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Lean Manufacturing:

Lean Manufacturing A way to eliminate waste and improve efficiency in a

manufacturing environment. Lean focuses on flow, the value stream and eliminating
muda, the Japanese word for waste. Lean manufacturing is the production of goods
using less of everything compared to traditional mass production: less waste, human
effort, manufacturing space, investment in tools, inventory, and engineering time to
develop a new product. Lean is the systematic approach to identifying and eliminating
waste through continuous improvement by flowing the product or service at the pull of
your customer in pursuit of perfection.

During II world war, the economic condition of Japan was heavily destroyed. They had
limited infrastructure, inventories, machine & materials. So they decided to produce a
small batch of products which would reduce inventories; it means they would need less
capital to produce the same product. Lean manufacturing is a management philosophy
derived mostly from the Toyota Production System(TPS) because Toyota Motor
Companys Eiji Toyoda and Taiichui Ohno are given credit for its approach and
innovations, this system identified as "lean" only in the 1990s.

Lean was generated from the Just-in-time (JIT) philosophy of continuous and forced
problem solving Just-in-time is supplying customers with exactly what they want when
they want it With JIT, supplies and components are pulled through a system to arrive
where they are needed when they are needed. Just in time (JIT) is a production strategy
that strives to improve a business' return on investment by reducing in-process
inventory and associated carrying costs. Just in time is a type of operations
management approach which originated in Japan in the 1950s. It was adopted by
Toyota and other Japanese manufacturing firms, with excellent results: Toyota and other
companies that adopted the approach ended up raising productivity significantly.

Areas of Lean:

Quality- Increasing quality.

Cost- Reducing cost.

Productivity- Increasing productivity.

Safety and morale- Ensuring safety.

Waste elimination:
Waste is anything that happens to a product that does not add value from the
customers perspective. Products being stored, inspected or delayed, products waiting
in queues, and defective products do not add value. There are seven major types of

Overproduction Producing more than the customer orders or producing too

early. Inventory of any kind is usually wastage. TPS pays particular attention to
the waste of overproduction.

Queues Time is a limited resource. In the manufacturing world, time is money.

Customer requirements are calculated to the second. Idle time, storage, and
waiting are wastes.

Transportation Moving material between plants, between work centers, and

handling more than once is waste.

Inventory Preventing unnecessary inventory is critical to the success of the

Toyota Production System. The smooth, continuous flow of work through each
process ensures that excess amounts of inventory are minimized unnecessary
raw material, work-in process (WIP), finished goods, and excess operating
supplies are wastes.

Motion Motion is the movement of equipment or people. Wasted motion

occupies time and energy. Ideally all unnecessary movements or actions are
eliminated from the work process.

Over-processing It refers to the works performed on product that adds no

value. Over processing is as wasteful as insufficient processing. Employees must
learn to identify over processing waste.

Defective product The waste of correction is a result of poor internal quality.

Producing defective products or products requiring repairs adds the cost of extra
manpower, materials, facilities and conveyance measures.

Advantages of Lean Manufacturing:

Increased overall productivity.

Reduced amount of floor space required for production.

Reduced manufacturing lead time.

Improved flexibility to react to changes in production flow.

Improved quality of the product.

Disadvantages of Lean Manufacturing:

Difficulty involved with changing processes to implement lean principals.

Long term commitment required for permanent change.

Very risky process in case of supply chain issues while changing over to lean.

House of Lean:
As a business philosophy, Lean can be envisioned as a house. The House of Lean is
formed by a foundation (Stability), two pillars (Just in Time and Jidoka), and a roof
(Perfection). Many of the tactical components of Lean have been placed within these
separate areas to give you a convenient frame of reference and an understanding of
where certain tools fall within the vast arena of Lean.

House of Lean

Role of Lean for Producers:

Role of Lean for Customers:

Lean Manufacturing Tools:

Lean manufacturing in a factory is maintained by several tools. The number and type of
tool depends on the product that is to be produced and production system of the
product. Most important tools are



Bottleneck Analysis

Continuous Flow

Gemba (The Real Place)

Heijunka (Level Scheduling)

Hoshin Kanri (Policy Deployment)

Kanban (Pull System)

Cellular manufacturing

Jidoka (Autonomation)

Just-In-Time (JIT)

Kaizen (Continuous Improvement)

KPI (Key Performance Indicator)

Muda (Waste)

Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)

PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act)

Poka-Yoke (Error Proofing)

Root Cause Analysis

Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED)

Six Big Losses


Standardized Work

Takt Time

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

Value Stream Mapping

Lean Manufacturing Tools Suitable for Garments

Factory :

5S- Strategy for creating a well-organized, smoothly flowing manufacturing


5S- system

Cellular Manufacturing- Dividing the manufacture of products into semiautonomous and multi-skilled teams known as work cells.

Cellular Manufacturing

Kanban- A system that uses replenishment signals to simplify inventory


Kanban- system

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