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# Stress and Strain

## Mohrs Circle for Plane Stress

Transformation equations for plane stress.
Procedure for constructing Mohrs circle.
Stresses on an inclined element.
Principal stresses and maximum shear stresses.
Introduction to the stress tensor.

## Stress Transformation Equations

y

y1

y1

yx

y1x1

x1

x
x

x1

x1y1

xy

x1

xy

y1x1
x1y1

yx

y1

x
x1

2
x

x1 y1

x
y

sin 2

cos 2
xy

xy sin 2

cos 2

If we vary from 0 to 360, we will get all possible values of x1 and x1y1
for a given stress state. It would be useful to represent x1 and x1y1 as
functions of in graphical form.
2

x
x1

cos 2

x
x1 y1

xy sin 2

sin 2

xy cos 2

## Eliminate by squaring both sides of each equation and adding

the two equations together.
2
x
x1

Define

2
x1 y1

2
avg

2
x

y
xy

and R
2

x
avg

xy

Substitue for
x1

avg

avg

and R to get
2
x1 y1

R2

avg,0)

and radius R.

## This circle is usually referred to as

Mohrs circle, after the German civil
engineer Otto Mohr (1835-1918). He
developed the graphical technique for
drawing the circle in 1882.
The construction of Mohrs circle is
one of the few graphical techniques
still used in engineering. It provides
a simple and clear picture of an
otherwise complicated analysis.
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y

y1
y1

x1

y1x1

avg

2
x1 y1

x1

x1y1

x1

x1

avg

x
x1

R2

y1x1
x1y1
y1

x1y1

## Notice that shear stress is plotted as positive downward.

The reason for doing this is that 2 is then positive counterclockwise,
which agrees with the direction of 2 used in the derivation of the
tranformation equations and the direction of on the stress element.
Notice that although 2 appears in Mohrs circle,
stress element.

appears on the
5

1.
2.
3.

4.

5.

6.

## Draw a set of coordinate axes with x1 as abscissa (positive to the

right) and x1y1 as ordinate (positive downward).
Locate the centre of the circle c at the point having coordinates x1
avg and x1y1 0.
Locate point A, representing the stress conditions on the x face of
the element by plotting its coordinates x1
x and x1y1
xy. Note
that point A on the circle corresponds to = 0.
Locate point B, representing the stress conditions on the y face of
the element by plotting its coordinates x1
y and x1y1
xy.
Note that point B on the circle corresponds to = 90.
Draw a line from point A to point B, a diameter of the circle passing
through point c. Points A and B (representing stresses on planes
at 90 to each other) are at opposite ends of the diameter (and
therefore 180 apart on the circle).
Using point c as the centre, draw Mohrs circle through points A
and B. This circle has radius R.
(based on Gere)
6

y
yx
xy

y
y

x
x

B ( =90)

xy

xy

yx

x1

c
R
xy

A ( =0)
avg
x
x1y1

1.

## On Mohrs circle, measure an angle 2 counterclockwise from

radius cA, because point A corresponds to = 0 and hence is
the reference point from which angles are measured.

2.

## The angle 2 locates the point D on the circle, which has

coordinates x1 and x1y1. Point D represents the stresses on the
x1 face of the inclined element.

3.

## Point E, which is diametrically opposite point D on the circle, is

located at an angle 2 + 180 from cA (and 180 from cD). Thus
point E gives the stress on the y1 face of the inclined element.

4.

## So, as we rotate the x1y1 axes counterclockwise by an angle ,

the point on Mohrs circle corresponding to the x1 face moves
counterclockwise through an angle 2 .
(based on Gere)

y
yx

y1

xy

x
x

B ( =90)

xy

2 +180

E ( +90)

yx

x1y1
x1

x1y1

D( )
R

y1

y1x1

y1

A ( =0)

x1

x1y1

x1

x1
x1

y1x1
x1y1
y1

x1y1

Principal Stresses

y
yx
xy

y
x
x

B ( =90)
2

p2

xy
yx

x1

p1
2

A ( =0)

P2

1
p2

P1

x1y1

10

y
yx
xy

B ( =90)

x
x

xy

min

yx

x1

c
R

max

## Note carefully the

directions of the
y
shear forces.

A ( =0)
max

max

max

s
s

max

x1y1

11

## Example: The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the stress

element below. Draw the Mohrs circle, determine the principal stresses and
the maximum shear stresses, and draw the corresponding stress elements.
c

80 50
2

x
avg

50

15

65 2 25 2

25

15

54.6 MPa
84.6 MPa

A ( =0)
2

c
B

15 69.6

1, 2
1

69.6

c R

1, 2

50 MPa

B ( =90)

y
80 MPa

80 MPa

A
25 MPa

max

max
s

69.6 MPa
15 MPa

50 MPa

12

50 MPa

25
80 15
21.0

y
80 MPa

80 MPa

25 MPa

tan 2 2

0.3846

2 2
2 1 21.0 180

201

100.5

10.5

50 MPa

A ( =0)
2

54.6 MPa

2
o

100.5
84.6 MPa

B ( =90)

84.6 MPa

10.5o

54.6 MPa

13

50 MPa

2 2 21.0
2 s min
(90 21.0)

y
80 MPa

s min

80 MPa

min

25 MPa

69.0

34.5

account

50 MPa

A ( =0)

15 MPa
15 MPa

smin

B ( =90)

smax

55.5

-34.5o

x
15 MPa

15 MPa
69.6 MPa

max

2 2 21.0
2 s max 21.0 90
s max

111.0

55.5
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## Example: The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the stress

element below. Find the stresses on an element inclined at 30 clockwise
and draw the corresponding stress elements.
50 MPa

= c R cos(2 2+60)
y1 = c + R cos(2 2+60)
x1y1= -R sin (2 2+60)
x1 = -26
y1 = -4
x1y1= -69
x1

C ( = -30)

y
80 MPa

80 MPa

-60

A ( =0)
25 MPa
50 MPa

y1

4.15 MPa

25.8 MPa

B ( =90)

D
-60+180
x

-30

25.8 MPa

4.15 MPa

D ( = -30+90)

x1

= -30
2 = -60

68.8 MPa

15

Principal Stresses

1=

54.6 MPa,

2=

-84.6 MPa

## But we have forgotten about the third principal stress!

Since the element is in plane stress (
the third principal stress is zero.
54.6 MPa
2 = 0 MPa
3 = -84.6 MPa

= 0),

1=

## This means three

Mohrs circles can
be drawn, each
based on two
principal stresses:
1 and

1 and

2 and

A ( =0)

B ( =90)

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3
3

1
3

1
3

17

## The stress element shown is in plane stress.

What is the maximum shear stress?

y
yx

xy

x
x

xy
yx

x1

max(1,2)

A
max( 2,3)

overall maximum
x1y1

max(1,3)

2
2

2
1

2
3

2
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y
yy
yx
yz
xy
zy
xx

xx
zx

xz

zz

xx

xy

xz

yx

yy

yz

zx

zy

zz

## Normal stresses on the diagonal

Shear stresses off diagaonal
xy = yx, xz = zx, yz = zy

z
yy

## The normal and shear stresses on a stress element in 3D can be

assembled into a 3x3 matrix known as the stress tensor.
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From our analyses so far, we know that for a given stress system,
it is possible to find a set of three principal stresses. We also know
that if the principal stresses are acting, the shear stresses must be
zero. In terms of the stress tensor,

xx

xy

xz

yx

yy

yz

zx

zy

zz

0
0

0
0

In mathematical terms, this is the process of matrix diagonalization in which the eigenvalues of the original matrix are just the
principal stresses.

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## Example: The state of plane stress at a point is represented by the

stress element below. Find the principal stresses.
50 MPa

y
80 MPa

80 MPa

xy

yx

80
25

25
50

this matrix.

25 MPa
50 MPa

## Remember the general idea of eigenvalues. We are looking

for values of such that:
Ar = r where r is a vector, and A is a matrix.
Ar r = 0 or (A I) r = 0 where I is the identity matrix.
For this equation to be true, either r = 0 or det (A I) = 0.
Solving the latter equation (the characteristic equation)
gives us the eigenvalues 1 and 2.
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det

80
25

( 80
2

25
50

)(50
30

) ( 25)( 25) 0

4625 0

84.6, 54.6

## So, the principal stresses are 84.6 MPa and

54.6 MPa, as before.

## Knowing the eigenvalues, we can find the eigenvectors. These can be

used to find the angles at which the principal stresses act. To find the
eigenvectors, we substitute the eigenvalues into the equation (A I ) r
= 0 one at a time and solve for r.

80
25

25
50

x
y

80 54.6
25
25
50 54.6

0
0
x
y

0
0

134.6

25

25

4.64

0.186 y
0.186

is one eigenvector.

1
22

80
25

25

x
y

50

80 ( 84.6)
25

4.6
25
25 134.6

0
0
25

50 ( 84.6)

x
y

0
0

x 5.388 y
5.388
is the other eigenvector.
1

Before finding the angles at which the principal stresses act, we can
check to see if the eigenvectors are correct.
54.6
0

D
D

0
84.6

0.186 5.388
1
1

80
25

25
50

C 1M C

1
AT
where A matrix of co - factors
det C
0.179 0.967
0.179 0.033

C 1
C 1

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0.179 0.967
0.179 0.033

80
25

25
50

0.186 5.388
1
1

54.6
0

0
84.6

## To find the angles, we must calculate the unit eigenvectors:

0.186
1

0.183

5.388

0.938

0.183

0.983

And then assemble them into a rotation matrix R so that det R = +1.

0.983
0.183

0.183
0.983

det R

R
So

cos

sin

sin

cos

RT M R

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## Using the rotation angle of 10.5, the matrix M (representing the

original stress state of the element) can be transformed to matrix
D (representing the principal stress state).

RT M R
0.983

0.183

80

0.183 0.983

25

25
50

0.983
0.183

0.183
0.983

84.6
0
0
54.6

y
54.6 MPa
o

100.5
84.6 MPa

84.6 MPa

10.5o

## So, the transformation equations,

Mohrs circle, and eigenvectors all
give the same result for the principal
stress element.

54.6 MPa

25

Finally, we can use the rotation matrix approach to find the stresses
on an inclined element with = -30.

R
M
M

cos( 30 )

sin( 30 )

sin( 30 )

cos( 30 )

0.866

0.5

0.5

0.866

RT M R
0.866
0.5
0.5 0.866

80
25

25
50

0.866 0.5
0.5 0.866

y1

25.8

68.8

x1

xy

68.8

4.15

yx

y1

25.8 MPa

## Again, the transformation equations,

Mohrs circle, and the stress tensor
approach all give the same result.

4.15 MPa

-30

x
25.8 MPa
x1

4.15 MPa
68.8 MPa

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