofive year terms. A formula is used to allocate votes so there is a
balance between the population of each state and the number of
votes assembly members from a state can cast, and to give an equal
balance between State Assembly members and National Parliament
members. If no candidate receives a majority of votes there is a
system by which losing candidates are eliminated from the contest
and votes for them transferred to other candidates, until one gains a
majority. "Pranab Mukherjee is the present President of India"
Lok Sabha[edit]
Main article: Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha is also known as the "House of the People" or the lower
house and has members from 543 parliamentary constituencies. All
of its members are directly elected by citizens of India on the basis of
universal adult franchise, except two who are appointed by

the President of India. Every citizen of Indiawho is over 18 years of


age, irrespective of gender, caste, religion or race, who is otherwise
not disqualified, is eligible to vote for the lok sabha.
The Constitution provides that the maximum strength of the House be
552 members. It has a term of five years. To be eligible for
membership in the Lok Sabha, a person must be a citizen of India
and must be 25 years of age or older, mentally sound, should not be
bankrupt and should not be criminally convicted. The total elective
membership is distributed among the States in such a way that the
ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and the
population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all
States.[3]
Up to 530 members represent of the territorial constituencies in
States, up to 20 members represent the Union Territories and no
more than two members from Anglo-Indian community can be
nominated by the President of India if he or she feels that the
community is not adequately represented. House seats are
apportioned among the states by population .
A total of 131 seats (18.42%) are blocked for representatives
of Scheduled Castes (84) and Scheduled Tribes (47) only, in a
practice known as reservation. The Women's Reservation
Bill proposes reserving 33% of the seats in Lok Sabha for women.
Rajya Sabha[edit]
Main article: Rajya Sabha
The Rajya Sabha is also known as "Council of States " or the upper
house. Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and is not subject to
dissolution; instead one third of the members retire every second
year, being replaced by newly elected members. Each member is
elected for a term of six years.[4] Its members are indirectly elected by
members of legislative bodies of the States.
The Rajya Sabha can have a maximum of 250 members in all. 238
members are to be elected from States and Union Territories and 12
are to be nominated by the President of India and shall consist of
persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect
of such matters as the following, namely literature, science, art and

social service. The minimum age for a person to become a member


of Rajya Sabha is 30 years.

Representatives of States are elected by the elected members


of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with system
of proportional representation by means of single transferable
vote.
Representatives of Union Territories are indirectly elected by
members of an electoral college for that territory in accordance
with system of proportional representation.

The Council of States is designed to maintain the federal character of


the country. The number of members from a state depends on the
population of the state (e.g. 31 from Uttar Pradesh and one
from Nagaland).
Architecture[edit]

the parliament is one of the most magnificent buildings in New Delhi.


It was designed by Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker, who were
responsible for planning and construction of New Delhi. The
construction of buildings took six years and the opening ceremony
was performed on 18 January 1927 by the then Governor-General of
India, Lord Irwin. The construction costs for the building were Rs.
8.3 million. The parliament is 570 feet (170 meters) in diameter. It
covers an area of nearly six acres. The building has twelve gates
among which Gate No. 1 on the Sansad Marg is the main gate.
General layout of the building[edit]
The centre and the focus of the building is the Central Hall. It consists
of chambers of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and the Library Hall and
between them lie garden courts. Surrounding these three chambers
is the four storyed circular structure providing accommodations for
Ministers, Chairmen, Parliamentary committees, Party offices,
important offices of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha Secretariats and

also the offices of the ministry of Parliamentary affairs. The Central


Hall is circular in shape and the dome is 98 feet (29.87 meters) in
diameter. It is a place of historical importance. The Indian
Constitution was framed in the Central Hall. The Central Hall was
originally used in the library of erstwhile Central Legislative Assembly
and the Council of States. In 1946, it was converted and refurbished
into Constituent Assembly Hall. At present, the Central Hall is used
for holding joint sittings of both the houses of parliament and also
used for address by the President in the commencement of first
session after each general election.
Working, procedures and committees[edit]
The Parliament consists of the President of Republic of India and
both the Chambers. The House and the Council are equal partners in
the legislative process; however, the Constitution grants the House of
People some unique powers. Revenue-raising or "Money" bills must
originate in the Lok Sabha. The Council of States can only make
recommendations suggestions over these bills to the House, within a
period of fourteen days lapse of which the bill is assumed to have
been passed by both the Chambers.[5]
Session of parliament[edit]
The period during which the House meets to conduct its business is
called a session. The Constitution empowers the President to
summon each House at such intervals that there should not be more
than 6-month's gap between the two sessions. Hence the Parliament
must meet at least twice a year. In India, the parliament conducts
three sessions each year:[5]

Budget session: In the months of February to May.[5]


Monsoon session: In the months of July to September.[5]
Winter session: In the months of November to December [5]

Lawmaking procedures[edit]
Main article: Lawmaking procedure in India
Lawmaking procedures in India are modelled after, and are thus very
similar to, those followed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Parliamentary committees[edit]

Parliamentary committees play a vital role in the Parliamentary


System. They create a vibrant link between the Parliament, the
Executive and the general public.
The need for committees arises out of two factors the first one
being the need for vigilance on the part of the Legislature over the
actions of the Executive, while the second one is that the modern
Legislature these days is over-burdened with heavy volume of work
with limited time at its disposal. It thus becomes impossible that every
matter should be thoroughly and systematically scrutinized and
considered on the floor of the House. If the work is to be done with
reasonable care, some Parliamentary responsibility has to be
entrusted to an agency in which the whole House has confidence.
Entrusting certain functions of the House to the Committees has,
therefore, become a normal practice. This has become all the more
necessary, as a Committee provides the expertise on a matter which
is referred to it.
In a committee, the matter is deliberated at length, views are
expressed freely, the matter is considered in depth, in a business-like
manner and in a calm atmosphere. In most of the Committees, public
is directly or indirectly associated when memoranda containing
suggestions and are received, on-the-spot studies are conducted and
oral evidence is taken which helps the Committees in arriving at the
conclusions.
Parliamentary committees are of two kinds: ad hoc committees and
the standing committees. The most powerful committee is the public
accounts committee, which is headed by the leader of the opposition.
Standing committees[edit]
Main article: Standing committee
There are standing committees in the Indian Parliament. Each house
of Parliament has standing committees like the Business Advisory
Committee, the Committee on Petitions, the Committee of Privileges
and the Rules Committee, etc and many more such committees.
Standing committees are permanent regular committees which are
constituted from time to time in pursuance of the provisions of an Act
of Parliament or Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in
Parliament. The work of these committees is of a continuing nature.

The Financial Committees, DRSCs and some other committees are


standing committees.
Ad hoc committees[edit]
Ad hoc committees are appointed for a specific purpose and they
cease to exist when they finish the task assigned to them and submit
a report. The principal ad hoc committees are the Select and Joint
Committees on Bills. Others like the Railway Convention Committee,
the Committees on the Draft Five Year Plans and the Hindi
Equivalents Committee were appointed for specific purposes.
Joint Committee on Food Management in Parliament House Complex
etc. also come under the category of ad hoc committees.
2001 Parliament attack[edit]
Main article: 2001 Indian Parliament attack
On 13 December 2001, the parliament building was attacked by
five Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed terrorists. In addition to
all the attackers, six military personnel and one civilian were killed. [6]

There is an Election Commission of India at National level and State


Election Commissions at State level to administer the electoral
process in India. TheElection Commission of India (Hindi:
) is an autonomous,constitutionally established federal
authority responsible for administering all the electoral processes in
the Republic of India. Under the supervision of the commission, free
and fair elections have been held in India at regular intervals as per
the principles enshrined in the Constitution. The Election Commission
has the power of superintendence, direction and control of all
elections to theParliament of India and the state legislatures and of
elections to the office of the President of India and the Vice-President
of India.[1] Elections are conducted according to the constitutional
provisions, supplemented by laws made by Parliament. The major
laws are Representation of the People Act, 1950, which mainly deals
with the preparation and revision of electoral rolls, the Representation
of the People Act, 1951 which deals, in detail, with all aspects of
conduct of elections and post election disputes. The Supreme Court
of India has held that where the enacted laws are silent or make
insufficient provision to deal with a given situation in the conduct of
elections, the Election Commission has the residuary powers under
the Constitution to act in an appropriate manner.
Contents
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1 State Election Commissions


2 History

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2.1 Use of Scientific and Technological Advancements


2.2 Multi-Member Commission
3 Functions and powers
3.1 Guardian of Free and Fair Elections
3.2 Model Code of Conduct
3.3 Registration of Political Parties
3.4 Limits on Poll Expenses
3.5 Prohibition on Publication
4 Criticism
5 References
6 External links

State Election Commissions[edit]


The power of superintendence, direction and control of all elections to
the Local Government(Village Panchayat,Block Panchayat,District
Panchayat)/Municipal Corporation vest with the State Election
Commissions as envisaged in Article 243(k) of the Constitution of
India.The Constitutional (73rd Amendment) Act, passed in 1992 by
the Narasimha Rao government, came into force on April 24, 1993. It
was meant to provide constitutional sanction to establish "democracy
at the grassroots level as it is at the state level or national level" The
State Election Commissioner has several unique powers pertaining to
the elections to Local Bodies, which include the following. SEC chairs
the Delimitation Commission which delimits local government
constituencies. He has full powers to conduct local government
elections including disciplinary powers over staff who are on election
duty. SEC assigns reserved posts and constituencies. SEC can
disqualify candidates who do not submit election accounts. He can
disqualify members found guilty of defection. He can disqualify
elected representative who do not convene the Grama Sabha. In
most of the States, the State Election Commissioners have the status
equal to that of the High Court Judge.The State Election
Commissioner of Kerala shall not be removed from his office except
in the like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of a High
Court. [1] ,
The Chief Election Commissioner of India can be removed from his
office by Parliament with two-thirds majority in Lok Sabha and Rajya
Sabha on the grounds of proven misbehaviour or incapacity. Other

Election Commissioners can be removed by the President on the


recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner. The Chief
Election Commissioner and the two Election Commissioners draw
salaries and allowances at par with those of the Judges of
the Supreme Court of India as per the Chief Election Commissioner
and other Election Commissioners (Conditions of Service) Rules,
1992.[2] The current CEC is Harishankar Brahma.
History[edit]
Sukumar Sen was an Indian who was the first Chief Election
Commissioner of India
Use of Scientific and Technological Advancements[edit]
The Election Commission had tried to bring improvements in election
procedures by introduction of EVM Electronic Voting Machines. It
was thought that EVMs would reduce malpractices and improve
efficiency. It was first tried out on an experimental basis in the state of
Kerala for the 1982 Legislative Assembly Elections. After successful
testing and legal inquires, the Commission took the decision to begin
the use of EVMs.[3]
The Election Commission launched a web site of its own on 28
February 1998. It helps to provide accurate information,
management, administration and also instant results of the elections.
In 1998, Election Commission decided on a programme for the
'computerisation' of the electoral rolls.
In an effort to prevent electoral fraud, in 1993 EPICs Electorals
Photo Identity Cards were issued. In the 2004 elections, it was
mandatory to possess the card. But even ration cards and driving
licenses is allowed to be used for election purposes.
Multi-Member Commission[edit]
Originally the commission had only a single Chief Election
Commissioner. Two additional Commissioners were appointed to the
commission for the first time on 16 October 1989, but they had a very
short tenureuntil 1 January 1990. The Election Commissioner
Amendment Act, 1993 made the Election Commission a multimember body. Later, on 1 October 1993, two additional Election
Commissioners were appointed. The concept of a multi-member

Commission has been in operation since then, with decision-making


power by majority vote.[3]
Functions and powers[edit]
Guardian of Free and Fair Elections[edit]
One of the most important features of the democratic polity is
elections at regular intervals.
Democracy is the Government of the people, By the people, And for
the people".
Holding periodic free & fair elections are essentials of democratic
system. It is a part of the basic structure of the Constitution which has
been held in T. N. Sheshan V/s Union of India. [4] The Commission has
taken many efforts for the success of elections and thereby
democracy.
Model Code of Conduct[edit]
Main article: Election Commission of India's Model Code of Conduct
The Election Commission is regarded as the guardian of free and fair
elections. In every election, it issues a Model code of Conduct for
political parties and candidates to conduct elections in a free and fair
manner. The Commission issued the code for the first time in 1971
(5th Election) and revised it from time to time. It lay down guidelines
for conduct of political parties & candidates during elections.
However, there are instances of violation of code by the political
parties and complaints are received for misuse of official machinery
by the candidates.
In I.D. Systems (India) Pvt. Ltd. v/s. Chief Election Commissioner,
[5]
the Kerala High Court held that the object of model code of conduct
is not to stop all governmental activities but only those actions which
may directly influence a section of electors need to be prevented.
The need for such code is in the interest of free and fair elections.
However, the code does not have any specific statutory basis. It has
only a persuasive effect. It contains what, known as "rules of electoral
morality". But this lack of statutory backing does not prevent the
Commission from enforcing it.
Registration of Political Parties[edit]

A law regarding to this registration process was enacted in 1989 and


number of parties got registered with the Commission. [6] It helps to
avoid confusion and headache of the administrative machinery as
well as confusion of the electorate. It ensures that political parties can
practice democracy only by their registration.
Limits on Poll Expenses[edit]
To get rid of the growing influences and vulgar show of money during
elections the Election Commission has made many suggestions in
this regard. The Election Commission has fixed the legal limits on the
amount of money which a candidate can spend during election
campaigns. These limits have been revised from time to time. The
Election Commission by appointing observers keeps an eye on the
individual account of election expenditure. The contestants are also
required to give details of expenditure within 30 days of declaration of
results. However, political parties do not adhere to the financial
Lakshman Rekha as huge amount are spent by parties under the
garb of their supporters.
The campaign period was reduced by the Election Commission from
21 to 14 days for Lok Sabha and Assembly elections; it is for to trim
down election expenditure. The Election Commissions this attempt to
impose these measures has been a move in the right direction.
Moreover, Election Commission takes details of the candidate's asset
on affidavit at the time of submitting nomination paper.
In Common Cause v/s. Union of India, it was pointed out that, in India
elections are fought on the basis of money. The Court ruled that,
purity of election is fundamental to the democracy and Commission
can ask the candidates about the expenditure incurred by them and
political party for this purpose.
Prohibition on Publication[edit]
The Commission can issue an order for prohibition of publication and
disseminating of results of opinion polls or exit polls.[7]
Criticism[edit]
The Election Commission of India came into severe criticism when a
RTI by disability activist Dr Satendra Singh revealed its illpreparedness to safeguard electors with disabilities in General

Elections 2014.[8] There were many violations of Supreme Court order


from 2014 to enfranchise persons with disabilities. [9]

PRS Legislative Research (PRS) was established in September


2005 as an independent and non-partisan [citation needed] research institute
to make the legislative process better informed, more transparent and
participatory. PRS is based in New Delhi, India
Contents
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1 Background
2 Research Products and Services
2.1 MP Engagement
2.2 MLA Engagement
2.3 Legislators Knowledge Network
2.4 Tracking Parliament
2.5 Citizens Engagement
2.6 Laws of India Project
2.7 LAMP Fellowship
3 About PRS
4 Awards
4.1 Media on PRS
4.2 Articles by the PRS team
4.3 Articles citing PRS
5 References
6 External links

Background[edit]
Each Member of Parliament (MP) in India represents over two million
constituents.[1] The Indian Parliament passes an average of 60 Bills

every year. MPs make laws and address complex policy issues
across a wide range of sectors. Given the diversity of issues and the
technical nature of many of them, it is not possible for MPs to be well
versed on all such issues.
It is in this context that PRS provides MPs analysis on legislation and
policy to help them prepare for parliamentary debates.
Research Products and Services[edit]
PRS research is fact based and analytical. PRS does not provide
recommendations or opinions. PRS directly briefs MPs across all
political parties from both the treasury and opposition benches of both
the Houses of Parliament. Some of PRS research products include
Legislative Brief: Briefs summarise and discuss the main issues
related to Bills introduced in Parliament. The detailed research
findings are presented in 4-6 pages, covering the main features and
key issues related to each Bill in a concise manner. and
Monthly Policy Review: A monthly comprehensive report of the major
policy developments across various sectors in the country. The aim is
to help readers keep track of all significant policy events, including
reports by parliamentary and government committees. This report
also helps MPs follow events with a view to oversee the policy and
working of the government.
Discussion Paper: Includes analytical reports and conference notes.
These papers analyse policies of national importance and various
aspects of Parliament.
Analytical Report: A 20-25 page detailed analysis of the
issues/schemes other than legislation.
Bill and Standing Committee Report Summary: One-page summaries
highlighting the main features of a Bill are posted on the website for
easy access for MPs and other citizens. PRS also summarises
Reports on Bills.
Report Summary: In addition to Bills, Standing Committees also
examine other important issues. Other government commissions and
committees may submit reports. The Comptroller and Auditor General

also prepares various reports. PRS Summaries of these reports


provide a gist of their recommendations and observations.
Session End Summaries: At the end of every Parliament Session, the
Session Wrap report lists the Bills that were passed, Bills that were
introduced, and all pending Bills, with their current status. The Plan
versus Performance report compares the legislative work
accomplished with the official agenda announced at the beginning of
the session.
Vital Stats: Vital Stats are graphical data-based reports which explain
key legislative information and other policy issues. Some of these
include performance of Parliament during sessions.
MP Engagement[edit]
PRS regularly interacts with MPs, providing them with research inputs
and analysis to support their work in Parliament. PRS shares its
analysis on legislation [2] with all MPs in both houses of Parliament.
Many MPs reach out to PRS for individual briefings as well as
research on specific topics.
MLA Engagement[edit]
PRS engages with Members of State Legislative Assemblies (MLAs)
to provide them research support for their role as legislators. PRS
also regularly conducts policy workshops for MLAs which provides
state legislators with an opportunity to interact with policy experts and
fellow legislators from other states to discuss policy challenges in
their states. The Legislators Knowledge Network is another such
platform for MLAs to engage with each other.
Legislators Knowledge Network[edit]
The Network is a forum for legislators to interact and share policy
initiatives on issues of common interest. The objective is to create a
platform for MLAs to showcase positive developments in their states,
share and learn best practices, and foster a culture of learning from
the experiences of other states on relevant issues.
Tracking Parliament[edit]
PRS collates detailed data and information about Parliaments
functioning. It prepares detailed reports providing timely updates
about business in Parliament before and after each session.

PRS enables citizens to track the activity of their MPs in Parliament


through an online MP track tool.[3] It tracks the MPs engagement
during sessions on different parameters such as Questions asked,
Private Members Bill introduced, participation in Debates and
Attendance.
Citizens Engagement[edit]
PRS engages with civil society organisations and the media to enable
greater engagement with the legislative process. The media regularly
accesses PRS for data and analysis related to Parliament and
legislation.[4]
The website[5] is updated daily on Parliaments activities and
legislative news. Engagement with citizens is facilitated through the
PRS Blog, Twitter and Facebook pages. Workshops are held for
journalists on tracking the activities of MPs and MLAs. In addition,
PRS provides inputs to the press and electronic media on the
legislative agenda in Parliament, as well as data on legislative
performance. Members of the PRS team are often approached to
contribute columns to provide a perspective on various key Bills and
Parliaments functioning.
Towards the general elections 2014, PRS launched an SMS Tool to
enable a citizen to identify and track the performance of his/her MP
by typing MP <six digit pin code> and sending it to the number
+919223051616.
Laws of India Project[edit]
PRS conceptualised and developed Laws of India.org which is an
online database with nearly 4000 laws from most states across the
country. Free online access is provided to all these laws.
LAMP Fellowship[edit]
The Legislative Assistants to Members of Parliament (LAMP)
Fellowship was conceptualised by PRS to create a platform for young
Indians to engage with policy making at the national level.
The LAMP Fellowship places one legislative assistant to work with an
MP. The LAMP Fellows are engaged full-time for eleven months to
work with the assigned MP over three parliamentary sessions.
Throughout the eleven months, the LAMP Fellow works closely with

the MP, providing extensive research support for his/her


parliamentary work.
In the first cohort of the LAMP Fellowship, 12 young individuals were
selected and trained to work with MPs from both Houses of
Parliament, across different political parties. In the following years,
the programme was expanded to have over 40 Fellows each year.
LAMP Fellows 2010-11 [6] LAMP Fellows 2011-12 [7] LAMP Fellows
2012-13 [8] LAMP Fellows 2014-15 [9]
About PRS[edit]
PRS was co-founded by C.V. Madhukar and M.R. Madhavan in 2005.
M.R. Madhavan is currently the President of PRS. The Board of
Directors is headed by Mr. N. Vaghul. The initiative was incubated in
the Centre for Policy Research (CPR), New Delhi, which is a leading
Indian think tank. Recently, the initiative has been institutionalised as
the Institute for Policy Research Studies, a not-for-profit Section 25
Company.
The work of PRS was initiated with a grant from Ford Foundation,
and subsequently by Google.org. Currently, the work of PRS is
supported by a number of Indian institutions and individuals.

Politics in India (Hindi: ) take place within the


framework of itsconstitution, as India is
a federal parliamentary democratic republic in which the President of
India is the head of state and the Prime Minister of India is the head
of government. India follows the dual polity system, i.e. a double
government which consists of the central authority at the centre and
states at the periphery. The constitution defines the organisation,
powers and limitations of both central and state governments, and it
is well-recognized, rigid and considered supreme; i.e. laws of the
nation must conform to it. There is a provision for
a bicameral legislature consisting of an Upper House, i.e. Rajya
Sabha, which represents the states of the Indian federation and a
lower house i.e. Lok Sabha, which represents the people of India as a
whole. The Indian constitution provides for an independent Judiciary
which is headed by the Supreme Court. The court's mandate is to
protect the constitution, to settle disputes between the central
government and the states, inter-state disputes, and nullify any
central or state laws that go against the constitution. [1]
The governments, union or state, are formed through elections held
every five years (unless otherwise specified), by parties that claim a
majority of members in their respective lower houses (Lok Sabha in
centre and Vidhan Sabha in states). India had itsfirst general
election in 1951, which was won by the Indian National Congress, a
political party that went on to dominate the successive elections up
until 1977, when the first non-Congress government was formed for
the first time in independent India. The 1990s saw the end of single
party domination and rise of coalition governments. The electionsfor
the 16th Lok Sabha, held from April 2014 to May 2014, once again
brought back single-party rule in the country, with the Bharatiya
Janata Party being able to claim a majority in the Lok Sabha. [2]
Contents
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1 Political parties and alliances


1.1 Features of political parties in India
1.2 Types of political parties
1.3 Alliances
2 Local governance
3 Role of political parties
4 Political issues
4.1 Social issues
4.2 Economic issues
4.3 Law and order
5 See also
6 References
7 Further reading
8 External links

Political parties and alliances[edit]


For other political parties see List of political parties in India. An
overview on elections and election results is included inElections in
India.
Main articles: Indian general election, 2009 and Indian general
election, 2014
Features of political parties in India[edit]
Compared to other democratic countries, India has a large number of
political parties. It has been estimated that over 200 parties were
formed after India became independent in 1947. [3] Some features of
the political parties in India are that the parties are generally woven
around their leaders, the leaders actively playing a dominant role, and
that the role of leadership can be transferred, thus tending to take a
dynastic route. Such parties include both national and regional
parties, such as the Indian National Congress (INC), which has been
led by the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty since independence, beginning
with Jawaharlal Nehru who dominated the INC and led it to victory in
three consecutive elections, and continuing with, after a brief
interlude of the prime ministership of Lal Bahadur Shastri, Nehru's
daughter, Indira Gandhi. After the split in the Congress party in 1969
she formed her own Indian National Congress faction called the
Indian National Congress (Ruling). After a further split, she formed
the Congress (Indira) or Congress(I). Indira remained the leader of

the party until her death in 1984, handing power to her son Rajiv
Gandhi, who, after his death, his widow Sonia Gandhi, the current
leader of INC, took command.[4] As a result of such dominance, the
leaders of political parties of the country tend to take an autocratic
tone.
One other major feature of the political parties is that, except for the
communist parties, most of the political parties of India lack an ideological
basis. Instead political parties in India are formed on the basis of race,
religion, language, caste etc. factors, thus the high number of political
parties.
Types of political parties[edit]
Main article: List of recognised political parties in India
There are two types of political parties in India - National Party and
Regional/State party. Every political party must bear a symbol and
must be registered with theElection Commission of India.Symbols are
used in Indian political system so that illiterate people can also vote
by recognizing symbols of party.
In the current amendment to the Symbols Order, the Commission,
has infused the following five principles, which, in its view, should
govern the polity in the country, situate as it is in its present state: [5]
1. Legislative presence is a must for recognition as a National or
State party.
2. For a National party, it must be the legislative presence in the
Lok Sabha and for a State party, the legislative presence must
be reflected in the State Assembly.
3. In any election, a party can set up a candidate only from
amongst its own members.
4. A party, that loses its recognition, shall not lose its symbol
immediately, but shall be given the facility to use that symbol
for some time to try and retrieve its status. [However, the grant
of such facility to the party to use its symbol will not mean the
extension of other facilities to it, as are available to recognised
parties, like, free time on Doordarshan/AIR, free supply of
copies of electoral rolls, etc.]

5. Recognition should be given to a party only on the basis of its


own performance in elections and not because it is a splinter
group of some other recognised party.
Criteria[5]

A political party shall be eligible to be recognised as


a National party if :1. it secures at least six percent(6%) of the valid votes polled in
any four or more states, at a general election to the House of
the People or, to the State Legislative Assembly; and
2. in addition, it wins at least four seats in the House of the
People from any State or States.

OR it wins at least two percent (2%) seats in the House of the


People (i.e., 11 seats in the existing House having 543 members),
and these members are elected from at least three different States.

Likewise, a political party shall be entitled to be recognised as


a State party, if :1. it secures at least six percent (6%) of the valid votes polled in
the State at a general election, either to the House of the
People or to the Legislative Assembly of the State concerned;
and
2. in addition, it wins at least two seats in the Legislative
Assembly of the State concerned.

OR
it wins at least three percent (3%) of the total number of seats in the
Legislative Assembly of the State, or at least threeseats in the
Assembly, whichever is more.
At present there are 3 national parties and 57 state parties.
Alliances[edit]
There are three alliances on a national level in India, competing with
each other for the position of Government. The member parties work

in harmony for gratifying national interests, although a party can jump


ships whenever it may deem fit.
The three alliances

National Democratic Alliance (NDA) - Centre-Right coalition led


by BJP was formed in 1998 after the elections, NDA formed the
government although the government didn't last long
as AIADMK withdrew support from it resulting in 1999 general
elections, in which NDA won and resumed power. The coalition
government went on to complete the full five years term, becoming
the first non-Congress government to do so. In the 2014 General
Elections NDA once again returned to power for the second time,
with a historic mandate of 336 out of 543 Lok Sabha seats. BJP
itself won 282 seats thereby electing Narendra Modi as the head
of the government.

United Progressive Alliance (UPA) - Centre-Left coalition led by


INC, this alliance was created after the 2004 General Elections,
with the alliance forming the Government. The alliance even after
losing some of its members, was reelected in 2009 General
Elections with Manmohan Singh as head of the government.

Third front - The coalition of parties which do not belong to any


of the above camps due to certain issues. They are not bound
together due to any ideological similarities but primarily due to
their stand of maintaining distance with both major parties. One of
the party in the alliance CPI(M), prior to 2009 General Elections
was a member party of the UPA. The alliance has no official
leading party and generally smaller parties keep coming and
leaving the alliance as per political convenience. Many of these
parties ally at national level but contest against each other at state
level.

Local governance[edit]
Main article: Panchayati Raj
On April 24, 1993, the Constitutional (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992
came into force to provide constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj
institutions. This Act was extended to Panchayats in the tribal areas

of eight States, namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal


Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan from
24 December 1996.

The Act aims to provide 3tier system of Panchayati


Raj for all States having
population of over 2
million, to hold Panchayat
elections regularly every 5
years, to provide
reservation of seats for
Scheduled Castes,
Scheduled Tribes and
Women, to appoint State
Finance Commission to
make recommendations
as regards the financial
powers of the Panchayats
and to constitute District
Planning Committee to
prepare draft
development plan for the
district.

Role of political parties[edit]


As with any other democracy, political parties represent different
sections among the Indian society and regions, and their core values
play a major role in the politics of India. Both the executive branch
and the legislative branch of the government are run by the
representatives of the political parties who have been elected through
the elections. Through the electoral process, the people of India
choose which representative and which political party should run the
government. Through the elections any party may gain simple
majority in the lower house. Coalitions are formed by the political
parties, in case no single party gains a simple majority in the lower
house. Unless a party or a coalition have a majority in the lower
house, a government cannot be formed by that party or the coalition.

Indian state governments led by various political parties as of March


2014.
India has a multi-party system, where there are a number of national
as well as regional parties. A regional party may gain a majority and
rule a particular state. If a party is represented in more than 4 states,
it would be labelled a national party. Out of the 66 years of India's
independence, India has been ruled by the Indian National
Congress (INC) for 53 of those years.
The party enjoyed a parliamentary majority save for two brief periods
during the 1970s and late 1980s. This rule was interrupted between
1977 to 1980, when the Janata Party coalition won the election owing
to public discontent with the controversial state of
emergency declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
The Janata Dal won elections in 1989, but its government managed
to hold on to power for only two years.
Between 1996 and 1998, there was a period of political flux with the
government being formed first by the nationalist Bharatiya Janata
Party (BJP) followed by a left-leaning United Front coalition. In 1998,
the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance with smaller
regional parties, and became the first non-INC and coalition
government to complete a full five-year term. The 2004 Indian
elections saw the INC winning the largest number of seats to form a
government leading the United Progressive Alliance, and supported
by left-parties and those opposed to the BJP.
On 22 May 2004, Manmohan Singh [6] was appointed the Prime
Minister of Indiafollowing the victory of the INC & the left front in
the 2004 Lok Sabha election. TheUPA ruled India without the support
of the left front. Previously, Atal Bihari Vajpayee[7] had taken office in
October 1999 after a general election in which a BJP-led coalition of
13 parties called the National Democratic Alliance emerged with a
majority. In May 2014, Narendra Modi of BJP was elected as Prime
Minister of India.
Formation of coalition governments reflects the transition in Indian
politics away from the national parties toward smaller, more narrowly

based regional parties. Some regional parties, especially in South


India, are deeply aligned to the ideologies of the region unlike the
national parties and thus the relationship between the central
government and the state government in various states has not
always been free of rancor. Disparity between the ideologies of the
political parties ruling the centre and the state leads to severely
skewed allocation of resources between the states.
Political issues[edit]
Main article: Socio-economic issues in India
See also: Corruption in India
Social issues[edit]
The lack of homogeneity in the Indian population causes division
between different sections of the people based
on religion,region, language, caste and race. This has led to the rise
of political parties with agendas catering to one or a mix of these
groups.
Some parties openly profess their focus on a particular group; for
example, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam's and the All India Anna
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam's focus on the Dravidian population,
and the Shiv Sena's pro-Marathi agenda. Some other parties claim to
be universal in nature, but tend to draw support from particular
sections of the population. For example, the Rashtriya Janata
Dal (translated as National People's Party) has a vote bank among
the Yadav and Muslimpopulation of Bihar and the All India Trinamool
Congress does not have any significant support outside West Bengal.
The narrow focus and votebank politics of most parties, even in the
central government and central legislature, sidelines national issues
such as economic welfare and national security. Moreover, internal
security is also threatened as incidences of political parties instigating
and leading violence between two opposing groups of people is a
frequent occurrence.
Economic issues[edit]
Economic issues like poverty, unemployment, development are main
issues that influence politics. Garibi hatao (eradicate poverty) has
been a slogan of the Indian National Congress for a long time. The

well known Bharatiya Janata Partyencourages a free


market economy. The Communist Party of India (Marxist) vehemently
supports left-wing politics like land-for-all, right to work and strongly
opposes neo-liberal policies such
as globalization, capitalism and privatization.
Law and order[edit]
Terrorism, Naxalism, religious violence and caste-related violence are
important issues that affect the political environment of the Indian
nation. Stringent anti-terror legislation such as TADA, POTA and
MCOCA have received much political attention, both in favour and
opposed.
Terrorism had effected politics India since its conception, be it
the terrorism supported from Pakistan or the internal guerrilla groups
such as Naxalites. In 1991 the former prime minister Rajiv
Gandhi was assassinated during an election campaign.[8]The suicide
bomber was later linked to the Sri Lankan terrorist group Liberation
Tigers of Tamil Eelam, as it was later revealed the killing was an act
of vengeance for Rajiv Gandhi sending troops in Sri Lanka against
them in 1987.[8]
The Babri Masjid demolition on December 6, 1992 by
Hindu Karsevaks resulted in nation-wide communal riots in two
months, with worst occurring in Mumbai with at least 900 dead.[8]
[9]
The riots were followed by 1993 Mumbai Bomb Blasts, which
resulted in more deaths.
Law and order issues, such as action against organised crime are
issues which do not affect the outcomes of elections. On the other
hand, there is a criminalpolitician nexus. Many elected legislators
have criminal cases against them. In July 2008, the Washington
Post reported that nearly a fourth of the 540 Indian
Parliament members faced criminal charges, "includinghuman
trafficking, immigration rackets, embezzlement, rape and
even murder".[10]

The Rajya Sabha (Hindi: ) or Council of States is


the upper houseof the Parliament of India. Membership is limited to
250 members, 12 of whom are nominated by the President of
India for their contributions to art, literature, science, and social
services. The remainder of the body is elected by the state and
territorial legislatures. Members sit for six-year terms, with one third of
the members retiring every two years.
The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, and unlike the Lok
Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, is not subject to dissolution.
The Rajya Sabha has equal footing in all areas of legislation with Lok
Sabha, except in the area ofsupply, where the Lok Sabha has
overriding powers. In the case of conflicting legislation, a joint sitting
of the two houses is held. However, since the Lok Sabha has twice as
many members as the Rajya Sabha, the former would normally hold
the greater power. Only three such joint-sessions have been held; the
latest one for the passage of the 2002 Prevention of Terrorism Act.
The Vice President of India (currently, Hamid Ansari) is the exofficio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, who presides over its sessions.
The Deputy Chairman, who is elected from amongst the RS's
members, takes care of the day-to-day matters of the house in the
absence of the Chairman. The Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13
May 1952.[5] The salary and other benefits for a member of Rajya
Sabha are same as for a member of Lok Sabha.
Contents
[hide]

o
o

1 Qualifications
2 Limitations
2.1 Money Bills

2.1.1 No-Confidence Motion


2.2 Legislation
3 Membership and composition
3.1 Membership by party
4 Officers
4.1 Leader of the House

o
o

4.2 Leader of the Opposition (LOP)


4.3 Secretariat
5 Media
6 References
7 Further reading
8 External links

Qualifications[edit]
Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for
membership of Parliament. Members of the Rajya Sabha must:

Be citizens of India
Make and subscribe before some person authorized in that
behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation
according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule
to the Constitution;
Be at least 30 years old;
Possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that
behalf by or under any law made by Parliament.
Be elected by the Legislative Assembly of States and Union
territories by means of Single transferable
vote through Proportional representation.

In addition, twelve members are nominated by the President of


India having special knowledge in various areas like Arts, Science
etc. However they are not entitled to vote in Presidential elections as
per Article 55 of Indian Constitution.
Limitations[edit]
There are certain limitations, which makes Lok Sabha more powerful
than Rajya Sabha.
Money Bills[edit]
In the case of Money bills, if the Rajya Sabha returns the bill to Lok
Sabha, opposing the bill, it is deemed to have passed. Though the
Rajya Sabha can send recommendations to the Lok Sabha, it is not
binding on the Lok Sabha to act on it. Also, the house cannot
exercise Pocket Veto; if the house does not pass the bill within 14
days, it is again deemed to have been passed by the house.

No-Confidence Motion[edit]
Unlike Lok Sabha, it cannot pass motion of no confidence against the
government.
Legislation[edit]
The number of members of Lok Sabha is 545, that is more than twice
the members of Rajya Sabha. As a result, in case a non-financial bill
is rejected by the Rajya Sabha, if passed by the Lok Sabha, then in
the joint-session of the parliament, the bill is likely to be passed. So,
in general, the Lok Sabha has more power than Rajya Sabha in
matters of legislation.
Loksabha is more powerful because1- In our parliamentary form the government is
accountable to Loksabha and not to the Rajya Sabha.
2- Loksabha is real custodian of national
finances.
3- Money bills can be only introduced in Loksabha
Membership and composition[edit]
Seats are allotted in proportion to the population of each state
or union territory. An additional 12 members are nominated by
the President.[6]
Name of State

No. of Seats

Andhra Pradesh

11

Arunachal Pradesh

Assam

Bihar

16

Name of State

No. of Seats

Chhattisgarh

Goa

Gujarat

11

Haryana

Himachal Pradesh

Jammu & Kashmir

Jharkhand

Karnataka

12

Kerala

Madhya Pradesh

11

Maharashtra

19

Name of State

No. of Seats

Manipur

Meghalaya

Mizoram

Nagaland

National Capital Territory (Delhi) 3


Nominated

12

Odisha

10

Pondicherry

Punjab

Rajasthan

10

Sikkim

Tamil Nadu

18

Name of State

No. of Seats

Telangana

Tripura

Uttar Pradesh

31

Uttarakhand

West Bengal

16

See also List of members of the Rajya Sabha


Membership by party[edit]
Members by Party Source: Rajya Sabha Secretariat [7] (as of 24
January 2015)
Alliances (2014 General
Elections)

Party

National Democratic Alliance Bharatiya Janata Party


Seats: 59

MPs

45

Telugu Desam Party

Shiromani Akali Dal

Shiv Sena

Alliances (2014 General


Elections)

United Progressive Alliance


Seats: 78

Other Parties
Seats: 88

Party

MPs

Nagaland People's Front

Republican Party of India


(Athvale)

Indian National Congress

69

Nationalist Congress Party

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha

Kerala Congress (Mani)

Rashtriya Janata Dal

Samajwadi Party

15

All India Trinamool Congress

12

Janata Dal (United)

12

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra


11
Kazhagam
Bahujan Samaj Party

10

Alliances (2014 General


Elections)

Party

MPs

Communist Party of India


(Marxist)

Biju Janata Dal

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

Communist Party of India

Bodoland People's Front

Indian National Lok Dal

Jammu & Kashmir National


Conference

Janata Dal (Secular)

Sikkim Democratic Front

Telangana Rashtra Samithi

Alliances (2014 General


Elections)

Party

MPs

Nominated

10

Independents

Vacant Seats

Total

245

Officers[edit]
Leader of the House[edit]
Besides the Chairman (Vice-President of India) and the Deputy
Chairman, there is also a function called Leader of the House. This is
a cabinet minister - the prime minister if he is a member of the House,
or another nominated minister. The Leader has a seat next to the
Chairman, in the front row.
The following people have been the Leader of the House in the Rajya
Sabha:
No

Name

From

To

Shri N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar May 1952

Feb. 1953

Shri Charu Chandra Biswas

Feb. 1953

Nov. 1954

Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri

Nov. 1954

March 1955

Shri Govind Ballabh Pant

March 1955 Feb. 1961

Shri Hafiz Mohammad Ibrahim

Feb. 1961

Aug. 1963

Shri Yashwantrao Chavan

Aug. 1963

Dec. 1963

Shri Jaisukhlal Hathi

Feb. 1964

March 1964

Shri Mahomadali Currim Chagla March 1964 Nov. 1967

Shri Jaisukhlal Hathi

Nov. 1967

Nov. 1969

10 Shri Kodradas Kalidas Shah

Nov. 1969

May 1971

11 Shri Uma Shankar Dikshit

May 1971

Dec. 1975

12 Shri Kamlapati Tripathi

Dec. 1975

March 1977

13 Shri L. K. Advani

March 1977 Aug. 1979

14 Shri K.C. Pant

Aug. 1979

Jan. 1980

15 Shri Pranab Mukherjee

Jan. 1980

Dec. 1984

16 Shri V. P. Singh

Dec. 1984

April 1987

17 Shri Narayan Dutt Tiwari

April 1987

June 1988

18 Shri P. Shiv Shankar

July 1988

Dec. 1989

19 Shri M. S. Gurupadaswamy

Dec. 1989

Nov. 1990

20 Shri Yashwant Sinha

Dec. 1990

June 1991

21 Shri Shankarrao Chavan

July 1991

April 1996

22 Shri Sikander Bakht

20 May 1996 31 May 1996

23 Shri Inder Kumar Gujral

June 1996

Nov. 1996

24 Shri H.D. Deve Gowda

Nov. 1996

April 1997

25 Shri Inder Kumar Gujral

April 1997

March 1998

26 Shri Sikander Bakht

March 1998 Oct. 1999

27 Shri Jaswant Singh

Oct. 1999

May 2004

28 Dr. Manmohan Singh

June 2004

May 2014

29 Shri Arun Jaitley

June 2014

Present

Leader of the Opposition (LOP)[edit]


Main article: Leader of the Opposition (India)

Besides the Leader of the House, who is leading the majority, there is
also a Leader of the Opposition - leading the minority parties. The
function was only recognized in the Salary and Allowances of
Leaders of the Opposition in Parliament Act 1977. This is commonly
the leader of the largest minority party, and is recognized as such by
the Chairman.
The following people have been the Leader of the Opposition in the
Rajya Sabha:
No

Name

From

To

Shri Shyam Nandan


Mishra

December
1969

March
1971

Shri M. S.
Gurupadaswamy

March 1971

April 1972

Shri Kamlapati Tripathi

30.3.1977

15.2.1978

Shri Bhola Paswan Shastri 24.2.1978

23.3.1978

Shri Kamlapati Tripathi

23.3.1978

2.4.1978

Shri Kamlapati Tripathi

18.4.1978

8.1.1980

Shri Lal Krishna Advani

21.1.1980

7.4.1980

Shri P. Shiv Shanker

18.12.1989

2.1.1991

Shri M. S.
Gurupadaswamy

28.6.1991

21.7.1991

10 Shri S. Jaipal Reddy

22.7.1991

29.6.1992

11 Shri Sikander Bakht

7.7.1992

10.4.1996

12 Shri Sikander Bakht

10.4.1996

23.5.1996

13 Shri S. B. Chavan

23.5.1996

1.6.1996

14 Shri Sikander Bakht

1.6.1996

19.3.1998

15 Dr. Manmohan Singh

21.3.1998

21.5.2004

16 Shri Jaswant Singh

3.6.2004

4.7.2004

17 Shri Jaswant Singh

5.7.2004

16.5.2009

18 Shri Arun Jaitley

3.6.2009

20.5.2014

19 Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad

6.5.2014

Present

Secretariat[edit]
The Secretariat of Rajya Sabha was set up pursuant to the provisions
contained in Article 98 of the Constitution. The said Article, which
provides for a separate secretarial staff for each House of Parliament,

reads as follows:- 98. Secretariat of Parliament -Each House of


Parliament shall have a separate secretarial staff: Provided that
nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the creation of
posts common to both Houses of Parliament. (2) Parliament may by
law regulate the recruitment and the conditions of service of persons
appointed to the secretarial staff of either House of Parliament.
The Rajya Sabha Secretariat functions under the overall guidance
and control of the Chairman. The main activities of the Secretariat
inter alia include the following :(i) providing secretarial assistance and support to the effective
functioning of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha)ssible to
Members of Rajya Sabha;
(iv) servicing the various Parliamentary Committees;
(v) preparing research and reference material and bringing out
various publications;
(vi) recruitment of manpower in the Sabha Secretariat and
attending to personnel matters; and
(vii) preparing and publishing a record of the day-to-day
proceedings of the Rajya Sabha and bringing out such other
publications, as may be required concerning the functioning of
the Rajya Sabha and its Committees.
In the discharge of his constitutional and statutory
responsibilities, the Chairman, Rajya Sabha is
assisted by the Secretary-General, who holds the
rank equivalent[8] to the Cabinet Secretary to the
Government of India. The Secretary-General, in turn,
is assisted by senior functionaries at the level of
Secretary, Additional Secretary, Joint Secretary and
other officers and staff of the Secretariat.
Media[edit]
Rajya Sabha Television (RSTV) is a 24*7
parliamentary TV channel fully owned and operated
by the Rajya Sabha. The channel is aimed at
providing in-depth coverage and analysis of
parliamentary affairs especially the functioning of and
developments related to Rajya Sabha. During

sessions of Parliament, apart from telecasting live


coverage of the proceedings of Rajya Sabha, RSTV
presents incisive analysis of the proceedings of the
House as well as other day-to-day parliamentary
events and developments.[9]

The Lok Sabha (Hindi: ; lit. "Assembly of the People") is


the lower house of India's bicameral-parliament, with the higher
house being the Rajya Sabha. It is composed of representatives of
the people from 543 constituencies, chosen by direct election on the
basis of adult suffrage, and meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of
the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi.
The maximum strength of the House envisaged by the Constitution of
India is 552, which is made up by election of up to 530 members to
represent the states; up to 20 members to represent the Union
Territories and not more than two members of the AngloIndian Community to be nominated by the President of India, if, in
his/her opinion, that community is not adequately represented in the
House. The total elective membership is distributed among the states
in proportion to their population.[3][4] A total of 131 seats (18.42%) are
reserved for representatives of Scheduled Castes (84)
and Scheduled Tribes (47).
The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for
five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and the
expiration of the period of five years. However, while a proclamation
of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by
Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and
not extending, in any case, beyond a period of six months after the
proclamation has ceased to operate.[3][5] An exercise to redraw Lok
Sabha constituencies' boundaries has been carried out by
the DelimitationCommission based on the Indian census of 2001.
This exercise, which was supposed to be carried out after every
census, was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional
amendment to avoid adverse effects of the family planning program
which was being implemented.[6] The 16th Lok Sabha was elected in
May 2014 and is the latest to date.

The Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV,
headquartered within the premises of Parliament. [7]
Contents
[hide]

o
o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o

1 History
2 Qualifications for becoming a member of Lok Sabha
3 Powers
4 Procedure
4.1 Procedure in the House
4.2 Sessions and Time of Sittings
4.3 Question Hour
4.4 Business after Question Hour
4.5 Main Business

4.5.1 Legislative Business

4.5.2 Financial Business

4.5.3 Motions and Resolutions


4.6 Half-an-Hour Discussion.
4.7 Discussion on Matters of Urgent Public Importance
4.8 Debate in the House

4.8.1 Division
4.9 Automatic Vote Recording System
4.10 Publication of Debates
5 Officers of Lok Sabha
6 Composition by states and territories
7 Previous Lok Sabha general elections
8 Number of members by party in Lok Sabha
9 See also
10 References
11 External links

History[edit]
This section does
not cite any references or
sources. Please help improve this
section byadding citations to reliable
sources. Unsourced material may be
challenged and removed. (March

2014)
A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from
1857 to 1947.[8] During this period, the office of the Secretary of State
for India (along with the Council of India) was the authority through
whom parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, and
the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive
Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council
consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official
members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in
each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the
Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation
of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, and
the electorate very small. The Indian Councils Act 1909 and
the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation
of Indians in the administration. The Indian Independence Act,
passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India
(which did not include the Princely States) into two new independent
countries, India and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under
the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The
Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations,
with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for
the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and
came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a
sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding
principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new
form, which now included all the princely states which had
not acceded to Pakistan.
According to Article 79 (Part V-The Union.)[9] of the Constitution of
India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and
the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States (Rajya
Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha).
The Lok Sabha (House of the Leaders) was duly constituted for the
first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 5
October 1951 to 21 February 1952. The first Session of the First Lok

Sabha commenced on 13 May 1952. The Second Lok Sabha in April


1957, the Third Lok Sabha in April 1962, the Fourth Lok Sabha in
March 1967, the Fifth Lok Sabha in March 1971, the Sixth Lok Sabha
in March 1977, the Seventh Lok Sabha in January 1980, the Eighth
Lok Sabha in December 1984, the Ninth Lok Sabha in December
1989, the Tenth Lok Sabha in June 1991, the Eleventh Lok Sabha in
May 1996, the Twelfth Lok Sabha in March 1998, the Thirteenth Lok
Sabha in October 1999, the Fourteenth Lok Sabha in May 2004, the
Fifteenth Lok Sabha in May 2009 and the Sixteenth (current) Lok
Sabha in May 2014.
Qualifications for becoming a member of Lok Sabha[edit]
See also: Election Commission of India
Article 84 (Part V.The Union)[10] of Indian Constitution sets
qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as
follows:1. He/She should be a citizen of India, and must subscribe before
the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation
according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third
Schedule of Indian Constitution.
2. He/She, in the case of a seat in the House of the People,
should not be less than twenty-five years of age.
3. He/She possesses such other qualifications as may be
prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made
byParliament.
4. He/She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not
be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by
law; and
5. He/She should have his/her name in the electoral rolls in any
part of the country.
Note: He/She may not belong to the state from where they contest
the elections
However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of
Parliament:1. If he/she holds office of profit;

2. If he/she is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a


competent court
3. If he/she is an undischarged insolvent;
4. If he/she is not a citizen of India, or has voluntarily acquired the
citizenship of a foreign State, or is under any acknowledgment
of allegiance or adherence to a foreign State;
5. If he/she is violating party discipline (as per Tenth schedule of
the constitution); disqualified under Representation of People
Act.
Furthermore, as per article 101 (Part V.The Union) [11] of Indian
Constitution; A person cannot be :- (1) a member of both Houses of
Parliament and provision shall be made by Parliament by law for the
vacation by a person who is chosen a member of both Houses of his
seat in one House or the other.(2) a member both of Parliament and
of a House of the Legislature of a State.
System of elections in Lok Sabha[12]
For the purpose of holding direct elections to Lok Sabha; each state
is divided into territorial constituencies. In this respect, the
constitution of India makes the following two provisions:
1. Each state is allotted a number of seats in the Lok Sabha in
such a manner that the ratio between that number and its
population is same for all the states of India. This provision
does not apply for states having a population of less than 6
million (60 lakhs).
2. Each state is divided into territorial constituencies in such a
manner that the ratio between the population of
eachconstituency and the number of seats allotted to it remain
the same throughout the state.
Note: The expression population here refers to the population
ascertained at the preceding census (2001 Census) of which relevant
figure have been published.
Powers[edit]
Lok Sabha has certain powers that make it more powerful than the
Rajya Sabha.

Motions of no confidence against the government can be


introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha. If passed by a majority
vote, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers resigns
collectively. The Rajya Sabha has no power over such a motion,
and hence no real power over the executive. However, the Prime
Minister may threaten the dissolution by the Lok Sabha and
recommend this to the President, forcing an untimely general
election. The President normally accepts this recommendation
unless otherwise convinced that the Lok Sabha might recommend
a new Prime Minister by a majority vote. Thus, both the executive
and the legislature in India have checks and balances over each
other.
Money bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha, and upon
being passed, are sent to the Rajya Sabha, where it can be
deliberated on for up to 14 days. If not rejected by the Rajya
Sabha, or 14 days lapse from the introduction of the bill in the
Rajya Sabha without any action by the House, or
recommendations made by the Rajya Sabha are not accepted by
the Lok Sabha, the bill is considered passed. The budget is
presented in the Lok Sabha by the Finance Minister in the name of
the President of India.
In matters pertaining to non-financial (ordinary) bills, after the
bill has been passed by the House where it was originally tabled
(Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha), it is sent to the other house, where it
may be kept for a maximum period of 6 months. If the other House
rejects the bill or a period of 6 months elapses without any action
by that House, or the House that originally tabled the bill does not
accept the recommendations made by the members of the other
house, it results in a deadlock. This is resolved by a joint session
of both Houses, presided over by the speaker of the Lok Sabha
and decided by a simple majority. The will of the Lok Sabha
normally prevails in these matters, as its strength is more than
double that of the Rajya Sabha.
Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing
any Bill for Constitutional Amendment (by a majority of the total
membership of the House and at least two-thirds majority of the
members present and voting).

Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a


motion for the impeachment of the President (by two-thirds of the
membership of the House).
Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a
motion for the impeachment of the judges of the Supreme Court
and the state High Courts (by a majority of the membership of the
House and at least two-thirds majority of the members present
and voting).
Equal Powers with the Rajya Sabha in initiating and passing a
resolution declaring war or national emergency (by two-thirds
majority) or constitutional emergency (by simple majority) in a
state.
If the Lok Sabha is dissolved before or after the declaration of a
National Emergency, the Rajya Sabha becomes the sole
Parliament. It cannot be dissolved. This is a limitation on the Lok
Sabha. But there is a possibility that president can exceed the
term to not more than 1 year under the proclamation of emergency
and the same would be lowered down to six-month if the said
proclamation ceases to operate.

Procedure[edit]
Procedure in the House[edit]
The Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha and
Directions issued by the Speaker from time to time there under
regulate the procedure in Lok Sabha. The items of business, notice of
which is received from the Ministers/ Private Members and admitted
by the Speaker, are included in the daily List of Business which is
printed and circulated to members in advance. For various items of
business to be taken up in the House the time is allotted by the
House on the recommendations of the Business Advisory Committee.
Sessions and Time of Sittings[edit]
Three sessions of Lok Sabha take place in a year:

Budget session: February to May.


Monsoon session: July to September.
Winter session: November to mid December.

When in session, Lok Sabha holds its sittings usually from 11 A.M. to
1 P.M. and from 2 P.M. to 6 P.M. On some days the sittings are
continuously held without observing lunch break and are also
extended beyond 6 P.M. depending upon the business before the
House. Lok Sabha does not ordinarily sit on Saturdays and Sundays
and other closed holidays.
Question Hour[edit]
The first hour every sitting is called the Question Hour. Asking of
questions in Parliament is the free and unfettered right of members. It
is during the Question hour that they may ask questions on different
aspects of administration and Government policy in the national as
well as international spheres. Every Minister whose turn it is to
answer to questions has to stand up and answer for his Ministry's
acts of omission or commission.
Questions are of three types - Starred, Unstarred and Short Notice. A
Starred Question is one to which a member desires an oral answer in
the House and which is distinguished by an asterisk mark. An
unstarred Question is one which is not called for oral answer in the
house and on which no supplementary questions can consequently
be asked. An answer to such a question is given in writing. Minimum
period of notice for starred/ unstarred question is 10 clear days.If the
questions given notice of are admitted by the Speaker, they are listed
and printed for answer on the dates allotted to the Ministries to which
the subject matter of the question pertains.
The normal period of notice does not apply to short notice questions
which relate to matters of urgent public importance. However, a Short
Notice Question may only be answered on short notice if so permitted
by the Speaker and the Minister concerned is prepared to answer it at
shorter notice. A short notice question is taken up for answer
immediately after the Question Hour, popularly known as Zero Hour.
Zero Hour: The time immediately following the Question Hour has
come to be known as "Zero Hour". It starts at around 12 noon (hence
the name) and members can, with prior notice to the Speaker, raise
issues of importance during this time. Typically, discussions on
important Bills, the Budget, and other issues of national importance
take place from 2pm onwards.

Business after Question Hour[edit]


After the Question Hour, the House takes up miscellaneous items of
work before proceeding to the main business of the day. These may
consist of one or more of the following:- Adjournment Motions,
Questions involving breaches of Privileges, Papers to be laid on the
Table, Communication of any messages from Rajya Sabha,
Intimations regarding President's assent to Bills, Calling Attention
Notices, Matters under Rule 377, Presentation of Reports of
Parliamentary Committee, Presentation of Petitions, - miscellaneous
statements by Ministers, Motions regarding elections to Committees,
Bills to be withdrawn or introduced.
Main Business[edit]
The main business of the day may be consideration of a Bill or
financial business or consideration of a resolution or a motion.
Legislative Business[edit]
Legislative proposals in the form of a Bill can be brought forward
either by a Minister or by a private member. In the former case it is
known as Government Bill and in the latter case it is known as a
Private Members' Bill. Every Bill passes through three stages - called
three readings - before it is passed. To become law it must be passed
by both the Houses of Parliament, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, and
then assented to by the President
Financial Business[edit]
The presentation of the annual Budgets - General and Railways their discussion and voting on the various demands for grants
followed by passing of Appropriation Bill and Finance Bill, which is
long drawn process, take up a major part of the time of the House
during its Budget Session every year.
Motions and Resolutions[edit]
Among the other kinds of business which come up before the House
are resolutions and motions. Resolutions and motions may be
brought forward by Government or by private members. Government
may move a resolution or a motion for obtaining the sanction to a
scheme or opinion of the House on an important matter of policy or
on a grave situation. Similarly, a private member may move a

resolution or motion in order to draw the attention of the House and of


the Government to a particular problem. The last two and half hours
of sitting on every Friday are generally allotted for transaction of
private members' business. While private members' bills are taken up
on one Friday, private members' resolutions are taken up on the
succeeding Friday, and so on.
Half-an-Hour Discussion.[edit]
A Half-an-Hour Discussion can be raised on a matter of sufficient
public importance which has been the subject of a recent question in
Lok Sabha irrespective of the fact whether the question was
answered orally or the answer was laid on the Table of the House and
the answer which needs elucidation on a matter of fact. Normally not
more than half an hour is allowed for such a discussion. Usually, halfan-hour discussion is listed on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays
only, In one session, a member is allowed to raise not more than two
half-an-hour discussions. During the discussion, the member who has
given notice makes a short statement and not more than four
members who have intimated earlier and have secured one of the
four places in the ballot are permitted to ask a question each for
further elucidating any matter of fact. Thereafter, the Minister
concerned replies. There is no formal motion before the House nor
voting.
Discussion on Matters of Urgent Public Importance[edit]
Members may raise discussions on matters of urgent public
importance with the permission of the Speaker. Such discussions
may take place on two days in a week. No formal motion is moved in
the House nor is there any voting on such a discussion.
Debate in the House[edit]
After the member who initiates discussion on an item of business has
spoken, other members can speak on that item of business in such
order as the Speaker may call upon them. Only one member can
speak at a time and all speeches are directed to the Chair. A matter
requiring the decision of the House is decided by means of a question
put by the Speaker on a motion made by a member.

Division[edit]
A division is one of the forms in which the decision of the House is
ascertained. Normally, when a motion is put to the House members
for and against it indicate their opinion by saying "Aye" or "No" from
their seats. The Chair goes by the voices and declares that the
motion is either accepted or rejected by the House. If a member
challenges the decision, the Chair orders that the lobbies be cleared.
Then the division bell is rung and an entire network of bells installed
in the various parts and rooms in Parliament House and Parliament
House Annexe rings continuously for three and a half minutes.
Members and Ministers rush to the Chamber from all sides. After the
bell stops, all the doors to the Chamber are closed and nobody can
enter or leave the Chamber till the division is over. Then the Chair
puts the question for second time and declares whether in its opinion
the "Ayes" or the "Noes", have it. If the opinion so declared is again
challenged, the Chair asks the votes to be recorded by operating the
Automatic Vote Recording Equipment.
Automatic Vote Recording System[edit]
With the announcement of the Speaker for recording the votes, the
Secretary- General presses the button of a key board. Then a gong
sounds serving as a signal to members for casting their votes. For
casting a vote each member present in the Chamber has to press a
switch and then operate one of the three push buttons fixed in his
seat. The push switch must be kept pressed simultaneously until the
gong sounds for the second time after 10 seconds. There are two
Indicator Boards installed in the wall on either side of the Speaker's
Chair in the Chamber. Each vote cast by a member is flashed here.
Immediately after the votes are cast, they are totaled mechanically
and the details of the results are flashed on the Result Indicator
Boards installed in the railings of the Speaker's and Diplomatic
Galleries. Divisions are normally held with the aid of the Automatic
Vote Recording Equipment. Where so directed by the Speaker in
terms of relevant provision in the Rules of Procedure etc. in Lok
Sabha, Divisions may be held either by distribution of 'Aye'/'No' and
'Abstention' slips to members in the House or by the members
recording their votes by going into the lobbies. There is an Indicator
Board in the machine room showing the name of each member. The

result of Division and vote cast by each member with the aid of
Automatic Vote Recording Equipment appear on this Board also.
Immediately a photograph of the Indicator Board is taken. Later the
Photograph is enlarged and the names of members who voted 'Ayes'
and for 'Noes' are determined with the help of the photograph and
incorporated in Lok Sabha Debates.
Publication of Debates[edit]
Three versions of Lok Sabha Debates are prepared viz., the Hindi
version, the English version and the Original version. Only the Hindi
and English versions are printed. The Original version, in cyclostyled
form, is kept in the Parliament Library for record and reference. The
Hindi version all Questions asked and Answers given thereto in Hindi
and the speeches made in Hindi as also verbatim Hindi translation of
Questions and Answers and of speeches made in English or in
regional languages.The English version contains Lok Sabha
proceedings in English and the English translation of the proceedings
which take place in Hindi or in any regional language.The Original
version, however, contains proceedings in Hindi or in English as they
actually take place in the House and also the English/Hindi translation
of speeches made in regional languages.
If conflicting legislation is enacted by the two Houses, a joint sitting is
held to resolve the differences. In such a session, the members of the
Lok Sabha would generally prevail, since the Lok Sabha includes
more than twice as many members as theRajya Sabha.
Officers of Lok Sabha[edit]
Speaker and Deputy Speaker [13] As per Article 93 of Indian
Constitution, the Lok Sabha has a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker. In
the Lok Sabha, the lower House of the Indian Parliament, both
presiding officersthe Speaker and the Deputy Speaker- are elected
from among its members by a simple majority of members present
and voting in the House. As such, no specific qualifications are
prescribed for being elected the Speaker. The Constitution only
requires that Speaker should be a member of the House. But an
understanding of the Constitution and the laws of the country and the
rules of procedure and conventions of Parliament is considered a
major asset for the holder of the office of the Speaker. Vacation and

resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy
Speaker is mentioned under As per Article 93 of Indian Constitution.
A Speaker or a Deputy Speaker, should vacate his/her office, a) if
he/she ceases to be a member of the House of the People, b) he/she
resigns, c) removed from his office by a resolution of the House of the
People passed by a majority.
The Speaker of Lok Sabha is at once a member of the House as also
its Presiding Officer.The Speaker of the Lok Sabha conducts the
business in the house. He/she decides whether a bill is a money bill
or not. He/she maintains discipline and decorum in the house and
can punish a member for their unruly behaviour by suspending them.
He/she permits the moving of various kinds of motions and
resolutions like the motion of no confidence, motion of
adjournment, motion of censure and calling attention notice as per
the rules. The Speaker decides on the agenda to be taken up for
discussion during the meeting.It is the Speaker of the Lok Sabha who
presides over joint sittings called in the event of disagreement
between the two Houses on a legislative measure. Following the
52nd Constitution amendment, the Speaker is vested with the power
relating to the disqualification of a member of the Lok Sabha on
grounds of defection. The Speaker makes obituary references in the
House, formal references to important national and international
events and the valedictory address at the conclusion of every
Session of the Lok Sabha and also when the term of the House
expires. Though a member of the House, the Speaker does not vote
in the House except on those rare occasions when there is a tie at
the end of a decision. Till date, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha has not
been called upon to exercise this unique casting vote. While the office
of Speaker is vacant due to absence/resignation/removal, the duties
of the office shall be performed by the Deputy Speaker or, if the office
of Deputy Speaker is also vacant, by such member of the House of
the People as the President may appoint for the purpose.
Shri G.V. Mavalankar was the first Speaker of Lok Sabha (15 May
1952- 27 February 1956) and Shri M. Ananthasayanam
Ayyangar was the first Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha (30 May 1952
7 March 1956). In the 16th Lok Sabha, Sumitra Mahajan was elected

as the speaker on 3 June 2014, and is its second woman speaker


and Shri M. Thambidurai as the deputy speaker.
The Lok Sabha has also a separate non-elected Secretariat staff. [14]
Composition by states and territories[edit]
Type

No. of constituencies[15]

Andaman and Nicobar


Islands

Union
Territory

Andhra Pradesh

State

25

Arunachal Pradesh

State

Assam

State

14

Bihar

State

40

Chandigarh

Union
Territory

Chhattisgarh

State

11

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

Union
Territory

Daman and Diu

Union
Territory

Subdivision

Type

No. of constituencies[15]

National Capital Territory of


Delhi

Union
Territory

Goa

State

Gujarat

State

26

Haryana

State

10

Himachal Pradesh

State

Jammu and Kashmir

State

Jharkhand

State

14

Karnataka

State

28

Kerala

State

20

Lakshadweep

Union
Territory

Madhya Pradesh

State

29

Maharashtra

State

48

Subdivision

Type

No. of constituencies[15]

Manipur

State

Meghalaya

State

Mizoram

State

Nagaland

State

Odisha

State

21

Puducherry

Union
Territory

Punjab

State

13

Rajasthan

State

25

Sikkim

State

Tamil Nadu

State

39

Telangana

State

17

Tripura

State

Subdivision

Type

No. of constituencies[15]

Uttarakhand

State

Uttar Pradesh

State

80

West Bengal

State

42

Subdivision

Previous Lok Sabha general elections[edit]


Lok Sabha is constituted after the general election as follows:
Lok Sabha

General Election

2nd Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1957


3rd Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1962
4th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1967
5th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1971
6th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1977
7th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1980
8th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1984

9th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1989


10th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1991
11th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1996
12th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1998
13th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 1999
14th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 2004
15th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 2009
16th Lok Sabha Indian general election, 2014
Number of members by party in Lok Sabha[edit]
Currently elected members of 16th Lok Sabha by their political party
as of January 2015:[16]
Alliance

Party

National Democratic Alliance


Bharatiya Janata Party
- 335 seats
All India N.R. Congress

Seats

281

Lok Jan Shakti Party

Nagaland Peoples Front

National Peoples Party

Pattali Makkal Katchi

Shiv Sena

18

Shiromani Akali Dal

Telugu Desam Party

16

Apna Dal

Rashtriya Lok Samta Party

Swabhimani Paksha

United Progressive Alliance Indian National Congress


48 seats

44

Indian Union Muslim League

Kerala Congress (M)

Regional parties with no


alliance currently

Revolutionary Socialist Party

Indian National Lok Dal

Jammu & Kashmir Peoples


Democratic Party

Sikkim Democratic Front

Aam Aadmi Party

Jharkhand Mukti Morcha

Rashtriya Janata Dal

All India United Democratic


Front

Telangana Rashtra Samithi

11

All India Majlis-E-Ittehadul


Muslimeen

Yuvajana Sramika Rythu


Congress Party

All India Anna Dravida

37

Munnetra Kazhagam
All India Trinamool Congress

33

Biju Janata Dal

20

Janata Dal (Secular)

Janata Dal (United)

Samajwadi Party

Nationalist Congress Party

Communist Party of India

Communist Party of India


(Marxist)

Independents

Vacant

Total

542

Communist Parties - 10
seats

Indian Parliament
Bharatiya Sansad,
16th Indian Parliament

Type
Type

Bicameral

Houses

Rajya Sabha (Council of


States)
Lok Sabha (House of the
People)
Leadership

President

Pranab Mukherjee
since 25 July 2012

Chairman of
Mohammad Hamid Ansari
Rajya
since 25 August 2012[1]
Sabha andVicePresident of
India
Deputy
P. J. Kurien, INC
Chairman of the since 21 August 2012[2]
Rajya Sabha
Speaker of Lok Sumitra Mahajan, BJP
Sabha
Deputy Speaker M. Thambidurai, AIADMK
of Lok Sabha
since 13 August 2014
Leader of the
House (Lok
Sabha)

Narendra Modi, BJP


since 16 May 2014

Leader of the
House (Rajya
Sabha)

Arun Jaitley, BJP


since 16 May 2014

Structure
Seats

795
250 Members of Rajya Sabha

545 Members of Lok Sabha

Rajya Sabha
UPA (majority), NDA(secondpolitical groups largest group)
Others: Third Front, other
parties and independents

Lok Sabha
Ruling: NDA
political groups
Opposition parties: UPA and
others, including Third Front,
other parties and
independents
Elections
Rajya
Single transferable vote
Sabhavoting
system
Lok
First past the post
Sabhavoting
system
Lok Sabha last Indian general election, 2014
election

Rajya Sabha
Council of States

Type
Type

Upper House of
the Parliament of India
Leadership

Chairman

Mohammad Hamid
Ansari, Ind
since 11 August 2007 [1]

Deputy
Chairman

P. J. Kurien, INC
since 21 August 2012[2]

Leader of the Arun Jaitley, BJP


House
since July 2014[3]
Leader of the Ghulam Nabi Azad, INC
Opposition
since July 2014 [3]
Structure
Seats

245 total
*232 elected
*10 nominated
*3 vacant
A maximum of 250
allowed in the
constitution[4]

Political
groups

United
Progressive Alliance
(UPA)

J&K National
Conference (J&KNC)
Nationalist Congress
Party (NCP)
Indian National
Congress (INC)
Janta Dal (United)
(JD(U))
Minority parties

Third and Fourth


Front / Unaligned
regional parties

Samajwadi Party (SP)


Communist Party of
India (Marxist) (CPM)
Communist Party of
India (CPI)
All India Anna Dravida
Munnetra Kazagham
(AIADMK)
Bahujan Samaj Party
(BSP)
Biju Janata Dal (BJD)
All India Trinamool
Congress (AITMC)
Dravida Munnetra
Kazagham (DMK)
Minority parties

National
Democratic Alliance

(NDA)
Telugu Desam Party
(TDP)
Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP)
Shiv Sena (SS)
Minority parties
Independents and
others
Nominated (NOM)
Vacant seats
Elections
Voting system Single transferable vote
Meeting place
Chamber of Rajya Sabha, Sansad
Bhavan,
New Delhi, India

Lok Sabha
House of the People
16th Lok Sabha

Type
Type

Lower house of
the Parliament of India
Leadership

Speaker

Sumitra Mahajan, BJP

Leader of
the House

Narendra Modi, BJP

Leader of
the
Opposition

Vacant[1], -

Structure
Seats

545 (543 elected + 2


appointed)[2]

Political
groups

Government
coalition (335)
Bharatiya Janata

Party

Telugu Desam
Party
Other parties,
including

Shiv Sena

Lok Janshakti
Party

Shiromani Akali
Dal

Rashtriya Lok
Samata Party

Apna Dal

Opposition parties (206)

Indian National
Congress
All India Anna
Dravida Munnetra
Kazhagam
All India Trinamool
Congress
Left Front
Biju Janata Dal
Nationalist
Congress Party
Other parties
Elections

Voting
system
Last
election

First past the post


AprilMay 2014