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VEHICLE SPEED LIMIT ALERTING & DETECTION OF

VIOLATION
A Term Paper Report Submitted To

JAWAHARWLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY KAKINADA


In the fulfillment for the requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology
In
Electronics and Communication Engineering
A TERM PAPER
Submitted by
M. Bhavya Sri Sneha128W1A04F1
K. N. Varsha Sree128W1A04F2
L. Vineel Teja128W1A04E4
P. Ashok
O. Anitha

138W5A0433
138W5A0432

Under the Guidance of


SYED.NAZNEEN, M.Tech
Assistant professor in Electronics and Communication Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


VELAGAPUDI RAMAKRISHNA SIDDHARTHA ENGINEERING COLLEGE
VIJAYAWADA 520 007
March2015
1

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the term paper titled VEHICLE SPEED LIMIT ALERTING &
DETECTION OF VOILATION using RFID and GSM technology was prepared&
presented

by

M.

BhavyaSri

Sneha(128W1A04F1),K.N.VarshaSree(128W1A04F2),L.VineelTeja (128W1A04E4),P.
Ashok(138W150433)and O. Anitha(138W150432)of III B.Tech. (Electronics and
Communication Engineering) under my guidance in partial fulfillment of requirements
for award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication
Engineering under the Jawaharlal Nehru Technology University Kakinada, Kakinada
during the academic year 2014-15.

GUIDE

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Syed.Nazneen,

Dr.K.Sri Rama Krishna, Ph.D.,

Assit.Prof

Professor& Head of ECE

Date:

Date:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We feel profound pleasure in bringing out this term paper for which we have to go from pillar to post to
make it a reality.
We first express our sincere thanks to the Velagapudi Ramakrishna Siddhartha Engineering College,
Vijayawada for providing such a platform for implementing the ideas in our mind.
We thank our beloved Principal Dr. A.V. Ratna Prasad, M.Tech, Ph.D.for giving us the opportunity
for doing this term paper.
We also express our heartiest gratitude to our HOD Dr. K. Sri Rama Krishna, Ph.D., for providing us
all the resources.
We also express our heartiest gratitude to our project guide Syed Nazneen, M.Tech, (Asst Prof)for
guiding us all the time with patience.
Project Members
M. BhavyaSri Sneha (128W1A04F1)
K. N. Varsha Sree (128W1A04F2)
L. Vineel Teja (128W1AO4E4)
P. Ashok (138W5A0433)
O. Anitha (138W5A0432)

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the work is being presented in this Term PaperVEHICLE SPEED
LIMITALERTING &DETECTION OF VIOLATION, submitted towards the partial fulfillment of
requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electronics and Communication
Engineering in VR Siddhartha College, Vijayawada is an authentic record of our work carried out
under the supervision of Syed.Nazneen, Assistant Professor in E.C.E Department, VR Siddhartha
Engineering College, Vijayawada
The matter embodied in this dissertation report has not been submitted by us for the award of any
degree. Furthermore, the technical details furnished in various chapters of this report are purely relevant
to the above Term Paper.

M. BHAVYASRI SNEHA (128W1A04F1)

K. N. VARSHA SREE (128W1A04F2)

L. VINEEL TEJA (128W1AO4E4)

P. ASHOK (138W5A0433)

O. ANITHA (138W5A0432)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.

ABSTRACT

LIST OF FIGURES

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 RFID Technology over barcodes

2. HISTORY

3. TYPES OF RFID

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4. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION 11
4.1 Near Field

11

4.2 Far Field

11

5. WORKING OF RFID

12

5.1 RFID Tags

12

5.2 RFID Readers

12

5.3 Data retrieval

12

6. APPILICATIONS OF RFID

14

6.1 Identification

14

6.2 Manufacturing

14

6.3 Payment Systems

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6.4 Supply Chain Management

16

6.5 Security and Access Control

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7. STEPS IN ALERTING SPEED OF VEHICLE UING RFID

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7.1 Reading the Tags

17

7.2 Alerting the Driver with Alarm

18

7.3 Intimating Owner and Police

18

8. ADVANTAGES

19

9. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

19

10. CONCLUSION

20

11. REFERENCES

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No.

Caption

Page No.

4.1Near-field communication mechanism for RFID tags

11

Operating at less than 100 MHz


4.2Far-field power/communication mechanism for RFID tags

12

Operating at greater than 100 MHz


5.1Elements of RFID System

13

6.1Tollgate Payment using RFID

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VEHICLE SPEED LIMIT ALERTING & DETECTION OF


VOILATION
Abstract
The word RFID stands for Radio-Frequency Identification.RFID is a technology that incorporates the
use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object, animal, or person.Radio frequency
identification systems tag items with small antennas and electronics, allowing nearby readers to track
their movements via radio waves. These RFID systems are especially useful for quick identification of
the contents of a shipping pallet, inventory on a shelf in a warehouse, and for secure checkout.
Thistechnology has many benefits, industry groups and suppliers of competing technologies.
An RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the
assembly line. Pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses. Livestock and pets may have tags
injected, allowing positive identification of the animal.
A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be identified. Twoway radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal to the tag and read its
response to and from the tag via antennas. RFID has the ability to read many tags together at once. Tags
can be categorized as: Active tags, Semi Passive tags and Passive tags based on power supply.
The RFID technology has applications in many areas. It can be used in access of control of vehicles like
attaining the speed of the vehicle, information of the owner and automatic road tolling. Also can be used
in product security.

1. INTRODUCTION

RFID stands for Radio-Frequency Identification. The acronym refers to small electronic
devices that consist of a small chip and an antenna. The chip typically is capable of carrying 2,000 bytes
of data or less. RFID is a general term that is used to describe a system that transmits the identity (in the
form of a unique serial number) of an object wirelessly, using radio waves. This is sometimes referred to
as contact-less technology and a typical RFID system is made up of three components: tags, readers and
the host computer system.

1.1 RFID TECHNOLOGY OVER BAR CODES:


RFID offers advantages over manual systems or use of bar codes. The tag can be read if passed near a
reader, even if it is covered by the object or not visible. The tag can be read inside a case, carton, box or
other container, and unlike barcodes, RFID tags can be read hundreds at a time. Bar codes can only be
read one at a time using current devices.
Identifying items by RFID involves less work than using barcode scanning and other less automated
ways. This leads to greater process effectiveness in many tasks such as receiving and putting away,
picking and shipping goods where the time required and cost of identifying items by RFID is
substantially less than other methods. RFID scanning is not a serial process, like traditional Barcode
scanning, so the business can perform identical tasks much more quickly. This means processes moving
goods through a supply chain are more efficient leading to a reduction in the need for larger inventories.
RFID offers a means of storing and. retrieving data through electromagnetic transmission using a radio
frequency (RF)-compatible integrated circuit. Today, RFID has various applications such as supplychain tracking, retail stock management, parking access control, object tracking, electronic security
keys, toll collection and healthcare.

2. HISTORY OF RFID TECHNOLOGY


In 1946, Harry Stockman invented an espionage tool for the Soviet Union which retransmitted incident
radio waves with audio information. Even though this device was a covert listening device, not an
identification tag, it is considered to be a predecessor of RFID technology, because it was likewise
passive, being energized and activated by electromagnetic waves from an outside source. Under WatsonWatt, who headed a secret project, the British developed the first active identify friend or foe (IFF)
system. They put a transmitter on each British plane. When it received signals from radar stations on the
ground, it began broadcasting a signal back that identified the aircraft as friendly RFID works on this
same basic concept.
Later on, Electronic article surveillance tags, which are still used in packaging today, have a 1-bit tag.
The bit is either on or off. If someone pays for the item, the bit is turned off, and a person can leave the
store. But if the person doesn't pay and tries to walk out of the store, readers at the door detect the tag
and sound an alarm.
1940: RFID was first used during World War II to identify aero planes.
1946: Harry Stockman invented an espionage tool for the Soviet Union.
1973: Charles Walton, a California entrepreneur, received a patent for a passive transponder used to
unlock a door without a key.
1980: Technological developments lead to the creation of passive tags. This technology meant we no
longer needed the energy to be embedded into the tag.
1999: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) created the Auto-ID center - a research center
specialized in automatic identification.
2000: Improved technology leads to miniaturization. Cost of RFID continues to fall.

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3. TYPES OF RFID TAGS


In market various types of RFID tags are present. They are as follows:
Passive tags refer to RFID tags which are powered solely by the RFID interrogator. The interrogator
emits a radio frequency (RF), which powers the silicon chip on the tag when it is within range of the RF
field. When the power to the silicon chip on the tag meets the minimum voltage threshold it require to
turn on, the silicon chip can then send back information on the same RF wave. Range is usually limited
to several meters.
Active tags refer to RFID tags which have their own power source, so they can receive a weaker signal
from the interrogator and the power source on the tag boosts the return signal. These types can have
ranges of many tens of meters and even hundreds of meters, but cost more.
Semi Passive tags refer to tags with a power source (usually a laminar, flexible, low cost battery) which
can be used for on tag sensing (e.g. temperature), but not to boost range.
Read only tags contain a unique license plate number which cannot be changed. Read only tags can be
the cheapest, because they often require the least amount of memory, but they rely on an infrastructure
and readily available database to retrieve useful information.
Worm Write Once Read Many - enables users to encode tags at the first instance of use, and then the
code becomes locked and cannot be changed.
Read/write allows for updated or new information to be written to the tag. Read/write tags, which are
more expensive and often used.
RFID tags come in a range of shapes and sizes. The following are the most common:
Label: The tag is a flat, thin, flexible form.
Ticket: A flat, thin, flexible tag on paper.
Card: A flat, thin tag embedded in tough plastic for long life.
Glass bead: A small tag in a cylindrical glass bead, used for applications such as animal tagging.

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4. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
RFID systems on the market today fall into two main categories: near-field systems that employ
inductive (magnetic) coupling of the transponder tag to the reactive energy circulating around the reader
antenna, and far-field systems that couple to the real power contained in free space propagating
electromagnetic plane waves.

4.1 NEAR FIELD:


Near-field coupling techniques are generally applied to RFID systems operating in the LF and HF bands
with relatively short reading distances.Faradays principle of magnetic induction is the basis of nearfield coupling between a reader and tag. A reader passes a large alternating current through a reading
coil, resulting in an alternating magnetic field in its locality. If you place a tag that incorporates a smaller
coil in this field, an alternating voltage will appear across it. If this voltage is rectified and coupled to a
capacitor, a reservoir of charge accumulates, which you can then use to power the tag chip. Tags that use
near-field coupling send data back to the reader using load modulation.

Fig4.1. Near-field communication mechanism for RFID tags operating at less than 100 MHz.
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4.2 FAR FIELD:


Far-field coupling is applicable to the potentially longer reading ranges of UHF and microwave RFID
systems. The zone where the electromagnetic field separates from the antenna and propagates into free
space as a plane wave is called the far field.RFID tags based on far-field emissions capture EM waves
propagating from a dipole antenna attached to the reader. A smaller dipole antenna in the tag receives
this energy as an alternating potential difference that appears across the arms of the dipole. A diode can
rectify this potential and link it to a capacitor, which will result in an accumulation of energy in order to
power its electronics.RFID systems based on UHF and higher frequencies use far-field communication
and the physical property of backscattering or reflected power.

Fig4.2. Far-field power/communication mechanism for RFID tags operating at greater than 100 MHz
The approximate distance where transition zone happens is given as follows:
r = / 2.. (4.1)
It is also important to notice that this expression is valid for small antennas where D << .
It has been estimated that the far-field distance for the case in which D > is given as follows:
r = 2(D*D)/ . (4.2)
Where D is the maximum dimension of the radiating structure and r is the distance from the antenna.
Note that this is only an estimate, and the transition from near field to far field

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In this region, the antenna pattern is taking shape but is not fully formed, and the antenna gain
measurements will vary with distance:
/2 << r << 2(D*D)/ .. (4.3)

5. WORKING OF RFID SYSYTEM


Radio Frequency IDentification, or RFID, is a low-cost, practical way to identify and keep track of almost
anything -- from wildlife to goods in a warehouse. The technology centers on electronic "tags" which store data
and respond to a radio frequency reader device. The reader's signal instantly triggers the tag, which transmits its
data. RFID tags use no power and cost a few pennies each.

Fig5.1. Elements of RFID System

5.1 RFID TAGS:


An RFID tag is an electronic device about the size of a grain of rice. The tag contains an antenna and a microchip
with data storage. When the antenna receives a specialized radio signal, the microchip "wakes up" and uses the
antenna to send a message of its own. A tag can store up to 2 KB of data.Because the system uses radio waves, an
RFID tag still works when embedded inside an object or packaged in a container

5.2 RFID READER:


An RFID reader or Controller combines the functions of radio transmitter, receiver and data interface. The
transmitter activates the tag, the receiverreads the tag's response and the interface passes information along to a
computer or other equipment

5.3 DATA RETRIEVAL:

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A computer picks up the data sent to it by the RFID reader. The computer may display the tag's data
directly, or it may look the data up in a larger, separate database. For example, a factory uses RFID tags
to keep track of car doors. When a truck delivers doors to the loading dock, a reader scans the tags and
passes the information to a computer. The computer finds the tag's record in a database and marks the
record as "received.

6. APPLICATIONS OF RFID
There are wide range applications of RFID in many areas:

Identification of location.
Manufacturing.
Payment systems.
Supply chain Management.
Security and Access control.
Retailing
Casino tokens and concert tickets
Contact-less Credit Cards

6.1 IDENTIFICATION:
Identifying items by RFID involves less work than using barcode scanning and other less automated
ways. If a given reader is assigned to a known location, it is possible to track the current place of a given
uniquely identifiable item such as automatic vehicle location systems in public transport control,
location of rolling stock, and similarly, the physical location of work pieces is being kept track of in
several manufacturing facilities, too. Automobiles, railcars, and shipping containers are all high-value
items, with ample physical space that can accommodate more expensive and bulky RFID devices. These
types of tags could offer much more functionality than simple identification. For example, shipping
containers might have accelerometer sensors, tamper alarms, or satellite tracking integrated into an
identification device. As manufacturing costs dropped, RFID systems began to be used for lower-value
items in industries besides transport. An example is in animal identification of both pets and livestock.
Glass-encapsulated RFID devices have been implanted in millions of pets throughout the United States.

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These tags allow lost animals to be identified and returned to their rightful owners. These tags have a
very short read range.

6.2 MANUFACTURING:
RFID has been used in manufacturing plants for more than a decade. It's used to track parts and work in
process and to reduce defects, increase throughput and manage the production of different versions of
the same product. By applying RFID technology incrementally across the plant floor, manufacturers can
seamlessly integrate the new information captured by RFID, without disruption, into existing, proven,
industrially hardened control, visualization and information infrastructure, reducing the need for
purchasing new infrastructure or investing in expensive, time-consuming, and unproven IT integration
projects. In the case of high-value products that involve customization, such as an armored vehicle or a
CNC machine, sub-components like special door panels or control modules can be tagged so that when a
finished product leaves the line its configuration can be verified against the customer order.

6.3 PAYMENT SYSTEMS:


One of the most popular uses of RFID today is to pay for road tolls without stopping. These active
systems have caught on in many countries, and quick service restaurants are experimenting with using
the same active RFID tags to pay for meals at drive-through windows. Automatized toll collection
system is an efficient method of collecting tolls. The tag is placedin the front side number plate and the
reader is placed in a strip which is laid beneath the road in an opening on the track of the vehicle. As the
vehicle approaches, the sensor which is placed on the side of the road activates the stepper motor and
raises the strip and theinformation on the tag is read by the reader and the transaction takes place.
Simultaneouslythe transaction details or details regarding if the user is valid or not is sent to the
microcontroller and this will intimate the gate control which is supported by a stepper motor to open if
the user is valid. The aftermath details regarding the deductedamount andthe main account balance are
intimated to the user through GSM technology.

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Fig 6.1. Tollgate payment using RFID

6.4 SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT:


RFID technology has been used in closed loop supply chains or to automate parts of the supply chain
within a company's control for years. As standards emerge, companies are increasingly turning to RFID
to track shipments among supply chain partners. RFID ensures that the right goods are available in the
right place with no discrepancies and zero errors. It makes the supply chain considerably more precise
and improves the efficiency and reliability of the entire chain. As real-time information is made
available also administration and planning processes can be significantly improved.In addition to faster
authentication of produced goods, manufacturers can also benefit from increased information gathered
with the help of RFID technology. RFID tags can store far more information than conventional barcode
labels. This information can be used to optimize production processes. Accurate knowledge of the realtime movements of raw materials and the time needed for specific production steps can be integrated
into efficient production planning.

6.5 SECURITY AND ACESS CONTROL:


RFID has long been used as an electronic key to control who has access to office buildings or areas
within office buildings. The first access control systems used low-frequency RFID tags. The advantage
of RFID is it is convenient (an employee can hold up a badge to unlock a door, rather than looking for a
key or swiping a magnetic stripe card) and because there is no contact between the card and reader, there
is less wear and tear, and therefore less maintenance. As RFID technology evolves and becomes less
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expensive and more robust, it's likely that companies and RFID vendors will develop many new
applications to solve common and unique business problems. The primary advantage to RFID in a
port/terminal application is that it is an automatic data collection technology. That is, no operator
intervention or action is required. Whereas other forms of data collection, whether bar code or manual
methods, depend on employees to record information, RFID relieves them from this time-consuming
and error-prone process.

7. ALERTING SPEED OF VEHICLE USING RFID


There are many uses of RFID technology around us today, although they are often invisible to users. At
its most basic level, RFID is a wireless link to uniquely identify objects or people. It is sometimes called
dedicated short range communication (DSRC). RFID systems include electronic devices called
transponders or tags, and reader electronics to communicate with the tags. These systems communicate
via radio signals that carry data either unidirectional or bidirectional. This technology is also used in
finding the details of the vehicle like registered number, owner details, and speed of the vehicle at the
instant time. The following steps are involved in speed detection and alerting the driver about the limit
in zones:

Reading the signal from the RFID TAG placed in the Zone.
If signal valid, the vehicles embedded unit is automatically alerts the driver with an alarm, to

reduce the speed according to the zone.


Otherwise, after few seconds vehicles embedded unit automatically sends the details of vehicle
and zone VEHICLE NO: AP10 XXXX MOVIING OVER SPEED AT ZONE through a
message using GSM module to the registered mobile number and police station.

7.1 READING THE TAG:

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The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and to read and write data to it. The reader emits radio
waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet or more, depending upon its power output and
the radio frequency used. When an RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it detects the
reader's activation signal. The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's integrated circuit (silicon
chip) and the data is processed according to the needs of application. When vehicle enters the speed
limit zone the RFID tag paced in that particular zone gets detected and displayed on lcd like SCHOOL
ZONE SPEED LIMIT 20KM/hr.etc.
A typical RFID tag consists of a microchip attached to a radio antenna mounted on a substrate. The chip
can store as much as 2 kilobytes of data.

7.2 ALERTING DRIVER WITH ALARAM:


Smart Display & Control (SDC) can be custom designed to fit into a vehicles dashboard, and displays
information on the vehicle. Whenever the vehicle enters into the speed limit zone RFID tag gets detected
by the RF reader, the controller takes the input from the RFID reader which the speed limit of the
particular zone already loaded into the readers controller and displays information of speed limit zone
on the LCD with an alarm to alert the driver.

7.3 INTIMATING THE OWNER AND POLICE:


GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is an open, digital cellular technology used for
transmitting mobile voice and data services. It supports voice calls and data transfer speeds of up to 9.6
Kbit/s, together with the transmission of SMS (Short Message Service). When the driver exceeds speed
limits at speed limit zone, the vehicle and the speed limit zone details are sent to the traffic police system
using GSM modem. And also to mobile of owner intimating the speed limit of the zone and the excess
speed of vehicle at the instant.

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8. ADVANTAGES

No line-of-sight contact necessary.


Speed of an RFID system is remarkable, in most cases respond in less than 100 milliseconds.
Bidirectional communication.
Bulk detection: Every data medium needn't be scanned singly, but is automatically detected

during a read operation.


Tags can locally store additional information; suchdistributed data storage may increase fault
tolerance of the entire system.

9. FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
From past few decades the application of RFID has been adopted to many fields and has led to many
revolutionary changes. For the better use of the technology, all the challenges being should be tried to
overcome. Implementation of the RFID in traffic control has reduced the accident probability rate. By
extending this concept, interfacing the system with GSM so that data can be transmitted through
messages has been introduced recently in the case of speed violation. Here we may come across the
great problem of tag collision. So in order avoid that tag collision algorithms or smart tag label usage
could be done. In further enhancement, the usage of GPS system to alert about any vehicle crash or
accident can increase benefits and can reduce the severe damage due to event.

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10. CONCLUSION

RFID is a promising technology with the potential to be used for a variety of applications. Use of RFID
technology can improve the efficiency and productivity by providing better inventory management in
any field of working. The interfacing of GSM and GPS technology to RFID system can be make this
technologys efficiency better. Considering all the information about this technology from above study
we can say that the implementation of RFID in speed detection and alerting can definitely be better
application and also could lead to better society use.

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11. REFERENCE

1. D.Narendar Singh & Ravi Teja Ch.V, M.tech, Vol. 2 Issue 1 January 2013, (IJLTET), Vehicle
Speed Limit Alerting and Crash Detection System at Various Zones.
2. Scientific Publications of the state university of Novi Pazar Ser. A: APPL. MATH. INFORM.
AND MECH. vol. 4, 1 (2012), 39-52, RFID:Past,Present,Future.
3. H. Khali, A. Araar, E. Zennal Abdulla, Vol. 5, No. 1 January 2014, Suitability of Passive
RFID Technology for Fast Moving Vehicle Identification.
4. Mandeep Kaur, Manjeet Sandhu, Neeraj Mohan and Parvinder S. Sandhu Vol.3, No.1,
February, 2011 1793-8163 ,RFID Technology Principles, Advantages, Limitations & Its
Applications. http://www.ijcee.org/papers/306-E794.pdf
5. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): Principles and Applications Stephen,A. Weis MIT
CSAIL ,www.eecs.harvard.edu/cs199r/readings/rfid-article.pdf

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