Kogan,
G. Lunts>> E. Porshncva, E. bychfia, S. frolov, /?. bhostak,
A. Yanpolsky
PROBLEMS
IN
MATHEMATICAL
ANALYSIS
Under
B.
the editorship
of
DEMIDOVICH
YANKOVSKV
MIR PUBLISHERS
Moscow
C.
T. C. BapaneHKoe. B. 77 AeMudoeuH, B. A
M. Koean, r Jl JJyHit, E
noptuneea,
C. B. <Ppo/io8> P. fl. UlocmaK, A. P.
H. Ctweea,
SAflAMM H VnPA)KHEHHfl
no
MATEMATM H ECKOMV
AHAJ1H3V
I7od
B.
H.
AE
rocydapcmeeHHoe
a
OUP43
301.71
5,000
g>^^
Accession No.
Author
last
marked below
PUBLISH KS
P.
TO THE READER
MIR
opinion
of
Publishers would be
the translation and
glad
the
to
have your
design
of
this
book.
Second Printing
Printed
in
the
Union
of
Soviet Socialist
Republic*
CONTENTS
9
Preface
Chapter
Sec.
I.
INTRODUCTION TO ANALYSIS
1.
Functions
Sec. 2
Graphs
Sec. 3
Limits
of
11
Elementary Functions
16
22
33
Sec. 4
Chapter II
Sec
Sec
1.
36
DIFFERENTIATION OF FUNCTIONS
Calculating Derivatives Directly
Tabular Differentiation
42
46
Sec
Sec
Sec. 8
56
60
66
Sec
for
Evaluating
71
75
77
Indeterminate
78
Chapter III
Sec.
1.
Sec. 2
Sec
Sec
4.
Sec. 5.
Chapter IV
Sec.
Sec
Sec
Sec. 4
Sec. 5.
of
One Argument
83
Points of Inflection
Asymptotes
Graphing Functions by Characteristic Points
Differential of an Arc Curvature
91
93
96
.
101
INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
Direct Integration
Integration by Substitution
Integration by Parts
107
113
116
....
118
121
Contents
Sec. 6.
125
Sec
128
7.
Sec. 8
Sec
9.
133
integrals of the
Form
(x,
^a^ + bx + c) dx,
for
Where R
Finding
is
Ra
tional Function
Sec
10
Sec
11
Sec.
12.
133
Integration of
135
135
136
DEFINITE INTEGRALS
Chapter V
Sec.
1.
Sec
as the Limit of a
Sum
138
Sec. 3
Improper Integrals
Sec
Charge
of
143
146
Integration by Parts
Sec. 5.
149
MeanValue Theorem
Sec. 7. The Areas of Plane Figures
Sec 8. The Arc Length of a Curve
Sec 9 Volumes of Solids
Sec 10 The Area of a Surface of Revolution
Sec
Sec
11
torrents
Sec
12.
Centres
of
Gravity
150
153
158
161
166
Guldin's Theorems
168
Prob
lems
Chapter VI.
Sec.
1.
173
180
Sec. 2. Continuity
184
Sec
Partial Derivatives
185
Sec
187
Sec
Sec. 6. Derivative in a
Sec. 7
Sec
Sec
Sec
197
202
205
.211
217
15
16
Envelope
232
Sec.
11.
Sec
12
Sec.
13
Sec
14
Sec
Sec
Taylor's Formula
Curve
220
222
227
230
234
Contents
Sec.
18.
Sec.
19
Sec. 20.
Chapter VII.
Sec.
The Double
Sec.
Sec.
7.
Triple Integrals
Sec.
8.
Improper Integrals
Sec.
Sec.
Sec.
238
242
Sec.
235
246
252
256
258
259
230
262
Dependent
on
Parameter.
Improper
269
Multifle Integrals
9 Line Integrals
273
Sec.
Sec.
10.
Surface Integrals
284
Sec.
11.
Sec.
12.
288
286
Number
1.
293
Series
304
318
Chapter
Sec.
311
IX DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
1.
of
Fami
lies of
Sec. 2
Sec.
3.
327
Orthogonal Trajectories
Sec. 4
322
324
FirstOrder Differential Equations
FirstOrder Diflerential Equations with Variables Separable.
FirstOrder
Sec. 5. FirstOrder
Homogeneous
Linear
Differential
Differential
330
Equations
Equations.
Bernoulli's
332
Equation
335
Sec. 6 Exact Differential Equations. Integrating Factor
Sec 7 FirstOrder Differential Equations not Solved for the Derivative 337
339
Sec. 8. The Lagrange and Clairaut Equations
Sec. 9. Miscellaneous Exercises on FirstOrder Differential Equations 340
345
Sec. 10. HigherOrder Differential Equations
349
Sec. 11. Linear Differential Equations
Sec.
12.
Coefficients
351
Contents
8
Sec. 13. Linear
Differential
Equations of Order
Higher
than
Two
356
14.
Euler's Equations
Sec
15.
Systems
of
Differential
357
Sec. 16.
359
Equations
Means
of
Power
Se
361
ries
Sec
17.
Chapter X.
363
APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS
367
Sec. 2.
Sec.
376
Sec.
3.
Sec. 4
Numerical, Integration of
Nun
Equations
Functions
372
of
er:ca1
382
.
384
3>3
ANSWERS
396
APPENDIX
475
I.
II.
Greek Alphabet
Some Constants
475
475
III.
476
IV
478
479
480
PREFACE
This collection of problems and exercises in mathematical analcovers the maximum requirements of general courses in
ysis
higher mathematics for higher technical schools. It contains over
3,000 problems sequentially arranged in Chapters I to X covering
branches of higher mathematics (with the exception of analytical geometry) given in college courses. Particular attention is
given to the most important sections of the course that require
established skills (the finding of limits, differentiation techniques,
the graphing of functions, integration techniques, the applications
all
method,
and
the
Fourier
the number of
the requireiren s of the student, as far as practical mas!ering of
the various sections of the course goes, but also enables the instructor to supply a varied choice of problems in each section
to select problems for tests and examinations.
Each chap.er begins with a brief theoretical introduction that
covers the basic definitions and formulas of that section of the
course. Here the most important typical problems are worked out
in full. We believe that this will greatly simplify the work of
the student. Answers are given to all computational problems;
one asterisk indicates that hints to the solution are given in
the answers,
two asterisks, that the solution is given. The
are
frequently illustrated by drawings.
problems
This collection of problems is the result of many years of
teaching higher mathematics in the technical schools of the Soviet
Union. It includes, in addition to original problems and examples, a large number of commonly used problems.
and
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION TO ANALYSIS
Sec.
1.
Functions
ana
b:
a^^^b,
< <
lem 21)
Example
1.
Solution.
The function
is
defined
x
that
is,
if
x>
1.
oo<x<
vals:
Thus, the
1
and
if
l>0,
domain
<x<
\
of
two
inter
oo
*)
stated.
Hencetorth
all
values will be
considered
as
real,
if
not
otherwise
Introduction to Analysis
12
\Ch.
then the function x = g(y), or, in standard notation, y=g(x), is the inverse
of y = f(x). Obviously, g[f(x)]s&x, that is, the function f (x) is the inverse
of g(x) (and vice ve^sa).
In He fereia! case, the equation y
f(x) defines a multiplevalued inverse function x
f~ (y) such that y ==[[(* (y)\ for all y that are values of
the function f (x)
Lxanple 2. Determine the inverse of the function
y=l2*.
Solution. Solving equation
(1) for x,
(1)
we have
2*=l
and
log(ly)
log 2
'
Obviously,
ries
or a function of a function.
A function defined by an equation not solved for the dependent variable
the equation x*+i/*=l defines
is called an implicit (unction. For example,
y as an implicit function of x.
6. The graph of a function. A set of points (x, y) in an ;o/plane, whose
coordinates are connected by the equation y
f(x), is called the graph of
the given function.
1**.
Prove that
if
\\a\\b\\<\ab\<\a\ + \b\.
Prove the following equalities:
2.
a)
abHa.b;
2
b)
a
d)
3.
1<3;
a)
x
b)
x+l>2;
Find /(1),/(0),/(1),
4.
4 llx
c)
d) jt
if
/(*)
= *' 6*' f
6.
5.
Find
6.
/ (x)
7.
The function
and /(2)
*)
=a
c)
/(O),
Log x
/(4). /(^/(T)
f(x)
is
linear.
/!,
Find
7^.
if/
/(I), /(10).
3.
is
number x
1)
=2
Sec
Functions
1]
13
0,
if
of
if
a)
y=
x+\;
y=
16.
17.
a),= ?E2L
= *VV2.
14**.
=1/2 + * **.
= lo
13.
b)
21.
19.
(/
22. f(jc)
= 2A:
SA;'
5x
+ 6A:
(*)l
function
Find
10.
and
^(^)
23.
is
= /sin 2x.
y
4
t/=
called euen
f (x)
if
are odd:
e)
24.
Prove
/<;*</
that
may
any function
be represented
defined
in the interval
the form of the sum of an
f(x)
in
In t roduction to Analysis
14
[Ch.
25. Prove that the product of two even functions or of two odd
functions is an even function, and that the product of an even
function by an odd function is an odd function.
26. A function f (x) is called periodic if there exists a positive
numter T (the period of the function) such that f(x+ T)^f(x)
for all valves of x within the dcmain of definition of f(x).
Determine uhich of the following functions are periodic, and
for the periodic functions find their least period T:
= 10 sin 3 *,
=
a sin \K + b cos tar;
(*)
= sin *;
= sin (J/*).
/ (x)
1
a) / (x)
d) / (x)
b)
e)
c)
27.
x=AM
AMN
of the figure
AfsM"
MN
B
Fig.
Fig. 2
AM =
x of this
of a variable segment
tively. Express the mass
rod as a function of x. Construct the graph of this function.
29.
30.
Find
31.
Find
H/Um,
/U+l),
32.
Show
33.
Show
that
i?
jtp(x)J,
if
v(x)
= x?
and q(x)
= 2*.
if
f(x
if
sum
l)
of
= x\
n terms
of
an arithmetic progression.
if
f(x)
gression.
Sec.
__
Functions
1]
15
/ (x)
= a x (a >0),
metric progression.
35. Let
Show
that
Let
36.
Show
<p
(*)
= !(* + a*)
that
f
(*+</)
<p
and
ty
37.
(x
+ y)
and
<p
(AT)
t)
(y)
= 1 (a*
+ * (*)
^>
a*).
(y)
<p
if
^ ^
< # c + oo.
x for
x for
0,
b)
c)
39.
In
40.
r/=l
fx;
y=2+x
0=1
d)
y = x*
ff
2
;
and
3x;
_ ioo
2jc
if:
x,
x*,
if
if
member
a)
b)
= (2*5r;
*
y=2
i/
c)
d)
COS
).
Introduction to Analysts
16
[Ch.
42.
b)
y=
= sin#;
# = arctan, u = Yv,
w
u*>
w,
,
if
= log#;
t/<0,
ifu>0;
*_!.
43. Write, explicitly, functions of
a)
b) 10*
c)
arc cos y
= n;
+10' =10;
+ \y\ = 2y.
Fig. 3
we
= f(x),
readily
(T)
Sec. 2]
3) #i
4) 1/4
Graphs
= /(*)
= & + /(*)
the
is
is
the F
graph
The
to the right
desired line
is
17
th? xaxis by an
Uve (/axis by
along
displaced
(Fg. 3).
Example. Construct the graph
Solution.
Elementary functions
of
amount a;
an amount
of the function
a sine curve
by an amount j
(Fig. 4)
Fig. 4
Construct
the
(straight lines):
44. y
kx, if
45.
46.
i/
=
= x+
6,
fc
if
= 0,
6 = 0,
1,
the
of
graphs
2,
1/2,
2,
1,
following
functions
1, 2.
1,
2.
0=1. 5* +2.
two
linear
functions of degree
(parabolas).
3
1/2,
2,
1,
1,
2, 0.
1.
= 1, 2, 1.
= y, 4 (xl)\
= 0, 1, 2, 1.
= 2, c = 3; 2) a =
51*. y = ax* + bx + c,
1) a=l, b
6 = 6, c = 0.
= 2 f x x*. Find the points ol intersection of this
52.
50. y
if
</
if:
t/
2,
pa
Acaxis.
the
=
=
=
=
=
0=4.
the
following
linear
fractional func
_ _
Introduction to Analysis
18
.
59.
y=
*
61*.
62 *
=*+
</
.
65*.
y=.
66.
67*.
=r
(WtYc/i of Agnesl).
,^rj
2x
=x
(Newton's serpentine).
i/
68.
*/
69.
y=*h^.
=^
70. y
(trident of Newton).
73*.
y=t/x._2
y=*/x
74.
y=x\fx
(semicubical parabola).
y=j/25
75*.
76.
(Niele's parabola).
f/=
Vx
(hyperbola).
y >=,.
J^lA __
78*. y = + x
y ^^
77.
(ellipse).
(cissoid of Diodes).
==
x 1/25
x
79. r/
Construct the graphs of the trigonometric functions:
83*. */=cotjc.
80*. y
sinx.
84*. y
sec x.
81*. y
cosx.
85*. y = cosec x.
82*. /=tanx.
.
86.
87*.
{//4sinx
y^smnx,
/
if
if
y= sin(x
89*. y = 5sin(2x
88.
cp),
/4
= 1,
n=l,
*
if
3).
10,
2,
9 = 0,
rv
2.
1/2,
3,
1/2.
Jl
3ll
J,
j
ft
~T*
[Ch. 1
Sec. 2]
Graphs
of
Elementary functions
19
101.
= ax
a = 2, l (?(e = 2, 718 ...)*).
a =10, 2, 1,
y = \oga x,
x
x
=
where
e
sinhx,
y
sinhx=l/2(e
= coshx, where coshx =
= tanhx, where
102*.
if
*.
if
103*.
104*.
).
f/
105*.
f/
106. 0=10*.
2
107*. y=e~* (probability curve).
= 2""
108. ^
*3
109. //logx
2
110. y=log A:.
111. //=log(logx).
114.
112.
117
the
graphs
(/=
=
= log"(cosx).
^ = 2^ sin*.
115.
116.
/y==rVlog X
Construct
y=
113.
{/
t/
of the
= arcsin~.
x
=
arc cos.
#
=
+ arc cot x.
^
122. #
= arccosx.
# = arc tan*.
123.
j/
120*.
124.
A:
121*, (/= arc cot x.
Construct the graphs of the functions:
125.
y=\x\.
127.
= ^(x + \x\).
= x\x\\
a) y
128.
a)
126. y
129.
*)
b)
^<
y = log^^l x
f/= sin x
sinx.
\
_l. whcn
* see p. 22 for
more
details.
Introduction to Analysis
20
[C/i.
=
#=[*], b) y x[x], where [x] is the integral part
number x, that is, the greatest in.eger less than or equal
130. a)
of the
to
x.
132*.
133*.
= l.
f = 7r
=
r =
<*>
/
134*.
in the polar
functions
(spiral of Archimedes).
(logarithmic spiral).
(hyperbolic spiral).
= 2cosip (circle).
' =
^ (straight line).
= sec*y (parabola).
135. r
136.
137.
/
=
=
cally:
t* (semicubical parabola).
141*. x
t\ y
142*. *=10 cos/, y=sin/ (ellipse).
3
1
143*. *=10cos /,
10 sin / (astroid).
144*. jc
a(cos/f / sin/), t/
a(sm / /cos/)
y=
(involute of a
circle).
^'
145*. ^
146
'
^3,
=
rTT'
^0//wm ^
Descartes).
/==
2 (branch of
y=2
=
# = 2 sin
(segment of
*/t\
y=t
x^a (2 cos/ cos2/), = a(2sin/
147. xasfc't^143. jc
2cos f f
149.
150.
J/
a hyperbola).
a straight line).
*/
151*.x
152.
25 (circle).
xy= 12 (hyperbola).
*/
= 2jc (parabola).
154. ^1 + ^! =
= jc'(10
155.
156*. x T + y T =;aT (astroid).
153*.
i/
j/*
157*. x
158. *'
Graphs
Sec. 2]
of
Elementary Functions
21
a"
=e
=
*
159*. /V
y
(logarithmic spiral).
8
160*. x*
3x//
(folium of Descartes).
y
161. Derive the conversion formula Irom the Celsius scale (Q
to the Fahrenheit scale (F) if it is known that
corresponds
0C
to
32F
Fig. 5
Fig
Give
164.
a) 2x'
b) x*
c)
find
=b
x.
5x + 2 =
x
1=0;
0;
d)
e)
= 0.1jc;
logJt
f)
I0'
x=l
cot
= x\
4
x^x
xy=10, x
b)
xr/6,
c)
d)
e)
#=sinx,
5sin;c;
(0<jc<jt).
= 7\
2
2
+
j/
= cos#
(0
<x<
2jt).
its
greatest
and a variable
6) is a
as
a
of
the
functhe
area
y
rectangle
Express
22
Introdnction to Analysis
(C/t.
Sec. 3. Lfmits
xn
lim
n >
if
for
\xn
e>0
any

<e
there
when
Example
1.
is
a,
such that
(e)
n> N.
Show
that
5L + 1.2.
Urn
n
Solution.
oo
N=N
number
is
number
The
*!
Form
*
rtr
(1)
the difference
2*
+1
of this difference,
2
<
we have:
e,
(2)
if
n>\ = N
Thus, for
every
number
positive
(e).
there will
be a number
Af=
such
>
for
every 8
>
\f(x)A <e
we have
<
for
=6
()
>
such that
f(jO
= 4,
a<6.
x
Similarly',
lim
*
\f( X
if
> 00
)A\<*
**a
f (x)
>
for
/(x)
<
for
x>
/V(e).
also used:
is
= oo,
< 6 (E),
where E
number
positive
3. Onesided
x  a
= A,
limits.
0; similarly,
f(a
ii
0)=
*
If
>a
a
and x
+ a,
* a,
then
lim

<a
and x
o
we
is
an arbitrary
we write conventionally
write * ^ af0. The numbers
then
+ 0)=
lim
(x)
**a + o
*re called, respectively, the limit on the left of the function f (x} at the point a
and the //mi/ on the right of the function / (x) at the point a (if these
numbers
exist).
Limits
Sec. 3]
23
the limits
as jc^o,
it
is
necessary
O)/
/(a
If
/ (x)
following theorems.
old:
1)
x
2)
3)
lim
+ a
[/,
(*)
+ /, (*)] = x lima
[f,
(x) f 2
(jc)J
lim [f ,
x o
W/^
(JK)J
lim
x*a
+ xlimaf
/, (x)
+
(x);
lim
*
*
lim
/, (x)l
#
*
jc
^ (x)
(lim f , (x)
Jt
^
^ 0).
ILi=i
lim
AP
>0
and
lim
Example
2.
1JL
lim
(l
a
a)
right
=* = 2
and
left
71828
of the function
= arc tan
as x >0.
Solution.
We
have
lim
x
.+
arc tan
)= 2
x J
+o fa
\
and
f(0)=
lim

x>.
166.
is
Prove that as n
/ (x)
faictanlW42
/
A:
o \
in this case
we have
the inequal
= 0.01;
c) 8
ity
(e is
= 0.001
24
_ _
as
Introduction to Analysis
>oo
rt
is
which
For
unity.
the inequality
(e
n>N
values of
How
we have
will
Kl<e
is
= 0.001.
c)
number
positive
[CH. 1
e,
some
4<8
*
Compute 6
for a)
= 0.1;
= 0.01;
b)
c)
169.
a)
*
>
+0
170.
c)
_ 2*3'
1 _
a)
*}
b)
V)
X + +
i,
'
1/2",
'
'
(
)""
_2n_
'
...
2/i~l
'
'
'
1/21/21/2",
.
'
limits:
lirn
fl
'
'
Hm
n
173
> 00
of the sequences:
Find the
172.
1/2
1/2;
d) 0.2,
171.
'
liai/(x)
X
00
= 0.001.
following
oo
Hm
C+D
"*
)(>.
+ 3)
n
l)
2n+11
2
178*. lim
n
* CD
J'
notations:
= oo.
Limits
Sec. 3]
Hm (Vn +
179.
n +
o/%
\f~n).
<
180. lim
When
x +
the
seeking
is
it
oo,
useful
limit
first
Example
lim
2.
*
lim
lim
181.
r
182.
1.
J2^3)(3tf^)(4A'6)
Example
many
. or
lim
=.
^rrr.
*
*86.
^^.
187.
~'
lim
lim
*
.,
3*
O ^2
184.
185.
lim
J"
__
+5*
8v
lim
1/
11
jc
lim
>*
\ \
10j
A:
Y L
4
188.
+7
X*
lim
*
lim
1.
^~~^=J.
<x>
00
183.
* as
n is
189.
lirn
rr~c
^5
190.
lim
Vx + Vx
If
P(A)
and Q
(x)
are integral
polynomials and P
(u)
or
(a)
is
obtained directly.
But if P(a)
Q(a)=0, then
Example
P
Q
(x)
it
is
3.
lim
/'T
lim !*""!!)
xf ??
Hm
^^4.
Introduction to Analysis
26
101.
^{.
lim
*.
192. lim
* _.
*+>
196. lim
\Ch.
Um ^
198.
terms are
fl
in
cases rational
many
Find
4.
lim
Solution. Putting
we
!+* =
have
E=1
lim
199. lim
X 
Mm
*
4^.
*~
200. lim
lim
"
,'~
201.
,,. lim
*/',
3/
t/x
x
.
Another way of finding the limit of an irrational expression is to transfer the irrational term from the numerator to the denominator, or vice versa,
from the denominator to the numerator.
Example
5.
lim
lim
x +a(X
a)(Vx
_^
+ V a)
lim
*> a
203.
204.
49Q.
lim
li.n
**
j^=
206.
207.
jc
f
lim
lim
*+<
205.
lim
*+'
^L""
208.
lim
^*o
2\f~i
=f.
__
Limits
Sec. #]
_
209.
27
212.
lim
213
[/*(*
^i
214.
Hm(]/xfa
+ a)
xj.
6* 4 6*).
'
210. lim
211.
lim
X
li.
JffCO
215.
The formula
llm
X
i
Example
a)
!!!
lim;
lim
227. a)
lim
X*
> CO
sill
,.
3x
228.
xsinl;
lim x sin
b)
b)li.n^.
X
217.
lim
00
x) tan
(1
~
lim
X 0
sin
5*
sin
2*
229.
'
JtM
218.
taken
is
6.
lira
216.
It
*=
* +0
x).
/
sin JTX
219.
lim
M
sin BJIJC
230.
lim
*
220.
lim ( n
n*cc
221.
lim
222.
lim
223.
lim
224.
lim
225.
lim
226.
lim
sin).
n I
Jt
231.
lim
232.
lim
cosmx
arc sin
crs^
tan*
236.
'
sui
A:
lim
JC
 cosn
V*
tan
233.
ji
12
lim
'
sin six
for
"28
_ _
Introduction to Analysis
m.
24
.=T.
ta
!!?.
mind
in
C=4";
lim (p(x)
if
= ^
/l
cp
A and
(x)
and
if
(x)
where
\?
lim ty(x)^=
is
= B,
(x)
oo,
we
Hm a
(x)
Hm
(x)
= 2.718
Example
7.
...
is
Napier's number.
Find
lim
Solution. Here,
lim
(5111=2
X
and
lim
Jf^O \
hence,
lim
x*o
Example
Solution.
put
q>(x)=
+a(x),
as x + a and, lien^e,
*
lim
(3)
that:
lim
where a
=C
if
3)
'"""
2)
*""r
Jt
* 1
When
then
nx
1)
[Ch. 1
8.
Find
We
have
lim
1
r^(
end
Hm
*2
J^
[(p
(x)
 ij
ty (x)
^Sec
Limits
3]
Therefore,
lim
=0.
Example
Find
9.
lim
Solution.
We
x ~~
\
t
have
^11=
lim
X+ 06 X
4 1
lim
( CO
i
.
+T
,
In this case
is
it
procedure:
it
Generally,
is
useful to
remember
that
lim
250.
244. lim(*
X
"" 2 *"
/^i
245>
].
Hmfl
... V
251. lirn(l
Iim(l
J_
*
;
X ~*
)/
b)
247
+ sinjc) *.
.o
2 \*a
Jill ( 2?+T )
/
246.
3x42/
XK>\
li
f I)*.
30
_ _
Introduction to Analysis
Solution.
lim
X*0
Formula
We
that
if
f (x)].
X+Q
have
X+Q
(2*+!)
*
254.
li
255.
"
limfjlnl/Ji^).
lX/
260*.
,_*<> \
llmn(^/a
^
V)
Inx].
261. lim
<* 00
257.
lim.
258*.
Hm=.
259*.
ital!
262.
^o
(a
lim
b)
lim
>0).
(see
Find
the*
264. a)
sin
263. a)
*_^
Hm
*" +
b)Jirn*
p===.
267
a/lLutanh*;
***
b)
limtanh*,
*>+
where tanh^ =
266. a)
x*
fa
265.
lira
lira
a ) lim
*b) Hm
**+
^^~.
(a>0).

li
\)
ptX
pCLX
268. a) lim
b) im
1+ ' T
the
ln
is
(*)
[Hm
know
Prove that
tO.
Example
= In
useful to
is
it
[Ch.
104).
Limits
Sec. 31
269. a)
31
270. a)
lim^4i;
'
Hm^;
x~*
n>oo
272*.
y=lim
n*c
= \im
273. y
(x^O).
xn
J/Vta
2
.
a>o
274.
t/
275.
= li;n
t/
li
*<
276. Transform
a
common
the
following
fraction:
Regard
277.
it
What
mixed
periodic
fraction
into
= 0.13555...
of the
curve
= e~*cos nx,
x 0, 1, 2, ..., n, as n *oo.
281. Find the limit of the sum of the areas of the squares
constructed on the ordinates of the curve
drawn
as
at the points
*oo.
M^.. .Mn
Introduction to Analysis
[Ch.
== 0,
<PJ
=y
q>rt
=y
A segment AB = a
283.
Fig
Fig.
in half; the
point C, divides a segment AB1
the
in
AC
a
half;
divides
point C, divides a
segment
point C 2
C
C 3 in half, and so
C
divides
the
in
half;
2
point
4
segment C,C
on. Determine the limiting position of the point C n when /ioo.
285. The side a of a right triangle is divided into n equal
which is constructed an inscribed rectangle
parts, on each of
the limit of the area of the steplike figure
Determine
8).
(Fig.
*ou.
thus formed if n
286. Find the constants k and b from the equation
The
284.
0.
(1)
What
initial
time
is
Find
Q^lhi
*=
Sec. 4]
33
Infinitely
1.
If
lim a (x) = 0,
x>a
i.e.,
<
a(x)<e when
if
as
infinitesimal
* oo.
as x
<
In
a.
limited
number
infinitesimals as x
of
+a are
also infinitesimals as
If
a(x) and p
*a and
lim SlJfUc,
x+a P (x)
where C
is some number different from zero, then the functions a(x) and p(x)
are called infinitesimals of the same order; but if C
0, then we say that the
function a (x) is an infinitesimal of Higher order than p (x). The function
u (x) is called an infinitesimal of order n compared with the function p (x) if
lim
where
<
C
<
Q(x)
C
"
'
f oo.
If
For example,
for
(x)
and p
*a:
we have
>
sinx~x;
and so
(A*)
tanx~ x;
ln(lfx)~ x
forth.
The sum
two
is
lim
!>
aPW
,
as x
*a we can subtract from (or add to)
where a (x)
>.0 and p (x)
the numerator or denominator infinitesimals of higher orders chosen so that
the resultant quantities should be equivalent to the original quantities.
>
Example
1.
'
,.
lim
i
,.
**o
2.
ber
Af
2x
<
there
inequality
lfMI>tf.
then the function f(x)
21900
is
called an infinite as x
>a.
<
_ _
Introduction to Analysis
34
> co
is
[Ch.
is
an infinitesimal as x
values
of
is
the ine
quality
l/WI<e
fulfilled
if
e is
an arbitrary number?
Calculate for: a) e
0.1; b) e0.01;
the function
289. Prove that
is
an infinitesimal for x
>1.
c)
e0.001.
of
is
the ine
quality
!/(*)!<
fulfilled
if
e is
0.01; c) e
a) e0.1; b) e
290. Prove that the function
cally for:
= 0.001.
x
is
an infinite
for
*2. In
what neighbourhoods
2<8
of x
is
the inequality
lf(x)\>N
fulfilled
if
is
J2^
c)
b)
#=100;
#=1000.
of: a)
Infinitely Small
Sec. 4]
293. For
35
smallness relative to
of the functions:
*\
*)
^*
cos
d)
+x
tan
e)
*'*
sin
A:
A:.
b)
c)
$/*'
296. lim
!"
arc sin
^o
infinitesimals, find
lim^
298.
=
_^*
297. lim
two
of the ratio of
5*
3*' s
299. lim
ln(l*)
when x
*0
the quantities
VT+T1 +
Applying formula
a)
1/L06;
b)
+xl
\x\ is
(1)
(1),
1/0^7;
Y\
when
and
c)
/lO;
d)
/T20
b)
n
+x) &\
c)
(1
d)
log(l+x)
where
+ nx
(n
a positive integer);
is
= Afx,
Af = log e = 0.43429...
02
Compare
2>
0^7
3>
I<55
4)
^16;
5)
_ _
Introduction to Analysis
36
302.
Show
X+OQ the
~
P (x) = a.x n + a,x n +
that for
[Ch.
f
an
a)
b)
*>
100* 1,000;
c)
7+2
1. Definition of continuity.
function
continuous
is
/ (x)
when x =
(or "at the point g"), if: 1) this function is defined at the point g, that is,
there exists a number / (g); 2) there exists a finite limit lim f (x); 3) this lim
x4
is
it
llmf
(*)
g,
i.e.,
= /().
(1)
**fc
Putting
where Ag
^0, condition
lim
(1)
may be
A/(g) =
lim
rewritten as
l/(g+ Ag)f
(g)]
= 0.
(2)
or the function / (x) is continuous at the point g if (and only if) at this point
to an infinitesimal increment in the argument there corresponds an infinitesimal increment in the function.
If a function is continuous at every point of some region (interval, etc.),
then it is said to be continuous in this region.
Example 1. Prove that the function
y
fs
continuous
Solution.
Ay = sin
<*
for every
We
= sin x
x.
have
+ A*)sin x = 2 sin
cos
x+
sin
cos f
Since
si
lim
T=
and
2
it
we have
lim A(/
is
continuous when
oo<x< +
x+
Sec. 5]
Continuity of Functions
37
x=*
Example
when x=l.
2.
The
This
function
function
f(x)=
is
10 a)
(Fig.
is
1,
discontinuous
and no matter
12
how we
Hm
and not
all
three
/(*)
= f(*
numbers f(x
0)
),
then *
is
Urn
/(*)
+ Q)
)
/(*
f (x
In particular,
/ (x)
= /(
are equal, the nxQ
is
called
if
For continuity
ficient that
and
function
JC
Q,
it
is
= 0.
The function
3.
Example
at
[Ch. I
In t reduction to Analysis
38
/(jc)=jy
kind
first
Indeed, here,
/
+ 0)=
5!!L
lim
==+ i
and
/(_0)=
lim
jc*o
of the
where
1,
0<<7<1],
i2,
and
...,
discontinuous
(Fig.
106) at every integral
all the discontinuities are of the first kind.
is
point: x
part
+ q.
= 0,
+ =
Example
5.
lim cos 5L
X
X+0
the
lOc) at
(Fig.
both onesided
and
lim
cosi
Jt>
point
x=0
has a
3. Properties of continuous functions. When testing functions for continuity, bear in mind the following theorems:
of a limited number of functions continuous in
1) the sum and product
some region is a function that is continuous in this region;
2) the quotient of two functions continuous in some region is a continuous
function for all values of the argument of this region that do not make the
divisor zero;
3) if a function
ties:
is
1) f (x)
boanded on
/(*)<M when
2) / (x) has a
3) / (x) takes
a<*<6;
[a,
minimum and
6J,
there
i.e.,
maximum
some number
is
value on
[a,
such that
b]\
f(a) = A
has
at least
304.
of the
one
Show
all
intermediate
=
/(P)
values
argument
x.
(a,
=x
p).
is
_ _
Continuity of Functions
Sec. 5]
39
is
is continuous for all values of x except those that make the denominator zero.
307*. Prove that the function y = Yx is continuous for x&zQ.
308. Prove that if the function f (x) is continuous and non
is
(a, 6),
b) cotjc
continuous?
Show
311*.
How
Plot the
function
that
f(x)
is
meaningless for x =
0.
= lx sin
How
in
for
= 0?
= arctan^
= 2?
Introduction to Analysis
40
316. The
so that fix)
function f(x)
f(x)
= ^ y\__1
y
x
b)
/(*)
c)
/(*)
= ln(\+x)
d)
/(
f)
/(*)
/]
a)
is
not
continuous for x =
is
cos*
[Ch.
defined
0,
for
x=
0.
Define /(O)
if:
(n is a positive
integer);
A*
111(1
= * cot*.
y=
318.
y=
3,9.
yssi
320.
^=.
b)
322.
*/
.
324.
.
=
y=
xs\n.
</
325. y
= arc tan
326.
= (!+
329.
</
A:)
arc tan
,
= /
323.
y=\n(cosx).
330.
y=J
**
\
2#+l
for
'"T
x>3.
331. Prove that the Dirichlet function %(x) which is zero for
and unity for rational x, is discontinuous for every
t
irrational x
value of x.
= \in\
y = lim (x arc tan nx).
332. y
333.
Continuity of Functions
Sec. 5]
334. a) y
= sgnx,
function sgn x
is
b)
=x
sgnx,
c)
i/
= sgn(sinjt),
where the
sgn x
1,
if
*>0,
0,
if
x=
1,
if
*<0.
0,
335. a) y
xE(x), b) y xE(x), where E (x) is the integral
part of the number x.
336. Give an example to show that the sum of two discontinuous functions may be a continuous function.
337*. Let a be a regular positive fraction tending to zero
(0<a<l). Can we put the limit of a into the equality
=
which
is
338.
(l
a)
l,
Show
that
any
(1,2).
polynomial
least
Approximate
P (x) of odd
this root.
power has
at
Chapter II
DIFFERENTIATION OF FUNCTIONS
^x~x
is
A0=0i
(x,
xj, and
or
/
<n
Fig.
is
11
where
&x=MA
MN
same
interval
(jc,
*,) (Fig.
11,
5s
and
Sec. 1]
calculate
fromx=l
b)
from
a)
Ax=l. 1
x=3
Solution. We
to x=l.l;
to x
2.
have
1=0.1,
= (l.l 51.1 + 6)
Ax = 2 3 =
At/ = (2*
5216)
(3*
2
Ai/
b)
a)
1+6) =
5
(I
2.
3,

Solution.
AJ/
Ax~~
2. The
Ax=10
Here,
and
the
find
10,
r^
the
of
'
=7
slope
Ay = ^
1U
1
and
4=
o
5*5U
Hence,
1
30'
The derivative
derivative.
0.29;
1,
Example
43
is
y'=j
of a function
y=f(x) with
when Ax approaches
re
zero;
is.
y>=
lim
AJC > o
The magnitude
>.
A*
tan
y'
tangent
MT
to
the
q>.
/'
is
y
Solution.
From formula
= x*.
we have
(1)
Ay = (*+
xi
A*)*
2*Ax+ (Ax) 1
and
Hence,
'=
L^
lim
Ax
5*.
lim
AJC>O
/'_(*)= lim
AJ:*O
(*+**)/(*)
Ax
and
/(x)=
lim
Ax
'
44
[Ch. 2
Differentiation of Functions
Example 4 Find
By the
Solution.
and
/'_ (0)
f^
4.
Infinite derivative.
(0)
the function
we have
lim
lim
A*to
Ax
at
If
(0) of
/'
definition
/'_ (0)
= /+(*).
/(*+**)/(*)_.
Uoo,
lim
then
Solution.
We
V=V*
have
/'0)=llm *~
Ax
]im
==<
change
a)
b)
c)
in
from x=
from x =
from A: =
argument:
1
to
to
to
xt
xl
A:,
= 2;
=
= + h.
1
b)
c)
*=
0,
^=8,
^=
a,
2
y = x that corresponds
y=i/xil:
AA: 0.001;
^ ==
AA:
9;
/Z.
344. Find
the
increment
by and
the ratio
tions:
a)
=
( Jg
f 01
"*^
2)
b)
y=l/"x
forx0
c)
for
= \ogx
x 100,000
andAjc =
^
A
*
0.4;
Sec.
1]
which correspond
Ay and
ment fromx to x( Ax for the functions:
345. Find
a)
yax +
b)
yx';
d) y
6;
e)
45
to
change in argu
= /x;
= 2*\
==
~x
if
a)
x,l, x a 2;
c)
x^l,' x 2 =l+fc.
To what
if
limit does the slope of the secant tend in the latter case
/i>0?
What
347.
in the
is
mean
the
l^x^4?
interval
function y
= x*
2/
348. The law of motion of a point is s
3/
5, where
the distance s is given in centimetres and the time t is in seconds.
What is the average velocity of the point over the interval of
time from t~\ to ^
5?
2* in the interval
349. Find the mean rise of the curve y
mean
x+Ax].
351. What
rise of the
curve
j/
= /(x)
in the interval
f(x)
by the rise of the curve y
given point x?
352. Define: a) the mean rate of rotation; b) the instantaneous
rate of rotation.
353. A hot body placed in a medium of lower temperature
cools off. What is to be understood by: a) the mean rate of
cooling; b) the rate of cooling at a given instant?
354. What is to be understood by the rate of reaction of a substance in a chemical reaction?
355. Let
/(X) be the mass of a non homogeneous rod over
the interval [0, x]. What is to be understood by: a) the mean
linear density of the rod on the interval [x, x+Ax]; b) the linear
density of the rod at a point x?
is
to be understood
at a
M=
356.
x=
2,
if:
ative y'
Find
the
a)
Ax1;
ratio
when x^2?
b)
of
the
Ax = 0.1;
c)
function
*/
Ax 0.01. What
at the point
is
the deriv
_ _
Differentiation of Functions
46
a)
=x
t/
c)
lirn
[C/t.
= ianx.
of the functions:
at
= 3.
Find
363.
the
of
slope
the
tangent
drawn
the point
the
to
to the
curve y = Q.lx*
curve y=sinjt at
0).
(ji,
f (*)
\
/
= i
=~
366*.
x = X Q (x
What
of their intersection?
Find the
y=^?_
b) y
c)
=l/xl
at
x
x
= cosx
at
*=
Sec. 2. Tabular
1. Basic
v
ty(x) are
at
5)
(*)'=,;
6)
3)
)''
r
4)
fc
= 0,
1,
(cu)'=cu
have
finite
2,
2)
(c)'
jt,
do not
angle be
Differentiation
= 0;
1)
+ 0).
a)
t;';
7)
==
(v
* 0).
and
o>(jc) '
Sec. 2]
__
2. Table
I.
(x )'
III.
= nx
(sinx)'
IV. (cosx)'
V1T
VIII.
47
= cos*.
= sin*.
(arrdn*)':=
ZL.
(arccos*)'=
IX. (arc
Tabular Differentiation
<
1).
<*<1).
i*.
jo'^ypj.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII. (cothx)'
XIX.
"
cosh 1 x
(arcsinhjt)'
."""
= ^J==r.
V\+x*
1
XXI.
(arc
tanh
x)'
(jc<l).
XXII.
3. Rule
that
is,
/==/
for differentiating a
[<p (A)],
y
or in other notations
^/
dx~~ du dx'
This rule extends to a series of any finite
number
of differentiate functions.
48
_ _
Differentiation of Functions
Example
1.
=a
Solution. Putting #
5
,
[Ch. 2
of the function
where w =
2jc
(*
+ 3),
by
formula
we
(1)
will
have
y'
Example
2.
(/
we
*;
2
(jt
of the function
y = sin
Solution. Putting
= 10 (x1)
(2x2)
4*.
= sinu;
4jc,
find
>4
differentiating
368408).
= 12sin
4xcos4jt.
of the
composite
A. Algebraic Functions
s
QO
AV
,.
ouo. y
Q5Q
oOy.
<>
i/
A V8
~~ TEA
==:
373.
v^
f
&A:
Q7 i/.
Of
*j.
4
A
U.OAV
if
+6
y==+n n
Q7IS4T
o/O
QJA
v3
11
t^
= Xv*
Ov
~~~ ^A.
~f~
Av~'
/" +f*
y X
+ C.
(,a(HW".
V^a
374.
~]~
Ov
AA
;rJtpJT
'":
370. y=ax*
372
2.
379. il
380.
2jc
JC
=i
381.
383.
(/
t/
= 5 sin ^ + 3 cos x.
= tanx cotx.
386.
387.
388
S85.j/2/sin((''2)cos(.
389.
y=arctan^h
f/
arc cot x.
=

_('+"')' '"''.
^
Sec. 2]
Tabular Differentiation
49
390.
= e*arc sin x.
396. y
y^K*e*.
391. y
= (xl)e*.
397.
y^ ~.
392.
= 5
398
r/
393. (/==
399.
J.
394. / (x)
e* cos
2
395. #=:(A;
2
400.
jc.
*
.
\j
=7
y = \nx\ogx
*/
In
a log a
jc.
t/
= Jtsinhjt.
y=Vcosh x
402. y
403.
404
//
t/
^
405.
406.
= tanhA:
407.
*.
= ^iiL
Inx
= arctanx
= arc
J
(/
arctanh
t/
(/
408. ^
//
==
x
E. Composite Functions
In problems 409 to 466, use the rule for differentiating a composite function with one intermediate argument.
Find the derivatives of the following functions:
40Q**
"v
u
H
i
\
Solution.
2
~~~ ^r \*
i_^v
*jAi
i~ \jAt
Denote
= w;
=
^ 30w M
3jt
5jc*
i^
 30a 29 (3
L. \
\0x)
then
t/
=w
=3
u'^
j<)
.
We
10*;
=30 (1 + 3jc
410. i/=
411.
412.
410
,._
10> f/
>
"~56(2*
1)'
414. t/=J/T^J?".
415.
y=^/
416. w=(a''.
24(2^1)'
'
40(2x
I)''
have:
Differentiation of Functions
50
417.
t/
= (3
2 sin*)
Solution.
2 sin x) 4
4
Jt)
2 sin x)'
(3
419. y
r/=J/coU
/coU.
423. y
j/
427.
428
426.
429.
430.
431.
= / 3sin*2cos*
y=
/.
t/
y=/2ex
+ tart
y = sin 3* + cos

Solution
^
^
sin
Sm
f^
5 /
cos 2
x
Y/
x
5 "^2
432. t/=sin(x
433. /(x)
cos(ct;
434. /(0=sin/si
,._
"
l+cos2*
= acot~
= ~
y = arc sin 2x.
436. /(x)
437.
438.
t/
Solution, y'
439. y
= arcsin^.
440. /(x)
2 cos x)
 CGSJC
= 30^3
cos *
424. y
= cosec ^+sec
425.
f
f(x) =
6(1 _ 3cosx)
{/= 1/1 + arc sin x.
(arc sin x)
y = J/arc tan *
422.
2 sin x)*
= 2x + 5 cos' *.
421*. x
= 5 (3
418. j/=tanjc
[Ch. 2
= 5 (32 sin
y'
 10 cos x (3
420. y
= arccosJ/7.
441. y
= arc tan.
442. y
Tabular Differentiation
Sec. 2]
443.
AAA
444.
= 5e~*.
447. y = arc cose*.
448 0=1
= X
= logsinjc.
5
449.
= x 10'*.
450. y= ln(l
*').
=
=
\n* *
451.
ts'm2
y
In(lnjc).
f(t)
5
4
arc
x
sin
sinx).
y== \n(e* +
= arctan (lnA:) + ln(arctan^).
y = /In x+l + In (1/7+1).
t/
>
t/
j/
445.
446.
452.
453.
454.
j/
t/
F. Miscellaneous Functions
455**. y=sin'5jccos*y.
15
10
3)'
458.
j/=
460.
az
461. y
462.
463.
f/
^ijc 2
x*
=
:
= 
y=44
465.
t/
=x
(a
__J
"2
/
470. z
468.
469.
471.
/(0=(2/
(Jti2)
1 '
51
52
Differentiation of Functions
[C/t.

= ln(]/l+e*l)ln(/l
# = ^ cos'x (3 cos * 5).
473. y
474.
...
475
= (tan
l)(tan
xHOtan 2 *fl)
476. y=ian*5x.
= ^ sin (x
477. y
478. j/=sin
479.
493.
494.
A;+sin'x.
ianx + x.
tan *
486. y
= arc sin
487. y
488. y
= 4~ af c sin fx
491.
jc
*
.
cos *
^
V
= K^
490. t/=jt/a
= arc sin
489. y
^f +cotx.
^T +a
8
y=arcsin(l
= ^ (arc sin*)
=jcI
y = ln(arcsin5x).
y = arc sin (Inx).
=
495.
496.
</
497.
t/
498.
t/
499.
500.
501.
502.
/
i/
arc tan
= 36
=
=
=
F(
F
5tani

arc tan
(36
=x.
I/
*
)
a /
+ a arc sin
x*
484. y
492.
(O
o
481. y
483.
).
= 3sinA:cos
*/
480. w
482.
485. #
+ 2*) Vbxx*.
arc
.
CL
sin.
Tabular Differentiation
Sec. 2]
504.
y = ~e (3sm3x
x
cos 3*).
507
= x"a*".
508. y=
K
r
=
= I/cos *a
509.
506.
510. y = x
2 1/7+2 In (!+/*)
= ln(a + *+/2ax + *'). 514*.
511.
5I2 ^ =
!^'
515. y
y
^_
=
513. y
_,_
505. y
<
*.
j/
516.
517. y
518.
y=lnln(3
=5
^=
519. y
520.
522.
t/
xsin(lnx
^)
1
524. /(*)
525. y
= \l
526.
=2
i/
arc sln
sin
527.
528.
+ (!
ux
u^?^^
;/
COS X
= Uln
'
'
sm 8
1
.
m
'
3 cos' bx
tan^+2:
=
n
529. y
530.
531.
= arc
tan In x.
y^lnarc sinx +
f/
= arctanln
In
jc
arc sin In x.
z
x
Differentiation of Functions
54
633. t/=
[C/t.
1Vsin*
1 arc tan x.
= 1 In Ji + 1 In
J^ +
1 In (1 + *) In (*'*+ 1) +
/(*) =
534. y
535.
536. f(*)
= s'mh*2x.
= e * cosh px.
y = ianh*2x.
y = Insinh2jc.
545.
= arcsinh~.
546.
537. y
538. y
539.
540.
541.
t/
=
# = arc cot h (sec*).
y = arc tanh y^
543.
544.
t/
= 2(
A:a
^+
547. r/=
arc tan
if:
y=\x\\
b)
= **.
(x)
if
551. Calculate
/'
(0)
f
/'
x<0,
for
if
/(*)
Solution,
y'.
if
= e~ x (3 sin 3x)
= e (3 sin 0) e
(0)
* cos
3*.
e~* cos
(x)
cos
3jc;
1
552.
553.
f(x)ln(l+x)
1
ytan ^.
554. Find
b) / (x)
+ (0)
/'
= arc sin
Y
l+e
+ arcsin.
Find
2 ;
/'(I).
(gj^.
and /1(0)
^^
Find
of the functions:
e)
f(x)
= x sin
^
Tabular Differentiation
Sec. 2]
55
= Y\ + x.
= ln(l x)>
n0)
find
tind
q/(or
558.
2^
find
nna
ff
and
cp(jc)
sin^
(1)
derivative of a periodic
a periodic function.
561.
Show
that
562.
Show
that the
563.
Show
the
function
xy' = dx)y
xy'
function
tion
xy' = y(y\i\x
is
also
y = xe~*
satisfies
the
equation
= xe~?
satisfies
the
e <l uati
= (\x*)y.
function
y=
satisfies
lrlx
the equa
1).
G. Logarithmic Derivative
is
= f(x)
is
the
derivative
sometimes simplified by
first
of the
exponential function
v In u.
or
1
whence
~~
the
tion.
of
fM
~y
Finding the derivative
_ _
56
or
[Ch. 2
Differentiation of Functions
Solution.
In
y'
if
2
= ^In x + In (1
x)
21,
ui(1)
= _
_2x i432
whence
y'
=y
565. Find
y\
Solution.
In
/'
if
x In sinx;
2x
/'
cosx
sin x
1jx
^
y = (smx)
(1
+ x + 3 In sin x +2 In cos x;
2
In
~pj
2smx
cosx
+ 3cotx2 tan xj
x
.
= In sin x + x cot x;
first
y'x
^ 0,
then
the
inverse
function.
I!
*~7
function
function
y=f(x) has
x=/
(t/)
is
The Derivatives
Sec. 3]
of
57
or
_
dy'
dy
Tx
Example
1.
Solution.
\s
We
if
=1+1=^1
x
x
have y x
hence,
*>
7.
x\ 1
If
a function
*
then
*t
or, in other notation,
*JL
t^dx'
dt
Example
2.
Find
^,
dx
if
a cos
y = a sin
Solution.
We
find
t,
/
d\
dt
_
dx
3. The derivative
and y
is
of an
= acosf.
implicit
sin
Whence
>
function.
If
the
relationship between
F(x,y) = Q,
(I)
y'x
y' in the simplest cases it is sufficient: 1) to
calculate the derivative, with respect to x, of the left side of equation (1),
taking y as a function of x\ 2) to equate this derivative to zero, that is, to put
~F(A:,f/)
and
= 0,
Example
3.
yx
(2)
/'.
if
0.
Solution.
ito
zero,
we
get
3*'
of the left
(3)
side
+ 3y V 3a (y + xy') = 0,
of (3)
and equating
it
58
Differentiation of Functions
[Ch. 2
whence
2
,_* ay
~~axy*'
xy
a)
f/
c)
if
= 0.
.dy
#'=^
the
589.
x = acos*f,
= b sin*
x = acos*
y=b sin
\ y
590.
583.
t.
t,
cos
1.
T^nr
591.
584.
sin
?=
V coslr
585.
= arc cos
arc sin
592.
__
586.
'
y~=e:
= a( In tan + cos
= a(sin + cosO.
2
587.
588.
/
595. Calculate
cos/).
when
///i
/t cn
a
sin
= 4= a(t
= a(l
Solution.
*~ ^
593.
sin/
r~
a(l
cosO
cos/
if
sin
/),
cos/).
sin
^)
>
The Derivatives
Sec. 3]
of
59
and
S1
fdy\
^
**
when
"T
I
596.
Find
if<
= tlnt,
in/
y=^
x = e cosf,
= ^ sm^./
\
x
'
~.
597.
dv
dx
Find
when
= 44
ji
r
if
<
<
f/
698.
equations
satisfies
599.
the equation
When x = 2
Does
when
it
x = 2?
= Va*
x*.
(x*)'
Is
= :r
5//+10 = 0.
2x
602.
5 + ? =1
s
604.
x'
605.
l/^ +
606.
l/S + /~* =
607.
/'=
y
=a
+ y*^0'?
it
is
609.
a cos
6I0
'
tan//
611.
xy
613.
^=
603.
ty
= (2x)
implicit functions y.
of the
601.
608.
it
In the
y'
true:
600. Let y
differentiation of
tive
is
= 2x.
K^ = /"a.
0.3 sin y
'/a*.
= *.
614.
616.
arctan
^
= ^
60
Differentiation of Functions
+ y = care tan
2
617.
1/x
619.
Find
Solution.
#=1, we
at the point
y'
Differentiating,
obtain
2*/'
= l+3f/',
b)
for
for
c)
we get
whence
for
if
==y* + 3xy*y'.
Putting
2y'
0'
derivatives y' of
y)
x+l
ye = e
# =
y
A! (1,1),
x*
618.
(Ch.
and
1.
functions y at the
specified
x=
*=
x=
and
and
y=l;
and
r/=l.
*/=!;
1. Equations of the tangent and the normal. From the geometric significance of a derivative it follows that the equation of the tangent to a curve
will be
t/ )
(*
y = f(x) or F(x,y)=Q at a point
where
y'Q is the
line passing
Y\
2. The angle between
angle between the curves
curves.
The
d
and
at their
10
{Z
the
is
common
A and
point
point
Using a familiar formula of analytic geometry,
to
these
y Q ) (Fig. 12)
tangents
curves at the
(*
between
co
angle
the
we
get
Sec
4]
segments (Fig.
13):
t
= TM
is
NM
the socalled
is
S t = TK
is
S n = KN
is
segment
and tan
y = y'Q
Sn N
/f
Fig.
KM = \y
of the tangent,
the subtangent,
the segment of the normal,
the subnormal.
St
Since
61
13
it
follows that
j/o
4. Segments
tern of coordinates. If a
en in polar coordinates
tion
= /(q>),
then
OM
the
MT
u.
angle
and the
radius vector r
(Fig. 14),
defined by the following formula:
The tangent
is
MN
MT
ments
(see Fig.
\Af
Fig.
14
14):
t
= MT
n=
MN
S t = OT
S n = ON
is
is
is
is
in a polar sys
[Ch. 2
Differentiation of Functions
62
to
621. What angles cp are formed with the xaxis by the tangents
2
x x at points with abscissas:
the curve y
x = 0;
a)
x=l/2;
b)
x=l?
c)
2x. Whence
Solution. We have y'^\
45; b) tan 9 0, q>=0;
l, <p
a) tan cp
135
1,
(Fig. 15).
c) tan q>
q>
=
=
622. At
the
sect
axis
of
abscissas
at
the
origin?
623. At what angle does the tanianx intersect the
gent curve y
Fig. 15
+
=
3
0?
5x y
627. Find the equation of the parabola y~x*}bx\c that is
tangent to the straight line x
y at the point (1,1).
628. Determine the slope of the tangent to the curve x*+y*
Q at the point (1,2).
2
629. At what point of the curve y
2x* is the tangent perto
2
the
line
0?
straight
pendicular
630. Write the equation of the tangent and the normal to the
parallel to the straight line
xy7 =
=
+
4x3y =
parabola
y=
at the point
Solution.
We
= [y'] x= i = T
with abscissa x = 4.
have y
,/
whence
7=;
the
slope
the
of
#2 =
= 4,
of the
normal:
tangent
y = 2,
4 (x
4) or
4x
+y
It
4# + 4 = 0.
= 4;
t/2 =
is
18
0.
Sec. 4\
63
631. Write the equations of the tangent and the normal to the
4# 3 at the point (2,5).
2x*
curve y = x'
632. Find the equations of the tangent and the normal to the
curve
633. Form the equations of the tangent and the normal to the
curves at the indicated points:
tan2x at the origin;
a) y
b)
=
y = arc
sin
^^
at
the
point
of
intersection
with
the
A:axis;
c)
d)
e)
line
y=
1.
at the
'
at the origin
and
at the
point
= j
636. Write the equations of the tangent and the normal to the
x*
6=0 at the point with ordinate y 3.
2x
y*
637. Write the equation of the tangent to the curve x*
y*
curve
+ +
___
[Ch. 2
Differentiation of Functions
64
642.
Show
x = a(cost
y = a(sinf
sin/),
cost)
Sect?
645.
Show
same thing
646.
at
Show
2)
and
= x*
inter
= x*
we have
\
10
the
(2,4)?
that the hyperbolas
and normal.
648. Find the length of the segment
2* at any point of it.
curve y
649.
Show
that in the
equilateral
of the
subtangent of the
2
a the
y
hyperbola x
to
the
radius
vector
equal
of this point.
651.
x*
Show
jjr+frl
an d the circle
x +y
= a*
at
points
abscissas are equal. What procedure of construction of the tangent to the ellipse follows from this?
652. Find the length of the segment ol the tangent, the normal, the subtangent, and the subnormal of the cycloid
(
\
x = a(t
a(ts'mt),
y = a(l
Find the angle between the tangent and the radius vecthe point of tangency in the case of the lemniscate
1
a cos 2q>.
654.
tor
r*
of
Sec. 4]
65
at a
<p
= 2jt.
r
rQ
cp
arbitrary point cp
657. The law of motion of a point
;
on the *axis
= 0, ^
and
is
(x
is
658. Moving along the #axis are two points that have the
2
5t and #=l/2/
where t^O.
following laws of motion: x=\00
With what speed are these points receding from each other at
the time of encounter (x is in centimetres and / is in seconds)?
^5 m
A
is
moving
A
Fig.
17
What
31900
66
_ _
Differentiation of Functions
[Ch. 2
disregarded):
#=i; /cosa,
where
trajectory of motion
speed of motion and
661.
i>
/sin a
^,
point
is in
its
direction.
r/
so that its
abscissa
What
is
*/
is
through (5,2)?
662. At what point of the parabola
becomes 50 cm?
665.
=10
point
is
in
of
Archimedes
(a
vector
cm)
is
AM =
(</')'.
If
* = /(/)
is
or
^.
as
or
f"(x).
is
the accel
Sec. 5]
a derivative of order (n
derivative of a function y
f(x) is the derivative
1). For the nth derivative we use the notation
(v
Example
or
~^,
or
t.
= \n(\
(n)
67
of
(x).
function
of the
x).
/.JZL; /
Solution.
(uv)
<">
= u<"
3. Higherorder derivatives
= r
functions
of
(
i^
==
f/^jc
represented
can
^2
successively
xt
we have
Example
Solution.
2.
F^nd
We
the formula
w
/
if
have

If
_
/
(a cos*),
& cos
.
&
"~~ "~~~
.
asm*
LUl
and
.
(acosO
If
= q>(0,
= *(0,
by the formulas
xt
parametricaKy.
asln<
osln
be
calculated
68
Differentiation of Functions
[Ch.
669.
= x* + 7x'
= e*
5x
+ 4.
671.
672.
= \n t/\+x
Show
y= (arc sin x)
= acosh
u
673.
674.
V^
675.
y=sm*x.
670. j
y
//
th<
OY
*/
y=
\
satisfies the
differ
ential equation
676.
tial
Show
2y'+y = e
equation y"
677.
Show
Show
=
2y
the
satisfies
differen
y=C
e"
the
that
function
the
that
= ^x e x
function y
+ C 2 e' 2x
C and C
l
= e 2x s'm5x
satisfies th
2
+29y = 0.
,
if
= e x sinx.
f(x)
685.
O.OOU 8
X100H5/
point
for
times
=10.
= 0,
=\
an
is in motion around
with constant anguls
Fig 18
velocity CD. Find the law of motion of i1
projection M, on the xaxis if at time / =
the point is at
Q (a, 0) (Fig.
18). Find the velocity and the ac
celeration of motion of M,.
at the in
What is the velocity and the acceleration of
tial time and when it passes through the origin?
What are the maximum values of the absolute velocity and th
686.
circle
point
2
+y = a
Sec. 5]
69
687. Find
where n
y=
js
a)
and
y^T^x*
y^^**'
b)
j/=sinx;
a)
e)
b)4, = cos2*;
= e~ *;
c) y
f)
y=^j\
= yJ;
J/
g)
/=ln(l+x);
d)
h)
y=sin*jr,
y=
y = x.f\
b)
x
y = jc .e*
{n
d)y =
c)
691. Find
//
= (!
(n)
(0),
if:
2
A:
e)
= x*
cos x\
if
692. a)
693. _,
= \nt,
'
b)
:asin/;
:
= 0cos'/,
= arc tan/,
\0l
x
"'
iv
c)
* = arc sin/
= a(l cos/);
x = a (sin/ /cos/),
= a(cos/f/ sin/).
\ y
696. Find
[Ch. 2
Differentiation of Functions
70
d*u
697. Find
698.
tions x
ax 2
Show
== sin
if
y=
{
\
^
+ be~ iV
y = ae'
2
t,
* = ln(lf/
/=0,
for
= sec,
{
=
tan/.
\ y
= ^"'cos/,
{xye<*tnt.
x
699.
703.
jt'"
701.
Solution.
By
/,
=
y'
r/
y = f(x),
x = f~*(y).
/=
and
if
'
find
composite
^^
+ **_
*
function
we have
2^;^.
if
if
required to determine
represented implicitly.
is
it
= f(x)
the
y
l.
707.
708.
709. Find
/.
5xy +
711. a)
2x
find
j
= 0.
if
The function y
is
defined
implicitly
= 0.
and
if
Find
finally get:
^+f=
^.
differentiating
jwe
^
706.
the equaand 6
+ y*=*l.
x = e 1
=
^
function
2* + 2i0'=0; whence
by
any constants
7 2 ' Find
x'
if
<
1
704. Find
defined
x)
y'"
f
the
of
for
'
Knowing
),
equation
Find
if
i/
==a 8 .
by the equation
Sec. 6]
Differentials of First
71
= f(x)
is
19
Fig.
function
is
equal to the
product of its
derivative
independent variable
dy=y'dx,
whence
u
y
MN
If
is an arc of the graph
tangent at M. (x, y) and
dy
dx
'
the function
of
= f(x)
(Fig.
MT
19),
is
the
PQ = Ax=dx,
= 3 (x + Ax)
and
(x
the
differential
+ Ax)
3x 2
of
the
function
+x
or
At/
Hence,
= (6*
dy = (6x
Ax + 3 (Ax) 2
1)
1)
Ax = (6x
1)
dx.
Second method:
t/'
Example
2.
and Ax = 0.01.
Solution.
= 6x
Calculate
A/ =
At/
1;
df/
= j/'dx = (6x
and dy
of
the
1)
dx.
function
y = 3x
l)Ax
(6x
<fy
(6jt
and
1)
for
x=l
72
Differentiation of Functions
[C/t.
4)
5)
= cdu.
dv.
v) = du
d (uv)
udv + v du.
d(cu)
d(u
7)
3. Applying the
A*
of the
equal:
that
A # =^ dy,
is,
whence
3. By how much (approximately) does the side of a square change
2
to 9.1 m 2 ?
area increases from 9
Solution. If x is the area of the square and y is its side, then
Example
if
its
It
is
given that #
The increment
mately as follows:
At/
=9
in
and A*
0.1.
ky^zdy=y' Ax
4. Higherorder
differentials.
j=z
0.1
may
be calculated approxi
= 0. 016m.
secondorder differential
is
the differential
of a firstorder differential:
We
But
if
= /(),
where w
d*y
and so
forth.
= cp(x),
then
d*u
+ y' d'u
M).
tion
Differentials of First
Sec. 6}
713.
find
73
d(lx')
for
x=\
714.
and Ax =
The area
square S with
of a
side x
differential of
is
this
x*.
given by S
function and ex
= 2X
cos x for x
=y
and Ax
=
for
for
function
Ax
0.01.
9 and
x
721. Calculate the differential of the function
x^J
Ax^.
and
727. y
722.
y^'m
723.
<,=
724.
#= arc sin
= cot
s = arc
729. r
730.
725. //=arctan~.
= x\nx
q>
x.
f
cosec
(p.
lane*.
726. y
e~ \
731 Find d//
if
x*
+ 2xy
y*
= a*.
we obtain 2x dx + 2
Whence
74
Differentiation of Functions
[Ch. 2
733.
734.
X
y'y = 6x*.
3) we have
(see
sin
arc30=jr
and Ax = arc
+ ^~ cos
31=^ sin 30
31.
(1)
30=0.500+0.017J~^=0.515.
tial,
a) cos
b) tan
c)
61;
44;
d) In 0.9;
e) arc
tan 1.05.
e*\
#=
mm?
A*
Using
it,
V5
approximate
for
for
*=1.03;
* = 0.2;
for
* = 0.1;
for
__
c)
d)
j!/TO,
j/70, jI/200.
/(x) !/"}=
y=e
~ x*
x =1.05.
for
/
Approximate
Sec. 7]
_ _
MeanValue Theorems
745. Using
Ohm's
law,
= ,
show
2/
the
in
resistance,
in
may be
A.
A/
746. Show that,
relative error of 1/
75
of the radius, a
error of approximately
in calculating the area of a circle and the surface of a sphere.
747. Compute d*y, if y
co$5x.
determining the
in
length
results in a relative
Solut ion.
748. u
749.
750.
//
d y = y" (dx =
2
25 cos 5* (dx) 2
=
x\
= arccosx,
find d*u.
{/^sinxlnx,
find d*y.
find d*y.
= ^, find d'z.
z = ***, find d'z.
z =
flnd d4
2=TJ,
M = 3sin(2jtf 5), find
= e* cosa sin(;t sin u),
751.
752.
753.
*'
754.
755.
//
d"w.
n
find d y.
1. Rolle's
b,
then the
theorem. If
has a derivative
argument
has
at
the interval
is continuous on
f (x)
every interior point of this interval, and
function
at
/' (x)
least
one
value
where a
< 5<
b,
such that
<5<
ft.
3. Cauchy's theorem.
If
the functions
a<x<b
a^x^b
and for
simultaneously, and F(b)^F(a)
interval
f (a)
756.
Show
l<x<0
that
and
the
g.
and F
(x) are
derivatives
continuous on the
do not vanish
that
then
_
function
0<x<l
appropriate values of
f (x)
have
f(x)
= xx*
satisfies the
Rolle
on
the
intervals
the
theorem. Find
76
Differentiation of Functions
The function / (x) is continuous and different! able for all values
= /(0) = /(1)=0. Hence, the Rolle theorem is applicable on
1)
intervals
and 0<*<_1, To find
form the equation
_ we
Solution.
of x,
the
and /(
Kx<0
0<E <
and
[Ch. 2
757.
The function
fc^J/l;
J/l
i< g, <o
where
1.
takes on
f(x)
2)
\/(x
equal values
the endpoints of the interval [0.4]. Does
/(4)
j/4 at
the Rolle theorem hold for this function on [0.4]?
758. Does the Rolle theorem hold for the function
/(0)
on the interval
759.
Show
[0,
JT]?
Let
The equation
any other
real
= 0.
Show
root.
761. Test whether the Lagrange theorem holds for the function
on
the interval
value of
[2,1] and
the
find
appropriate
intermediate
= xx*
all
h3ve
/(l)/(2y = 06
2
2 and
3^
2
inequality
1
Whence,
/
/'(E)2
=
g=l;
< < holds
1
762.
appropriate
sin (x 4 h)
where
sin
x = h cos
Taylor's Formula
Sec. 8]
77
+2
*
765. a) For the functions /(x)
whether the Cauchy theorem holds on
find E;
b)
do
same with
the
on the interval
~1
To,
and F(x)
the
respect to /(*)
= x'
interval
= sin*
test
and
[1,2]
and F(x)
= cosx
(n
is
function
f (x)
is
lor's
a<x<6
interval
&<*<a),
(or
of the interval,
and there
then Tay
formula
V(a)
V
w+
nl
where
= +
a
0(jc
In particular,
f
W =/
(0)
a)
and
when
+xf
(0)
0<6<1,
r (0) +
"'>
(0)
/<>
(I),
where
=
?
0<9<1.
0jc,
n*)=3jt
Solution.
for
4A
= 6^
2;c
A:
+ 3;
/'
f'(2)
= 7;r(2) = 8;r(2)
(jc)
+ 3^ + 5
in posi
2.
4;
/'"
(x)=6;
n^4. Whence
H;
=6.
Therefore,
or
2x z
8
Jt
767.
+ 3x + 5 =
(n)
Solution.
+7
(.v
2)
+ 4 (x
x
Expand the function f(x)=e
where
1 1
(x)
= e*
in
2)
2)
(A
powers
of
to
the
8
.
for all
n,
p)(
1)=JL. Hence,
lnjt in
powers
of
up
to
78
[Ch. 2
Differentiation of Functions
= sin x
769.
Expand
9
/ (x)
+ h cos a
sin a
2
of the
VT+x&l+x y*
yi+i&l+x~x*,
2
a)
b)
Due
774.
to
line
a catenary
in
of the
shape
775*.
\x\<l,
\x\<\
is
formula
in the
weight, a heavy
y = a cosh.
thread
Show
own
its
approximate formulas:
Show
approximately
suspended thread
that
the
by the parabola
expressed
small \x\
for
lies
(^J
we
have
the
approximate equality
Sec. 9.
for
oo
and
and
u
Let
oo
the
singlevalued
if
is,
/ (x)
the quotient
(p
(x)
^4
at
x = a,
is
one
of the
indeterminate forms 
oo
i
then
00
*+<*
lim /(*)
(p (x)
^lim
x+a
(*)
q>' (
x)
or
V HospitalBernoulli
Sec. 9]
The
rule
is
when a =
also applicable
fix)
If
the quotient
,,
yields an
again
indeterminate
at the point
form,
= a,
79
q>'
However,
may
exist,
it
should
borne
be
in
the
of
(x) satisfy
we can then
all
Example 809).
2. Other indeterminate forms. To evaluate an indeterminate form like
0oo, transform the appropriate product fi(x)*f t (x), wne re lim/, (jt) = and
(see
K+O.
/(*)
lim/ 2 (*)
= oo,
^^
into thequetient
form
(the
*>a
(T^T\
/i (X)
( the
orm ).
oo
M*)
In the case
of
f 2 (x)
oo,
first
lim
if
(X)
and
/ 1
7^7^=1,
\x
x+a i\
x )j
then
we
re
form
(the
).
/Tw
The indeterminate forms I, 0, 00 are evaluated by first faking loga
rithms and then finding the limit of the logarithm of the power [f l (x)]^ (x}
(which requires evaluating a form like 0oo).
In certain cases it is useful to combine the L'Hospital rule with tht
finding of limits by elementary techniques.
Example
1.
Compute
lim
JL1
*>o cot
(form ").
7
oo
we have
JEfL^llm pL*r
x+ocotx jco(cot*)
lim
lim
We
get
jp
jc*o
however,
Um
CfrO
We
sint
Hm
sin
~~*H)
JC>0
COt X
we
do
not
need to
use the
[Ch. 2
Differentiation of Functions
80
Example
Compute
2.
limfJ x
*M)V sin
Reducing
xL^
J
(form
common denominator, we
to a
lim
oo
oo).
get
(4__J_Ulim*.!z^lf
x
x J
xo x sin x
x+o \ sin
v
(fonn
'
lat
We
The L'Hospital
rule gives
lim
L)
Then,
in
A "~ S
= lim
m *=lim
_ ___
2
x<> \ sin
Example
3.
cos 2x
2 sin 2 *
,.
Compute
8
*2
00
(form
XM)
lim In (cos
X*0
lim
2*p = X+Q
31ncos2*
X
rule,
= _ 6 lim
we
%X
x+Q
get
= _6
J^
Hence, lim
(cos 2x)
*^e*.
Jf>0
ples.
x '
77G.
lim
,_>,
*'
Solution. lim
"
;
X>1
777.
lim
xcosx
v
^r 2 "~~ 7/
OJi
~~
sinx
,
779.
lir
*7on
is
I*
tj
11IU
'
ji
*>il_si n :r
780.
lim
tan*
sin*
exam
sec
,.
781.
2tan*
1+COS4*
2
'
785.
lim
*cot^
2
lim^.
tan5x
782.
^Ji
786.
lim
*"
787.
i .
1.
lim
[,
cos x) cot
(1
x>o
n x
lim r?=r
lim
1
783.
81
A
x +
lim
Solution,
(1
^cos
x) cot
= Hm
cos A
'^ lim
X>0
Sill AT
Forms
Sec. 9]
Sill
linrZi!iJ^(
788.
lim(l
A*)
Ian
792.
,V^l
X^X
789.
,
V
793.
'
hnilnxln
(x
1).
X+Q
ri
790.
n>0.
lim(jc e?"*),
v^o
794.
lim
^
*i
f^
\
n"^
lr
%
Solution.
[
A'
= lim
lim
j
^^MiiAl
795.
lim
796.
lim
(A
1)
11
= lim
\nx
1
*^
A
7
T
h~?
2
A'
L__l
limf^^'
*
y
797
~ >l
^Vc
_^/
A)
AO J
^}
2cosx/
798.
lim
A;*.
Solution.
lim
We
= lim
j~
have
0,
**
r/;
whence lim//=l,
In
y=?x
that
In
is,
A".
ImiA^
lim In
l.
t/
= limjtln x
82
(Ch. 2
Differentiation of Functions
799. limx*.
804.
li
VH
tan
805. Hmftan^f)
4 /
X+l\
*.
*>0
*.
XH)
cos
802.
lim(l*)
803.
lim(l+x
ta
807.
)*
lta(I)
x /
x*o \
".
*.
X+0
X
a)
cannot
sin*
be found
by the L'HospitalBernoulli
rule.
Find these
limits directly.
AB=b
CD=A
approximately
>0.
Chapter III
Sec.
1.
The Extrema
1. Increase and
of
decrease
increasing (decreasing)
ffxj
xz
i,
(a)
Fifi.
Fig. 22
21
In the simplest cases, the domain of definition of f (x) may be subdividincrease and decrease of the funca finite number of intervals of
tion (intervals of monotonicity). These intervals are bounded by ciitic'
or f' (x) does not exist].
points x [where /'(jc)
Example 1. Test the following function for increase and decrease:
ed into
Solution.
We
Whence
y'
for
x=l. On
= 2x
a
= 2(*
number
scale
1).
we
get
two intervals
of
monot
oo<x<l, then
onicity: (00, 1) and (1, f oo). From (1) we have: 1) if
oo, 1); 2)
i/'<0, and, hence, the function f (x) decreases in the interval (
if l<A'<
oo, then j/'>0, and, hence, the function /(*) increases in the interval (1, +00) (Fig. 22).
84
Example
2.
of
and decrease
of increase
[Ch. 3
a Derivative
of the func
tion
Solution.
,
i
o\\2
<Q
oo<*<
Example
Here,
*^~
for
Hence, the
the
of
discontinuity
and
function
(/'
function y
and
Test the following function for increase or decrease:
3.
/i
y
Solution
is
*v s
*y a
'
Here,
(2)
'
the
in
Y\
/'A\
interval
(0,1)
**
(here,
we can
interval
(1,
use
in
the
+00).
(1,
Fig
23
minimum
point
of
mum
the
/ (x
of the function y
neighbourhood of the point
function
is
f(x),
called the
mini
f(x).
Similarly,
if
x lf the inequality
any point xj^x l of some
f(*)<f(x\) is fulfilled, then *, is called the maximum point of the function
and
is
the maximum of the function (Fig. 23). The minimum
f(x),
/(*j)
point or maximum point of a function is its extremal point (bending point),
and the minimum or maximum of a function is called the extremum of the
function. If xn is an extremal point of the function f
then /' (* ) = 0, or
(x),
for
The Extrema
Sec. 1]
The
of a
85
and absence of an
are given by the following rules:
extremum
continuous function
/ (x)
of a
1. If
there exists a neighbourhood (X Q
6, *
6) of a critical point *
such that /'(x)>0 for X Q
d<x<xQ and /'(jt)<0 for xQ <x<xQ d, then * is
the maximum point of the function / (*); and if /' (*)<0 for *
6<*<x
is the minimum point of the
and /' (x)>0 for x <x<xe
function
6\ then *
/(*)
Finally,
function
2.
if
there
for
/ (x).
r
If
f (XQ)
f' ( XQ )
(*
if
unchanged
sign
=Q
= 0,
is
some
0<jc
positive
number 6 such
then x
X Q <6,
is
and
f"
and /'"
(*
(*
point;
(*
= 0,
More generally:
point x
point X Q
the
of
<
i/
==2*
+3
Whence,
x
x=
function
if
we
/i,
find
then
is
we
get:
x l =
a sufficiently small
Hence,
/'<0*).
and //max=l.
Equating the denominator
r/
to zero,
where h
\+h,
y'
*,
1.
From formula
(3)
we
have:
if
of
we
get
whence
is
i/
/=4^=
1
is the maximum
I
x,
and, hence, *,
point of the
function.
3. Greatest and least values. The least (greatest) value of a continuous
function f (x) on a given interval [a, b] is attained either at the critical
points of the function or at the endpoints of the interval [a, b].
86
Example
of a
5.
on the interval
Derivative
[Cfi.
of the function
P/2
Solution. Since
it
and
Fig. 24
of the function at these points and the values
function at the endpoints of the given interval
we conclude
the
(Fig.
x=l (at
*=2 /i
point
at the point
25)
the
minimum
point),
and
its least
Determine the
812.
813.
814.
y=l
m=l,
at
A4 = ll
intervals
of decrease
and increase
1ions:
811.
value,
of the
4*
jf.
= (* 2)
y = (A:+4)
= *'(* 3).
*>
{/
817.
818.
= (x
{/
of the func
The Extrema
Sec. 1]
819.
of
a Function
y^ \V~x.
822.
y = 2e*
823.
= x f sin x.
y = x\nx.
= arcsin(lfx).
820. y
821.
One Argument
of
'
825
^T"
We
find
the
zero,
we
for extrema:
= +
Solution.
'*.
_. 2~<*.
24
t/
derivative
of
the
given function,
value of the argument x=
2.
Since i/'<0 when x<
2 is
2, and y'>Q when *>
2, it follows that *=
the minimum point of the function, and #min
2. We get the same result
of the second derivative at the critical point y"~<
by utilizing the
~ sign
Equating
to
y'
the
get
critical
827. y
828. {/
829. (/

=
=
Solution,
We
= 6*
y'
4
6x
12
=6
+*
2
(jc
2).
2
Equating the derivative y' to zero, we get the critical points x,=
and *,= !. To determine the nature of the extremum, we calculate the
second derivative ^"^ 6 (2* 41). Since /(
2
2)<0, it follows that x,=
is the maximum point of the function y, and #max
25. Similarly, we have
the function y and
t/*(l)>0; therefore, x 2 =l is the minimum point of
i=
2.
<
12 )
2
'
840.
(*
I)
y
2)'.
841.
836. V
= rr4=^.
837. t/=
w=J/(^
OQQ
ooy.
it
*/ ===
Determine the
indicated
843. y
844.
847.
citi ^. v
+ sin
^k*.
I
least
intervals
,_
846. y
1)'.
O sin
cin ZA
Ov
z
842. #
(if
f/
/1ft
//
M
oto.
= x'e*.
= .
X

ar/* fan
^
idii ^t.
/t~drc
interval
is
ln(l+*).
je
845>
^_.
838.
t/
88
greatest
and
[Ch. 8
of a Derivative
least
of definition).
849.
850.
851.
= rih&.
=
y
x(lOx).
y= sin + cos
A;
imum
interval
= 2x* + 3*
A;.
12*
a)
b)
on the interval
on the interval
856. Determine
nomial
V = x* on the
854. y
= arc cos x.
Show
852. #
855.
853
!/
*we
1,3].
1,6];
[10,12],
coefficients p and q of the quadratic triso that this trinomial should have a minJt= 1. Explain the result in geometrical terms.
the
y*=x*+px + q
3 when
t/
857. Prove the inequality
e*
> +x
1
when x
4* 0.
In the usual
way we
find
lhat
this function
has a single
minimum
/(0)
Hence,
/(*)>/ (0)
and so e*
as
we
set
> +x
1
when x
when x
0,
^ 0,
out to prove.
<
^<
o
when *>0.
when
~<ln(l +x)<x
when
859.
cos*>l
860.
A:
JL
Sec.
1]
The Extrema
of
a Function
of
One Argument
89
869.
lateral surface.
D
N
M
Fig. 27
875. Out of a circular sheet cut a sector such that when made
into a funnel it will have the greatest possible capacity.
876. An open vessel consists of a cylinder with a hemisphere
at the bottom; the walls are of constant thickness. What will the
dimensions of the vessel be if a minimum of material is used for
a
given capacity?
tical
MN
ABCD
d<l
90
of
a Derivative
[Ch. 3
878. A point
(x
# ) lies in the first quadrant of a coordinate plane. Draw a straight line through this point so that the
triangle which it forms with the positive semiaxes is of least area.
879. Inscribe in a given ellipse a rectangle of largest area with
sides parallel to the axes of the ellipse.
880. Inscribe a rectangle of maximum area in a segment of
the parabola y*
2px cut off by the straight line x 2a.
,
881.
On
the curve y
find a point at
\
Xt
forms with the A>axis the greatest (in absolute value) angle.
882. A messenger leaving A on one side of a river has to get
to B on the other side. Knowing that the velocity along the bank
that on the water, determine the angle at which the
is k times
messenger has to cross the river so as to reach B in the shortest
possible time. The width of the river is h and the distance between A and B along the bank is d.
883. On a straight line AB=a connecting two sources of light A
that
(of intensity p) and B (of intensity </), find the point
receives least light (the intensity of illumination is inversely pro
portional to the
884. A lamp
of radius
r.
is
light source.)
bending?
I
i/J
Note. The resistance of a beam to compresof its crossis proportional to the area
to the product of the
section, to bending
width of the crosssection by the square of
sion
its
height.
Sec. 2]
The Direction
fi,
of Concavity.
Points of Inflection
91
line.
resulting
where
NnS
~~
is
resistance,
current?
889. Determine
the
body
of a
dam
for
constant).
890. If x lf # 2 ..., x n are the results of measurements of equal
precision of a quantity x, then its most probable value will be
that for which the sum of the squares of the errors
,
(**,)
0=2
1=1
value (the principle of least squares).
is
of least
of
is
the arithmetic
mean
a.<x<b
a<x<6
=
rw<o
irw>oj.
2. Points of inflection. A point [* f (jc )] at which the direction of concavity of the graph of some function changes is called a point of inflection
,
(Fig. 29).
92
of
[Ch. 3
a Derivative
f (x)
there
is
of the
no second
<x<
< <
+ 6,
x?
Jc
opposite.
y~f(x)
Solution.
We
have
bx
a,
b,
and
Fig. 29
we
derivative y* to zero,
second kind
and
7=r
*o
T=
Fig. 31
f(this is obvious if, for example, we take one point in each
lively, +,
of the intervals and substitute the corresponding values of x into y ) Therefore:
,
1)
the curve
curve
is
is
concave up when
oo<
=^
<
<x<
7= and
F2
==
F=
2) the
V 2
The points
=^
\V2
r=]
are
VeJ
< <
__
Sec. 3]
Asymptotes
Example
2.
of
93
y=*/7+2.
Solution.
It
is
We
have:
right of (1), we
find that y" does not exist for x
2. Since y"
for
2 and f/"<0 for
2, it follows that (
2,0) is the point of inflection (Fig. 31). The tangent at this point is parallel to the axis of ordinates, since the first derivative y'
is infinite at x
2.
x<
>
*>
Find the
of
inflection
of the
892.
893.
y = (x + l)\
y = 4r
o
897.
898.
X\
894.
895.
ff
899.
.
,
12
900.
\2x.
y=i/4x*
=
y=x
y=x
sin*.
2
In x.
= arc tanx
y = (l+x*)e*.
//
x.
Sec. 3. Asymptotes
Jim /(v)=
a
Inclined asymptotes.
is
If
00,
>>
+ 00
and
lim [/(*)X++ 00
Ml = *i.
If
(a
right inclined
94
of a Derivative
[Ch. 3
and
Urn
k zx
y
b^ is an asymptote (a left inclined asymptote
horizontal asymptote). The graph of the function y
f(x)
(we assume the function is singlevalued) cannot have more than one right
(inclined or horizontal) and more than one left (inclined or horizontal) asymptote.
Example 1. Find the asymptotes of the curve
when
fe
= 0,
line
a left
to zero,
we
get
two
vertical asyinp
lotos
x=
We
x=l.
and
kl
lim
lim
x)
(//
*
+ oo
= lim
we obtain
~l,
lim
*+o>
b =
>
}^x z
x
y^2
=0,
\
\
/
Fig. 32
=x
is
when*
oo,
we have
fc
fc
Hm
~=
1;
lim
AC>~
Thus, the
totes
is
Example
2.
y= x
(Fig. 32). Testing a curve for asympconsideration the symmetry of the curve.
Find the asymptotes of the curve
left
simplified
asymptote
if
we take
Is
into
__
Sec. 3]
95
Asymptotes
Solution. Since
lim
t/
oo,
is a vertical
the straight line x
asymptote (lower). Let us now
curve only for the inclined right asymptote (since x>0).
We have:
k=
b
lim (y
**+ 00
lim
X++OD X
x)
lim
#>+<
test
the
1,
\nx
oo.
lim
11
903. y
^rr.
,
908. u
=x
909. y
= e
910. i/=
911.
905.
y^Y^^l.
912.
906.
y==
913
907. </=
* ~~"
914. x
/;
j/
spiral r
of a Derivative
96
[Ch. 3]
find its
first
domain
of definition
and then determine the behaviour of the function on the boundary of this
domain. It is also useful to note any peculiarities of the function (if there
are any), such as symmetry, periodicity, constancy of sign, monotonicity, etc.
Then find any points of discontinuity, bending points, points of inflection,
asymptotes, etc. These elements help to determine the general nature of the
graph of the function and to obtain a mathematically correct outline of it.
Example 1. Construct the graph of the function
Solution, a)
The function
0(0,
0).
The
b)
lim
odd,
is
discontinuities
are
x=
t/=oo;
and
jc
and
1;
lim
and
oo
J/=
VM + O
are vertical asymptotes of the
#=1
X>10
graph.
c)
We
,=
lim
X > +
bl
oo
lim
x
= 0,
oo,
#>too
thus, there is no right asymptote. From the symmetry of the curve it follows
that there is no lefthand asymptote either.
d) We find the critical points of the first and second kinds, that is,
points at which the first (or, respectively, the second) derivative of the given
function vanishes or does not exist.
We
have:
x=l,
The
when x=
when x =
y'=Q
r/"
y' retains a
Thus,
(V3,
intervals
l),
(
(1,
00,
V$\
and
x=
3.
1),
3),
(l,
3,
V$)
and (V~3
1),
(1,
0),
+00),
(0,
1),
and
(1,
/
3)
00,
in
each
and
(3,
J/T),
of
+00).
the
To determine the signs of y' (or, respectively, y") in each of the indicated
intervals, it is sufficient to determine the sign of y' (or y") at some one point
of each of these intervals.
Sec
4]
97
Table I
e)
function (Fig
of
the investigation,
33).
/
Fig. 33
41900
we
construct
the
graph
of
the
Example
2.
of
a Derivative
[Ch. 3]
x
Solution, a) The domain of definition of the function is 0<x<foo.
b) There are no discontinuities in the domain of definition, but as
0) of the domain of definition we have
approach the boundary point (#
=
limw = lim
JL? =
oo
X*0
JC>
we
k=
lim
X<++
The
00
^
X
lim #
x>+<
0;
= 0.
j/
= 0.
We
Inx
y
3
y'
and
of the
points
y' = Q
domain
when ln*=l,
that
of
is,
when x =
<?;
(/'=0
We
when
Inx^y,
the
it
is
that
is,
when x~e*l*.
34
1
the curve with the coordinate axes. Putting /
0, we find *
(the point
of intersection of the curve with the axis of abscissas); the curve does not
intersect the axis of ordinates
the
e) Utilizing the results of investigation, we construct the graph of
lunction (Fig. 34).
h
CM
CO
CM
'
"
>
non
> C
a c.u
~
100
its
of
[Ch. 3
a Derivative
=x
3x*.
"
918.
u = (x
919.
y
921.
922.
923.
924.
925.
=
=
y=
y=
=
(/
(/
</
926. y==
928.
929.
930.
__
=,
,6
3*'+!
932.
933.
934.
935.
936.
938.
y = 2x + 23'l/(xl
963
'
#=
its
graph,
Sec.
an Arc. Curvature
Differential of
/>]
964. y
sin
7
y=
976.
4 /
978. ,,=
967.
979. ^
=
y = *lsin*.
y = arc sin (1
/F).
970.
971.
972.
and
973.
974.
953.
982
tan
983.
984
<>arcsin
f/
= lnA:arc tan*.
In cos x.
y = cos^
= arc tan(ln
= arc sin In (*' 41).
,/
,/
985.
je).
y==x
^
987. y
= lnsin*.
A good
exercise
ples 826848.
Construct the
is
to
>
Af
i/
= garcun*
= n sin x
,,
A;.
975. y
arc cosh
101
the
graphs of
parainelrically.
l
2/.
988. x=t*
///
2t,
sin/ (a>0).
989. x=acob*/,
te~
990. jc
/e',
y
fl
/ 4g991. x
i/=2/ + ea (cosh /
a (sinh/
992. x
/), i/
in
Fxam
represented
y^a
=
=
=
=
I)
(a>0).
dshere,
if
a)
J/~(d*)
//
= /(*),
b)* = /,Urt.
then ds
then
= 0,
ds^
d)
^(*,
f/)
of the
',
form
ds
then
(dy)
= q>(0, y = +(0,
c)
is
ds
V F* + F
then
'
2
/;
V F'
a
is
plane curve
expressed by
102
of
a Derivative
[Ch. 3
of
dx
cos
a = 3
ds
dy
r
sina
ds
In polar coordinates,
sin
= dr
of the
'
the
M
^MN^\s
arc
K=
iim
As
\\hore
point
is
The radius
i.
circle
line (/C
the
AS
when
.V
(Fig.
35),
that
is,
= ^,
positive
rfs
directions
of
the
tangent jt the
curvature,
The
Au
= 0)
of
curvature
is
the reciprocal
of
radius
the
e.,
K=
where a
is
the
of
circle)
Sec
an Arc. Curvature
Differential of
5]
103
We have the following formulas for computing the curvature in rectangular coordinates (accurate to within the sign):
1) if the curve is given by an equation explicitly, y
f(x), then
2)
if
the curve
is
0,
then
*=
Fxx.
Fx
Fxy
'
Flx
y)
F'yy
'y
Fv
F'
/j
3)
/
if
(/),
\j)
the curve
is
then
f
y
y
*,'"
where
dx
dy

'
~~dt*
In polar coordinates,
is
given by the
equation
/(q)),
we have
r
+ 2r'
rr"
where
,
= dr
d"r
and
dcp
dtp
>
the curve.
X=x
the centre of
of
L,,
curvature
jfr
of
the
curve
are
{j
The evolute
of a
curve
is
the locus
of
the
centres
of
curvature
of
the
curve.
If
ture
in the
formulas
for
we regard X and Y
of
of the centre of
lute,
in
104
Solution.
X=
4* 8
Y
+ 6*
involute
curve
of
curve
is
the parameter x,
Eliminating
The
[Ch. 3
a Derivative
of
o'
we
+ ^lT")
for
find
an
is
evolute.
MC
The normal
CC
involute P 2
of the
of the evolute
is
is
the evolute
to
tangent
P,;
the
increment
the
radius of curvature CC,
in
AfC;
M,C,
that is why the involute P 2 is also called the
evolvent of the curve P, obtained by unwinding
a taut thread wound onto P, (Fig. 36). To each
evolute there corresponds an infinitude of invowhich are related to different initial
lutes,
lengths of thread.
4. Vertices of a curve. The vertex of a curve
of the curve at which the curvature
is a point
has a maximum or a minimum. To determine
the vertices of a curve, we form the expression
of the curvature K and find its extremal points.
In place of the curvature K we can take the
radius
curvature
of
points
Since
//
J
= sinh
a
a cosh
,
2
and, hence,
*=
of
is
X
.
0).
cosh
a
We
follows
it
that
tf
rf/?
Equating
M
6
Q,
the point
we
the
we
get sinh 2
Computing
(0,
get
we
whence
0,
ry
,=
A:
cosh2
catenary.
The vertex
a
a
curvature (or of
of
the
catenary
the
sole
putting
into
find
and
a
point of the radius of
minimum
the
curvature) of
thus,
and J(/"
= acosh
to zero,
=Q
point *
value x
the
/?
>
(a
I")
ax
it
extremal
the derivative j
critical
its
a cosh
Example
36
Solution.
if
and seek
77^
> 0.
Therefore,
the
maximum
f/
= acosh
is,
a).
Find the differential of the arc, and also the cosine and sine
of the angle formed, with the positive ^direction, by the tangent
to each of the following curves:
993. *
2
*/
=a
(circle).
+ ^=l (ellipse).
y* = 2px (parabola).
994. ~2
995
Sec. 5]
996. x 2 / 8
997.
998.
999.
f
2/
t/
=a
2 /'
(astroid).
105
y = acosh
(catenary).
x = a(ts\nt)\ y = a(lcost) (cycloid).
x = acos*t, y = asm*t (astroid).
Find the differential of the arc, and also the cosine or sine
of the angle formed by the radius vector and the tangent to each
of the following curves:
1000. r^atp (spiral of Archimedes).
1001.
1002.
= (hyperbolic spiral).
r =
asec* (parabola).
r
1003. r
= acos*
(cardioid).
points:
1006. y
1007. x*
= x* 4x* ISA'
+ xy + y* = 3 at
2
+
=
=
1008.
=1
at the
coordinate origin.
the point
the vertices
at
(1,
1).
and 5(0,
0)
(a,
b).
and
= 8x
<p
is
= n.
the curvature
equal to 0.12S?
1
lines:
1014.
5 + S =1
(ellipse).
= !^.
* = acos
y = as\n*t (astroid).
= a(cosM sin 0; y = a(s\nt
1015. *
1016.
1017.
circle).
/;
A:
/?osO
curvature of
the
y* = 2px.
1021. Prove
y = acosh
of
1018. r
ae k v (logarithmic spiral).
1019. r a(l fcoscp) (cardioid).
1020. Find the least value of the radius of
parabola
involute
that
the
is equal to a
radius of
segment
curvature
of
the
catenary
of the normal.
curvature of
the
106
of
a Derivative
[Ch. 3
=
=
x*
1024. y
Gjc+10 at the point
1025. y
e* at the point (0, 1).
Find the evolutes of the curves:
1026. y*
2px (parabola).
1027.
=
J + g=l
of
(3,
(ellipse).
x~a(t
is
sin/),
y = a(l
cost)
a displaced cycloid.
also a
1030.
Show
x
is
= a (cos +
/
sin
/),
;c
#=a(sin
= acob/;
//
circle)
/cos
= asm/.
/)
Chapter IV
INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
Sec.
Direct Integration
1.
where C
2)
3)
4)
an arbitrary constant.
f f (x) dx, where A
is
^Af(x)dx=A
[ft
U'H:
f f
If
f2
v )l
dv
( fj
(*)/*
and
(x)dx~F(\) fC
is
f f2
/cf
a constant quantity.
O)
dx.
(v),
then
In particular,
ax
2. Table
II.
of standard
dA'
f*
III
,*r
IV
==
r:
\
2
s
J X f a
dx
C
\
)
=2
;5
a*
A'
dx
r
V.
integrals.
dx
\:
arctan
~,T
2a
a+v
C
v:
arc cot
+C
(a
fC
(a*Q).
yS
0).
(a^O).
VI.
VII.
(>0); fc x d* =
+C
'
(a
^ 0).
'
__
108
VIII.
IX.
\
f
cosx +
sinxdA;=
[Ch. 4
Indefinite Integrals
C.
cosxdx=sinx + C.
COS 2
XI.
J
XII
=
x
sin
cotx+C.
'
tan
smx
XIII.
XIV.
HC = In
cosec x
cot x fC.
cosx
f
sinhxdx=coshxC.
XV.
dx
XVL
XVIL
Example
f (ax
1.
+ bx + c) dx=
1,
2,
5dVd*.
1031.
1040.
10325(6^ + 8^3)^.
1
033.
(x
r
1
034.
J (a
1035.
i
a) (x 4 b) dx.
+ bx
)* clx.
yZpxdx.
(V
1042
' U4 ^'
 dxv
V x)
j/51
1043.
1036.
'~ n
1037.
J
(nx)
"
1045
^x
'
dx.
1046
'
1047
'
1038.
1039.
^+ljc/xdx.
^4+^
'
,,
'
Sec
Direct Integration
1]
tan *dx;
1048*. a)
109
1049. a)
Jtanh *d*.
b)
b)
1050.
Jcoth'jtdx.
$3Vdx.
3. Integration under
Example
of the
the
2.
where we put u
Exa m p.e
We
5*
We
xdx
d(x
1.
2
1
3.
implied u
Example
2.
4.
jc
( x 2 e xl}
dx^~
( e*' d
3
(jc )
of
Rule
and tabular
ie^ + C by
integral V.
of
This type
a tabular
dx\
transformation
is
3,
I (u)
the following
du
where a
(p (x).
of differentials,
b)
(a
0);
b)
xdx =
,053.
to
in
Exam
are:
dx=^d(ax\
tegrals:
integral
integral:
of
^d(x
and so on.
integration,
find
112
Indefinite Integrals
1140. f^f.
sinh x
1143.
H41. f*_.
J cosh x
1144.
1142
/f
.
'
< 1
Ad
46.
,,47.
integrals:
(x 1/5=1? dx.
i
v*
(cothxdx.
J
J sinh x cosh x
1145.
[tanhxdx.
r*
[C/i.
1163.
A \f
J?=CT1
f^.
]cos@
*J
" M j
f^d,.
1165
1148. \xe**dx.
1151.
,, 67 .
Jl_!d*.
<ioo

1168.
i/^c'
V e
,
jcdx
JV^L
l
J
I
1169.
~ cc^s
sinx
sin
A: f
Jx + cos*
1
i
ftan/JC
1166.
U50.
djt
'
A*
cos x
dx.
2
51
f
v
"^)
v ^
sin SA:
1170.
^tan^2
>
'
ff 2 ^ )^.
2x*+l/ 2x*+l
^
,)
1157.
^a
ilax
cosxdx.
7^Ti
1161.
"
M7.:.
!!!_!.
+ !'
to
fl
_t ^
H76.
K4tan'x
(<
jsin Jdx.
(
.rfy.
1174.
Jlan'aArdx
3<
1173.
dAt>
fi^=.
1160.
I179
1172.
j j^*
.
ii77. f _
si
J sinajtcosax'
Integration by Substitution
Sec. 2]
113
l/T=3
where
is
cp
is
will have:
Solution.
It
is
natural to put
V~x
1,
whence
A
way
=/ 2
} 1
that
the
right
and dx = 2tdt.
Hencu,
Sometimes substitutions
of the
form
are used.
Suppose we succeeded
in
transforming
114
If
[g(u)du
known, that
is
Indefinite Integrals
is,
[Ch. 4
then
Actually,
Example
2.
= 5#
cfw
2;
Example
3.
= x*;
Example
4.
jc
s
;
du
du
= 5c(x;
_
~
'
+c_
dx\
xdx = 
2xdx;
= 3x
du.
dx
x dx
2. Trigonometric
1)
If
~a sin
2)
/;
If
substitutions.
x2
is
to put
whence
an
integral
the
contains
radical
V*
a2
we
put
xawct,
whence
/^x
3)
If
a2
= a tan
^.
+a
2
,
Example
5.
Find
dx.
see
Integration by Substitution
Sec. 2]
xlant.
Solution. Put
y~x*+l *
f V~ian 2
1?
dt
"~ f
= In
sin
tan 2
J
2
/
tan
+ sec
rr
cos 2
cos'
dt
cos !
si "
sin
J
/
f sec
dt
~~ f
cos
dx=
Therefore,
1J5
sin 2
4 cos2
/cos/
J
1
<
M~
+ C = In
cos 2
^/
^
J cos
tan
/ {
cos/
~~
2
J sin
V\
jtan
tan<
find the following
c)
f
e)
COS
A'
d*
S*(2x+5)"djc.
1
1193.
('
1194.
+ *..d*.
find
>97. n
csinA )"
1198.
l+^A
f
J!
JxK2t+l
,, 99<
**
1195. r
find
the
tegrals:
,201.
('=*.
*'
K
,202.
1203.
=.
1204*.
f
J
iZEl'dx.
^
following
in
__
U6
1205.
\Ch. 4
Indefinite Integrals
1206*.
(f^+idx
x
f
ff
2
J x y 4
__
x2
1207.
1208. Evaluate the integral
by means
dx
/*(!*)
x=sin
of the substitution
/.
1209. Find
We have:
]Aa
+x =
2
]/~a
+a
suih 2
/=a cosh
and
dx=a cosh
/d/.
Whence
\
ya
\x
dx=
f ctf
~~~2~
Since
__ x
and
we
finally get
where C 1=^C
In a
is
new
arbitrary constant.
1210. Find
C
putting x
= a cosh/.
by
parts.
udv = uv
If
= <p(*)
vdu.
and u
= i)(*)are
differen
Sec. 3\
Integration by Parts
Example
Find
1.
In*, dv
Putting u
H7
x In xdx.
dx
xdx we have da
x*
Whence
~~9
x*
dx
Sometimes, to reduce a given integral to tabular form, one has to apply the
fcrmula of integration by parts several times. In certain cases, integration
by parts yields an equation from which the desired integral is determined.
Example 2. Find
\
We
V
e* cos x dx.
have
e* cos x dx
xd
e* sin x
(sin x)
x sin
dx
AT
x d
(cos x)
e* sin x
sin
\
x cos x
e* cos x dx.
Hence,
e* cos x dx
x sm
.vje^cos x
V e
x cos x
dx,
whence
cos v dx 
(sin
x f cos
.v)
f C.
parts,
find
the following
integrals:
1211.
^
1212.
\nxdx.
Jarclanjcdx.
1213.
Jarcsin
1214.
Arfjc.
Jjcsiiucr/.v.
1215.
Jjccos3A'Jx.
1216. Urfjc.
1219*.
1220*.
x sin x cos x d\
a
1222*
$
1223.
(jt
+5x+6)cos
x*
\nxdx.
1224.
Jln'xd*.
1225.
(^djc.
f^d*.
K A
Jx2*rfx.
1218**.
1226.
1217.
1221.
JjV'd*.
1227.
1228.
Jjcarctanjcdjc.
Jjcarcsmxdjc.
(x ^2A' + 5)^*dA:.
'
1229.
1230
'
\n (x
+ V T~x*) dx.
118
Indefinite Integrals
1231
1234
1232.
1233.
[C/i.
eax *
'
JisFr**'235.
mb * dx
$sin(lnx)dx.
Je*sinxdx.
$3*cosjtdx.
1246.
V\x
1237.
\e
2
1238.
1239.
(x
*dx.
1247.
2x + 3)\nxdx.
1248.
jttan 2*d;t.
^x\n~dx.
1249.
1240.
f^dx.
1250**,
1241.
fllL^d*.
1251*.
1242.
1243.
1
244.
*n/ir
1245.
{
j
arctan3jcdA:.
jc
(arc tan
( (arc sin
fare
sin
^2
2
A:)
2
jc)
a2)2
2
:

'
1252*.
dx.
1253*.
dx.
1//1
^
j
254*.
4
4^
x dx.
.
^.
mx + n
277
7dx.
The
ax z
is
to reduce
+ bx + c = a(x}k)
the
quadratic trinomial to
(1)
{l,
/ are
constants. To perform the transformations in (1), it is
best to take the perfect square out of the quadratic trinomial. The following substitution may also be used:
where k and
(1),
we
get
Sec
4]
Example
119
1.
dx
(*)
H
g \2
5
7
Qi
arc
=o*~7=
o
2
tan
(TJ+S '*?
"S?+c.
If m&Q, then from
the numerator
out of the quadratic trinomial
the derivative
+.
f
J
we can take
a.v
+^
Example
f
J
>
;5=^n
2.
,v
d

f"
^J
'xi
IV
2.
Integrals of the
form
2xl
>
Example
The
The methods
integral
of calculation
finally reduced
is
< 0.
3.
dx
Example
d*.
f*
dx
4.
^+3
^^2 f
*"
yV+2x + 2
J ^ ^ + 2x42
JC
^^
4jt
to
tabu
J20
[Ch. 4
Indefinite Integrals
3.
of
Integrals
the
form
f
J (mx
+ n)
V^ax'
+ bx + c
By means
of the in
verse substitution
i
mx+n
Example
5.
2.
Find
dx
We
Solution.
put
whence
4.
]T ax*\bx
+ cdv.
By taking
('
a*
A'
dx
2)
>
to
+ C;
c/
0);
Vl?
Example
6.
sin
1256.
integrals:
S'
'',c
00
xdx
^7^+
one
of the
Sec. 5]
oKn
\o\J.

<
c r\
<
121
dx
1270.
v2
dy
O *7 1
*~
1272.
'
2* 2
V~2 {3*
d*
r
I
'
f*
t
1273.
X
1
17/1
J
f
/"*l/"o
f~=.
,H4.
1265.
1266.
>1J

1267.
xdx
V %
."~
,^
/5, 2,
dx.
1277
197 n
1278
dK.
f1
JYKI
v
279
x
cJJt
sin
dA
1'^=.
1268.
t'
T^PTTT^TlTInjfdi
i'
J x
^ _ ilnA._ !n
1
where P
rator
and Q
(x)
is
(x)
If
Q(jr)
= (*
a)*.
of
the
nume
.(A'/)\
/ are real
where a,
distinct roots of the polynomial Q (x), and a, ....
.,
K are natural numbers (root multiplicities), then decomposition of (1) into
.
partial fractions
is
justified:
^
calculate the undetermined coefficients A lt A 2t ..., both sides of the
identity (2) are reduced to an integral form, and then the coefficients of
like powers of the variable x are equated (llrst method). These coefficients may likewise be determined by putting [in equation (2) or in an equivalent equation] x equal to suitably chosen numbers (second method).
To
122
Indefinite Integrals
Example
Find
1.
xdx
(*!)(* +
We
Solution.
[C/t.
"
1)
have:
Whence
t
a) F/rsf
We
coefficients.
B2
(x\).
(3)
Whence
=i
= _i
b)
<3),
we
,,4.
1=44,
Putting x
we
1,
i.e.,
'/ 4
x=\
in identity
get:
1
Further, putting *
Putting
coefficients.
will have:
= 0,
we
B2 =
i.e.,
2,
/2.
will have:
Hence,
TJ
*
~~
Av
T
t
41
\
J Ax
AT
Example
Solution.
2.
Find
We
have:
""
2
x(x
tind
1
When
=A
(*
I)
I)
+ Bx (x
1)
1(JC
1)*
+ Cx.
(4)
Hence,
it
is
= 4 + 0,
4=
1.
fl=
i.e.,
l,
B=
and
1.
C=l.
In t egration
Sec. 5]
Rational Functions
of
123
Consequently,
/=
f dx
dx
'
the polynomial
If
dx
r = ln
jc17+ J (*l)
f*
\
J X
'
JC
'
A
ib of
rf C.
'
(x)
In
JC
'
multiplicity k, then
expansion
Here,
(2).
ly;
k>\,
for
use
is
made
of the reduction
~]
Example
method;
z
sable to represent the quadratic trinomial x
here,
it
AJ
z.
j2
is
advi
first
x\~
f
Find
Solution. Since
A
*\._ dz=z
jrc
wo
2

4x
got
2
_j_^
tan ?
Hit i!ini
is
(A:)
derivative Q'
and
the greatest
  arc
If
P(x)
where Q,
5
z=
(A)
"
A'(v)
common
tan
(.Y)
(6)
(x)
and
its
(A);
(x)
arc, respectively,
less
C
}
dx
U'
124
[Ch. 4
Indefinite Integrals
Solution.
Ax z + Bx + C
dx
we
?Dx
\Ex
+ F ax
.
get
Dx z +Ex
\=(2Ax\B)(x*
3x*(Ax* + Bx
1)
+ C) + (Dx* + Ex + F)(x*
4 = 0;
D = 0; E
D + 3C = 0;
2fl=0;
we
+ 24 = 0;
i).
have:
will
+ F==
1;
whence
C = 0; D = 0;
~;
O
5=
and, consequently,
C
9
^ ~
_
To compute the
r
^
into partial
1)
on the
integral
__ 2
3^ l
(x
= 0;
dx
3 J x8
right of (7),
F= 4O
1
we decompose
the
fraction
fractions:
1
x8
lhat
is,
1
Putting
#=1, we
= L (x + + 1) + MX (x
2
A:
1)
+N
(A:
(8)
1).
L=.
get
<j
we
(8),
find
right
and
or
Therefore,
dx
\yS
J *
^\V
o J x
dx
r
\_
Q\
J j
~~
=ll
]X
111
'
and
^^^^^(J^\\ + ^ ln \ x
Find the following
1280
'
^ +^^
integrals:
'
1282
'
mian
^^+ C
'
left
Sec. 6]
1284
' **
1285
'
5 *' + 2
*  5* + 4* dx*
12Q1
29J
'
f
j (Ii_4jt
125
dx
+ 3)<J
dx
c
J *(*
+ !)*
~
d*
C
1296.
rg^gdx.
^"*
"
I
R V2
C*
Av
C/
rt
^4
..
'
1288.
290.
.Tjpfc
l291 '
J^Sf*.
'292.
J^d*.
1299.
.300.
Applying
l306
integrals:
the integrals:
'
I3 7 '
l309
l312
rf *
'
1.
Integrals of the
f.rm
i
/? <s
12J
[Ch. 4
Indefinite Integrals
common
</,,
q2
...
*
dx
a
I
Solution.
The substitution
____dx
2,x
f 2z'dz
J V"5jc=T J/2?=l""j
^ =2
leads
to
an integral
of the
form
r^i
"
2
=2
= (1+
/23Ti)
f^^djc.
/*!
A
1316.
('J^Zdjc.
1321.
J .vf2
dx
1322.
7,7==.
1U7.
.
^.
. ('.
J
/v+l
I
^7=
A
(jv
(o
A)
1
1323.
v+1
)/(v+l)
1324.
1325.
,320.
2.
where P n
Put
(x)
is
ai*
 dx,
t,
(2)
+c
a polynomial of degree n
dx
a polynomial of degree (n
with undetermined coeffi1)
number.
The coefficients of the polynomial Q n i(x) and the number K are found
where Q n _i(x)
cients and A, is
is
by differentiating identity
(3).
Sec. 6]
Example
2.
Whence
Multiplying by V^*
we obtain
+4
of identical
degrees oi
A,
D0;
X=_
Hence,

3. Integrals
of the
form
dx
i;
a)
V ax
They
substitution:
1327.
j__^_.
(f^dx.
1329.
1330.
^
fv
^^rfjc.
1331.
FA'
Vli
4.
X+l
(5)
2)
=z
s
t
is
if
where
m
3)
if
is
+p
is
is
made
of the substitution
128
(Ch. 4
Indefinite Integrals
Example
3.
Find
m=^;n = r ;p = ^;
x.
Solution. Here,
yields *
= (z
I)
\Y dz
(z*
Find the
+ J/T
f (2
1335
),fe=J2ef_
dx
'
^
133G
0. f
2
*
f_
,334.
Hence,
1333. r
=2.
integrals:
*
1332.
Therefore,
= 12
where
integrability.
dx=\2z*
1+1
T
.v:
i'
337.{
(2
+
,
3
JC
r*
1+
where
1)
m
If
and n are
is
'
We
do the same
Example 1.
if
0)
integers.
m^2/j+l
,
'm..
s l(]Zk
( sin 10
is
^)
( 1
x cos 8 * dx
f sin 10 x (1
sin
11
sin
sin x)
13
.v
(sin *)
A:).
Sec.
7]
__
the integrand
2) If m and n are even positive numbers, then
formed by means of the formulas
sin
*= y (1
sin JCGOS
Example
=
=
If
3x
3
cos 6*
dx
cos 12*
n
^
3* dx

f /
J \
x
m=
sin
 
sin 6x1
p
\
^>
3)
f cos
2.
cos
cos 2*),
= sin
.
,
2
x=
*= y (1 + cos 2*),
3* sin 3*) 2
sin
3x dx
'
f
\
GA:
Zc
sin
(sin 6A:
c \
dx
cos 6^
,
2C
6x cos fi
o^) ax
v
sin 12AC
and
[i
n=
numbers
of
parity, then
dx
cos
Example
3.
J COS X
d (tan
x)
jc
_1 r ""
tan 2
51900
(I) is trans
sin 2*.
f (cos
1
129
identical
130
form
4) Integrals of the
Example
tan
f tan
5.
P.
= cosec* x
tan*xdx=
\
.
tv
(or
cot w xdx),
where
is
an
in
1).
l)dx=
6.
tan*xdx =
V tan x (sec*x
tan* x
(sec*x
w xdx
tegral positive
[Ch. 4
Indefinite Integrals
5
1)
dx=^^
~
tanx + x+C.
,
3
J
5) In the general case, integrals 7 m>n of the form (1) are evaluated by
means of reduction formulas that are usually derived by integration by parts.
5
Example
J cos* x
sin
cos
dx
A;
C cos x
2^^"j ^
.
,
cos x
sin
340.
1341.
1352.
Jcos'xdx.
C
\
sin
sin
sin*
jr
cos
1346.
'T
~
dx.
sm*xcos*xdx.
sin
1
A:
cos x dx.
Jcos'Sxdx.
1353.
1343.
345.
2
x cos x dx.
1342.
COS
sin
Jsin'xdx.
1344.
{;
1354.
J
1355.
JsecMxdx.
1356.
Jtan
1357.
5jcdA:.
jjcot'*d*.
1358.
1359.
1360.
'
COS X
1362.
1363.
1364.
sin'xi/cosxdx.
f
J
V sin x cos*
dx
.
f==.
J l^tan*
Sec. 7]
2.
V
cos
mx cos
1)
sin
2) sin
3)
mx
sin
cos
nxdx,
sin
131
rnx
sin
nx dx and
mx cos nx = ~
mx
sin
nx
cosm*cos ^^
Example
7.
= ^
=
sin
9
(m + n) x + sin (m
[sin
(m
[cos
9* sin
n)
n) x] ;
cos(m
+ n) x]\
n)*fcos (mf/i)
(m
xdx=
8*
^ [cos
x].
cos
lOjt]
dx=*
1366.
sin
cosSxdx.
1367.
f cos
1368.
f sin
3.
3jc
~ cos

sin
A:
1370.
d*.
djc,
1371.
~ djc.
1372.
^
J cos(aA:
sin
a>/
f
sin
(co/ fcp)
cos x cos* 3x dx
dt.
3* dx.
where R
1)
1369.
is
/?
cos x) dx,
(sin *,
(2)
a rational function.
By means
of substitution
tan
t,
whence
2*
integrals
of
new variable
Example
form
(2)
are
reduced
t.
8.
Find
f
J
Solution.
f*
Putting
to integrals
__
*E
+ sin x + cos
tan pr^*'
we
wil1
have
of rational
/.
functions by the
132
we have
2) If
the identity
R(
Ihen
we can
use
[Ch.
Indefinite Integrals
sin*,
the
cos*)
s/?
*
tan
substitution
cos*),
(sin*,
to reduce the
integral (2) to a
rational form.
Here,
sin
jg
COS*=
,
and
*=arc
Example
tan/, dx
<3 >
Jnn'
tan* = f,
sin
dt
dx =
^,
:j
jz
have
will
dt
dt
note
denominator
that
the
integral
(3)
it
is
/T tan *) +
evaluated faster
divided by cos 2 *.
is
useful
to apply
C.
if
artificial
1379).
Find the
1373
2~)
In individual cases,
example,
/"
(/
= ^=arctan
We
Find
9.
Solution. Putting
we
'
1374.
J 3
integrals:
+ 5*cos*
C^
1382 *'
'
*!.
J sin *
+ cos *
cos*
dx
J 3
sin 2
2
J sin *
iooyi*
1384 *1
385.

P
\
(1
^^.
I39
'
X
r. dx.
3
cos*)
Sin2x
<*
COS
jj
pj^rfx
S
'
1389*.
cos 2 *
3sin *cos *
si n
J.
'
dx
1386.
1388
JiHiJT 5sln*cos*
J
100T
1387.
**
1383*. f
10 or
mi.
+ 5 cos
Is. n
*6 sin* + 5
^
'
sin*) (3
sin*)
o.j ;;;;;i::;>.
'
Sec. 8]
133
cosh 2 X
1)
2) sinh
3) cosh
*=l;
*=
~ (cosh 2*
x=
Y (cosh 2x+
4) sinh x cosh x
Example
1.
1);
1);
= ~ sinh 2x.
Find
cosh 2 *djt.
We
Solution.
have
Example
2.
( cosh
We
xcU=
jsinh
2x +
Find
\
Solution.
cosh 3 ****.
have
cosh 2 xd (sinh
x)=
(l
+ sinh
Jc)d(sinhA:)
= smh x\
.
Find the
1391.
integrals:
1397.
Jsinh'jtd*.
1392.
1398.
^cosh'xdx.
1393.
sinh'* cosh*
1394.
1396
Sec.
9.
Integrals
C
2
J sinh
Using
of the
^
A:
cosh 2
1402.
A;
Trigonometric
and
Hyperbolio
Substitutions
for
Finding
Form
(1)
is
a rational function.
134
Indefinite Integrals
[CH. 4
t
of squares, the
of integrals:
2)
(z,
3)
(z,
The
1) 2
2) 2
3) 2
m* +
Vz 2
z*) dz\
latter integrals
= msin/
= mtan/
= msec/
Example
1.
or z
or 2
or z
dz.
are,
taken
respectively,
by
means
= m tanh
= msinh/,
= m cosh/.
/,
Find
dx
==/.
(x+\Y
Solution.
Putting
We
have
*+l = tan2, we
then have dx
sec 2
dx
= f tan
\
Example
Solution.
Putting
2.
Find
We
have
zdz
= sec*zdz
zsec2~"J
and
~ dz =
f cos 2
of substitutions:
Sec. 11]
we
finally
135
have
S/32jtx'd*.
1409.
W6*7d*.
"
1404.
1410.
1405.
1406.
1416.
$*
1417.
1418.
1419.
1420.
+ I)
1415.
cos
2x
1421.
dx.
1422.
SJCC/A;.
x s\nxcos2xdx.
(*/=
J
1423.
f^lnj^djc.
*
J
2
$e *sin
x
\^e
jcdjt.
1424.
smxsmSxdx.
1425.
x
^ A'e
cos x dx.
1426.
J
J
?
In (x
jc
+ /FT?) djc.
arc cos
(5jc
smxsinhxdx.
/..Jj^,,;
1428. /
=$
find /.
and
/,.
/,.
136
[Ch. 4
Indefinite Integrals
/w
1430. 7 n
1429.
Sec.
J^h;;
find
(x n e~*dx\
I*
find
and
/ 10
7 4
dx
1448.
xdx
f
JO+jt
x
dx
J *'2*+2
1433.
xdx
1449.
..
2^ j
j y^i
1450.
dx.
KIJ
+1
dx
2
'
dv
dx
dx
1452.
dx
1453.
dx
P
'
J (x*
r
+ 2)
f7^
A
'
t/
dx
y l/^v2
*
r
1455.
Jx2A' +
dx
C__^L_
1457.
'
Jf *
VT^X*
,458.
'
J
5jt
1442.
J
1460.
1443.
1
1461
dx

1444.
IHB^T^
1462.
J/ Jl a!+i)'
(
1446.
ax
'^
1463.
1464.
P
1447.
y2
j^===d.
f^
^
dA;
1465.
sin' A;
COS '
cosec'SxdA;.
Sec. 12]
1466.
M67.J.(f,4
'
l469
dx,
fsinh^lA
J 2sinx
+ 3cosx5
"
J 2+w*
f.
,)sinh'*"
dx
1470.
A:
d)c
f*
!468
sinh ^ cosh
484.
1485
137
]>
1488.
C_^_
,.
2e*
2*
J e
d.v
.471.
1489.
"
j sin
2x
sin
jc
dx
1472.
rfx.
j1474.
1476.
1477.
1478.
1479.
1480.
JV? +
A:
a*
sin x dx.
Jxe^djc.
J(x
1493.
J/?Tirfx.
sin*
2>
.j^z
(sin
C
>
s
1)
src tdn x
dx.
1494.
1495.
(Varc
1496.
J cos(lnx)dA:.
1497.
J (x
1498.
Jxarctan(2x+3)dx.
1499.
fare sin
dv
>
/\
\nYT=xdx.
x'
10~ *cfx.
1492.
^*V'djt.
r*
1483.
sin*
CJiLdx.
1481.
1491.
aX
<
sinyd.v.
3x) sin 5*
*^i*
cos
"2"^*.
+ cos x)*'
1500.
V^ dx.
rfjc.
Chapter
DEFINITE INTEGRALS
Sum
into
(1)
where
/
is
is
= 0,
1,
2,
...
(n
1),
Geometrically,
S,,
10
Fig. 37
Fig. 38
from
is
x=a
max
(2)
A*j
> o
Sec. 1]
of
Sum
139
>
by dividing the interval into n equal parts and chooscoincide with the left endpoints of the subintervals
x i+l ]. What is the lim S n equal to?
n + CO
9
Ax.
and tc/ J
Solution. Here,
. Whence
n
n
on the interval
ing
[x it
gen
naturally
points
[1,10]
that
/
= 101 =
Hence
(Fig. 38),
S n 58L.
lim
n
>> oo
jcaxis,
Partition
Solution.
parts
the
of
the
func
we
will
have
Summing, we
by the base
A*=
(Fig.
39).
sum
for the
2>
n(n+\)(2n+\)
6
Fig. 39
= x*
the
140
we
[Ch.
Definite Integrals
find
= g'n(nl)(2nl)
6H*
S
and, passing
'to
the limit,
S
lim
n *
'
we obtain
>
Sn =
lim
n
* co
(D(2l) = al
6n
>
1501.
1502.
1503.
dx.
x*dx.
2
10
1504.
J(0 t +g*)<tt,
J2*dx.
S
1505*.
x dx.
curvilinear
trapezoid
(0<a<&),
bounded
by
sintdt.
If
a
is
= f (x)
f (x)\
that
is,
a<*<6.
F' (*) = /(*)
for
If
th ^n
function
f (t)
is
Sec. 2]
The antiderivative F
Example
1.
(x)
is
indefinite integral
Find
\={\ntdt
1510.
f(jc)=Td/.
1512.
extremum
of the function
=
j!lild/
in the region
l^~
1515.
1514.
*>0.
1516.
Jdt.
~*
^.
*
1517.
J*cos/<#.
'
.
1520.
lim
n
Rl
[Ch.
Definite Integrals
142
2*
J(jt*
+ 3)d*.
1522.
dx
I
Jl
1523.
cos* a da.
1536.
Jl
1524.
2d*.
JK*
2
1537.
sin'cpdcp.
*
]'
1
1539.
Jl
JF
1540.
71
4~
l
iL
8
***
1541.
dx
JF=3F
1831.
1543.
.L
coshA:dA;.
Ins
1532.
\
j
sec a da.
f*
*'
rfjt
5
J cosh !'
In
sinh*xdjc.
Sec. 3]
_ _
Improper Integrals
Sec. 3. Improper
143
Integrals
a<*<c
CB
(f(x)dx =
J
a
lim
C
^a
f(x)dx
+e
lim
f(x)dx.
(1)
*%+e
are finite, the improper inteIf the limits' on the right side of (1) exist and
a or c
thj
b,
gral is called convergent, otherwise it is divergent. When c
definition is correspondingly simplified.
If there is a continuous function
F (x) on [a, b] such that F'(x) f(x)
when x
then
c (generalized antiderivative),
F(a).
If
a<*<6
/(*)<F(x) when
and
(2)
the
in
and
lim
X+C
when x+
then
c,
for
1)
(x)
x m
oo,
oo,
0,
i.
e.,
f(x)~
If
converges,
2) for
the
when
continuous
is
^
I
m^>l
then we assume
\f(x)dx=
J
lim
b >
oo
(3)
\f(x)dx
J
is
lim
f(x)dx=
a ^
I'
C
\
m<
<
^A
I/WK^W
(f(x)dx
oo
f(x)dx=
and the
integral
of (3),
oo
and
right
[p(x)dx
lim
a>
oo
converges,
\f(x)dx.
J
then
the
infe
a
gral (3) converges as well.
If
/W^rO
oo,
then
1)
and
for
lim
m>
f (x)
xm
= Ajt<x>
the integral
(3)
A^Q,
converges,
i.e.,
2) for
/(x)~4 when
m<l
the inte
144
__
Definite Integrals
Example
&_
f 2
J x
[C/i.
1.
lim
f 4?
+ e*oJ*
"f"*
*2
e K> J
i
lim
lim
(IlU e*oV
(ll
e
e>oVe
QO
=
Example
3.
lim
lim (*rT^2=
2
&><
ftoo J
(arc tan 6
1+^
arc
tan
())
(4)
*r
Solution.
We
put
C
00
00
e~ x
dx=
<r*
dv+
e~ x dx.
*
dx=
is
lim
when
x^\
e~ b
+ e~
and
l
)=e~
w
r
j
^^
J?
'
Solution.
dx
'
Sec. 3]
145
Improper Integrals
where
*<*,<!.
Hence,
for
*+
is
x=l. Applying
we have
/T ^
\\xj
'
v dx
ff
nr^y
converges, the given integral
(6)
converges as well.
xlnx
a
P AY
1552.
^.
f1
1560.
I
a
*L
a
oo
1553.
J.
1561.
Jcotjcdx
146
_
00
1562.
kx
\e
dx
GO
f arc tan*
Definite Integrals
(*>0).
d*
1565.
1566
(Ch.
1564.
100
1567.
j)
.
**..,_
/*+2 */*+*
1571.
./*
..
^/ljc
1570.
fiist
kind
(beta
function)
B(P, q)=*
converges when
p>0
and
q>0.
1575*. Prove that the Euler integral of the second kind (gam
mafunction)
converges for
p>Q.
a<x<b
Sec. 4]
of Variable in
Change
a Definite Integral
147
then
Example
1.
Find
x*
We
Solution.
V~a*x*dx
(a
> 0).
put
asin
t\
dt.
Then
P=
arc sin
= arc sin
l
=y
and,
Therefore,
we
consequently,
we
shall
can
take
= arcsinO = 0,
have
IL
a
C x2
VV
x2
=a
a2
dx=\
sin
2
1
a 2 sin 2
J/~a
jl
JL
f sin
cos
d/ =
a cos
dt
IL
t
2
f sin 2/
d/ =
^
C
^
(1
Jtfl
1576.
A:
= COS/
definite
be
made
integrals
in the integral
by means
of
the
1577.
f(x)dx,
= arc tan/.
1578
ly=,
148
__
Definite Integrals
[Ch.
as a result of
of integration
would be
and
1,
respectively.
evaluate
substitutions,
the
following
integrals:
1583.
a
1584.
x
\Ve \dx,
n
2
1586.
Evaluate
the
following
integrals
by
means
of
appropriate
substitutions:
1587.
f^=
A~
i5 8 9.
fi^^d*.
*
1590.
'
2
2
1538.
____
f
J 2*4
%=.
1^3*+
1591.
C
J
dx
y
xV
x2
1593.
e
+ 5x4\
tyax
x*dx.
o
271
1594.
fgf
53 cos x
J
i
if
f(x)
is
Integration by Parts
Sec. 5]
But
if
f(x)
1596.
is
Show
that
00
00
00
~'T=
00
1597.
Show
149
dx
that
!L
2
arc cos
1598.
Show
that
T
C
f(s\nx)dx =
T
f
(x)
and
dx
v (x)
are
continuously
t;
integration
differentiate on
by
parts,
the
(1)
evaluate the
following integrals:
*L
00
1599.
^xcosxdx.
1603.
oe
1600.
Jlnxd*.
1604.
1601.
J*V*dx.
o
1602.
Je*sinxdx.
1605.
o
e aJC cos6A:dA:
(fl>0).
__
150
[Ch. 5
Definite Integrals
From
+ =
T (n
n\,
\)
that for the integral
Show
1607.
=
= [sm
/=
sin" xdx
n
is
1575)
a natural number.
if
Example
cos
71
n ~*
holds true.
Find /, if n is a natural
Devaluate I 9 and 7 10
1608. Applying repeated
integral (see
Example
B(p,
<7)
parts,
evaluate the
by
integration
1574)
integers.
in
terms of
(beta
function):
m=
if
sin
x cos
integers.
1. Evaluation of
If
integrals.
f(x)^F(x)
^f(x)dx^^F(
66
where
is
the interval
the smallest
[a,
b]>
for
a<*<6
(1)
and,
besides,
(p(*)^0, then
W ^.
(2)
and
then
X )dx.
mJq>(x)d*<J/(*)9(*)dx<M
a
a<*<&,
If
for
is
the
largest
(x)
on
MeanValue Theorem
Sec. 6]
In particular,
if
151
<p(#)s=l, then
b
m (ba) <.[f(x)dx*^M
(6
(3>
a).
The inequalities
(2)
and
may
(3)
be replaced,
respectively,
by
their equiva
lent equalities:
b
and
b
a),
a
where c and
Example
are certain
1.
b.
M
2
Solution. Since
(Xsin'x^l, we
have
Jl
<
2'
that
i/l
K 2
'
is,
1.57
</<
of a function.
1.91.
The number
b
is
called the
mean value
on the interval
them:
n
b)
152
[Ch. b
Definite Integrals
1611.
integrals
is
greater:
i
V\+x*
a)
dx
or
dx\
x sin x dx
or
e x*dx
or
b) ^
J x sin
x dx\
c)
of the functions
on the indicated
inter
vals:
1612. /(x)
1613. f(x)
1614.
=x
=a
0<x<l.
2
,
f(x)=sm
x,
1615.
dx
lies
1/2+^
0.70.
between
^2
of this integral.
1617.
+ jfdx.
1620*.
JT
1618
djf
J gqpjj.
2JI
1619.
10071
43
The Areas
Sec. 7]
of
153
Plane Figures
a
Fig.
40
a and x
6 and
points x
is given by the formula
by
segment
of
the jcaxis
(Fig. 40),
b
(1)
Example
straight
1.
lines x
Compute
and
.v
the
3,
yfi(*)
Fig. 42
Fig. 43
is
X
= ~
^
the
154
Definite Integrals
Example
the
2.
(Ch.
y*
*/
and
axes
are changed
and so the
a
Fig. 44
In the
curves
Fig. 45
= M*)
/i(*XM*) wn
a<*<&
(Fig. 43),
we
(2)
Example
3.
y
<Fig. 44).
Solution. Solving the
Jiniits of integration: x,
If
set
1
=2
of
x 2 and
l
/
equations
=JC 2
(3)
(3)
then
The Areas
Sec. 7]
vertical lines (x
integral
Plane Figures
of
by a segment
155
of the
*axis
is
expressed
by the
where
a
and
/,
= (p(/j)
equations
Due
Solution.
quadrant and
we
/
xc
y
l
parametric
= a cos
= bsint.
c
/,
it
is sufficient to compute
the area of a
the result by four. If in the equation jc
aco
symmetry,
multiply
and then x
put x
first
= 0.
to the
then
its
a,
we
/,
=
= y and
Therefore,
ji
iS
(b
sin
sin /)
dt=ab(
sin
2
/
dt
=^
S nab.
2. The area in polar coordinates.
and, hence,
If a
curve is defined in polar coordinates by the equation r~f (<p), then the area of the sector AOB (Fig. 46),
bounded by an arc of the curve, and by two radius vectors OA and OB,
Fig. 47
Fig. 46
which
correspond
to
the
values
cp,
=a
and
cp,=
p,
is
expressed
by
the
integral
Example
5.
Find
(Fig. 47).
the
area
contained
inside
Bernoulli's
lemniscate
156
__
Definite Integrals
Solution.
By
virtue of the
[Ch. 5
curve we
of the
symmetry
Whence S = a2
_
determine
first
one
y=smx
line
x=~
x^a
u= x + a
y~x*,
x
= 2py.
x*
x.
line
y=3
*/=Y and
1636.
and y = 4
y=
1637.
Agnesi
1638.
between
the
parabolas
x
y=
and the
= 2x.
f^.
x=l.
of
The Areas
Sec. 7\
of
Plane Figures
=
f2
__
157
linex = 2a.
y = a cosh
the (/axis and the straight line
= ~(e +
2
f/
!)
x
1642. Find the area bounded by the curve a*y*
1643. Compute the area contained within the curve
(a*
2
;c ).
= 9,
1645. Find
the
1646*.
between
area
x=l
the curve y
(x>l).
bounded
area
the
the
xaxis,
9
the
by
J
asymptote x = 2a (a>0).
1647*. Find the area between the strophoid
and
~i,
cissoid
r/
y
X
= 2ax
o
its
y*
=x
x ~~ a)2
2Jfl^~~
and
asymptote (a>0).
its
1648.
circle
and
jt
the
Compute
r/
=8 is
1649. Compute
the parabola x*=l2(y
1).
1650. Find the area contained within the astroid
jc
1651. Find
the cycloid
the
= acos
/;
y= b
sin
= 16
/.
area
x = a(t
# = a(l
of
sin/),
cos/).
tefr***/and a tangent
to
it
<P<<
158
(Ch.
Definite Integrals

sin20.
*r+T"
*
a (1f coscp).
1655*. Find the entire area of the cardioid r
1656*. Find the area contained between the first and second
turns of Archimedes' spiral, r
acp
(Fig. 48).
Fig. 48
1661.
Find
the
= 2 + cos
area
cp.
9=4
and 9
= y.
r =
r
1
+ e cos
=a
sec
(e<l).
v
'
cp
= 2acos3cp
a.
lying outside the circle r
1664*. Find the area bounded by the curve x*
and
+ y* = x* + y*.
in rectangular coordinates.
2 8
2 8
curve
is
'
'
Example I. Find the length of the astroid * +/'*= a
(Fig. 49).
Solution. Differentiating the equation of the astroid, we get
Sec. 8]
of a
Curve
159
Whence s = 6a.
2. The arc
where
and
t2
"
of the arc.
49
Fig
Example
2.
Fig. 50
one arc
of
x
a(t
[
\ j/=:a(l
Solution.
We
have
of the
cos/)
cosf) and ^
^=a(l
= asin/.
/=2a
The limits of integration
of the arc of the cycloid.
If a curve is defined
the arc length s is
^=
and
sin/),
= 2ji
by the equation
sln~d/=
correspond
= /(cp)
Therefore,
to
in polar
the
extreme points
coordinates, then
of
the
polar
angle
at
160
[Ch.
Definite Integrals
Example
The
3.
Find the
entire curve
is
the
length of
entire
described by a point as
cp
curve
asin
ranges from
(Fig. 51).
to 3ji.
Fig. 51
Solution.
She curve
We
have
r'
= a sin
^ cos
is
8JI
s=
J J/a*
1665.
y*
8JI
= x*
sin

+o
Compute the
cos'
sin*
f

arc
length
of
=a
d<p
the
sin
f
rfq>
=^
semicubical
1667.
x=0
to
Compute
B(b,h).
the arc length of
x=l.
the parabola y
curve y
of
the
of
the curve y
*=K8.
*=
1671.
between
arc
to
= e*
= lnx
= 2}/"x
from
lying between
from x
= /3
from
= In secy,
lying
jc=l.
Compute the
t/
and
j/
arc length
5
of the
curve x
=1
from the
parabola
4.
acosh^
vertex
= e.
= ^y
^\ny
from
Volumes
Sec, 9]
of Solids
161
a+vVt/
from y = a to
t/=&(0<6<a).
= x(x
3a)
t/
= ln ( coth ~J
from
x=b (0<a<6).
1676*. Find the arc length of the involute of the circle
f
to
= 7\
x= a (2 cos/
y = a(2 sin/
1679. Find the length of the
cos 2/)
y
which
is
cut
off
first
sin 2/).
the cardioid r
that
part of
by a vertical
line
= a(l + coscp).
the
passing
parabola
through
the pole.
1682. Find the length of the hyperbolic spiral rq>= 1 from the
point (2,'/ 2 ) to the point C/,,2).
ae m v,
1683. Find the arc length of the logarithmic spiral r
r
a.
lying inside the circle
1684. Find
r=l
to
the arc
length
r = 3.
of
the curve
<p
=
g
(r
from
j
'
1900
162
Definite Integrals
[Cft.
Vx =ji
1)
J
a
y*dx\
2)
V Y =2n
xr/dx*).
Solution.
a)
V^^ji
b)
Vy=2n
xsinxdx=2jt(
= d,
may
from formula
obtained
x and y.
(1),
given
above, by
interchanging
the
coordinates
If the curve is defined in a different form (parametrically, in polar coordinates, etc.), then in the foregoing formulas we must change the variable of
integration in appropriate fashion.
In the more general case, the volumes of solids formed by the revolution
about the x and (/axes of a figure bounded by the curves /!
/! (x) and y 2
f z (x)
a and x
b are, respectively,
[where f\(x)^f z (x)] and the straight lines x
equal to
=
=
and
b
Example
circle x*
2.
+ (y
&)
V K =2JI
xydx.
Volumes
Sec. 9]
Solution.
We
of Solids
163'
have
I/,
=6
I^a
x 9 and y 2
= t>+ Va*x
Therefore,
is
x=asi
a
x a
Fig
52
The volume of a solid obtained by the rotation, about the polar axis, of a
sector formed by an arc of the curve r
F((p) and by two radius vectors
ipr=a, <p
P may be computed from the formula
Vp = ~
2
C
JT \
r 8 sin cpd
q>.
This same formula is conveniently used when seeking the volume obtained
by the rotation, about the polar axis, of some closed curve defined in polar
coordinates.
Example
= asin2(p
3.
by the rotation
Solution.
= 2.n\
rsinq>d(p
yJia
sin
.L
2
= ^ Jia
3
sin
4
<p
cos 8
cp
dcp
lOo
jia
8
.
of
the curve
164
__
\Ch. 5
Definite Integrals
where *, and x 2 are the abscissas of the extreme crosssections of the solid.
Example 4. Determine the volume of a wedge cut off a circular cylinder
by a plane passing through the diameter of the base and inclined to the base
at an angle a. The radius of the base is R (Fig. 53).
Solution. For the *axis we take th? diameter of the base along which
the cutting plane intersects the base, and for the (/axis we take the diameter
of the base perpendicular to it. The equation of the circumference of the base
is
*2
+ =R
2
j/
The area
2
.
of the section
ABC
at
a distance
is
r/
for
volume
of the
wedge
is
y=
2~
f y2
tanad*=tana
(*
(R
1
*)<& = y tana R
+ =
the xaxis', of
volume
xa.
and x = n.
1689. Find the volume of a solid formed by the rotation, about
the xaxis, of an area bounded by the semicubical parabola if = x s
the xaxis, and the straight line x== 1.
1690. Find the volume of a solid formed by the rotation of
the same area (as in Problem 1689) about the {/axis.
1691. Find, the volumes of the solids formed by the rotation
of an area bounded by the lines y = e*, x = 0, y =
about: a) the
xaxis and b) the yaxis.
1692. Find the volume of a solid formed by the rotation, about
the t/axis, of that part of the parabola j/ 2 = 4ax which is cut off
by the straight line x = a.
,
Sec. 9]
_ _
Volumes
of Solids
165
2
t/
= 2p*
line
= 
and
y= Y*.
volume
A8
= ^ _x
of a solid
about
its
generated
by the rotation
asymptote x = 2a.
166
of
[Ch. 5
Definite Integrals
is
describes an ellipse
^^=1, and the plane of the circle is
perpendicular to the jq/plane. Find the volume of the solid
generated by the circle.
1709. The plane of a moving triangle remains perpendicular
to the stationary diameter of a circle of radius a. The base of
the triangle is a chord of the circle, while its vertex slides along
a straight line parallel to the stationary diameter at a distance h
from the plane of the circle. Find the volume of the solid (called
a conoid) formed by the motion of this triangle from one end of
the diameter to the other.
1710. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the cylinders
z
2
z*
a*.
a and y
1711. Find the volume of the segment cut off from the ellip"'
+ =
= * by the plane x = a.
paraboloid 21712. Find the volume of the solid bounded by the hyperbo
tic
loid of
^ f
one sheet
^=1 and
rj
volume
the planes 2
X2
of the ellipsoid
^2
U2
and z
li.
+ ^ + ^2"=
Sec.
The area
of
a surface
the
= b,
is
an
expressed by
xaxis, of
Vl+y'*dx
(ds
is
(1)
Zfta
Fig. 54
If
surface
of the curve
cbtained from formula
the equation
$x
is
is
(!)
Sec.
The Area
10]
of
a Surface of Revolution
167
rotation, about
=  (3
mula
x)
y~x. Whence
(X*<3,
ds=
X ~^
r_dx.
2
the area of the surface
(1)
the
we have
Fromfor
= 2n
Example
of
the
2.
\($6
cycloid
=a
of a surface
s\nt)\
(t
y = a(l
(Fig. 55).
will
have
(na
/,
we obtain
da
n
=
4na
nsin
/sin
y + sinf sin
~
Fig. 56
dtj
The dimensions
1714.
in Fig. 56.
It
is
ys'mx
#axis.
of
about the
the
tangential curve
t/
= tan*
by the rotation
from Jt =
to
of
A:==^,
jcaxis.
168
\Ch. 5
Definite Integrals
a
/'/
3 3
'
= ^/
area
of
y=\
from
to
y = e.
circle
ellipse
^+^ =
about:
1)
(a>6).
point.
1724. Find the area of the surface formed by rotation, about
the j^axis, of the cardioid
x
t/
= a (2 cost
= a(2sin/
cos
2/),
sin2/).
of the lemniscate r
point
Mi~md.
The
static
moment
M i=
m A2
=
(1)
where the distances of points lying on one side of the /axis have the
plus
sign, those on the other side have the minus sign. In a similar manner we
My
Sec.
is
II]
In particular:
the arc length,
for
1)
the curve *
= *(s);
we have
y=y(s) whare
t
= V(dx)* + (dy)*
is
M Y =.
(s) ds\
(s)
2) for a
bounded by the
Find the
static
straight lines:
Solution. Here, y
(2)
= y(x),
two
= b II
x\y\dx.
(3)
the x and
/axes of a triangle
a
1.
ds
Fig. 58
Example
Fig. 57
vertical lines x
parameter
(ds
the
169
moments about
~f^
a
b
l,
= 0, =
//
Applying formula
(Fig. 57)
(3),
we
obtain
ab*
and
2. Moment
170
__
[Ch. 5
Definite Integrals
where d lf d 2 ..., d n are the distances of the points from the /axis. In the
case of a continuous mass, we get an appropriate integral in place of a sum.
Example 2. Find the moment of inertia of a triangle with base b and
altitude h about its base.
Solution. For the base of the triangle we take the xaxis, for its altitude,
the yaxis (Fig 58).
Divide the triangle into infinitely narrow horizontal strips of width dy t
which play the role of elementary masses dm. Utilizing the similarity of
we
triangles,
obtain
j
= bL
dm
y
.
dy
and
Whence
moments of the mass. In the case of geometnumerically equal to the corresponding arc or area.
For the coordinates of the centre of gravity (x, y) of an arc of the plane
curve y
connecting the points A[a f (a)] and B [6, f (b)],
f (x) (a^x^b),
where
MX
ric figures,
and
My
the mass
is
we have
B
t>
b
(
A\yds
2
y 1^1 +(y') dx
'}
The coordinates
dx
~~
.(y^dx
^xydx
a
*~~
a_
^
,3
where
S=f y dx
is
59)
Sec
Moments. Centres
11]
We
Solution.
Guldin's Theorems
of Gravity
171
have
and
Whence
f,
'
yds
xJ ..
,.
yV.v
^=
y a
Hence,
4. Guldin's theorems.
Theorem 1. The area of a surface obtained by the
plane curve about some axis lying in the. same plane
intersecting
it
circumference of
is
to
circle
equal
the
rotation of an arc of
as the curve and not
the product of the length of the curve by the
described by the centre of gravity of the arc of
the curve.
Fig. 59
y
o
about
the
coordinate
axes of
__
172
Definite Integrals
about
its
moments
of a rectangle,
[Ch. 6
&,
sides.
1729. Find the static moments, about the x and t/axes, and
the coordinates of the centre of gravity of a triangle bounded by
the straight lines x + y
Q.
a, x
Q, and y
1730. Find the static moments, about the x and (/axes, and
the coordinates of the centre of gravity of an arc of the astroid
_t_
_i^
If/*
>
==aT
>
= 2asin<p
y = a cosh
x=
a to x
a.
Find the centre of gravity of an arc of a circle of radius a
subtending an angle 2a.
1734. Find the coordinates of the centre of gravity of the arc
of one arch of the cycloid
from
1733.
= a(t
sin/); y
= a(\
cos/).
of
an area
an area
of radius a
sphere of radius a
origin.
lying
at the
&?c. 12]
moment
to Solution of Physical
Problems
173
of
diarneler.
U2
^ + ^=1
about
its
principal axes.
Integrals to the
Example
1.
The velocity
of a point
the
during
= 0. 1/
commencement
this interval?
in
is
m/sec.
7=10
What
174
[Ch. 5
Definite Integrals
Solution.
We
have:
10
t*
.Jo.irto.i
T = 250
metres
and
==25
2. The work
of the xaxis,
of a force.
then the work
If
m/sec.
a variable force
X=f(x)
over an interval [x ly x z ]
of this force
is
A=
2. What work has to be performed to stretch a spring 6 cm, if
kgf stretches it by 1 cm?
Solution, According to Hook's law the force X kgf stretching the spring
kx, where k is a proportionality constant.
by x m is equal to
100v.
we get
and
l kgf,
100 and, hence, X
0.01
Putting x
Whence the soughtfor work is
Example
a force of
X=
m
0.08
0.06
A=
X=
100 x dx
= 50 x
= 0. 18
kgm
point of mass
and
mv*
The
mv m
2%
kinetic
...,
mn
To compute the
kinetic energy of a solid, the latter is appropriately partitioned into elementary particles (which play the part of material points); then
by summing the kinetic energies of these particles we get, in the limit, an
integral in place of the sum (1).
Example 3. Find the kinetic energy of a homogeneous circular cylinder
of density 6 with base radius R and altitude h rotating about its axis with
angular velocity CD.
Solution. For the elementary mass dm we take the mass of a hollow
cylinder of altitude h with inner radius r and wall thickness dr (Fig. 60).
We have:
the
mass dm
is
equal
to
t;
/co,
the elementary
Sec.
12]
to
175
Whence
2
r 9 dr^=
nco 6/?
fc
where y
is
radius
semicircle of
with the
flush
61).
where y
is
^ 2xdh = 2
this
V'*
element
h2
dli.
is
Whence
=2
1751.
initial
C
J
ITS
Definite Integrals
\Cfi.
formula
ff'.
where t is the time that elapses and g is the acceleration of gravAt what distance from the initial position will the body
ity.
be in t seconds from the time it is thrown?
1752. The velocity of a body thrown vertically upwards with
initial
velocity
(air
resistance
allowed
for)
is
given
by the
formula
where
t is the time,
g is the acceleration of gravity, and c is
a constant. Find the altitude reached by the body.
1753.
point on the xaxis performs harmonic oscillations
its
velocity
is
/==^~^
if
/
the
(a
initial
ftf
>0),
velocity
r
1756*. Calculate the work that has to be done to
pump the
water out of a vertical cylindrical barrel with base radius R and
altitude H.
1757. Calculate the work that has to be done in order to
pump
the water out of a conical vessel with vertex downwards, the
radius of the base of which is R and the altitude H.
1758. Calculate the work to be done in order to
pump water
out of a semispherical boiler of radius R
10 m.
1759. Calculate the work needed to pump oil out of a tank
if
the body
is
removed
to infinity?
Sec.
12]
What work
*2
=10 cm?
1762**.
and
Problems
177
Two
1761**.
on the
lie
to Solution of Physical
electric charges *
100 CGSEand e l==200 CGSE
xaxis at points *
and *,
1
cm, respectively.
will be done if the second charge is moved to point
length
p=10kgfcm
= 80cm
2
.
is
filled
with
steam
at
to halve the
D = 20 cm
pressure
volume of
ft
shaft.
disk of mass
178
Definite Integrals
[C/i.
Miscellaneous Problems
= 2 + 0.001 x
g/cm.
= 0.9983
What
from
/C (0^/<100)
5.184xlO + 6.912xlO5
0C
of water
of
of
What
is
the
force
of
attraction
of
a material
and mass
on a material point of mass
a straight line with the rod at a distance a from one
length
rod of
lying on
of its ends?
where p
of
liquid Q.
tion time).
Sec. 12]
1779.
downward
of the
horizontal
beam
vertical load
beam, and
of
to Solution of Physical
of length
uniformly
support
Problems
179
reactions
A and
fi(yl==5==yj
ing
moment
Note.
Mx
in crosssection x.
The intensity
of
load distribution
is
the
load
(force) referred to
unit length.
during a cycle
quantity
of heat released
in a conductor
by an alternating
with resistance
/?.
Chapter VI
Similarly,
we
Fxample
= /(*,
y).
1.
where h
is
This
is
volume
**
2

of a
cone
its
is
Hence,
The value
point
is
that
(a.b).
is,
gen
when
x=^a
and y
at a
bt
ing,
tion like
in
(x,y)
nate system X, Y. Z
Example
2.
Find/
is
(2,
Fig. 63
Solution.
Substituting
r=2
and t/=
3,
we
find
rectangular
a surface (Fig.
3)
and/1,
coordi63).
if
Sec.
Basic Notions
1)
Putting
*=1
and replacing y by
we
[SI
have
will
SL\
*'
thai
is,
/(l.
2. Domain
)=f(*.
0).
domain
of
>
<
2
x2
function has real values if 4
or x* + y 2
4.
y
inequality is satisfied hy the coordinates of points lying inside a
circle of radius 2 with centre at the coordinate origin. The domain of definition oi the function is the interior of the circle (Fig 64).
Solution. The
The
latter
Fig. 64
Example
4.
Fiy
Solution.
The
first
term
= arc sin
or

function
when
/
xy
of the function
when
65
real
defined for
is
values
.The domain
if
xr/^O,
of
1<~
in
i.e.,
definition
of
or
two
cases:
the
entire
is
shown
in Fig. 65
of the
domain.
Functions
182
of Several Variables
[Ch. 6
3. Level lines and level surfaces of a function. The level line of a function 2
f(x, y) is a line / (*, y)C (in an *r/plane) at the points of which
C (usually labelled in
the function takes on one and the same value z
drawings).
The
iace
level surface of a
C, at the
z)
/ (x, y,
C = 0,
__x
2,
~ j
....
level
lines
of
we
get a family
Fig. 66
Find
1,
or y
is a sura constant
z)
on
of level
1785
=C
if
x,
f(
f(y,x),
y),
if
f(*,y)
at points of the
parabola y
z
,
function
if
rrr
+y*=R
if
2
.
of the
Sec.
__
Basic Notions
1]
183
1790*. Let *
z
if
=x
and
when
1791**.
if
when x=\.
1792. Find and sketch
lowing functions:
a)
b)
z==Y\ x
z=\\V
domains
the
of
(x
=
2  x + arc cos
zl/l^ +
z = arc sin
X
2 = V 7IT
2 =
c) z
d)
//;
e)
f)
'
g)
h)
1793.
of
arguments:
a)
u=\x +
b) u
z\
= ln(xyz):
c)
d)
u = V\x
+ arc sinz;
z\
1794. Construct the level lines of the given functions and determine the character of the surfaces depicted by these functions:
a)
z^x + y;
b) 2
= ^+y
c) z
= x*y*;
d) z
2
;
e)
O^
= ln(*'+f/);
= ar
d) z
= /(y
a*);
= +
of three inde
_ _
[Ch. 6
184
Sec. 2. Continuity
= /(*, y)
there
e >
2
is
A number A
is
the
point
(x, y)
ft),
if
a)*
for
+ U/
any
6)
y)A\<e.
f(x, y) = A.
/(*,
2. Continuity and
continuous at a point
points of discontinuity.
(a,
b)
function z=f(x, y)
is
called
if
lim f(x
x+a
0)
= /(a,
b).
_*+>
Solution.
zero. But **
The function
r/
its
or y
x2
c)li n
liin(*?^)sinl;
M;
e)linL;
/)
= / V\x*
I
if
ln;
c)
e
functions:
Sec. 3]
Partial Derivatives
1800*.
Show
SL
when
when
{
is
185
**
jt
=^=0,
</'
= =
continuous with respect to each of the variables x and y sepabut is not continuous at the point (0, 0) with
respect to
rately,
If
which
we
dz
get
1
t
dx
tan
cos 2
dz
we
2.
Find the
2.
2*
= *y z + 2*
3y
+ 2 + 5.
degree n
2x'
arguments:
Solution.
I/sin
y
have
will
Example
f (x,
y) fs called a
we have
ttf
homogeneous function of
the equality
(x,
//)
[Ch. 6
186
Find the
1801. z
homogeneous
for a
if
all
homogeneous
its
differentiable function
1809. 2
1810. 2
1811. 2
1806.
1807. z
= arc tan
and fy (2,
1)
/i(l, 2, 0),
/(*, y,z)
if
1)
xy
f(x,y)
ft
(l, 2, 0)
+L
if
= ln(xy\z).
on homogeneous functions
= Ax + 2BxyCy
3
in
Exam
1818. /
=
J
1820.
where
2
1821. Calculate
1822.
Show
that
1823.
Show
that
1824.
Show
that
1825.
Show
J826. Find
that
and y
57,
= 2,
if
x+
g+fj+S0,
g+g+g1,
.(,.
y),
it
if
= ln(*'
=
u = (xy)(yz)(z X
if
).
if
*+J=J.
Sec. 4]
knowing that
(J2
X 2 4
= slny
J/
^and z(x, y)
187
when *=1.
are
tude h
is
equal
to
S=
/,(fl
+ &) A.
Find
g, g,
and,
using
0,
1. Total
= /(*i
y)
increment of
The
function.
total
increment
of
function
the difference
is
AzAf (x,
+ Aj/)f (*,
#)=/(*+ Ax,
y).
2. The
total differential of
the function
dz
=^ dX +
d2=
dz
dy
dy
du
Example
1.
= du
3 dx
.
dx
j'
du
^ d y
dy
,
du
dz.
+ rdz
.
and the
y)=x* + xyy
total
differential.
=/
(x, y, z)
[Ch. 6
J88
Solution.
f(x+Ax,
= 2x
+ Ay) = (x f Ax)
Ax + AA
+x
= [(2x + y) A* + (x
f (x
+ A*) (y
Ay + y Ax + Ax2 Ay
2y) A^l
f
Ay)
2y Ay
+ (A* + AA> Ay
(y f
Ay
Ay)
2
;
Ay
(2x + y) A* {(*
2y) Ay is the total differential of
Here, the expression d/ =
2
2
infinitesimal of higher order
is an
the function, while (A* f AJC*
)
comared with VAx 2 +Ay 2
compared
Example 2. Find the total differential of the function
AyAy
Solution.
3. Applying
For
sufficiently
Q= y Av 2 f
Ay
2
,
Az^dz
imate equality
dz
3.
Example
The
Solution,
we
altitude of a cone is //
30cm, the radius of the base
the volume of the cone change, if we increase
by
by
The volume
mm?
of the
cone
is
in
volume
AV =^ dV =
j
n (2RH dR + R* dH) =
= lji(
2.10.30.0.1
+ 100.0.3) =
s 01
Example 4. Compute 1.02
approximately.
Solution. We consider the function z^x^.
considered the increased value of this function
Ay 0.01. The initial value of the function z
lOjiss
31. 4 cm*.
In x
8
Hence, 1.02
01
Ay = 31.0.02+
1 In 10.01
=0.06.
^ 1+0.06=1.06.
=
f(x,y)
x*y find the total increment
total differential at the point (1, 2); compare them if
0.1 f Ay
0.2.
a) Ax=l, A//2;
b) A*
1832. Show that for the functions u and v of several (for
and the
du
udv
Sec. 4}
Find the
total
1841.
z In tan i.
x
1837.
= si
= ln(x*+y*).
= lnl+i.
/*,
1838. z
1844.
1839.
1845.
= arc tan
if
~*'
=
u =
u=
1846. w
2+
arctan^.
1847. Find d/
+ arctan*.
1848.
tj)
1),
1843  "
2=yx?.
1840. 2
189
(3, 4, 5)
if
One
side of a rectangle is a
10 cm, the other &
24cm.
a diagonal / of the rectangle change if the side a is
increased by 4
and b is shortened by 1
How
will
mm
mm?
Approximate
10 cm, 8 cm,
Approximate the
volume
a)
(1.02)'
c)
sin32cos59
calculating
(0.97)
sin 60
b)
take
last digit).
Show
that the relative error of a product is approximasum of the relative errors of the factors.
1853. Measurements of a triangle
yielded the following
data:
side
a=100m2m. side
fc
angle
1852.
ABC
601.
To what
degree
side c?
1854. The oscillation
from the formula
of
period
= 200m3m,
accuracy can
of
we compute the
pendulum
is
computed
190
_ _
[Ch. 6
where
is
1855.
g.
y)
with
is
if
the
____i
dt
'"dxdt^dydt
= /[<p(0i
^(01 ma X
be com
'
x,
dzdy
Example
1.
Find
~,
if
where * = cos/, y
y,
Solution.
e'*+
From formula
^3(sinO +
Example
2.
* 8X+
(1)
^2^
Solution.
t*.
we have:
= e*y
and the
total derivative
if
where y
jZ^syety.
From formula
(2)
we obtain
2. The case
several
independent
dz dy
~
Sec. 5]
and
~~~
dzdy
dz__dzdx
191
dz
dz
j
dx
dx
dz
+ dy
5 dy
y
Example
p
3.
z=:f(x,
if
x=uv, y=
where
y),
we
(4),
get:
and
Example
Show
4.
that the
function
Solution.
ment
x*
The function
+ y*=t,
<p
(x*
+y
satisfies
the
equation
dx
dy
cp
argu
therefore,
dz__dzdt___
and
dzdt
\z
rt
we
get
t/
that
is,
*~^
i)2
1856. Find
if
where x = e t
1857. Find
y = \nt.
if
= lnsin=,
f
1858. Find
if
j
= xyz,
where
the
equa
192
_ _
Functions of Several Variables
1859. Find
if
where x =
r,
I860. Find
if
1861. Find
= uv
1862. Find
where u =
and
2
= arc
~
and
~ and
j
z = f(u, v),
~
ow
and
= arc tan
1865. Find
1866.
Show
= #*.
<f>(x).
if
where a = A:
where x = usmv,
where
= x^/ + ^.
where x =
3*),
cp
sin
ip,
=R
then
1868.
where
Show
=a
if
cos
and
*_a.
if
= /(*.
//
if
1867. Find
v^e
1
t/
if
= /(u),
that
*/
where y =
oy
,
and
and
tan
if
1863. Find
1864. Find
= cos #,
sin x, v
if
= xy
[Ch.
y> *).
that
where
y=
if
/ is a differentiable function,
dz
dz
then
cos
9 cos \>>
sin 9,
Sec. 6]
1869.
Show
w = f(u,
where u = x + at, v
= y + bt
dw
dT= a
Show
satisfies the
1871.
,
,
dw
dt
=J
equation
Show
v),
dw
1870.
19S
equation x^ + y ^ = j
1872. Show that the function
satisfies the
satisfies the
(A
The side
^
+ xy^ =
1873.
of 5 m/sec,
is
equation
angle?
1874.
What
is
The equations
of
motion
of a material
point are
coordinate
origin?
1875.
Derivative in a
Given
Direction
7 1900
= /(#,
and
the Gradient
in a given direction.
y) in a given direction /
= PP,
is
of
a Function
The derivative
of a
the function z
where a
(Ch. 6
194
is
/ (P,)
is
Y
e^
P(*,y)
Fig. 67
du
du
= du cos a + du
5 cos p + 3 cos v,
dz
dx
dy
,
/ for a
'
dl
direction
(2)
dz
.
dx
= 4*;
.
(dz\ =4;
A
3\dxjp
dz
Here,
sina
Applying formula
(1),
we
= sin
120
get
The minus
sign indicates that the function diminishes at the given point and
in the given direction.
2. The gradient of a function. The gradient of a function z f(x, ij) is
3 vector whose projections on the coordinate axes are the corresponding par
Sec. 6]
tial
195
dz
dz
(3)
The derivative
is
connected
with
~
That is, the derivative in a given direction is equal to the projection of the
gradient of the function on the direction of differentiation.
The gradient of a function at each point is directed along the normal to
the corresponding level line of the function. The direction of the gradient of
the function at a given point is the direction of the maximum rate of increase
of the function at this point, thlft
on
its
is,
when /=grad
z the derivative
^
takes
In similar fashion
u =/(*, y, z):
we
du
.
,
du
of
function
.
,
du
of
three
variables,
X2
Fig. 68
Solution.
Compute
dxjpdz
^T"
Hence, grad
7*
= 2t+J
(Fig. 68).
s
\y'*
.
9.2
_ _
Functions of Several Variables
196
1876. Find
the
x*
derivative of the function z
xy2y*
the direction that produces an angle
= x*
point
tf (4,
[Ch. 6
6).
1
xy*
2x*y
point to the
this
at
first
quadrantal angle.
a)
z=x*
= x* + y*=
u
2y*{ z*xyyz
b) z
c)
1883.
Show
+ =
(5,
3)
if
(1,
2,
3),
point
(2,
2,
1)
direction
taken
normal
to the
u=xyz.
if
of
grad
at the
if
*=lnj
at the points
(1/2,
1/4)
gradients
and 5(1,
1).
of
the
function
Sec. 7]
197
x'
z
4y*
at the point (2, 1, 8).
1890. Construct a vector field of the gradient of the following
functions:
= jef y:
a) z
= x* + y
c) z
z
\
32z
d (dz\
Derivatives of order higher than second are similarly defined and denoted.
If the partial derivatives to be evaluated are continuous, then the result
of repeated differentiation is independent of the order in which the differentiation is performed.
Example 1. Find the second partial derivatives of the function
z~ arc tan
y
Solution. First lind the
dz
first
==
partial
_J_
dz^
dy~~
Now
derivatives:
j__
1_
J
,
^L = d
.
dz z
\
2 *y
dxdy
We
different
"mixed" partial
derivative
may
be
found in a
el
way, namely:
d /
dxdy~~dydx
dx(
y*
198
f(x
We
= d(d*z)
d*z
and, generally,
z
function
function:
If
[Ch. 6
2.
z
= /(x,
differential of
dz = d(d n 
z).
(1)
is
If
" *
If
x and
i/
sev
+2
= 0,
d 2 y = Q, and
of the first
formula
(2)
of
the function
z
We
2;t
3xyy
2
.
have
*<**
I**.
Therefore,
dz
=
fr
Further we have
~
^4
djc
whence
it
'
J*!L_ 3
^l
'
djcd^""
dy*
follows that
x and
= (4dx
3dj/)
dx
(3d*
dependent on
z
.
Sec. 7]
if
Find
if
1894. Find
if
1893
= arc tan
A
Find
1895.
xy
if
Find
1897.
^~
dxdy dz
if
u
1898. Find
if
1899. Find
f(0,
0),
= sin (xy).
= (l
1900.
Show
/^(O, 0)
that
if
= arc sin
1901.
1902*.
Show
Show
that
if
if
199
_ _
[Ch. 6
200
= 0]
we have
rxy(' 0)=1,
1903
&$"=
Find
where
y(x,
1906.
if
= f(x,
= f(u,
v),
Show
a)*
= arc tan
+ (y
= lny
satisfies the
b)\
(x,
t)
=A
sin (akt
2
d^u_
~~~ a d^u
2
Show
dx
sin
Kx
u(x
//
'
cp)
(where *
conduction
Laplace equation
1909.
y),
Show
satisfies the
= <((x,
Laplace equation
= Y(x
1908.
z),
where
y,
where u
1907.
f(u, v),
y).
Show
satisfies the
0)=+1.
= xy.
where u = x* + y*, v
1904. Find
/;,(0,
'
>
>
'>
)*
+ (yy n )*
a are constants)
satisfies
^a'/^u^U*^
Sec. 7]
Show
1910.
201
where
fies
Show
1911.
satisfies
the equation
x
1912.
Show
satisfies the
1913.
+ 2wy dxdy + Jy
,
5,2
dv
r
x,
dy*
= n0.
equation
Show
7
'
d su
= f[x + y(y)]
satisfies the
equa
= u(x,
which
tion
d22
dz
dx dx dy
1914.
Find u^u(x, y)
dzd 2z
2
dy dx
'
if
dTSy^^
1915.
Determine
satisfies the
equation
if
1917. Find d u
if
11
if
 rn
\l^
1919.
(f}
\^/F
=u
whpr^
vviitivx
/
t>
r
y2
j\r
1 /y* .

if
where u
=~
= xy.
y),
_ _
202
= ax,
where u
v),
= by^
= ye*.
if
= f(u,
if
z~f(u,
1921. Find d*z
[C/i.
where u = xey
v),
if
= e x cos y.
= * cos y + y sin x.
= x + xy + y*
2
f(x, y)
4\nx
\Q\ny.
f(x
Sec. 8.
y,
=x
z)
if
differential ol
aq^ap
~~
dx
Example
is
a total
t.
Make
differential of
1,
'
dy
P = 2x + y Q
t
x+2y.
Therefore,
,5 = 
and, hence,
where u
It
is
is
given
that
=
we have
2jt
+ #;
therefore,
q>' (y)
= 2y,
(p(f/)
Sec.
ti\
2. The
203
P(x,
where P
z)dx
y,
+ Q(x,
z)dy
y,
+ R(x
z)dz,
y,
Q(x,
y, z),
continuous
derivatives,
are fulfilled:
dx
Example
2.
Be sure
'
dy
dy
dz
dx
dz
dQ
dx
Q=z +
= dP = O
dy
dR = dQ
r
dz
dy
dP
c.
rr
= OR =
r
V.
dx
dz
and, hence,
~
where u
We
is
have
hence,
u=
On
(3x
+ 3y
\)dx
= x* + 3xy
+ <p(y,
z).
du

~
= dtp
dz
whence
y^
=z
and ~P
dz
= 2f/z+l.
of
whose
is
fulfilled.
We
that
is,
y(y,
= ^2 + 2 + C,
2
e)
And
finally,
known and
the condi
_ _
Functions of Several Variables
204
Having convinced
are
total
differentials
[C/i.
1926.
ydx + xdy.
1927.
(cosx+3x*y)dx + (x'y
1928
1930.
1931.
dx^dy.
y
x
dx +
*
dy.
should
be
total
differential of
some function
z,
manner
and
find
that
that
function.
total
differentials of
1933.
2
+ 3z)dx+(4xy + 2y
+ 8xy* + 2) dx +
z)dy
+ (3x
l)dy
(x
1934. (3x
2y*
1935. (2xyz3y*z
2)dz.
v _.
v_
to
y)(dx
+ dy)
to be a total differential?
if
Sec. 9]
205
that
is
y)
(*
y) ?= 0,
f' (x,
y
may
dy
dx
f'
x
(**y)
f'y(x,y)'
found
are
derivatives
Higherorder
by successive differentiation
formula
of
a)
Example
1.
Find
dx
~
and
if
dx 2
lefthand
side
of this
equation by
f (x, y),
we
find
f'u
(x
y)=3(x
+y
(1),
z 2
2y
we
get
find the second derivative, differentiate with respect to x the first derivative \vhich we have found, taking into consideration the fact that y is a functiun of x'
To
x ~
dx
y
J
dx
(x,
dx\
y J
y
J
y J
'
if
x,
y and
z,
Fz
(x
y,
z)
if
of
the equation
the variables
'
dK
F'z
(x,
dlJ
y, z)
F'g
(x, y,
z)
Here
is
dF
Whence
it
is
_,
dF
dF
rt
dx
dz
and 3dy
z:
different^
_ _
Example
we
[Ch. 6
206
Find
2.
and
T
if
j
F'x
(x, y,
z)
= 2x,
Applying formulas
dz
d*~
F'x(x>
F'z (x
(2),
y. *)
F'
y (x, y, z)
we
40z+l, F z
(x,
y,
2)
^
~"
2)
(x,
//,
z),
= 6z0.
get
2x
~~
y,
by
Jy(*.
dz^
dy~
'
6*
z)
(x>
!/,
4//
62
z)
4f/
Whence we determine dz
dy
+ 6zdz
that
is,
zdy + dy = 0.
y dz
tion:
\
z}dy
4//
~ dy we
Comparing with the formula dz = Q dx \,
2x
dz
3. A system
6z
dy
F(x,
G(x,
and v as functions
y,
62
of implicit functions. If a
\
defines u
\4yz
dz
'
dx
see that
i>)
y, u,
o)
= 0,
=
of the variables
dF_ dF_
D(F, G)
D(u, v)'
dudv
dGdG
du dv
then the differentials of these functions (and hence their partial derivatives
as well) may be found from the following set of equations
.
dF
dF
dF
dx ^
dv =0,
^+ z dyy + ^~ du ^
+ ^dx
dv
'dF
,,
dy
Example
3.
3dx
r~
dy
^du
dG
^3y
dv
du
*
/Q
'
The equations
and
,,dx
dx
dy
dy
rr?
Sec. 9]
Solution.
First
207
we obtain
du
dv
whence
__
?ff
dx~~
Similarly
we
u ~^~y
x
y
dv __ u\x
dx~~ x y
'
'
find
dy~~
du
+y
dy~~~ x
we
x du
dv
'
find
du 4 dv = dx + dy,
+ u dx + y dv + v dy =4).
we obtain
xy
Whence
_
dx
'
(}y__fx
dx~~xy
t)f/
dv
v }x
'
'
dy~~x
4. Parametric
bles x and y
is
= z(u,
of the
varia
v)
and
may
of this function
of
dx
dx
Knowing
dz
^~=pr and 3
dz
dx
the differential
dy
~^.
^
dz^p
du
dx
dv
dz
dz
xdu
dv
5~du\5 dv,
d*
+ qdy,
dv.
we
_ _
208
[Ch. 6
Example
The function
4.
arguments x and y
of the
is
defined by the
equations
_.
dz
dz
dy
we
dx
From
the
first
= du + dv
"^
dy
2u dx
dy
'
'
2(v
2(u
u)
w)
rfy
just found,
we
= 6wu (u
'
Whence
3
3au,
3
^jc
dt/
=TT
2
(wfy).
v
;
+ 3^;
*=3Jf
dx
^
dx
Differentiate the
respect to y:
two equations
first
the
first
system we
dy
we
da
dv
a'
dy
u
v
find
= _l__
dy~~2(u
Substituting the expressions
__
dx~ u
dv_
v)'
and
^
(5)
'
dy
dx~~ v
the second system
first
dy
find
du___
From
= 3'Jf + 3t,'f!.
dx
From
f
dy
dy~~2(vu)'
into formula (5),
we obtain
Sec. 9]
209
Find
ma
*
dy
dhj
di' d?
1942. y
Show
that
and
ana
is
dx"'
a function defined
^=
1943. Find
%
^
1944. Find
by the equation
if
y=\+y x
and
if
result obtained.
A;
and
(g)
(g)
\ax J K~\
\ax jx=i
1945. Find
if
*=1.
1946.
The function y
In
dx
1947.
and
Find
dx
c,.
j
Flnd
5i
and
and
1
2//
variables x and y
and
^
dy
3;q/z
2r/
is
defined by
+ 3 = 0.
%
~
dx
A:
Find
if
dx z
^2
1949. Find
1950.
arc tan
function z of the
x
,
?T7 =
dx*
1948. The
the equation
^2
is
cosy
The function
and
for the
j
if

y cos 2
+zcosx= 1.
is
x*
+y
system
of
xy
= 0.
values *==
1,
//
= 0,
= l.
__
210
dz
1QR1
1951. KinA
Fmd,
equation
l>
= 0.
= (p(x, y),
= 0.
ty(x,
2
f/)
d* 2
&*
dz
1955. 2
is
if
if
where y
Find ~.
is
function of x
defined by the
if
equation
2x*
[Ch. 6
Show
2
Find dz and d z,
1954.
d*Z
,
__
+ 2y*
4
8xz
z*
+8
by the
where
1958.
an arbitrary differentiate
is
<p
Show
constants.
Show
is
satisfies the
02,
bz)
1960.
y=
xq> (z)
f(y y)
,
Show
&, c are
Q,
a+b  =
1959.
a,
F(x
where F
and
function
that
o>
= 0.
that
(2)
Show
the
that
function
satisfies the
xfx +y~ = z.
2
defined
the
by
equation
equation
d*zf(
+#
_ _
Sec. 10]
Change
2H
of Variables
Find dy,
Calculate
du
du
d2u
d*u
dzu
2
~dy
for x=Q,
'
dv
dv
dx' d~y
62 v
'
dz v
d*v
~d\*'
dxdy
dy*
1.
d*v.
1965.
.v
= (p(w,
v),
y are
//=i)(w, v).
(b
du
du du
51' cty' d~x> fy'
Find
if
if
\l
jc
cp)
<p
Find
ax
and
dy
x = a cos
Sec.
q)
cos
i),
and
y, find
y = b sincpcosij), z
and ~,
if
When
changing
variables in differential
in
expressions,
the derivatives in
differ
[Ch. 6
212
dx
putting
derivatives.
y
dx
dy
dy
dt
dt
dx
dt
dt
'
t*
dt
Substituting
the
expressions
the
of
r
we
derivatives
found
just
the given
into
get
or
dt*
Example
2.
ruij "'
g + ^y_g =0
terms of the
dx^Jx''
dy
"~
'
dx*
dx{ dx
\
dyl dx \dx~~
\ dy J
fdx\
(Ty)
dx
'
fdx\*
(dy)
dy
have
d*x
dj
1
'
dy
\dy
L=o
dx
dy
'
we
Sec.
or,
10]
_ _
213
of Variables
Change
finally,
Example
3.
~xy'
dx
dx = cos
cp
f/
= rsinq>.
as a function of
dr
cp,
d// = sin
r sin cp dcp,
(1)
from formula
dr
cp
+ r cos
cp
(1)
we have
dcp,
whence
dr
.
d//_sm cp dr f
cos cp
3J
T dr
cos
dcp __
~~
cp
sin cp
r
r sin cp
T d(pr
cos
cp
3 f
r cos cp
^
_rcos
d<P
 r sin
dr
coscp
or,

dr
cp
cos (p
Y
dcp
cpH
rcoscp
r sin q)
x,
rsm
//,
and
^
we
will
have
cp
rsincp*
cp
after simplifications,
and change
it
new independent
to the
partial derivatives.
a string
a = .v
at,
in
du___du
du__du da
du dp
da,
di^dadT^d^dT
du dp
^dadx^dfidi
we get
du
du
^T=^(
da
d/
^'^
du__du
a)
du
+
,
du
35"
dp
a (du
is
\dp
^'
_^_,^f
du\
3~
day
_ _
214
..
[C/i.
same formulas:
dt~~dadt
dt 2 ~~dt
d2u
d 2 u\,
2
(d u
d*u
dz u
dx*~dx\dx)
da\dx
_d
d'u
d*u
/)ft 8
'
rtn
'
'
/)ft
/}R2
we
/d a
d2 u
=
for
5.
2
Transform the equation x 2
^ + y
the
new independent
*
d*u\
= 0.
Example
d2 u
Jd u
d u\
d u
have
will
2
=z
taking
and
variables,
g
for
z
,v,
the
new
function.
and
Solution. Let us express the partial derivatives
ypartial
derivatives
^~
and
To do
On
dx
v
dy
oy_
^^,
dx
dz
^
dw
dw =
:;
du
du
dw
~\
dv
dv
Therefore,
dw
3
du
du
dw
dx
dv =
+ 5dv
x
,
dz
=
2
or
dw
i^ w_f^x__m dy\^,^x
&*_
Whence
dw
dw\
and, consequently,
dz^_
dx~~
dw ~~ 1 dw \
J
z
x*dv J
~~du
\x
terms of the
this,
~ in
dw
Sec.
Change
10]
215
of Variables
and
dz __
z^
dw
2
dy~~y dv
'
we
get
or
1969.
x j
putting x=e*.
1970. Transform the equation
putting
A:
cos/.
rm
1971
69
gument:
1972.
MT
is
expressed as follows:
tan u=^
216
_ _
Functions of Several Variables
Transform
this
by
expression
to
passing
1974.
[C/i.
polar
= r cos
coordinates:
q>,
y=
r sin
cp,
variables u and v:
dz
dz
if
u = x
v =x +y
2
**3&
'
2
.
1975. Transform
variables u and v:
the
following
dz
if
=n
equation
new independent
dz
to
= x, 0=p
11
dM_
n
~"
dx*~*'dy
= rcoscp,
= rsm<p.
^2_ y ^__
~ U>
dx*
2
ar/
u=*xy and
putting
dz
yTx K jy=(y^ z
>
taking u
>=
= x + y,
for the
new
=^
for
function.
the
new independent
variables
and
Sec. 11]
to
a Surface
217
putting u
= x+y,
=x
w = xyz,
y,
where
w=w(u,
v).
Sec.
1. The equations of a tangent plane and a normal for the case of explicrepresentation of a surface. The tangent plane to a surface at a point
to
(point of tangency) is a plane in which lie all the tangents at the point
various curves drawn on the surface through this point.
The normal to the surface is the perpendicular to the tangent plane at the
point of tangency
If the equation of a surface, in a rectangular coordinate system, is given
in explicit form, z
function, then
f (x, y), where f (x, y) is a differentiate
z ) of the surface is
the equation of the tangent plane at the point
(x
f/
it
z*o=/i(*
z
0o)(X*o)
+ /i(*o,
)0
0o).
Here,
t/ )
f (x
the tangent plane.
The equations of the normal are of the form
where
F,
.Y,
Example
the surface z
1.
(i)
of
the point of
at the point
M (2,
the
of
=v
'
dx
to
1,1).
<k
(fo\
'
given
function and
=2
\dxjM
*~
Whence, applying formulas
or 2x2f/
10
= ^i =
, which
2. Equations
it
representation
implicitly,
and F
(X Q
which
t/
is
(1)
is
and
(2),
we
will
the equation
have
of the
=2(*
2)
+2
(r/ 1)
==
of the tangent plane and the normal for the case of implicof a surface. When the equation of a surface is represented
= 0,
_ _
Functions of Several Variables
218
which
[Ch. 6
is
XXQ
F'X
(**,
Yy
_
*
ZZQ
Z 0)
F'z (*0. J/0.
Fy
point of tangency
is
Denoting by
M (0,
and
Applying formulas
(3)
+ a=:0,
a).
which
and
we
(4),
~r~
'
wn
equation,
~2 5
the
Qj/
cn are
e q ua ^ions of
^ ne
/?sina,
of
paraboloid
the normal.
and
revolution
= x*+y
the
the equaindicated
at
the
point
cone
b) to the
c) to
the
points:
a) to
'
find
get
0
we
is
or
(x, y, z)
partial derivatives
or ^(z
a,
the
= at the
x*+y* + z = 2Rz
^ + ^
y
sphere
point
at
the
(4, 3, 4);
point
(ffcosa,
/?).
1982. At
what point
of the ellipsoid
~2
y2
_4.
""
^ f_4.^ __
f.2
c2
does the normal to it form equal angles with the coordinate axes?
1983. Planes perpendicular to the A: and #axes are drawn
z*
169.
through the point
(3, 4, 12) of the sphere x*
y*
Write the equation of the plane passing through the tangents to
the obtained sections at their common point M.
1984. Show that the equation of the tangent plane to the
central surface (of order two)
ax
+ by
\cz
=k
+ =
Sec. 11]
M (x
at the point
Draw
to
the
Draw
1986.
which cuts
off
219
a Surface
surface x
x
to
the
4</4 6z
parallel
plane
1985.
to
+ 2tf + 3z = 21
= 0.
^a+fi + 'T^l
to the ellipsoid
tangent
planes
tangent
plane
z*
1987. On the surface je
2*^=0 find points at which
the tangent planes are parallel to the coordinate planes.
s
1988. Prove that the tangent planes to the surface jq/z
a
of
the
tetrahedron of constant volume with the planes
form
coordinates.
r
f
1989. Show that the tangent planes to the surface }/ x\\/ y
+y
=m
\
is
\/
z^Ya
cut
off,
constant.
Show
1990.
^if!
= ^
(xR)
!</'+z
#
Affy,
^^,
OJ?
gonal.
1993.
z^xf(~
*
\
Show
)
+ =
at the point
(,v
//
),
where x
+ 0,
pass through
+z
= /(/^ +
f/
(/'
xy
at
+ 0)
1=0
any point
of
the
of
surface of
rotation.
220
[C/i.
of all orders
f (x, y) have continuous partial derivatives
(rc+l)th inclusive in the neighbourhood of a point (a, b). Then
Taylor's formula will hold in the neighbourhood under consideration:
Let a function
up
to the
where
In other notation,
)
+ Jy
[/tfX
if
...+[^^
or
j
df
(x, y)
2
rf
/ (x, y)
*=
First
given point
(1, 2):
= 3 1+3.2=9,
=
/;il,2)=6.4 + 3.1 21
fxx (\, 2) = 6l=6
/;
(1,2)
(2).
the
Sec. 12]
are
[/i
642/z k 3f
1996.
powers
Expand
h and
of
2
fc
f (x i
fe
+ ^y
24))
ft,
zero.
identically
[/i
+ k)
+ 3/z
fc.
in a series
of
221
these
Putting
3/ife
0f *'(
positive
results
12)]
integral
if
*
1997. Expand the function f (x, y)
6x
2xy
3y*
4 by Taylor's formula in the neighbourhood of the point
2/y
(2,
1).
4*
tegral
the
yz
neighbourhood
of
(1, 1, 1).
Expand
powers
of
f (x
/?,
k,
/ (x, y, z)
2001.
f(x, y, z)
3#
the point
2000.
= Jc'fy + 2* +2xy
1
1999.
f(x,y)~
==
ft,
/)
in a series
of
positive in
if
/,
z
fr,
//J
and
// 4 z
2A:e
2jr//
2yz.
Maclaurin's series
in a
Maclaurin's series
in
2002.
//)
= ?* sin//.
up to terms
= cos x cos y.
{/)
= {/*
_ _
222
[Ch. 6
if
a
terms,
approximate
^O98;
1/T03;
a)
2 01

b) (0.95)
is
2xz
x\
Sec.
13. The
Extremum
of
a Function
of Several
Variables
variables.
2. Necessary conditions for an extremum. The points at which a differentiate function f (x, y) may attain an extremum (socalled stationary points)
are found by solving the following system of equations:
0)0,
t'
x (x.
f't/
(x
y)Q
(1)
>
= f'y (a,
ft)
0
Then: I) if
P(a, ft), namely
(or
C>0);
2)
A=f xx
and
if
>
0,
(a,
then
maximum,
<
0,
then
ft),
B~fxy
the
if
an extremum
(or
is
to the
ft),
<
following: let
C = /^(ci,
has
function
A<
there
(a,
an
0),
f[ (a,
We
ft).
form
extremum at
a minimum,
and
no extremum
at
(a
b)
the
the point
if
>
A==0.
remains open
ft);
3)
if
Sec.
13]
of Several Variables
223
are similar to conditions (1), while the sufficient conditions are analogous to
the conditions a), b), and c) 3.
Example 1. Test the following function for an extremum:
(1):
or
r
**
\ xy
we
Let us find
(2,
P 4 (_2,1).
P,(l,2);
1);
second derivatives
tiie
d2 z
adx 2
=c
6.v,
d2z
3 T
dxdy
= 6, A^=4C
= 36
<
144
0.
6r/,
for
c
= 6x
dy
=6. B =
A = (g}
2
\dx Jp
d*z
T22
= ry
B2
Pt
P,(l,2);
+ *_50,
2 = 0.
=12, C=(g) =
(fL\
\dy J p,
\dxdyjp,
2
Thus, there
is
= 144
is
36
equal
> 0,
>
/I
0.
the value
to
3012^28.
6; A = 36
^6,
12, C^
^ 12, B = 6, C= 12; A = 144
At P 2
of
the
At the point
P4
fi
maximum
equal to
2 ma x
144
36
< 0.
>
0,
There
< 0.
6f30{
4 12 28
5*.
of
a function /(A,
attained
<)(jr,
on
//)
is
maximum
condition
that
its
or
//),
minimum
arguments
w)
tion /(A,
the
of
are
function
F(A,
where X
is
y)=f(
an undetermined
multiplier, and
we seek
the ordinary
x,
t/,
X,
from which
it
is,
generally
extremum
extremum reduce
speaking,
possible
_ _
[Ch. 6
224
yi
for the given
system
dx 2
dxdy
of values of x, y,
dy
h obtained from
(2)
or the condition
<
Q, and a
Namely, the function / (x y) has a conditional maximum, if d*F
conditional minimum, if d 2 F
0. As a particular case, if the discriminant A
of the function F (x, y) at a stationary point is positive, then at this point
there is a conditional maximum of the function / (x, y), if A
(or C
0),
and a conditional minimum, if A
0)
(or C
In similar fashion we find the conditional extremum of a function of
three or more variables provided there is one or several coupling equations
(the number of which, however, must be less than the number of the variables)
Here, we have to introduce into the Lagrange function as many undetermined
multipliers factors as there are coupling equations.
Example 2. Find the extremum of the function
t
>
<
>
>
z=:6
4*
<
3y
x*\y*=\
Solution. Geometrically, the problem reduces to finding the greatest and
6
4.v
plane z
3y for points of its
intersection with the cylinder ji 2 f// 2 =l
We form the Lagrange function
least values of the ecoordinate of the
F(x, y)=6
We
have
T=~
following system
=
***
+ 2>jr,
4x3f/lM*
3
+ 2X#.
The
of equations:
:
i
we
find
i
^"2"'
'~5~'
and
2
____^_
~"
2
___
^~""5"
Since
dx 2
it
follows that
*"'
dxdy
=0,
{/
1).
Sec.
The Extremutn
13]
54
~__
and
=
3
= ,
o
thend 2 /7 >0,
and,
225
the function
4^3
consequently,
5
 and f/
=O
D
and, consequently, the function at this point has a conditional
has a conditional
z
F <Q,
maximum.
then d
of a
minimum
at this point.
If
K
^
Z
Thus,
= 6 + i5 + =ll,
z max
function
that
is
diffe
Example
3.
function
in the region
z'
K
7
{J
~ 2xy 1=0,
^ 2y x }1^0;
\
whence x=
1, //=
At A1 the value
to test for
tri
70
1;
of
It
1,
is
an cxtrcmum
1)
3^//^0.
Investigating,
(2 sm ) v _
(3,0);
When
find
get
(Zsm) y =*
x[y
that
(2g r ) x=0
T" at thc
3
A
P oint
we
find
that
(z &m ) x
,,^^^~r
we
(~ V 2
will
we
the
at
point
3);
(0,
l^)
x z \x. Similarly,
3 or //=
=6
When //~0 we
point
we
at the point
'
(2g r ) v=0
=6
at
the
have
/
that
find
= 3A
3
^
f9A'j6.
3 \
~
Similarly
(2 gr )
+ =
3
metres coincides with (z gr ) x =o anc (^r).jf=o ^ n * ne straight line jc
^
we could test the Function for a conditional extremum without reducing to
a function of one argument.
3) Correlating all the values obtained of the function z, we conclude
at the stationary
1
that z gr
6 at the points (0,
3) and (3, 0); z sm
^
point
81900
M.
226
_ _
[Ch. 6
Test for
the following
functions of
two variables:
2013.
= (x \)*+2y*.
= (x I) 2y*.
2x y.
z = x* + xy + tf
=
z
*y (6 xy)(x>0
2 = x +y
2x*+4xy 2y
z =x
2014.
z=l
2008. z
2009. z
2010.
2011.
2012.
=
2 =
2015. z
20,6.
of the
2
+ +z
2018.
xy
^++
functions
following
f/
+x
of
three variables:
2z.
tions:
2019*. x*
2020. x
+ y* + z* 2x+4y 62 11=0.
y*3x + 4y + z* + z 8 = 0.
= xy
for
+ 2y
z = x* + if
2022. z^=x
for
2023.
for
2027.
= cos + cos
W=
2y + 2z
^=^ +
+2
u = xtfz*
2028.
u^xyz
2024. z
2025.
2026.
A:
=
A:
f/
f/
for//
for
for
A:
2
A:
+

= ~.
for .vfy
+ z=
12(jc>0,
provided x(~j/+e=5,
xy+yz+zx=8.
if
x^zQ
Hint: Seek the
maximum
of the
function u
= xyz
provided
Sec. 14]
in
227
z=l+x + 2y
tion
in
the
O^jt^2.
region
0^x^2,
Sec.
mum
According
+ y^a
x
y).
function
/ (x,
is
y)
considered inside a
(Fig. 71).
Fig. 71
f'(x,
we
will
(TTI
>
(/)
20,
T
We
(x, y)=a2x2y,
f
IXIf
or
* ne
have
f"
yy'(x,
/)
of
the
_ _
228
[Ch. 6
Consequently,
And
so
at
fg,
~)
maximum
maximum.
=y=a
//
which
= , and
the
^=
Note
also be solved
+ y + z = a.
2034.
From among
all
of the
rectangular
parallelepipeds
with
given volume V, find the one whose total surface is the least.
2035. For what dimensions does an open rectangular bathtub
given capacity V have the smallest surface?
2036. Of all triangles of a given perimeter 2p, find the one
that has the greatest area.
2037. Find a rectangular parallelepiped of a given surface S
of a
+m
+m
Sec.
14]
of
229
Functions
r2
Ta2
2047.
Inscribe in
surface.
'
it
of
5x
+ TT1
b
tri
the ellipse
2
f
8xy + 5tf
given
= 9.
sphere
cylinder
having
the
greatest total
~~
3
the
point
M(l,
2,
3)
2
'
*1
Fii<.
72
Fig. 73
resistance
/?,
proportional
to /
/?.
heat
230
_ _
currents / t
#i
[Ch. 6
72 ,
so
#a
R*>
possible?
/,
by means
that
the
of three wires,
generation of
least
is
f(x, #)
at once:
2. Basic
if
At
its
M (*
let
the
the
a singular point
),
second derivatives
be not
all
then:
a)
b)
if
if
A>0,
A<0,
A = 0,
then
then
then
M
M
M
is
A = /1CB 2
74);
is
Fig. 74
Fig. 75
<
+ x'y
fx
(x,
t/)
>
Sec. 15]
This
Hence, there
is
do not
0(0, 0) and
the
satisfy
(0,
231
equation
~a
Oj,'btit
the
0).
Fig. 78
Fig. 77
Fig. 76
Let us find the second derivatives and their values at the point 0:
,
4=20,
0=0,
a =0
fa>0
Pig.
Fig. 80
79
Fig. 81
Hence,
if
a>0,
if
if
2
{/
=x
< 0,
a^0,
8
or
#=
then
then
then
A<0
A
>
Aj^O.
y
which
Y^\
exists only
is a tangent.
when Jc^O;
the curve
is
is
will
be
symmetric
a cusp of the
232
the
of
[Ch. 6
wing curves:
2053. y*
2054. (y
x* \x\
2055.
=*
ay=aVx'.
2056.
jtyjt
2057. x*
+y
f/^O.
3axy = Q (folium
2061.
of Descartes).
= (cissoid).
= a*(x y (lemniscate).
+
= (a x)x (strophoid).
+
= ftV (a>0, 6>0)
(x* + y*)(x
a)*
3
2058. y*(a
x)
2
2059. (x*
y*)
2060. (a
x)y*
jc
(conchoid).
a>6,
2)
= 6,
a<6.
3)
of the
a,
6,
c(a<ft<c
are real).
t. Definition of an envelope.
f(x
dependent on
a)=0
y,
metric equations
= 0,
a) = o.
f(x. y, a)
&(*.
y.
D(x,
0)
(1)
(1),
we
= 0.
get an equation of
(2)
drawings.
*cosa+f/sina
of
= 0(p = const,
p>0).
Sec. 16]
233
Envelope
J
\
Solving the
envelope
system
for
*cosa + y sin a
x
sin
x and y
a+y
t
cos
p = 0,
= 0.
= pcosa,
r/
of the
frig.
Form
a:
82
(k is a variable parameter).
234
of
+ x) (y
d) strophoids (a
is
cubic parabolas y
(x
C)
2
b) semicubical parabolas t/
(x
2
C)
(x
c) Neile parabolas y*
a)
[Ch. 6
C)*;
=*
C)
x).
(a
Fig. 83
2070.
The equation
of the
Sec.
The
dinates
where
differential of
equal to
an arc
of a
is
z are the
x, y,
If
are parametric equations of the space curve, then the arc length of a section
of
it
from
to
t2
/a
f
j
is
(df)
Sec. 18]
of a Scalar
235
Argument
2071. x
t,
y=/
2~'
from
to
= 2.
2072. x
/,
t,
it.
2073.
A:
2074.
/,
/,
2075.
2076.
f/
M(*
to the point
j/
).
of
(f>0)
is
defined
and ^=10.
The derivative of the vector function a=a(t) with respect to the scalar
argument t is a new vector function defined by the equality
da
The modulus
a(t
+ M)a(t)_da x (t)
day (0
da f
(t)
da
dt
The endpoint
r=r(/) describes
in
space
the curve
r=x(t)l+y(t)J+*(t)*.
which
is
The derivative
~
is
dr
[
where
s is
dt
[_
\
ds
dt
'
For example,
Up
some
initial point.
236
__
If
the
parameter
is
tf
is
[Ch. 6
=w
extremity
of the vector r,
= m~,
2)
77
(ma)
3)
77
(cpa)==~a
4,
7)
where
+ (p^
is
a constant scalar;
where q>(0
a scalar function of
is
<*,_..+..:
a~=0,
if

= const.
r=i
Determine the trajectory
Solution.
From
Eliminating the
(1)
time
of
of
moving point
of
t,
we
~~
z
'
differentiating,
we
The magnitude
any instant
(1)
4"" 3
(1),
at
we have:
From equation
is
4t*j+3t*k.
line:
We
/;
of the velocity
\*L
\dt*
is
is
constant and
= ]/(_ 8) +6
2
is
=iO.
motion
is
a straight
Sec.
18]
Show
2078.
where r
the
that
of
a Scalar Argument
vector
= (/* 2
equation
two given points,
rr,
of
237
r,)
is
/,
the
of a straight line.
2079. Determine which lines are hodographs of the following
vector functions:
equation
a)
= at f c\
=
a/ +
r
r
c)
b)
ft/;
d)
= a cos f b sin
r = a cosh f 6 sinh
t\
/,
where
a = i + tj+t z k,
2083.
The equation
of
motion
is
= 3/cos/~j4/sinf,
is
the time. Determine the trajectory of motion, the
the acceleration. Construct the trajectory of motion
and
velocity
and the vectors of velocity and acceleration for times, / = 0,
where
is
Determine the trajectory of motion, the velocity and the accelWhat are the magnitudes of velocity and acceleration
and / =
and what directions have they for time =
y?
2085. The equation of motion is
eration.
238
of
shell
\Ch. 6
air re
(neglecting
is
sistance)
z/=
manner
in such a
that
the
of
projection
[= const],
velocity
of
(;c,
//,
z) of a
space curve r
consisting
of
three
r(t)
is
it
pos
mutually perpen
M A4jA4
1)
osculating plane
2)
normal plane
3)
MM*M
S,
which
is
perpendicular to
is
2)
3)
T=rr
^gfx^p
NBXT (the
the vect
f tne
binormal);
and
r^
the vector
JV
3)
and
at
MM^
all
TT
two planes.
the binomial
MM
9t
Sec.
19]
may
dr
t= dF
of
a Space Curve
239
ds
dt
ds
If X
K, Z are the current coordinates of the point of the tangent, then
the equations of the tangent have the form
f
Xx = Y
y==
'
3C
(I)
'2
if
Normal
Rectifying
plane
plane
Osculating
plane
Fig. 84
where
of
Tx

Tv=
T 2 = ~
we
get an equation
of the
2)
of
perpendicularity
normal plane:
= 0.
T x Ty 7\ by B x
(2)
Bv
B z and A^.
in
Wy,
equations
^V^,
at the point
at this point.
Solution.
and
= 1.
we
We
have
of
[Ch. 6
240
Whence, when
1,
we
get
dt
dt
2 3
^= 026
1
dt
i
>'
662
Consequently,
T
Since for
= <+2/+3A
P=
3/ay+*
'
1U8/+9*
follows that
it
"~
""
x\_y
~~
l_z
~~
3
*l
z1
y1
11
then in place
of
the vectors
^
= 0,
and
G(x,
TTZ
y, 2)
two surfaces
= 0,
we can take
and d 2 r {d*x, d*y, d z z}; and one of the variables x, y, z may be considered
independent and we can put its second differential equal to zero.
Example 2. Write the equation of the osculating plane of the circle
*2
at its point
M(l,
1,
+ + z = 6,
2
J/
+ y + z^Q
(3)
2).
variable,
x dx
+ y dy + z dz
=
0,
and
dx*
+ dy + y d*y + dz + z d*z .= 0,
1
d 2 (/
Putting
x=l, y=\>
z~2,
we
get
Sec. 19]
dx
{dx,
241
is
and
0}
o,
yd*
jdx*\
or
1,
{1,
and
0}
1,
{0,
1}.
B=
1
and, therefore,
its
equation
is
lj
is
l(xl
that
as
is,
it
is
x^l
at the point
= g
T, v,
y=sin/,
cosf,
p of the curve
z
principal
normal
x*,
make
= 2x
2.
at the point x
2093. For the screw line
= asmt,
= bt
one
1 1/
+ * = 6,
2
if
1
4
at
of
2095.
its
Form
_ _
[Ch. 6
242
2096.
Form
and binormal
at
at the point /
at this point.
= 2.
Compute the
x = R cos 2
b)
z=x*+y*, x = y
*
C)
/,
y = R sin /cos/,
+ y + z = 25,
2
= Rsmt
for
x+z=5
2/3,
normal
Find the equation
y = x at the coordinate origin.
2100. Find the equation of the osculating plane
normal
the
?;
2099
z=x
plane,
of
3).
the
if,
*,
(/
= <>',
2101. Find
2
*
2
b) *
2
a)
c)
JC
to the
curve
= ty2
0.
at the point /
the equations of the osculating plane to the curves:
QJ
y ot z
).
Form
2102.
y
2103.
Form
= x,
=z
1,
1).
1. Curvature.
By
number
*
/(
lim
AS+O
JL,
As
we mean the
Sec. 20]
of
a Space Curve
243
where
(p
is
of the
we have
of a general
(1)
2. Torsion. By
mean the number
at
point
we
1
rlihn
As*o As
Q
drd 2 rd sr
ds ds 2 ds 3
dp_
ds
is
when
sign,
and v have
the
is
dr d 2r dV
d/d?" d7

(2)
~d,
dt
Example
1.
Solution.
We
same
= i a cos
\j
a sin
+ k bt
+ja cos t + kb
(a
> 0).
have
~= _/ a
sin
d r
==
a cos
= _/ a sin/
/a
sin
/,
cos/.
Ja
Whence
k
J
a sin
a cos
a cost b
a sin
ab sin
jab cos
+ a*k
formulas
of
JDL
R ~(
we
(2),
+ 6i)
"fl'
/.
get
VaT+b*^
i
fl
and
(1)
+a
and
1
a*b
a 2 (a 2
+ b*)~~ a + b
2
'
dr
^v
'
7s~"~R
2104. Prove
___
~~
5s
iP
^P_
'
ds~~~~o"'
~~~~R~T~~Q
if
is
x=\+3t + 2t
is
2
,
2107.
a)
x = cost, y = s'mt,
2
2
2
z = l, y

//
b) x*
2108.
curves:
a)
b)
= cosh
= e'cos/,
at the point /
0;
at the point (1, 1,
y = e sint, z
x^acosht, y asiuht.
je
2x + z = Q
1).
e*\
= at
(hyperbolic screwline).
x
9
b) x
a)
=
=
WT^T,
Wv
components
of
Sec. 20]
2111.
la cost
tion w.
2112.
+ja
sin
in
is
point
t
+ btk
The equation
Determine,
at
trajectory and
acceleration.
times
2)
the
of
24S
motion
is
Chapter VII
in
Rectangular Coordinates
1. Direct computation of double integrals. The double integral of a continuous function f (x, y) over a bounded closed region S is the limit of the
corresponding twodimensional integral sum
f (x,
y)dx dy =
lim
max A*i max Ar// 
(1)
where A*
values of
x,
= Xf +l
o
Fig. 85
1)
The region
of integration
Fig. 86
(Fig. 85)
is
bounded on the
left
and
right
while the vaFig. 85). In the region S, the variable x varies from x l to x
riable y (for x constant) varies from
9, (x) to j/ 2
q> 2 (x). The integral (1) ma>
^=
Sec. 1]
247
in Rectangular Coordinates
<Pa (X)
f(x, y)dy,
J
(S)
<PaU>
where x
is
held constant
when
calculating
/(x, y) dy.
(Fig. 86).
As before,
^^
i?
^ <
we have
$2
Vl
JJ/(*.
y)dxdy=\dy
(S)
j/i
f(x, y) dx
we
(U)
f (x.
J
i?,
y)dx
((/)
consider y constant.
Solution.
Example
2.
(x,
(S)
y)dxdy
248
_ _
Multiple and Line Integrals
[Ch. 7
2
*
1
the region of integration 5 (Fig. 87) is bounded by the hyperbola y
2 and x
2 (we have in view the region constraight lines *
taining the coordinate origin).
Solution. The region of integration ABCD (Fig. 87) is bounded by the
2 and x
2 and by two branches of the hyperbola
straight lines
if
and by two
x
y=yT+*
that
is,
it
belongs to the
first
and
type.
We
(/1
have:
dx
f(x, y)dy.
21
2113.
2114
35
\dy\(jf + 2y)dx.
2117.
^pTv?31
2118.
Jdy
rrfr.
dcp
j
a
sin
<p
Jt_
2115
X 2dU
COS
(p
'
00
Write the equations of curves bounding regions over which the
following dduble integrals are extended, and draw these regions:
2
2121.
2t/
Jrf/
f(x, y)dx.
X+9
2122.
JdxJ
IX
4
2125.
f(x, y)dy.
10y
dy
o
JdxJ/(*. y)dy.
K25JC
2123.
2X
2124.
00
^dx
f(x, ^)dx.
2126.
f(x, y)dy.
X+2
d*
ix*
f(x, y)dy.
JJ/(*. y)dxdy
(S)
Sec.
1]
2127.
C(0,
is
a rectangle
S
S
is
a triangle
is
in Rectangular Coordinates
0),
249*
4(2,0), 5(2,
1),
1).
2128.
2129.
C(0,
4(1,
0),
0),
0),
(2, 0),
5(1,
5(1,
1).
1),
1).
2130.
C(2,
7),
2131.
0),
(0,
parallelogram with
is
D(l,
5).
is
whose
circular sector
arc endpoints are
vertices
045
A
4(1,
2),
5(2,
4),
(1, 1)
Fig
89
2132.
is
504
^9
(x,
integral
y)dxdy
(S)
if
the region S
b) *
c)
h//
is
<a
e)

//*
*;
//<x<y4
0<*/
2a;
:a.
double integrals:
\2X
2136.
f(x, y)dy.
2137.
JdJ/(x.
y)dy.
250
2138.
\dx
f(x, y)dy.
2141.
\
d*
dy
f(x
y)dx.
VTZx^tf
2139.
[Ch. 7
f(x, y)dy.
2142.
\dy
V**
$/(*,
yi
~2
20
2140.
Jdx
f(x
y)dy.
RVT
A
2143.
V
d*J/(x,
sin
2144.
\dx
t/)dy+
f(x. y)dy.
/)d/.
J/(jc,
2145.
0),
(S)
A(\,
1),
and B(0,
1).
A(2,0)X
Fig. 90
2146.
^xdxdy,
Fig. 91
of integration
Sis bounded
(S)
by the straight line passing through the points A (2, 0), fi(0, 2)
of a circle with centre at the point C(0, 1), and
(Fig. 90).
Sec. 1]
2147.
Vr a
,
JJ
in Rectangular Coordinates
===, where S
x*y*
is
251
a r
part of a circle of radius
(S)
lying in the
first
where S
y dx dy
V**
$ $
0)
is
quadrant.
triangle with
vertices
(S)
0(0,0),
2149.
1), and
(I,
fl(l,
1).
y*dxdy, where S
\j !/"*#
is
(S)
0(0,
4(10,
0),
rr
2150.
ed
J J
(S)
1),
and
fl(l,
1).
dxdy, where S
ey
by the
parabola
y*
is
=x
a curvilinear triangle
and
OAB
bound
x = Q, (/=!
(Fig. 91).
2151.
ff^Ti,

the parabola
2152.
extend:
y=7f and
Compute the
is
a parabolic segment
integrals
\dx
[
j
= x.
_rt
tfsmxdy;
c)
$ <ty
/
bounded by
ifcosjc
at
a)
where S
$/
x* sin'
"
b)
COS*
it
is
abvisable to
make
(5)
if
line
is
a region
x = p.
y*
= 2px and
the straight
^xydxdy,
extended over the region S, which
2
2
and an upper semicircle (x
2)
#
is
+ =
bounded
1.
by
the #axis
_ _
Multiple and Line Integrals
252
(Ch. 7
dxdy
/25=5
(S)
where S
which
first
circle
is
tan
quadrant.
^ydxdy,
(S)
is
of abscissas
and an
of the cycloid
= R(t
y = R(\
sin/),
cos/).
(S)
region
mean value
is
in the
SJO^Jt^l, 0<y<l}.
Hint.
of a function
f(x, y)
the region
in
is
the
number
Sec.
2.
Change
^R
af+y
of
we have
= /'Cos(p,
r sin
ip,
the formula
^{
(S)
f (*>
y)dxdy=((
(S)
(r
cos
q>,
r sin
cp)
r dr
e/cp,
(1)
Sec. 2]
Change
253
a
integration (S) is bounded by the halflines r
the curves r
and r r 2 ((p), where r l (q>)
r,(cp)
r z f<P) [ r i ( fP)^ r 2( (P)l are singlevalued functions on the interval
then the double integral may be evaluated by the formula
If
the
region
r=^p(a<P)
of
and
and
and
a^rp^p,
C f
r) r
(q),
dr
dcp
/J
(S)
<<p)
\ dcp
r) r rfr,
(cp,
r, (cp)
r 2 (cp)
where F
(cp,
In evaluating the
r sin (p).
r)~/(rcos(p,
integral
((p,
r)rrfr
'i (<p)
we hold
given type.
2. Double
if
In
double integral
in the
(x,
y)dxdy
of
the
of
t?(K,
I/
v)
the
of
some
*^
D(u
retains a constant
dx dy
du da
y)
V'
dx dy
dv dv
(^
y) dx
dy
I [cp (u,
v),
(w,
v)
du du
(6)
holds true
The limits of the new integral are determined from general rules on the
basis of the type of region S'
Example 1. In passing to polar coordinates, evaluate
is
radius
a circle of
rcoscp,
if^
Y"\
//
(r
/?
rsincp,
cos
cp)
we
with centre
at
the coordinate
obtain:
(r sin cp)
= ^1
r8
254
varies
2Jt
ff
Pass to
to
for
any
q>,
and
q>
y\x*
coordinates r and cp and set up the limits of
to the new variables in the following
polar
with
integration
from
(Ch. 7
respect
integrals:
2160.
2162.
K,
2161.
y)dy.
Jd*$/(]/J
JJ/(x, y)dxdy,
\'/
where S
a triangle
is
lines
(/
= #, y~
x,
</=!.
2163.
i
2164.
is
(S)
Fig. 92
gral
(S)
where S
C(f,0)
is
a semicircle
(Fig. 93).
of
Sec. 2]
255
(S)
in
tegral
(S)
of
V a*x*
Jdx
Vx' +
tfdy.
(S)
is
ll
T/^R;
(S)
x
x*
j
+ ^^
u
^wo
2172**. Transform
c
p*
\dx\f (x y)dy
t
(0<a<p
ax
256
__
2173*.
= x + y,
= xy
[Ch. 7
in the integral
\dx\f (x,y)dy.
2174**. Evaluate the double integral
(S)
where S
is
a region
_ k
b2
Hint.
Make
~~fi 2
'
the substitution
br sin
cp.
The area
of
>,
1. Area
in rectangular coordinates.
a plane region S
is
(S)
If
the region
defined
is
by the
a^x^b,
inequalities
q>
(x)
^y ^
\)
(x)
then
b
op
\dx
X)
is
cp
dy.
(x)
<F
= ffrdcpdr=
(S)
6/9
q>
P)
/dr.
/(q
tegrals
x+2
a))
dx
J
d;
dy;
b)
dy
d*.
J
arc tan
a)
]
n_
T
Compute
d(f
sec
<p
rdr\
b)
"T"
these areas.
a(i+coscp)
^9
\
a
in
Sec
_ _
Computing Areas
3]
2177.
Compute
257
y,
2178. Compute the area lying above the xaxis and bounded
3a.
4ax, and the straight line x[y
by this axis, the parabola y*
2179*.
Compute
f
z
y =10x4 25 and y
6x +
9.
y =
and the
= a(14coscp)
and
acosq>(a>Q).
bounded by the
~*~
V 4
line
(/!V__
" ~ **_//?
"9 J
'
4"
(x2y
!3)
4 (3* \4y
1)
100.
<a<b, 0<a<p).
Hint. Introduce the
= uy,
if
u,
and put
vx.
0<a<p).
Hint. Introduce the
1900
v,
y*~vx.
and put
(Ch. 7
258
The volume V
= /(*,
y),
be
mid wiih
C(0,0,1)
Fig. 94
Fig. 95
f
J
dx
f (1
J
ZX
2190.
y)dy.
tegral
dx
 x*
YC?
2191.
value
is
x)dy.
2192.
whose volume
tfy* dy\
whose volume
is
of this integral.
2184. Find the volume of a solid bounded by the elliptical
2
x + y=\, and the coordi2x* f f/
1, the plane
paraboloid z
nate planes.
215. A solid is bounded by a hyperbolic paraboloid z x* tf
and the planes (/ 0, e 0, x=l. Compute its volume.
Sec. 5]
2196.
planes
*/
solid
= 0,
is
= 0,
th
Computing
Area* of Surfaces
2
bounded by the cylinder x
y = x.
Compute
its
=a
+z
259
and the
volume.
= y\ x* \y* ='*, 2 = 0.
=
= 2J/T, * + 2 = 6, 2 = 0.
y"x,
y
=
x* +y\ y = x
z
//=!, 2 = 0.
x }*H2 = a, 3*4*/ = a, ~x4tj=^a,
+ 1, y = *' = 0, 2 = 0.
= 2ax, 2 = a*, 2 = p* (a > p).
x
if
2197. az
2198.
2199.
2200.
2201.
2202.
f/
*/
= 0,
= 0.
h
**
4//
=a
= 0.
volume
of the ellipsoid
202
the paraboloid
=^+
=
and the cylinder
^h 2
2~.
jc
^3a
h//
= a*
by the surfaces
JJ
= f(x
y),
whose projection
260
[Ch. 7
%+j+=
which
=
= nx(m>n>Q).
2215*.
2
Compute
2
2
=z
the
area of that
part
which is situated
y
bounded by the plane y \za.
cone x
2216.
Compute
2
2
y
cylinder 2
2
2
2
x
y +z =a
2217. Compute
the area
=ax
of that
which
part
of
out
of
cut
is
of the
in the
first
the
it
surface of the
octant and is
surface of the
by the sphere
sphere x
\
the area
=a
of that
part
of the
y2
surface
of
the
..2
+ ^=1.
cone x
\y
=z
2
.
= carctan
ders
X
2
iy
which
=a
lies
in
the
first
octant
and
Integral
in
Mechanics
Sec. 6]
moments
x and
double integrals
A4
MY
relative to the
=
(x, y)
dx
x
Mx= J
dy,
jj
(S)
yQ
expressed
261
by the
dx dy,
(x, y)
(S)
M Y =^
J*e(x,
y)dxdy.
(1)
(5)
If
the lamina
homogeneous, then Q
is
2. The coordinates
My
_i_
where
is
tive to the
formulas
(1)
const.
(x, y)
M
~_
//
M x My
the
3. The moments
lamina relative
of
to the x
/X=
S S
and
t/axes are,
of
its
is
moments
The
moments
static
rela
homogeneous, then in
of inertia 01 a
respectively, equal to
/r=
*2 Q
J J
(*. y)
*x dy.
(2)
(S)
(S)
The moment
are
lamina
a lamina.
of
inertia
the
'
is
(x, y)
x
d
'
If
is
(3)
mass
(2)
and
(3),
of a circular
we
lamina
of radius
2226.
OB = a
shape of a right
moments
if
of
the
triangle
with
legs
and
(^
Ij
of a sine curve.
of gravity of a circular sector of radius a with angle at the vertex 2a (Fig. 97).
2230. Compute the coordinates of the centre of gravity of an
area bounded by the parabolas //
4.x f 4 and if
2x44.
2231. Compute the moment of inertia of a triangle bounded
2 relative to the #axis.
2, y
2, #
by the straight lines x
y
[Ch. 7
262
d and
moment
D(d<D):
a)
diameter.
2233. Compute the moment of inertia of a
relative to the axis passing through its vertex
the plane of the square.
2234*. C)mpute the moment of inertia of
the parabola if = ax by the straight line x
its
segment cut
=a
straight line
//
relative
to
oil
the
a.
Fig. 96
=
=
62
= lim
max
max
max
\x\
A'/j
 o
~> o
Az/c > o
2 2 2^
f
fa
(*t> &/>
'
Sec. 7]
2o3
Triple Integrals
Example
Z d*d/dz,
JJ*y
V
/=.$
where the region V
We
is
have
X
2
'</
Example
one
Compute
1.
Solution.
of the
of
7T
dy
Evaluate
2.
AT
//


j
Solution.
a
x2
dxdy
dz
x2
dA
J J
a
(V)
S yz
is
We
^ + ^^1 
S vvzz =Jib I/
x*S
^
yz
dx
a
(5^.)
M^
\\here
dydz=
^^
j^2
JC
= cons ^
an(^
=*n
\V
r
a
l~c
a
a
(V)
2. Change
0.
If
2)dxdydz
2)
in onetoone (ind,
some region
in
of l/l/l^space;
[Ch. 7
264
3) the functional
of these functions
determinant (Jacobian)
dx dx
dx
~dv
dw
dii
D (u,
v,
dy
dy dy
da dv dw
w)
dz
dz
dz
dw
da dv
we can make
region V, then
use
the for
of
mula
=
$ J
\f(x,y,2)dxdydz
(V)
\
IT ( w
\ f
L?
w )>
>
ty( u
>
w )<
In particular,
1) for cylindrical coordinates
X
get
cp,
rcosrp,
spherical coordinates
we have
r,
//
rsinrp,
r\
2) for
r
du dv dw.
Fig. 99
Fig. 98
we
Example
3.
= r cos
cos
i)
cp,
ap,
r (<p
is
the
longitude,
q),
\\>
the
latitude,
where
cos 9,
f/
= /cosi3 sin
sin
v\
i[).
JSJ
(V)
where V
is a sphere of radius R.
Solution. For a sphere, the ranges of the spherical
tude), \) (latitude), and r (radius vector) will be
coordinates
fp
(longi
Sec
We
265
Triple Integrals
7\
therefore have
f f f
Vx
\y
3. Applications
sional A'//zspace
\z*dxdydz=\
of
dcp
The volume
triple integrals.
= Ji# 4
of a region of
threedimen
is
<n
The mass
of a solid

C f f
z)
is
(V)
M yy =
"(V)'
Myz =
(*
(*
I
'
)}
0')"
MZX
~
'
(A
f/
2)
f/
dx dy dz.
(V)
The coordinates
gravity are
of the centre of
_
J ~~
'
'
Al
T
J J $
(y*
+ **) Y (*,
U, 2)
dx dy
in
the
for
dz;
(V)
(V)
l
=J
J J
(*
(V)
Putting
of inertia
of
Y(*0
^i^21
in
* nese
formulas,
we
get the
the body.
for
^f(x,y,
z)dxdydz
geometric
moments
266
Multifile
2240.
is
a tetrahedron
Jr
2241.
is
2242*.
2243.
is
+ ^fl
J/
= 0,
= 0.
= 0,
= /f.
000
2245.
= 0,
a cylinder
is
yJrZ =\,
JC'
[Ch. 7
integrals:
+ +2+1
djt
dy
2246
fd*
00
('
1X
2247.
rfy
.1
.)
dx
1JCt/
dy
xyzdz.
J
o
2248. Evaluate
d* dy dz
'
1)3
bounded
by the coordinate
r r r
(V}
2cu^x
of
2
\y
integration) is the
and the sphere X?
common
of the
part
+ y* + 2 ^3a
2
.
2250. Evaluate
(V)
where
spheres
V (region
x
+ y*
\z*
of
integration)
^R'
and
is
the
+ \f + z
common
^ 2Rz
part
of
the
gee.
__
Triple Integrals
7]
267
2251. Evaluate
^zdxdydz,
(V)
where V
is
+
J.==l.
2252. Evaluate
(V)
where
Xz
is
2
IJ
+ "^r
2253. Evaluate
where
2
(jc
region
(the
2
hi/
of
is
integration)
bounded
the
by
cone.
= h.
where V
2
jc
the surfaces x*
is a region bounded by
a
=z and containing the point (0,0, R).

//
2255. Evaluate
2
21
jc
first
225(5.
di/
dz,
first
VR*X*
Vflajir*0a
J
\dx
/?
first
transforming
/f^TJa
it
dy
(A:
to spherical coordinates.
+y*
\
z*
= 2Rz
[Ch. 7
268
coordinates,
(V)
where V
B.
is
to
+z
triple integrals
of
of a solid
+y =
+y
+ ~ = 2 i
C. Applications
to
of
triple integrals
0<z<c,
<*/<??,
Fig.
(l(x,
y,
z)
point
the den
if
y,
(x,
= x\y\z.
z)
is
+ +
z^O
100
+ =
sity
the
of a rec
Q^x^a,
tangular parallelepiped
at
x=a.
(a
c,
&<c)
(Fig.
100).
<
Sec. 8]
260
distance of the point from the centre. Find the centre of gravity
of the solid.
2268. Find the centre of gravity of a solid bounded by the
2
2
4x and the plane x=2.
paraboloid // +2z
2269*. Find the moment of inertia of a circular cylinder,
whose altitude is h and the radius of the base is a, relative to
the axis which serves as the diameter of the base of the cylinder.
2270*. Find
the
moment of inertia of a circular con^
base,
a, and
(altitude, /i, radius of
density Q) relative to
the diameter of the base.
2271**. Find the force of attraction exerted by a homogeneous
cone of altitude h and vertex angle a (in axial crosssection) on
a material point containing unit mas^ and located at its vertex.
2272**. Show that the force of attraction exerted by a homogeneous sphere on an external material point does not change if
the entire mass of the sphere is concentrated at its centre.
on a Parameter.
restrictions
(.v,
a) dx
Example
fa
(A,
a) dx.
By
1.
'i
~~
>
dx
(a
> 0,
> 0).
Solution. Let
Then
~
da
Whence F
equation.
(a,
We
p)
have
Whence C(p)
2a
Ina + C(p). To
0=
= ^lnp.
In P
Hence,
find
+ C(P).
"2a*
C(p), we put a =
in the latter
270
triple integrals.
a function f (x, y) is continuous in
y)
\{f(x,
U
[Ch. 7
dx dy
lim
"S\
( f (x, y)
an unbounded
dx dy,
(1)
gral
is
called convergent
otherwise it is divergent.
is
nonnegative [f (x,
//)
is
it
y)^Q], then
on
for
the con
necejsary
y)dxdy=\\m
is
everywhere contin
(a,
b),
then we put
f(x,y)dxdy.
(2)
consideration
If
with centre at P.
of radius
The concept
of
of
is
triple integrals.
Example
2.
dxdy
3)
is}
where S
If
p<
then
then
1,
lim
lim 7 (a)
O * S
7(o)=
= lim
Q
/(a)
=00 and
with
p^
1,
centre
at
the
coordinate
we have
if
p>
1,
~f QC
and
the
integral
converges.
For
p=l
we
have
Sec. 8]
_
Q
2JT
lim/(a)
);
~r
Q *
oo
for
p>
= oo,
that
is,
271
the
integral
diverges.
2273. Find
(3)
/' (*),
converges
1.
if
00
*f'
2
\
J ^
,2
(l/
dz
2)
QC
satisfies
*u
dx*
is
'
~c)y*
Find
d)
d
~U
+
^ *Q
F(p),
if:
= cos p/.
/(/)
a)
/(Ol;
b)
(p)
/(/)=e;
compute the
integral
\
xn
for the
\nxdx.
c)
function /(/)
/(/)
= sinp/;
272
__
\Ch. 7
to a parameter,
evaluate
2278.
"
00
2279
rno^
228
"""*
~**~ e ~'X
ax
arc tan
dx
>
0,
>
0).
dx
e<"d*
2282.
(a
(o^O).
QC
2283.
x_
2284.
2285.
\dy\ev
dx.
\\
c) c/
*,
^ 4 ~r
where S
is
a region defined
by the inequali
(5)
ties
#^5
2287.
1,
The
EulerPoisson
integral
defined
by
the
formula
00
may
uate / by multiplying
coordinates.
2288. Evaluate
CO
form
I=\c^dy.
Eval
00
GO
dz
273
Line Integrals
See. 9]
2289**.
where S
55 \nVx*\y dxdy,
is
circle
2
f/
<K
(S)
2290.
where S
TTiriva
is
defined by
region
the ine
(6')
quality x
2291 *.
2292.
tf^\

$,
J_
d xd
CCr
JJJ
(x T~
where S
^\
\
a square
is
where V
is
<
A;

\y\^l.
defined
region
by
the
(V)
inequality x
\
if
\
("exterior" of a sphere).
integral
max
2^
sum S n
As/ ^ 0,
is
AV
^ s r ^ ne
#/)
'
im it of this sum,
when n
* oo
and
lim
">>ac
(cfs
is
2=
/(xf,
r/,)
As/=
/ (x,
i/)
ds
is
b
'
f (A
!/) rfs
C
In
the
case

'
"
of
rt
],
J
a
f(x
parametric
we have
cp (,v))
y~\
+ (q>'
representation
of
(A))
the
c/.vr.
curve
C:
.Y
= q>(/),
Also considered are line integrals of the first type of functions of three
variables f (x, y, z) taken along a space curve. These integrals are evaluated
in like fashion A line integral of the lirsl type does not depend on the direction of the path of integration; if the integrand / is interpreted as a linear
density of Hie curve of integration C, then this integral represents the mass
of the curve C.
274
Example
1.
Evaluate the
[Ch. 7
line integral
AB
2. Line
uous
BO
0),
OB
B
is
(0,
1),
= 0,
OA
integrals of the second type. If P (x, y) and Q (x, y) are continand f/ <p(A) is a smooth curve C that runs from a to b as
functions
A
Fig.
101
line integral
of the
second type
is
expressed
as follows:
(x,
y)dx + Q
(x,
y)dy =
[P
(x,
cp
(*))
<p'
(x)
= <P(0,
y)
dy
for
'
[P
(<p
Une
(0,
integral of
(9(0,
the
second
type
(OJ
taken
over a
A line integral of the second type changes sign when the direction of the
path of integration is reversed. This integral may he interpreted mechanically
P (x, y), Q(x, y) } along the
as the work of an appropriate variable force
{
curve of integration C
Example 2. Evaluate the line integral
Cyi
____
____
where
2
y dx
275
Line Inlegtah
Sec. 9]
+ x* dy =
[b
sin
the
of
t(a sin
*=a cost,
ellipse
/)
+a
b cos /] dt
ab* f sin 8
dt
+ a*b
jt
3. The case
of a total differential.
traversed
sin*
oo
cos 2
=b
dt
= t a&.
?t
the
If
C cos 8
of
integrand
line integral
of
the
P(x, y)dx
where
is
In particular,
if
(x lt
y)dy = U(x 2
+ Q(x,
yJ
terminal
is
(x l9
point
then
closed,
(1)
</,),
the
of
path
(2)
1)
the
contour
simnlvconnectH
reaio.i
2_^
dX
(3)
(d)
~dy
If conditions one and two are not ful(see integration of total differentials)
does not guarantee the existence of a
jillcd, the presence of condition (3)
singlevalued lunction U, and formulas (1) and (2) may prove wrong (see
Problem 23:2) We give a method of finding a function U (x, u) from its
total diflerential based on the use of line integrals (which is yet another
method of integrating a total differential). For the contour of integration C
let us take a broken line P P
(Fig 102), where P (.v
y ) is a fixed [oint
and
0,
y and dy
(x, y) is a variable point. Then along P P, we have y
We get:
we have dx
and along P t
(x
y)U
II
(J
(x
)=
(x,
y)
dx
+ Q (x,
y)
dy =
y
(x.
P C P 2 M, we have
x
U(x.
y)U(*v
*/
)$Q(* y)dy+^P(x,
,
Vo
x*
y)dx.
y)dy.
[Ch. 7
276
Find U.
Example 3. (4x
Solution. Let AO
U(x,
y)
or
+ 2y) dx + C=
U
where C
(0,
0)
is
ic,
3//
an arbitrary constant.
Uo
4/I
XQ
102
Fig.
(S)
here
t'^e
remain
is
to the left.
5. Applications
of line integrals.
(p
An
y
area
dx=
(p
is
xdy
2)
The work
(x,
X=
X(x, y,
of a force, having projections
accordingly, the work of a force field),
z) (or,
2),
Y=Y
(x, y,
along a path
z),
is
Sec. 9]
__
277
Line Integrals
(a
dV
dx
=A
dU
dU
j
TT
7
*j)
//2,
where
(v l5
(*J,
'/J.
(*i,
l/ lt
J
(*. {/,,
dU
Zj) is
= U(x
is
tli2
2293.
xyds, where
2t
y tt
z 2 )t/ (x lt y,
z } ),
equal to
2J
z2)
</,,
is
Z.)
Zi)
f/ 1?
(x, y, z)
dz
dy
U=U
Type
line integrals:
is
x\
y\
=a
(fl>0).
s
2294.
^=
,.
2
A:
if

^xyds, where
2295.
where
is
\
and A
0)
(I,
a quarter
is
2).
of the
lying
the
in
2296.
first
fi>
quadrant.
where C
ifds,
ellipse ^i
is
the
first
=a
(t
sin /)>
cos
(1
/).
}x
2297.
+y
ds,
where
circle

a (cos
2298.
^ (x
(/sin/), y
2
2
\
d$,
is
an arc
= a(smt
where C
is
of the involute of
the
tcost) I0^/=^2ji].
an arc
c
ral
r^ae m v(m>Q)
2299.
niscate r
2300.
+ y)
JU
c
= a cos2<p.
rfs
where C
is
(0, a)
to the point
0(
oo, 0).
(A:
\y)ds,
c
q/2
>
where
is
an
arc
of
the
curve
JK
=^
278
2301.
%2
(*
~T~
# = acos/ y = as\nt,
f
2302.
J t/"2#
is
the
where
is
first
= bt.
I
where
*2
[Ch. 7
z ds y
the
circle
+ y +z = a
2
2
,
x=y.
2303*. Find the area of the
cylinder y
surface
lateral
the parabolic
of
= 0, x~0, 2 = x, = 6.
//
ae cos?,
2304. Find the arc length of the conic screwline C x
sin /, z
ae from the point 0(0, 0, 0) to the point A (a, 0, a).
2305. Determine the mass of the contour of the ellipse
1
y = ae*
2
2
yi
T2
= l,
if
it
at each
point
M (x,
y) is
equal to \y\.
2306. Find the mass of the first turn of the screwline A; = a cos/,
y = asmt, zbt, if the density at each point is equal to the
radius vector of this point.
2307. Determine the coordinates of the centre of gravity of
a halfarc of the cycloid
x = a(t
sin
/),
y = a(\
cost)
[0</<ji].
first
Type
J (x
AB
2
parabola y = x from the point
2311.
(2a
y)dx
xdy,
^4(1,
where C
to
1)
is
an
AB
is
the
point
arc
an arc
of
of the
B(2,
the
4).
first
/.
(2,
ia)
1)
(Fig. .103):
Om A\
Lim
Sec. 9]
parabola OnA,
b) the
279
Integrals
the axis oi
symmetry
of
which
is
the
of
which
is
the
(/axis;
c)
the parabola
the axis of
OpA,
symmetry
xaxis;
broken line
d) the
e)
OBA\
OCA.
2313.
2xydx ^x dy
as in
Problem 2312.
OA
(x+u)dx
(x
x*
+ y*
i/)dy
counterclockwise.
Fig.
2315.
103
is
x^acost, y =
2316.
cosydxsmxdy
x!f(l'
2317.
dll}
^*
(f
where C
angle,
is
is
if
the
AB
of the
abscissa oi the
2.
the righthand
loop
ol
the
lemmscate
co$2(p traced counterclockwise.
2318. Evaluate the line integrals with respect to expressionswhich are total differentials:
r*
(a. 4)
8)
(2.
a)
rt
xdy \ydx,
(2,
f
(1.
c)
i)
$
(0, 0)
1)
1)
ydx
d)
b)
(O r
2)
(i.
xdx + ydy,
2)
xdy
,
(along a path
that
does
not
intersect the
280
(x, y)
dx + dy
x ~ry
f
J
e)
f)
p a th
ong a
^at
[C/t.
not
(joes
intersect
the
= 0),
(a i
___
J/ 2 )
q>
J
(*;, </0
integrands and
0)
(3,
a)
of the
(x<
+ 4xy') dx 4
(6x
5#
dy
(2, 1)
o)
(i,
* J ~~~ y
b)
!
x
1)
(0,
straight line y
(,
C)
1)
y)
= x),
(x+Wx + ydy
(the integration
j
a.
i)
(0,
\V
X
!
x*
0)
2320.
+ y*
x),
yA
J
fix
\}^xZ + y
fat
Compute
/=.
xdx + yfy
X*
ellipse 5
+ ^=!
that
lies in
function and
b)
c)
du = (2x
du = (3* 2
du =
d)' dtt
if:
+ 3y)dx + (3x4y)dy\
2xy + y
2
)
dx
(x
2xy
+ 3y*) dy\
is
Sec
281
Line Integrals
9]
Evaluate the
curves:
2323.
line
integrals
z)dx+(zx)dy + (x
^ (y
where
tj)dz,
is
turn
c
of the screw line
i
= asin/,
of
the parameter
(p
c
I
;t
/y
is
from
to
the circle
= /?cosacos/,
= /?cosa sin
= ^sina (a = const),
/,
2325.
xydx + yzdy
+ zxdz,
where
OA
is
an
arc
of
the
OA
circle
a)
4.
zdz,
xdx\ydy
]
(1,
0,
3)
(i.
i.
i)
(3,
4.
5)
b)
differentials:
8)
//
dx f 2 x dy

xd\
\
xy dz
\\idij\zdz
rA'..y"
+2
'
(0, 0, 0)
M
^v
d)
yte + mv + 'y**
f
J
(i.
xyz
,
(the
integration
path
is
situated
C. Green's
Formula
\f*
\
if
dx + y [xy +
In
(jc
C bounds
the region S.
K?T?)]
dy,
_ _
Multiple and Line Integrals
282
[C/t.
2 (x?
if)
t
dx +
(x
+ y)
dy,
where C
is the contour of a triangle (traced in the positive direcverlices at the points A (I, 1), fl(2, 2) and C(l, 3).
with
tion)
Verify the result obiained by computing the integral directly.
2329. Applying Green's formula, evaluate the integral
x*y dx
+ xif dy,
where C
2330.
chord
is
Find
the circle x*
is
+ if = R*
traced counterclockwise.
+ y)dx(x
AmBnA
formula.
2331. Find
e* y [y*
dx
(1 f xtj)dy\,
\
if
the points
A and B
AmB
on the #axis, while the area, bounded by the integration
path AmB and the segment AB, is equal to S.
2332*. Evaluate
Consider two cases:
lie
^ifc^f.
when
when
a)
where
= (j)[xcos(X, n)+ysm(X,
n)]ds,
where ds
(1,
is
traced counterclockwise.
0).
fl(0
1),
C(l,
0)
and n
is
and>(0,
2S&
Line Integrals
Sec. 9]
=
=
sin 20
2339*.
of
loop
the
folium
(a>0).
Descartes x*
+if
3zxy
=Q
= axy.
of r
of
(cardioid).
A circle of
2342*.
R and
is
rolling without
outside
sliding along a
n
is an
Assuming that
it.
R and
is
rolling
inside
Assuming that
it.
is
an
integer, find the area bounded by the curve (hypocycloid) described by some point of the moving circle. Analyze the particular
r>
when
case
=j
(astroid).
wards).
2345. Find the work done by an elastic force directed towards
the coordinate origin if the magnitude of the force is proportional to the distance of the point fiom the origin and if the point
of application of the force traces counterclockwise a quarter of
the ellipse
2346.
^s4^i=l
Find
the
lying in the
potential
first
is
point
B(*
b)
Uv
moved
from
quadrant.
of a force R {X, Y, Z\
force over a given path if:
of gravity) and the mate
function
position
y l9
zj
where
jx
(x lt
to
position
*i)'
x=
?,
K=^. Z=*
= const
and
\
_ _
Multiple and Line Integrals
284
X=
c)
force),
x* 4
Sec.
and
k*x, Y
k*y, Z
the initial point of the
+ z = /?
2
2
,
[Ch. 7
where k
k*z,
= const
(elastic
The
'(x,
//,
z)dS=
n
is
f (x,
//,
2)
be a continuous
sum
lim
> 00
fas
.3
where AS/
z/)
(*' y)
dx
dlJ
(a)
Example
where S
is
1.
Compute
0<Jt<l,
<//<!,
00
2. Surface
integral
is
of
00
00
upper edge
obviously
three
times
greater
and
equal to
If P
P(x, //, z), Q
Q (*, y, z),
continuous functions and S + is a side of the smooth surface S characterized by the direction of the normal n
{cos a, cos p, cos Y}. t'hen
ihe corresponding surface integral of the second type is expressed as follows:
R = R(x,
y, z) are
P dy dz + Q
dz
dx+ R
dx
dy=
f f
(P cos a
f
cos p
+ R cos Y) dS.
Sec. 10]
285
Surface Integrals
When we pass to the other side, S~, of the surface, this integral reverses sign.
then the direcIf the surface 5 is represented implicitly, F (x, y, z)
0,
tion cosines of the normal of this surface are determined from the formulas
1
OF
COSBQ^
COSa==pr^,
D dx
dF
FT^
D dy
COS VT
OF
rr T
dz
where
should
be
formula.
Stokes'
R = R(x,
y, z) are
(j)
dQ\
= rr\fdR
3 5 1
dz
\
JJ l\dy
5
c s
Id?
dR\
Tdx
+
3
^\dt
fi
cos a
l
+
^
,
dP\
fdQ
T
32
\dx
dy J
cos v
y
dS,

where cos a, cos p, cosy are the direction cosines of the normal to the surface S, and the direction of the normal is defined so that on the side of the
normal the contour S is traced counterclockwise (in a rigiithanded coordinate
system).
$$ (*
tf)dS, where S
first
is
type:
2
{z
= a*.
2348.
5$
Vx
s.
\tfdS
where 5
is
the
surface
lateral
the
of
+ g_?6 i= =0 [O^z^bl
cone
\ \
integrals
of
is
the
external
=Q
2350.
= 0, x+y + z = a.
Nzdxdy, where S
is
x dydz\y*dzdx + z*dxdy,
2351.
o
where S
is
+? =
2
the
2
a (z
side of the surface of the hemisphere
+//
2352. Find the mass ot the surface of the cube
Os^z
1, if the surface density at the point
Is equal to xyz.
O^y^l,
<
0,
A:
external
^0).
O^x^l,
M (x,
y, z)
_ _
Multiple and Line Integrals
286
[C/i.
2
2
homogeneous parabolic envelope az^je + #
Find
2354.
the
moment
(0<z<a).
inertia of a part
of
=V
the lateral
of
< <
x 2 f y 2 [0
z
about the zaxis.
surface of the cone z
ft]
2355. Applying Stokes* formula, transform the integrals:
2
(x
a)
 yz) dx + (y
zx)
dy +
(z
xy) dz\
c
b)
(j)
ydx\zdy + xdz.
(f (y
where
the circle
is
2357.
x)dy +
z)dx^(z
(y
JC
//
(x
y)dz, where
is
the ellipse
X + 2=l.
=1,
2358. ()xdx
c
//
(a, 0, 0),
is
C (0,
(0, a, 0),
0, a).
equal to zero?
Sec.
If
=Q
thMr
is
closed
R=
(A% y, z),
first partial
(x, y, z),
(/,
e)
Applying the OstrogradskyGauss formula, transform the following surface integrals over the closed surfaces S bounding the
>ec.
11]
287
xydxdy+yzdydz \zxdzdx.
2362.
J J
6
x 2 dy dz +
y* dz
dx
+z
d* dy.
2363.
2o65.
the external
is
2366.
of a
\ \
cube
is
= a,
= Q,y = Q,
z=0.
2367.
x*
dydz\if dzdx
= z* dxdy,
where 5
the
is
external
2368
~a
cos p + 2
2
^(jc cosat y
//
2
z
cos
y)
d5,
where S
is
the exter
if
is
closed
surface
and
is
any
fixed
where n
=
3
V bounded by
the
of
the outer
288
[Ch. 7
surfaces f
t/,
(x,
fields.
= /(/>) = /(*,
= C, where
y, z)
z),
C=
where
is
(x, y, z)
field.
~~~'
dx__dy _dz
scalar or vector
'ry;

that
field
where
"
V = ^3+y^ + ^y
is
does
t
time,
depends on the
t. The
Gradient.
Th vector
it
if
stationary;
~
it
Hamiltonian operator
the
or
(del,
called
is
nabla),
is
dn~~
If
the direction
is
\dx
given
=
(the derivative of the function
3. Divergence and rotation.
+ ay j+a z k
the scalar
is
The rotation
in
cos
 cos p +
a+
the direction
The divergence
diva^ +
/).
of a vector field
is
the integral
an dS =
a (P)
~ a^i
\~
+ ^^Va.
a (P) = ax + ay j + az k
cosy
is
the
vector
da
y
da z
to the surface
then
an dS
\
\
(ax cos
a  a
cos p
through a surfaces
ujcosa, cos p, COSY}
+ az cos Y) dS.
which
289
Sec. 12]
in vector
form
is
ff
(\
r\
r*
div
vector
f a
dr =
a s ds
a dx dy
dz.
The
of a Held.
integral of the
line
the formula
a x dx
f
a dy f a z dz
y
(0
curve
the
(a s is
the
adr=
f f
rotadS,
/i
where n is the vector of the normal to the surface S; the direction of the
vector should be chosen so that for an observer looking in the direction of n
the circulation of the contour C should be counterclockwise in a righthanded
coordinate system.
6.
tial
Potential
and solenoidal
fields.
The
vector
iield
a(r)
is
called poten
if
U,
the potential
is a
a dr
(B)
U (A);
AB
in
a = 0;
If
is
equal to zero:
m adr=Q.
vector field a (r) is called solenoidal if at each point of the field div
in this case the flux of the vector through any closed surface is zero.
the field is at the same time potential and solenoidal, then div (grad U)=.Q
"Er++5<>.
is
or
harmonic;
AU=0
'
that
where
is,
it
satisfies the
Laplace
A= *'=;+>+> isthe
Laplacian operator
where
U = F(Q),
101900
\fx*+y*\z*.
where
What
290
_ _
Multiple and Line Integrals
[Ch. 7
U = arc sin
a)
+ C K) = C
gTad(UV) = Ugrad
grad (t/ = 26/ grad
grad(C
i/
gradf/
+C
gradV, where C,
and
C2
are constants;
b)
c)
j\
d)
V grad(/ U
AfU\ =*
grad
e)
grad
(^ J
<p ((/)
cp' (t7)
grad U.
b)
r\
c)
+ +
d) /(r)(r
= /?+^qr?).
a constant vector.
z)
U = ^ + y^ + ~ala
what case
of
the
function
U=
in the di
constants;
b) div (i/c)
c)
= grad /, where c is
div((/a) = grad Ua+ (/diva.
2382. Evaluate
di
where
for the
central
are
a constant vector;
vector
field
a(P)
= /(r)~
Sec.
12]
291
a)
2)
are
constants;
b)
c)
2385.
if
is
a constant vector.
is,
velocity <o about some axis passing through the coordinate origin.
2388. Evaluate the divergence and rotation of the gradient of
the scalar field U.
2389. Prove that div(rota)
0.
2390. Using the OstrogradskyQauss theorem, prove that the
flux of the vector a
r through a closed surface bounding an
arbitrary volume v is equal to three times the volume.
2391. Find the flux of the vector r through the total surface
2
of the cylinder # 2
</? 2 0<e<//.
//
2392. Find the flux of the vector a
x*i
y*j+z*k through:
j<f^,
force
F=
of a
mass w, located
point of
at the coordinate
origin,
to
2n.
2395. Using Stokes' theorem, evaluate the circulation of the
vector a
zk along the circumference x* + if
x*tfi
R 2 z=0,
2
2
jt
taking the hemisphere z
J/"/?
if for the surface.
2396. Show that if a force F is central, that is, it is directed
/
+j+
F = f(r)r,
this
of the field.
a=
equation
10*
~r. Show
satisfies the
Laplace
_ _
Multiple and Line Integrals
292
(Ch. 7
2398. Find out whether the given vector field has a potential
find
if the potential exists:
and
a)
b)
c)
a
a
a=
U,
when
= ~,
f(r)
where k
is
a = r(cxr)
= /(r)rwill
be so
constant.
be solenoidal (where c
VIII
Chapter
SERIES
Sec.
1.
Number Series
is
called convergent
if
its
>
(1)
tt
sum
The quantity
oo.
S=
lim S n
n + oo
is
number
is
partial
2a
n\
If
Sn
is
QO
n*oo
The converse
not true.
For convergence of the series (1) it is necessary and sufficient that
such that for n
any positive number e it be possible to choose an
and for any positive p the following inequality is fulfilled:
is
(Cauchifs test).
The convergence or divergence
subtract a finite
number
of
2.
Tests of convergence
a)
Comparison
test
*!
I.
of
series
is
not
violated
if
for
>N
we add
or
terms.
its
and divergence
<a,,<6 n
If
+ *,+ ..
of positive series.
after a certain n
n
+*,!+. ..^
and the
series
(2)
converges, then the series (1) also converges. If the series ( J) diverges, then
(2) diverges as well.
It is convenient, for purposes
of comparing series, to take a geometric
progression:
00
2 aq
n=o
n
(a
0),
294
[Ch. 8
Series
which converges
which
is
^<land
for
\q\^\, and
diverges for
divergent series.
Example
The
1.
series
++
J_
"~n2 n
2*'
n=i
whose ratio
Example
is
<7
The
2.
converges.
series
diverges, since
of
b)
its
In
ln_3
ln_2
general term
is
/i
greater than
the
term
corresponding
Comparison
test
II.
there
If
exists a finite
and
nonzero
limit
lim ?
y. b
n
n if
(in
particular,
the
same time.
Example 3. The
series (1)
and
series
diverges, since
1"
Example
4.
The
term
n J
diverges.
series
_J_
_J
converges, since
term
converges.
(2)
converge or diverge
at
Sec. 1]
c)
__
Number
D'Alembert's
Let
test.
>
an
295
Series
certain
(after
n)
and
there be
let
a limit
l =
lim
n
Then the
it
not
is
<
if q
the series
known whether
Example
5.
an
> GO
q.
and
1,
diverges
if
>
If
1.
<7
1,
then
convergent or not.
is
1+1+1+
2
2
'
22
Solution. Here,
and
?H =
lim
Then
(1)
converges
if
q<\,
let
there
> OD
and diverges
if
remains open.
e) Cauchy's integral test. If a n
f(n), where the function f (x)
rnonotomcally decreasing and continuous for jc^a^l, the series
be a limif
n/~ =
the question
is
(1)
positive,
and the
integral
00
"
/ (x)
dx
By means
converges
of
series
if
p>
may
1,
be
and diverges
tested
by
it
may
series (3)
Example
6.
^"
UL + L+
Solution.
We
*
1
r "'
i
have
1
~
Dirichlet series
__1_1
J^
4/i
'
__
296
[Ch. 8
Series
comparison
+ fll+...,
l+..
composed
values of the
of the absolute
(4)
converges,
But if (1) con
(1),
<
lim
> oo
gence of
But
(4).
n
(4)
?2_J
lim
if
GO
/KI<
lim
or
0n
>
(1)
or
not
does
1.
from
follow
lim
/\a n
n > oo K
\>
1,
the
diver
*!*
conditions
the following
are
(*^0)
+*3 **+
fulfilled:
1)
(5)
^ b ^b
bl
^.
(5)
bn
lim
2)
then
oc
converges.
remainder
of
Rn
the series
the evaluation
holds.
Example
7.
Solution. Let us
form a series of
the
absolute
values
o!
the
terms of
this series:
Since
lim
lim
I
oo
Example
8.
The
series
*
4
44
This series
__
Sec
Number
/\
Series
297
diverges despite the fact that its general term tends to zero (here, of course,
the monotonic variation of the absolute value of the general term has been
S 2k = S'k + S"k
and
S k = cc(S k
lim
k 
Sk
lim
limit
fe
exists
is
a partial
and
sum
finite (S k
is
where
of the
a
is
harmonic
partial
sum
series),
whereas the
*
S 2fe =oo.
lim
k
> 00
On
the other hand, the Leibniz test is not necessary for the convergence
series: an alternating series may converge if the absolute
value of its general term tends to zero in nonmonotonic fashion
Thus, the series
of
an alternating
.22
~3 a
42
~~'""(2n
1)'
converges (and it converges absolutely), although the Leibniz test is not fulfilled: though the absolute value of the general term of the series tends to
zero, it does not do so monotonically.
4. Series with complex terms A series with the general term c n a n
00
z
]ib n (i
1)
converges
and only
if,
if,
the
series
with
real
terms
an
n=i
00
and
2&,, conver g e
n
a*
same time;
the
SC
n=i
=S=
n
that
is,
convergent series
and
of the
may
8
i
be
+'2Xn =
(6)
is
+a
(6),
+...+fl n + ...=S
if
the
converges.
termwise by
if
a,
then
in this case
any
number
fc;
__
298
Series
b)
sum
the
By
two convergent
(difference) of
fli
[Ch.
series
+ flt+..+fl n +...=5
+ *,+ .. .+*+...=$,
(7)
If
(8)
*!
we mean
a series
+ (a
bl)
(a,
c)
The product
of
b z)
If
verges
d)
terms
verges
cn
the series
= a,bn + a AI +
+ (a n
(7)
and
bn )
=S,
S2
the series
is
(8)
+ c>+...+cn +...
+0M = 2
cl
where
*>
(9)
the series (7) and (8) converge absolutely, then the series (9) also conabsolutely and has a sum equal to S S 2
If a series converges absolutely, its sum remains unchanged when the
of the series are rearranged. This property is absent if the series conconditionally.
.
term
/ith
of the series
using
2401.
1+1+J + I+...
2404.
i+4 + j+^+...
2402.
1+1+1+1+"
2405.
2403.
1+1 + 4 + 4+..
+ +
+ ~4
2406.
4+*.+ ^+...
f+{ + + +
2407.
2409.
2410.
1+
H
 14 ~
1
+...
I
2411. a n
2412.
2413
q^.
2414. a n
2415
\*
din*. a
t^.
flrt
Test the following series for convergence by applying the comparison tests (or the necessary condition):
2416.
+1
+ ...+(
1)'
...
Number
2418.
+ +
0419
J___1_
444^
^
4 ^ 6
2422.
++
2421.
'
'
4^
I
'
2i
'
'
'
'
...
= + =f =
+
^34
... 4'
1/23
02
2423. 2
299
Series
]fn
(n
+ \)
O"
OJ
+ + y+...
i
+=;+..
'
4 J/3
3 V'2
Using d'Alembert's
(n
test
lest,
the
gence:
2427.
98
*'
l=
2
1
!
15
''}
^ 159

"
following
2 "~'
+ 4 4^ +...'
11)
'
'
'
15 9. ..(4/i3)
2431.
1+1 + 1+...+1+...
1 + 1 + 1+ ..+
_
1
2432.
((H
2433
r4+4T7 + 7no+
)2
r/lo/
^TtjO
+...
+(3n2M3n+l
...
^ + 1 + ^+...+^+...
^
.'^
J_
i
_X.
9
^
j_
__________
l
bones
for
conver
300
Series
2439.
+ +
+...
2440.
1+
+...
[Ch.
++...
2441>
2442.
1++.+
1,
4
13.5
3,
1jT
...
4^M2~*"
1.3.5.. .(2/11)
'
""
4812...4n
2445.
""
2.58...(6 n
!. 5.9...
2447
7)(6g4)
+2n)
"
(8_H)(8n 7)
...
I,
' 4
1 '
4'9
^^ 1.3.5.7.9
....^ '""
2449
2450.
2451.
149.
..
""*
'
arcsin.
2455.
sin.
2456.
3)
!,
i=J
2452
152.
Ulnfl+l).
^
\
n J
2457.
,.
~
^
ri'lnnln In n
00
2453.
yin^i.
2458.
/J=2
2454
E '
2459
STTOTJ
Number
Sec. 1]
2464.
Series
cos2)
^
p>l,
p<l,
if
and
for
?>1,
if
p=l;
p=l.
(_ni
2470.
l
2471.
2472.
l_ + _... +
2473.
l_
2474
+ ....uif...
  + /2
K3
..
+ 3_... + (^S +
"
'
...
^ . +(!)
2475.
__
2476.
   ^h...+
+ _. ..+(_!)
^
7=4
2^2
.^+...
7=4
3^3
4^41
n+\
{)
(n
947Q
"'
l_k!JlL_
7
7.9~t"7.9.11
i
"TV
ii'
U
\)
302
[Ch. 8
Series
na
sin
2481.
2482.
(_l)"l^,
ly'tan
n^i
Vn
2a
where
>
verge absolutely:
a)'
___
_J
_1_
'
^\
d)
i_
+y
*~
+ 21
.j;
r
3F
"
"L
32
h 5
3?+
__u
"
'
'
'
3*
_
_
T _l + T T + TT T +...
!
00
^2+#.
2485.
2488.
00
2486,
00
(2 '
X" 7
1=1
V.
1)
''.
2489.
=i
__
Sec.
Number
1]
Series
{/
= X?
r(2Q + 1"
l
'
[n(3203ij
fa
2493. Between the curves
and
y=^
X
and
303
the right
to
of their point of
to the t/axis at
of
Problem 2493 be
in
curve y
=
X
curve \)^\
x
finite if the
is
by the
replaced
?
00
Form
2495.
Does
sum
the
^^ and
the series
of
sum converge?
this
00
2496.
Form
the
anc*
* es *
and
difference
2497.
]T
Does
the
formed
series
by
the
subtracting
series
00
TT
divergent
series
QC
the
for convergence.
'*
rt
of
sef i es
f
21
n
converge?
CC
2499.
Does
Form
the product
of the
QC
V
~nVn
series
and V.OTTM2
tt
2500.
Form
the series
(l
+1 + 1+
..
+ J~f
V.
Does
1+1 1+
...+
(

^+...
Estimate
the error committed when replacing the sum of this series with
the sum of the first four terms, the sum of the first five terms.
What can you say about the signs of these errors?
2502*. Estimate the error due to replacing the sum of the
series
y+
by the sum
2!
(2")
of its first
+"
_ __
304
[Ch. 8
Series
2503. Estimate
the
error
the
of
series
by the
sum
JL LLLl.
4
^2M3M
of its first
4
"+/i!^"'
the
sum
of the
series
1
sum
+ 22 + 32+
+^i+
'
by the
of its first
racy of such
series
1
by the
sum
+ 2(i)'43()V.
of
its
first
n terms.
00
Zl
_ I)""
n=i
take to compute
decimals?
to
2507.
sum
its
How many
two decimal
to
terms of
the series
(2/1
its
sum
to
to
places?
MIS*
three
does one
to three?
to four?
2508*. Find
the
sum
sum
the
of
series
L +
gL + jL
..
of the series
argument x
for
which
converges
is
+ /.(*)+.. .+M*)+...
S(*)
=
n
where S n
(x)
vergence,
is
of the series.
fl
(x)
+f
called the
lim
Sn
(1)
The function
(x),
* QO
the
(x) is
Sec. 2]
In
_ _
305
Functional Series
the
cases,
simplest
it
(1), to
convergence of a series
holding x constant.
is
sufficient, when determining the region of
apply to this series certain convergence tests,
Diverges
,%f?
3101
1.
104
Fit*.
Example
Diverges
of
of the series
convergence
x+\
'
we
lim
M *
\U n
Using d'Alembert's
we
get the
we have
'<!
that
l,
is,
harmonic
the
*'* *
lim I'+H
Jx+l\
2
n^*2 n + (n+\) jc
series
that
series
+ ~
(c n
and a are
gence)
a

+ c, (Aa) + c
real
<
1< x <
or
To +...,
converges (conditionally).
Thus, the scries converges when
2. Power series. For any power
c
3<x<l;
if
is,
+ TT+Q+..
o
2
2,
test)
have
'
oo<^<
if
will
we can
test,
if
absolutely),
11
(*
t
oo
the
series diverges,
104).
(Fig.
When x=l
which
(in
if
x=
accord
3^*<1.
series
fl)'+
+c n (x
B
fl)
(3)
R with
>
a
R the series diverges. In special cases, the
converges absolutely; for \x
and oo. At the endpoints of
radius of convergence R may also be equal to
a
the interval of convergence x
R, the power series may either converge
or diverge. The interval of convergence is ordinarily determined with the
help of the d'Alembert or Cauchy tests, by applying them to a series, the
terms of which are the absolute values of the terms of the given series (3).
Applying to the series of absolute values
\
the convergence tests of d'Alembert and Cauchy, we get, respectively, for the
radius of convergence of the power series (3), the formulas
=
lim
n 
rt*
and
# = Hm

"/c,,
too
'
However, one must be very careful in using them because the limits on the
right frequently do not exist. For example, if an infinitude of coefficients cn
306
__
Series
\Ch. 8
vanishes [as a particular instance, this occurs if the series contains terms
with only even or only odd powers of (x a)], one cannot use these formulas.
It is then advisable, when determining the interval of convergence, to apply
the d'Alembert or Cauchy tests directly, as was done when we investigated
the series (2), without resorting to general formulas for the radius of convergence.
z
If
= x + ty
is
zZo)
(cn = a n + ib n
for the
series
power
n
(4)
z
<R
Jt
f/f/
whose terms are absolute values of the terms of the given series. Thus, for
example, by means of the d'Alembert test it is easy to see that the circle of
convergence of the series
""
""
22 2
12
~~"'~~
3.2 s
~""'
n .2*
is determined by the inequality zf 1 <2 [it is sufficient to repeat the calculations carried out on page 305 which served to determine the interval of
convergence of the series (2), only here x is replaced by z]. The centre of
the circle of convergence lies at the point z
1, while the radius R of this
circle (the radius of convergence) is equal to 2.
3. Uniform convergence. The functional series (1) converges uniformly on
some interval if, no matter what e
0, it is possible to find an N such that
does not depend on x and that when
for all x of the given interval
we have the inequality R n (x)
where R n (x) is the remainder of the
e,
>
given series.
If
\fn( x )\*f* c n
cn
converges,
(rt=l,
then
the
2,
<
...)
n>N
a^x^b
when
functional
series
(I)
and
number
the
converges
series
on the interval
n\
The power
*) +
+c n (xa)+
then
for
dx+
d (xa) dx+
c2
(xa) dx+
cn
=/(*),
(3),
(5)
we have
=f (x),
(xa) n dx+...=
(6)
Sec. 2]
Functional Series
307
number # also belongs to the interval of convergence of. the series (3)J.
Here, the series (6) and (7) have the same interval of convergence as the
[the
series
(3).
of
convergence
of the series:
2510.
(D'.
2511.
n
n
+I
2512.
jbn
l)"
M=
25.9.
252
2(jzrk
ni
00
O(T
3D
M
x
l^A
^'oMI^fl
v^
2/14^'*'
>
O^vQI
n=i
ri
1
*
=o
nr
2514.
25.5**.
"
2 sin
X^i.
/l
2523.
2516.
2517.
2522
J
(l)"
fI
V^
/I=l
* nMn *.
2524*.
2525.
2p
2532.
30
2528.
yin
X ^rr.
n1
2533.
2529.
n=i
2530.
2534.
'
_^".
2535.
308
Series
[Ch.
CO
OCQA
25<JO.
V>,
^
00
V""
s
;=
\2rtfly
r* .
0**1
>
2551.
^
7^
n
2n4
n=i
CO
+ 5)* n ~
^rr
4
CO
2537.
CO
2553.
(!)
n=i
2 "'
V
X
(3
,n
2539.
^'
2554.
2541.
^1
a=i
2556.
2542**.
2^
nl
xnl
n=i
2557.
+l
21
/I
l)"
>
(AT2)"
/j"
2544*.
2V=1
2558.
2545.
l(
2(l)"" ^r.
n
2559*.
n=o
X(A;
2549.
2 ^S^
2562.
Y.
(3ft
n=
2550.
V n"
(*
3)".
2563.
2)".
Y(
 2)
>"
.^.
!
(n+l) 2"+
l
1)"
309
Functional Series
Sec. 2]
of
convergence:
V W.
V <=gC
2566.
Aarf
^arf
fl.
n=i
n=o
00
2565.
2568.
2567
(1M0 2 ".
'
'
+ 2i) + (1 + 20 (3 h 20 2 +
(1
+ (l+
2569.
+ r=, + (llHI20
+ (10020. ..(l/ii)
9*70
257 2571. Proceeding from the definition of uniform
prove that the series
convergence,
..+*"+...
sum
jc<
of a
geometric
progression,
we
1,
xl^a
and, consequently,
I
*,.(*)
<
_ at"*
/I
(
1
.
;>
To prove the uniform convergence of the given series over the subintervai
it is possible to choose
a, 1
a], it must be shown that for any e >
an N dependent only on e such that for any n > N we will have the ine
[1+
quality
Rn
(x)
<e
is,
Thus>
puttin g
a)
n>N
\R n (x)\
is
indeed
<
+ >
1
[since ln(l
ea
ln
ln(ea)_
when
let
a)<ln(ea), that
(n+l)ln(l
In (1
for all
Ns=s
ln(l
less than
\
a)
e
1,
we
are
a)<0] and
convinced that
x of the subinterval
the given series on any sub
for
all
(
close to Jt=i,
and since
Hm R n (x) = \im
X+1
X+1
 =00,
J/I+
.
no mattei
how
large n
is,
310
_ __
Series
[C/i.
points x will be found for which R n (x) is greater than any arbitrarily large
N we
number Hence, it is impossible to choose an N such that for n
e at all points of the interval (
would have the inequality R n (x)
1, 1),
and this means that the convergence of the series in the interval (
1, 1)
is not uniform.
>
<
finite
interval;
b) the series
x*
converges
(1.
throughout
uniformly
the
of
interval
convergence
i);
c) the series
converges uniformly
positive number;
the
interval
(118,
where 8
co)
is
any
d) the series
2
+ (x* *) +
jc
(x
8
jc ) f
(jc
x 2n+2 )
+ (x "
2
h
1,
converges not only within the interval (
1), but at the extremities of this interval, however the convergence of the series in
(1,
1) is nonuniform.
Prove the uniform convergence
indicated intervals:
00
2573
on the inlerval
I"
'
!]
on
2574.
2^ ~~2~
00
I
2575.
Applying
sums
)"~
T=
termwise
on the interval
differentiation
[0,
and
integration,
of the series:
Y2
V3
y.3
y5
\n
+ ^ + ^+. ..+?+...
x
x * + ...+(l)'*L + .,
, + + +... + _ + ...
2576. x
2577.
2578
yLfl
1].
find
the
__
Taylor's Series
Sec. 3]
v8
2579.
l3*
[5x
2582. 1.2423A;
+
...
2
...+(/+
34A: 4
r 2 "" 1
*
2580.
2581.
311
!)*""'
series:
+++ ++
^ + l+!+...+^L i+...
2586.
/r
\xa\<R
(I)
When
holds
\xa\<R
when
if
Taylor series
as n
oo.
To evaluate
fin (x)
make
<*
f(n
l)
l
fl
(Lagrant*e's form).
Example
f
if
We
X ) =,
smh
even, and
is
x,
(H)
0<0<1
where
(2)
find
f" (x)
)l
Expand
1.
Solution.
fl
=
=
1,
if
is
even, and
(3)
To determine
d'Alembert
the
test.
interval
We
of
convergence
of
the
series
have
lini
n>
oo
(2/1
(3)
we apply the
312
[Ch. 8
Series
.cosh 9*,
R n (x)=
>9>
it
sinh9*,
=^e'*',
X I"*'**
and therefore \R n (x)\^
if
is
odd, and
if
is
even.
e1
series
in
with
accord
the
necessary
Y\ n
^
\
any x
(this is
therefore,
sinh9*
test);
QO<JC<OO. The
follows that
converges for
d'Alembert's
convergence,
interval
n 1
A +
R n (x)=
Since
the
in
(2),
the help of
condition
for
n+l
lim
for
any
x.
sum
of the
/2>00
any x
is
= !++*!+.
series.
(_oo<*<oo),
..+fj+...
II.
III.
IV.
and also the formula for the sum of a geometric progression, it is possible,
in many cases, simply to obtain the expansion of a given function in a power series, without having to investigate the remainder term. It is sometimes
advisable to make use of termwise differentiation or integration when expanding a function in a series. When expanding rational functions in power
series it is advisable to decompose these functions into partial fractions.
On
x=
daries.
>
>
m^
m^O
x\
313
Taylor's Series
Sec. 3]
Example
Expand
2.
in
powers
of x *) the function
into
fractions,
partial
we
will have
Since
(4)
and
2
V^
^^ ... _
^^
\\j
1
n<l n x. n
fi
A>
(5)
n =o
it
follows that
we
finally get
(6)
/i
n=Q
=o
of
*<y;
hence,
3. Taylor's series
two variables /(x,
point
(a,
b)
(4)
n
nQv
and
formula
(5)
converge,
(6)
holds
when
respectively,
for
x<j
x
i.e.,
= = 0,
is
when
...
fc
If a
notation
<
the
Taylor
series
is
then called
Maclaunn's
series.
(7)
Here the
as follows:
,
y)
(X
x=a
!l=t>
~
d*f(x,y)
a)
dx*
+2
*)
dy*
~W
and so
forth.
314
(Ch. 8
Series
The expansion
occurs
(7)
if
fe=l
as n
* oo.
in the
form
n+i
where
0<0<
1.
2589. cos(*
2
2590. sin *.
(a>0).
9*a sin
cin^riM
* rr
Jooo.
,,>*
+ a).
/^
Making use
2592.
2593.
X2
*7
~4X
2594. xe~*
2598. cos
7^rJT2
5
*.
2599. sin 3*
,.
+ * cos 3*.
2600.
2595. e \
2601.
2596. sinh*.
2602. In
*
.
2597. cos2*.
2603. In
(1
,v
f*
2*
).
the
Applying
expand
following functions in
powers of *, and indicate the intervals in which these expansions
differentiation,
occur:
2604.
(l+*)ln(l+*).
_
+*
2607. In (x
V\
).
various
the
functions
in
techniques, expand
given
Applying
powers of * and indicate the intervals in which these expansions
occur:
+O~
(1
2613
'
2614
cosh8
*'
Sec
315
Taylor's Series
3}
2615. ln(x
+ 3x + 2).
in/i_L.^/*v
+ *)**
rMl
2618.
J.
2616.
f'Jl
dx.
2619.
2617.
^L_
"* z ^"
*4
where
is
2627.
the
eccentricity
and 2a
is
the
major axis
of
the
ellipse.
tenary
J line
2628.
powers
f
2*
5*
in
series
of
of * 4.
2629.
powers
function
the
y^a
parabola
Expand
is
of
4*
f(*)5*
3* +2.
in a series of
Expand f(x+h)
h
in a
powers of *
series of powers of *
in a
series of
2630.
Expand In*
2631.
Expand
2632.
Expand
Xz
in a series of
powers
of
1.
1.
*+l.
2633.
2634.
2635.
Expand
X2
~Y~
oX
in a series of
~\~ JL
Expand
Expand
e* in a
4jc
Expand cos*
2638.
2
Expand cos *
2639*.
Expand In*
of
powers
*f4.
powers of x
series of powers of * + 2.
a series of powers of *
4.
7
in a series of
in a series of
in a series of
powers
of
powers
of
*
j
in a series of
powers
_^
of
^^.
TJ
2.
316
[Ch. 8
Series
2640.
*
Expand
in a series of
of
powers
2641.
What
is
the
the
of
magnitude
error
we put appro
if
ximately
^2 + 1 + 1 + 1?
To what degree of accuracy
if we make use of the series
2642.
ber
we
will
of
its
five
first
*
O
x=l?
to three decimals
we have
num
..,
terms when
series of
cosAr=l
calculate the
powers
of
by expand(see
Exam
j+...,
2645.
How many
+...,
have to be taken to
2647.
How many
find the
number
to four
decimal places?
do we have
to take to calculate
cimals?
In 2
to
__
2648. Calculate \/7 to two decimals by expanding the funcx in a series of powers of x.
tion l/S
2649. Find out the origin of the approximate formula
\/ (f{x&a
a = 5,
+ ~
(a>0), evaluate
it
by means
of
Y^3
putting
317
Taylor's Series
Sec. 3]
X&X
2653. Evaluate
to four decimals.
y^dx
1
^e~* dx
2654. Evaluate
to four decimals.
2655. Evaluate
2656. Evaluate
dx to three decimals.
2657. Evaluate
j^l+^'dx
decimals.
to four
1/9
2658. Evaluate
^yxe*dx
to three decimals.
of
2663*.
664 *
\n(lxy+xy).
arctan
j/_
2662*.
\=*!!.
\+xy
2665. f(x, y)
wers of
ft
2666.
function
*:=
4
ft,
2667.
2668.
~*y
and
/(*,
= ax*\2bxy + cy*.
k.
y)
= x*
2y*
+ 3xy.
Find
the values
the
#=1,
increment
f/
=2
to the
of
this
values
y=2 + k.
Expand
Expand
2.
the function e x+y in powers of x 2 and y
the function sin(x+y) in powers of x and
__
Series
318
[C/i.
in
2670.
*'
(H*)
let
1. Dirichlet's theorem.
conditions in an interval
1)
is
We
uniformly bounded;
is
satisfies the
the function
f (x)
b)
if,
in this interval,
that
is
\f(x)\^M when
(a,
<x<
b,
Dirich
where
constant;
2)
of
all
them
the function
are
a
the
of
number
finite
kind
first
f (x)
of
points
of
[i.e.,
at
each
the
0)=
left f (g
discontinuity and
g
discontinuity
Urn f (I
e) and a
~"
finite limit
+ e)
(e>0)J;
e >o
f(x)=?+ a, cos x + b
sin
+a
2*+
+a n cos nx +
+ b n sinnx+...,
where the Fourier
coefficients
ji
=
JT
J\
(1)
ji
f(x)cosnxdx(n = Q,
1,
...);&=
2,
JI
n
jt
If x is
a point' of discontinuity, belonging to the interval (
of a
jt, n),
function f (,v), then the sum of the Fourier series S (x) is equal to the arithmetical mean of the left and right limits of the function:
SM = ~
At the endpoints
of the interval
2. Incomplete Fourier
s=/(jc)], then in
formula
series.
If
n and X = K,
a function
/ (*)
is
even
(1)
6 rt
0
(w
2,
...)
and
ji
/"=^
= 0,
1,2,
...).
[i.
e.,
/(
x)
a function
If
319
Fourier Series
Sec. 4]
odd
is
/ (x)
/(
[i.e.,
and
x)
an
then
/ (*)],
=Q
t/i
= 0,
2 ...)
i,
IT
bn
=~
nx dx
/ (x) sin
J\
JT
(n
2,
. .
.).
function specified in an interval (0, n) may, at our discretion, be contior an odd function; hence,
in the interval (
Jt, 0) either as an even
it may be
expanded in the interval (0, Ji) in an incomplete Fourier series
of sines or of cosines of multiple arcs.
3. Fourier series of a period 21. If a function f (x) satisfies the Dirichlet
the discontinuities
conditions in some interval (
/,
/) of length 2/, then at
of the function belonging to this interval the following expansion holds:
nued
r,
=a +
y
ju
/(*)
fli
cos
J
2nx
juc
+ &! stay +a
,
cos
j
2nx
+ b sm+..,
.
nnx
nnx
where
M
 dx
flllX
f (x)
cos
= 0,
/v
(/i
1,
2,
...),
(2)
6n
= L
\f(x)sln^dx(n=\,
'
2,
i
At the points
xl
an arbitrary interval
formulas
(2)
(a,
af2/) of
length
the
2/,
limits
of
integration
in
functions in a Fourier
determine the sum of the series
the following
in the
the points
of discontinuity and at the endpoints of the interval (x
ic,
X
function itself and of the sum
JT), construct the graph of the
of the corresponding series [outside the interval (
JT, ji) as well]:
Q
x
when ~~ n
Expand
interval
ji,
ji),
series
at
< ^
xr
Consider
c)
fl
= 0,
the
1;
2673. f(x)
2674. f(x)
2675. f(x)
2679.
=x
= eax
= slnax.
(0,
=~
bx when
special cases:
0.
d) a=l, 6
2
Expand
the interval
ct
>
a)
= b = l\
2676. / (x)
2677. f(x)
2678. f (x)
2ji).
1,
b)
1,
6=1;
= cos ax.
= smhax.
= cosh ax.
jr
in
a Fourier
series
in
320
Series
2680.
in the interval
number
Expand
=~
in sines of
(Ch. 8
multiple arcs
n).
(0,
__
to
sum
the
series:
expansion obtained:
I+P+P+...
Find the sums of the following number series
2682. f(x) = x
by means of the expansion obtained:
2
1)
2683. f(x)
+7)2+ 32+
= eax
2684.
2^"
32
42
"!"
when
/(*)=
when
^
x when
x when
ji
2687. f(x)
2688.
2)
(x
=
0<;c^~
*
functions, in the
when
0<#^^,
when
~n < x < n.
x(n
interval
(0,
K),
in
x).
= sin.
/(A;)
(0,
Ji),
in co
Sec. 4\
__
321
Fourier Series
2690.
when
2691. / (x)
= x sin x.
cos x
when
cos x
when
< x^ ~
?L
Ji,
and
in
x}
if
x\
f(~
then
its
n) represents an expansion
if
the interval
Ji,
odd
is
is
it
Ji)
is
Fourier series in
in cosines of
arid
/fyf *) =/
expanded
in
the
interval
odd multiple
(y~*)
sines
of
arcs,
then
odd mul
tiple arcs.
f(x)
= \x\
f(x)=*2x
f(x)
!<*<!).
(0<JC<
1).
= e* (/<*</).
f(jc)=10
Jt
(5<jc<15).
(0<*<
2699. /(*)=!
*
2700. /(*)
2701.
1).
(Q<x<l).
2702.
/M{ 2 _; ^n
2703.
T
(3
'
in
cosines
\
:
when <jr<2,
3_j^ when 2<jc<3.
1
111900
of
multiple
Chapter IX
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
where y
Differential
Equations
of
Families of
of the type
(n)
y'
t/)
= 0,
(1)
Solution.
We
have:
and, consequently,
/"
+y
sin x f sin x
The integral
*/,
Cp
....
Cw
0.
(2)
of the differential equation (1), which contains n independent arbitrary constants C t ..., C n and is equivalent (in the given region) to equation (1), is
called the general integral of this equation (in the respective region). By assigning definite values to the constants C,, ..., C n in (2), we get particular
,
integrals.
if we have a
family of curves
C n from the system of equations
Conversely,
eters Cj
= 0,
dx
0.
....
(2)
and eliminate
the param
*0,
dx n
we, generally speaking, get a differential equation of type (1) whose general
integral in the corresponding region is the relation (2).
Example 2. Find the differential equation of the family of parabolas
y^C^xCJ.
Solution. Differentiating equation
/'
= 2C
(*
C 2)
(3)
(3)
twice,
and
C 2 from
(/"
we
get:
= 2C,.
equations
(4)
(3)
and
(4),
we obtain
Sec
It
is
Verifying Solutions
function
to
easy
323
converts
(3)
this
equation
identity.
2. Initial conditions.
differential equation
y
for the
If
= f(x,
(n)
y, y'
into
= y(x)
(n ~ l)
an
of a
(5)
are given
y = <V(x,
then the
arbitrary constants
of
Cn
(5)
are determined
(if
this
which y(0)
y'(0)
have:
l.
We
Solution.
of the
family
in
formulas
(6)
2.
i/
Putting #
possible)
C lt .... C B ),
c ..... c ).
<?*(*<>.
*,
for
is
cp(*o,
</o=
3.
C, .....
...,
equation
C n ),
equations
</
Example
C lt
of
'=
and
(6)
1=0,
we obtain
(7),
2C
+ ^,
(?)
2C 2
whence
(:,=(),
and, hence,
C,=
= e~.
2707.
2708.
2709.
2710.
t2
(jc
= 5x*.
t/
= x*
h
//)
djc h
JK
dy
= 0,
= ^=^
+ = 0, = 3sinjc 4 cos*.
~? +
= 0, x = C, cos <o/ 4 C sin CD/.
2j/'+0 = 0; a) y = xe* b) y = x
#"
//
(/
^/
a) jc
(X.
y^*
Show
X/
2
2711. (x
f
e.
11*
//
//
differential
equations
the
indicated
_ _
324
Differential Equations
2712. (x
2713. (xyx)y"
Form
differential
C lt
+ xy' + yy'
equations
Q,
2y'
y
\n(xy).
of the given families
(C,
C,, C, are arbitrary constants):
Cx.
2714. y
=
=
272l
9718
ii&.
971Q
2719.
n *.=
9799
*722.
yr
2724.
2720.
2726.
Form
thej
+ay
0, y .)'2p*
*
y
*.
curves
of
a parameter).
</'
#//plane.
'
+ = <:'.
2717. *'
2715. y
Cx*.
2716. *>=.2C*.
[Ch. 9
</
2725.
differential
=
=
equation of
the
equation of
equation
of
all
with
parabolas
circles
all
in
the
xyplane.
=
y=(C^
=
the
lines
that
satisfy
= 0,
y'
where f(x, y)
consider the
= f(*.
of
of
(i)
</).
form
x'=e(*,y)>
$.
(i')
where
gfr
and
(!')
may
0'
and
*'
j^
the
differential
equations
where
and Q
(2)
(x,
or
and
x=ty(y)
(I'),
or
equation
where
325
Sec. 21
is
(2),
is
form
of the
an arbitrary constant.
2. Direction
The
field.
set of directions
tana = /(x,
y)
is
Fig
field of
intagral
105
curves, regarding
the latter
as
field of
curves
integral
The family
By constructing the isoclines x~k (straight lines) and the diwe obtain approximately the field of integral curves (Fig. 105).
of parabolas
2733. y'
2734.
</'
=
=
x.
f
2735. y'=lftf
2736.
y'=
2737. y'
8
.
326
(Ch. 9
Differential Equations
3. Cauchy's theorem.
b < y < B}
If
U\a<x<A,
and
f'y
(*
integral curve of equation (1) passing through a given point
replace the curve by a broken line with vertices M,(x/, #/), where
2.
(i'0,
find (/(I),
if
y(0)=l
(/i
1.
for the
We
t/
),
we
/i
/)
Example
2,
...).
equation
'
0.1).
Thus,
/(!)=
1.248.
For
the
sake
of
comparison,
the
exact
value
is
T ss 1.284
y'x + y, /(!)
2740. ^'
2741.
= X_,
t/(0)
1;
find y(2),
= 2;
, y(Q)=l;
find </(!)
find y(l)
= 0.1).
= 0.1).
(A
= 0.2).
(A
(/t
Sec. 3]
Sec.
FirstOrder
3.
Differential
Equations
with
327
Variables
Separable.
Orthogonal Trajectories
An equation with
variables
separable
X (x) Y
(y)
= f(x)dx
y'
= f(x)g(y}
dx
+ X, (x) Y, (y) dy = Q
(1)
(i)
(!')
Whence, by integrating, we
get
the general
by
dx,
we
get
integral of equa
(y)
and integrating,
for
also (as
lines x
some value y
is
yb
'
3>
Solution. Equation
(3)
may
dx~~
and, consequently,
In

In
x\
taken
antilogarithms we get the general solution
In C,
is
+ ln C
in
t
f
where
C=
When
C,.
dividi
dividing
by y
ila
contained in the formula
we could' lose
= 0.(4) for C
'
the solution
=0. but
the
latter
is
328
(Ch. 9
Differential Equations
conditions,
we
get
C = 2;
and,
J2
y ~~
'
with
equations
variables
where u
is
Whence, replacing
if
by
^7,
we
find
the
duerential
106
get
the
differential
equation
orthogonal trajectories
~~
~~
integrating,
we have
*x*
(family
'
it'
of
equa
0.
(/'
Fig.
we
of
the
329
Sec. 3\
OA
dy_
dx~
This
is
y
x
OB~
'
we
get
dy _ ~
~x
~T~~y~
and, consequently,
In
\nx\\ny
Utilizing the initial condition,
curve is the hyperbola xy
6.
Cor xy
C.
we determine C = 32
6.
Hence,
the
desired
= Q.
2743. xy'~ //
{/'.
2744. xyy' =.
= a(l
2745. //
jq/'
x
fan ydx
2746. 3c
2747. y' tan *
//.
\x\
=
+*V). x
+ (l
sec*
ydy = Q.
= y\ny\ y~l
when
=
=
*=
.
satisfy
= Q.
2752. i/
(8*42//+l)'.
2753. (2x + 3{/
l)dx{ (4x
2754. (2x
y)dx (4x 2y
+ fo/

5) dij
= 0.
the
_ _
330
Differential Equations
In
[C/i.
to polar coordinates:
2755.
2756.
2757*. Find a curve whose segment of the tangent is equal
to the distance of the point of tangency from the origin.
2758. Find the curve whose segment of the normal at any
point of a curve lying between the coordinate axes is divided in
two
at this point.
2764. x
2
2765. t/
+ y =a
= ffx.
2
2766. xy
2767. (x
1. Homogeneous equations.
= a.
2
a)
tf/
=a*.
Equations
differential equation
P(x y)dx+Q(x,y)dy =
t
(1)
and by means
it
is
of the substitution y
xu, where u is a new unknown function,
transformed to an equation with variables separable. We can also apply
the substitution
Example
1.
xyu.
Find the general solution
to the equation
Sec. 4]
Solution. Put y
we
Integrating,
get w
ux',
then
f xu'
In In
that reduce to
or
whence
x In In
2. Equations
= eu + u
331
homogeneous equations.
If
'
and 6
I
#2^2
Ue
0,
+ a,
j/
= t;fp,
where
the constants
a and P
+ c, = 0,
a 2a
+ b$ + c = 0,
t
we
2768. 0'
2769.
=1
277
1.
y^^.
(xy)ydxx*dy = Q.
=
+
2773. xdy
\ifdx.
ydx Vx*
2
2
0.
2774. (4x* + 3xy
jf) dy
f/ ) dx + (4y
3jvy
1
2775. Find the particular solution of the equation (x
=
x
2.
2xydy Q, provided that r/=l when
Solve the equations:
2776. (2x
9777 f/./
2/77.
3y*)dx+
beam?
532
_ _
[Ch. 9
Differential Equations
abscissa.
off
2784. Find a curve for which the segment on the yaxis cut
by any tangent line is equal to the abscissa of the point of
tangency.
Sec. 5. FirstOrder Linear Differential
Equations.
Bernoulli's Equation
1. Linear equations. A
)y^Q
form
(1)
(x)
of
(1)
=Q
(2)
y = Ce
P P(X) dx
(3)
^/x f
J
= C(x).e
Example
I.
Solution.
Solving
it
we
x.
C
^ r
*^I
1
(4)
is
333
Bernoulli's Equation
Sec. 5]
Considering
and differentiating, we
as a function of x,
dC
Putting y and y' into
dC
cos*
djc
we
(4),
A
dx
cos x
sin
fi'nd;
~
'
/,x>o2
2
x
cos
get:
sin*
cos 2 *
cos*
dC
r=
or
'
,
dx
whence
Ccos 2 *d*==i* +
of
equation
j
(4)
COS*
In solving the linear equation
we can
(1)
make
also
tion
uv
x.
we require that
'
(1) will
+ v'u^Q(x).
\P(x)u]v
[u
If
(5)
Then equation
(6)
+ P(jc)M = 0,
(7)
then from (7) we find M, and from (6) we find u; hence, from (5)
2\ Bernoulli's equation. A first order equation of the form
y'
+ P (<) y ^ Q
(x)
we
find y.
y\
It
r/
It
reduced to
is
li
also possible to
method
of
variais
tion of parameters.
Example
2.
Solution. This
is
y+*
VH
y=^u>v,
we
ijet
u'v
+ v'u
To determine
uv
+x
the function u
y"uv
we
or
u'
~w0
x
we have
u
u
j
f
v'u
be fulfilled, whence
we
get
x*.
=x
V^taT.
(8)
334
_ _
Differential Equations
whence we
[Cfi.
find v:
is
obtained
in
the form
ax
=*.
x
+ = x*.
2786.
2787*. (\
2788. y*dx(2xy
the
indicated
con
ditions:
+y
2789. X y'
e*
= Q\
y = b when x
1 *
2790. y'
j27
2791. y'
yianx =
= 0;
cos x
*/
y=
= a.
when x0.
when
jt
= 0.
+ JLx =
'
Xyy*
2793. 2xy
x
2794.
0dx +
+x
2795. 3xdy=y(l
sin A:
3y* smx)dx.
2796. Given three particular solutions y,
What
^^
y lt y 2 of a linear
remains unchanged for
any
x.
is
Sec. 6]
335
the
segment
of
intersec
M (0,a).
1. Exact
P(x.y)
the equality
dU
is
:p =^
fulfilled,
dx+Q(x
y)dy = Q
then equation
(1)
may
(1)
be written
in
the
and is then called an exact differential equation. The gen= C. The function U (x, y) is detereral integral of equation
(1) is U (x, y)
mined by the technique given in Ch. VI, Sec. 8, or from the formula
form
(see
(x,
t/)
Example
1.
9).
(3x
Solution.
This
+ 6Af/
2
)
an exact
is
5= i2 X y and,
dx
of the differential
equation
+ (6x*y + 4y') dy = 0.
differential
since
equation,
is
of
the form
J
K/
= 0.
Here,
and
whence
U=
(3^
+ 6xy*) dx +
q>
(y)
= x> + 3*V +
q> (y).
= x y + 4y* (by
y f
(y)
=
and
hypothesis); from this we get
y* + C*. We finally get
(y)
f/(r, t/)=
f3xV + +C consequently, x f3^V + / = C is the soughtfor
Differentiating
with respect
to y,
q>
jt
we
6jc
cp'
y
= 4(/*
'(//)
find
q>
.V
.
C(
it
is
The integrating
factor
u,
is
u,
satisfies the
(2)
equation
336
Differential Equations
Example
Solution.
"
and
Solve
2.
equation
_
d#
or
dx
+ x*y + ~
2xy
'
hence>
r dx
cty
^^^ +
r
Q=x*+y*
"
Since
it
the
[C/t.
'
ft=
Q
x jB,
dx
follows that
1
fdP
^
JS
dQ\
and
dx=dx
Q.\dy
dxj
r
rffi
which
is
^.
\\
\i
= e*
In
11
*
= ^,
11 = ^.
r
we obtain
Integrating
it,
we
get
the
general
integral
2805.
^^=='
2806.
which
+ y*)dx2xydy = 0.
4xy)dxxdy = Q.
2808. (x
2809. y(l
2810.
281
1.
(jc
cos
t/
y sin
r/) rfi/
+ (x sin
*/ (
//
cos y) dx
= 0.
Sec. 7]
Sec.
for
7.
337
FirstOrder Differential
the Derivative
which
for example
two equations:
is
y,
two
of degree
!/')
in y',
y'=ti(x,y)>
If
an equation
= 0,
(I)
the.i
</'=/ 2
by solving
(1)
for y'
<*.</)
we
get
(2)
0(AM/,
where
and
C^OM*,
C) 0> 2
{/,
C)
(x. y,
= 0,
(3)
<I>
OJx,
or
by eliminating p =
t/'
0,
C)
= 0,
F(x
y,
(*, y,
0>c
F'
p)0,
of
C)
(4)
equations
(x,y,p)=0.
(5)
We
note that the curves defined by the equations (4) or (5) are not
always solutions of equation (1); therefore, in each case, a check is necessary.
Example 1. Find the general and singular integrals of the equation
2
A'//'
2A'j/'
f
Q.
equations:
or
Multiplying,
we
+y
C)
2
(A
+ xy) 
or
(a
we
(It
family of parabolas).
Differentiating the general
find the singular integral
may
to
C and
eliminating C,
+ JtO.
is
Differential
Equations
(Ch. 9
by differentiating
possible to find the singular integral
with respect to p and eliminating p.
2. Solving a differential equation by introducing a parameter. If a firstorder differential equation is of the form
It
is
+ 2xp
also
#=
from the
be determined
may
system of equations
dq>
of equations
Example
2.
of the
equation
y=y' xy'+^.
Solution.
we
form
dp
dp
p a function of
x,
we have
p*pp*fx +*
or
p(2p
x)**(2p
x),
orj
l.
we have
Integrating
we
get p
= x + C.
Substituting
</
=y
pay
same singular
solution.
Find the
general
(In Problems
curves.)
2812.
2812
(/''^'M^O.
2
2813. 4y'
9JC0.
of
the
field
equations:
of
integral
Sec
8]
Q.
2814. yy'*(xy+l)y' + x
2
2815. yij'
2xy'+y Q.
2816. Find the integral curves
339
0,
the
of
equation
y'*
+y* =
= y'*e>".
= y'*
/2
,*
9 91
'
of
the form
= *<P(P) + 1>(P),
where p
= tf
(1)
(p)] dp.
If
p^q>(p),
(2)
we
(2)
form:
where p
there
is
may
be
raut' s equation
There
x~
lJ:=
Solution. Putting
ing
dy by pdx, we
y'^p we
+ i.
have //^2pv
(3)
get
p dx = 2p dx +
2.v
or
*=l
dp
different! a Ting
and replac
__
340
__
Differential Equations
^_
[C/t.
=l(l
To
we form
f/2px +
in the usual
the system
l,
= 2*
way. Whence
*=
and, consequently,
Putting y into (3) we are convinced that the function obtained Is not
a solution and, therefore, equation (3) does not have a singular integral.
y'
=
2824. y
= (1 +y'
+ r=FT
2823. ,
,'
Find the general and singular integrals of the
tions and construct the field of integral curves:
2826. y
xy' +y'*.
2827. y
xy'+y'.
r
2828.
2829.
by
=
=
= Xy' + V \\(y')
y = xy' +
j,.
ij
Clairaut equa
2830. Firid the curve for which the area of a triangle formed
a tangent at any point and by the coordinate axes is con
stant.
=
=
2ju/ + *';
y'
b) (**/)//'
c)
d) y'
(f/
</';
8)
and indi
Sec. 9]
= (* 4+ y sin (x*
xy) y' = #';
i)
</'
j)
x cos f/'
k)
+ 2xy')dx +
+ (y* + 3*y dy = 0;
m) (x' 3xy) dx + (* + 3)dy = 0;
1)
</)';
1 ;
{/'
341
(x'
n)
ycos^
b) jcln
2835.
dy
xrfx=(^
y'^dy.
=
=
2842.
+
+
y'y^^l.
x*
\yl) dx
2845
'
2846
'
(l^
^'T^ =
2</)
= 1.
(xy + 2x3yQ)dy = Q.
=
y'
2850. ./"
d.v
= (x*y f 2)
<///.
+ y dy J dJf = 0.
286
=*
X
2862.
*.
= cosA:.
f/y'hf/
2852. 2dx
2853..
i ,'
2854.
2863.
2857.
H? = P + P
/
ff
= 2^'Hl/l
/
//'==
j (1 +lny
2864. (2e
d* (x
2859. x
*/" h
Zxyy'
2860.
^^H\t
ln^).
dy
x
<je
y')
^
+
2/'
+y
0.
= 0.
2865.
2868.
dx =
^ dydx =
/'
=2 f
(;(/'
4
f
2858. ^'
(y'
v 4 2
y1 J
1 1 )
2867. a(xt}'
2868. xdy y dx
= y* dx.
342
[Ch. 9
Differential Equations
2869. (x*
)/
At,
dy +
(x*
+ 3xy V^\) dx = 0.
2870.
2871. J/oM1
dy+ (x y
2872. xyy'*
(x* +y*)y'
= xy' +
(3* + 2;q/
= 3p
2873. y
2874.
2875.
Ya*
+x
dx = Q.
y'Jdx
+ f*
2xy
3y*)dy=Q.
t4*/
2</p
Find solutions to the equations
initial
con
ditions:
2876.
#=
y'=^\
y
2881.
jc=l.
for
*/
jt
f
A;;
{/
2882.
for x = 0.
2883. xy'=y\ a) //==! for jc=l; b) y
for x0.
2884. 2xy'
y\ a) y=l for jc=l; b) y
z
2
for x0; b)y=l forjc=0;
2885. 2xyy'\x
0; a)
#
= Q for je= 1.
c) y
2886. Find the curve passing through the point (0, 1), for
which the subtangent is equal to the sum of the cooidinates of
the point' of tangency.
2887. Find a curve if we know that the sum of the segments*
cut off on the coordinate axes by a tangent to it is constant and
\
=
=
y0
equal to 2a.
2888. The
vector.
Sec. 9]
2893. Find
the curve,
between the
contained
of
axes
coordinate
of the
divided
is
343
tangent
into half by
When forming
problems,
is
it
During time
c=
kg per
litre.
This
ing,
is
2dt litres
dt,
the
of
we obtain
ln* =
21n(100+0 + lnC
C
or
(100M)
C=
x
The constant C
100,000.
100,000

At
is
the
.
..
ft
f
=^ 3.9 kilograms of
and integrat
salt.
fact
one
'
that
xvh^n f
0,
the tank
hour,
10,
will
that
is,
contain
_ _
344
[Ch. 9
Differential Equations
at constant
temperature
(a degrees).
2903. During what time will a body heated to 100 cool off
and during the first
to 30
if the temperature of the room is 20
20 minutes the body cooled to 60?
2904. The retarding action of friction on a disk rotating in
a liquid is proportional to the angular velocity of rotation. Find
the relationship between the angular velocity and time if it is
known that the disk began rotating at 100 rpm and after one
formula
it
a hemithrough a cir
Sec.
345
10]
is
proportional
ing velocity of
2909*. The
is covered with
descent.
and
Sec.
10.
time
at
= 0.
when
if
e^Esmat
(E
and
L^.
Determine
are constants)
o>
1. The case
of direct integration.
If
then
Miles
we
p,
I.
If
differential
F(x, p
Example
I)
p')0.
of
the equation
^
Solution. Putting
Solving
we
get
the
= 0,
f/'
#'=p, we have
latter
equation as
when
/ = p',
a
linear
= 0.
whence
equation
in
the
function p,
346
Differential Equations
From
y'=p =
[Ch
when x = 0, we have
=^
0,
i.e.,
Cj==0.
Hence,
or
___ ____
2
dx~~
'
Putting
y~
solution
is
when x
0,
we
find
C 2 = 0. Hence,
*2
y^
2)
If
y'=p,
we
p?>
y"
get
desired
particular
then, putting
the
x explicitly,
an equation
of
an
for
instance,
order
one unit
lower:
Example
2.
provided that
/=!,
We
#' =
=p
t
when
then
From
it,
we
equation
= 0.
tf^p and
of the
of the Bernoulli
type in p (y
is
considered
find
1.
Hence,
P=y Vy^
or
Integrating,
we have
arc cos
Putting
y=l
=C
2,
whence
= cosx
or t/==secx.
Sec.
__
347
10]
2912.
2913.
/=1
2920. yy"
2921.
</"=T.
y"=\y'\
2914. xy"
i/'
yify'
2922.
= 0.
= jfy' + y".
/"=
2923. (x
f
+ y') = 0.
(I
p
!)</"
(x[ 2) y'
+
2915.
// = {/".
*f/"
2925
y'+T^" =^"
'
'
+ t/")=a/".
2918.
t/'(l
2919.
xy + x0' =
</"+ 1=0.
= 0.
= r/'ln^.
*
2924.
= 0.
+ x+
2
1+x
2926. xy"
/"=
2927. y""f y"*=l.
solutions for the indicated initial con
l.
2928.
(1
2*/'
M')z/"
l
2929.
= 0;
l+t/'
2j/t/";
r/=l,
2930. ytf + i/"=*y"\
y=*l,
2931. xy"
0,
t/
t/'
y';
2935.
for
for
\
JC
x=
0.
= 0.
following equations:
f/
+ y" =
l;
i/V=l;
l,
xif=V\
(/'
= i.
= 0.
for
forjt
0=1, y'=\
for x=l; y=l
y=
Jt
\y'
for
A:
=e
s
.
2939. y"(\\\nx)
2941.
= 0.
2940.
forx=l.
for
of the
=3
y"yy"=ify'.
J
= 0.
f/i/"hf/' y'lnj/
2937. yy"
2938.
j/'
yy^Vy^ify'y'if.
yy' = y" +
= 0,
=
y'
=
y'
j/
/nln;
</'
(/
<
2942.
2943.
2944.
/'
J/

jc
1,
348
(Ch. 9
Differential Equations
2949.
= Q\ y = 0, y' = 2 for = 2.
= 0; y=l, #' = 2 for * = 0.
2jr3/ = 40 t/= 1, 0 for = 0.
= 0; #=1, y' = for * = 0.
2yy"\y*
I/"*/' */; y=l, y' = l for x=l.
2950.
/ + e>y2^' = 0;
2945. 2y'
(y'
2946. y'y*+yif
*/'
2947.
A:
Gx)y"
I
2948.
jc
*/'
*/'*
//I,
y'
=e
for
^
= 0; = 0, 0' = for*=l.
=
(H00')/ (l+0'")0'; 0=1, 0'=1 for x =
(*+l)0" + x0 = 0'; 0=2, 0'=4 forx=l.
2951.
H//y"f
2952.
y'
ff
2953.
=
=
/2
2956.
y"
= 4y
//
+ =
normal.
2961. Find a curve
whose radius
of curvature
is
double the
normal.
2962. Find the curves whose projection of the radius of curvature on the //axis is a constant.
2963. Find the equation of the cable of a suspension bridge
on the assumption that the load is distributed uniformly along
the projection of the cable on a horizontal straight line. The
weight of the cable is neglected.
2964*. Find the position of equilibrium of a flexible nontensile thread, the ends of which are attached at two points and
which has a constant load q (including the weight of the thread)
per unit length.
The
2966*.
is
frictional force is
We may
consider
to the
that
proportional
square
if the initial velocity
motion
where
ji/V,
the
of the
is
zero..
air resistance
velocity.
in free fall
of
Sec. 11]
349
1. Homogeneous
equations.
The
functions 0i
q>i(x), f/ 2
if there are constants
C,
=
f
q> 2 (A:)
C lf
...,
...
Cn
+ P, (x) e/<" +
=
coefficients P,(x)
'>
//<>
th continuous
!,
(/
where
are linearly
...,/
(/,, y tt
(fundamental system of solutions).
2. Inhomogcneous
+ P n (x) y =
....
2,
independent
The general
equations.
is
n)
(1)
of the
solutions
form
of
equation
(1)
solution of an inhomogeneous
where
and Y
P,
(x)
f (x)
is
is
=C
(x) y,
</i
+ C'
(*'
+C
(*)y*
:;w</;
!,
2,
(x)
y2
+C n (x) ya
.... n) are
+ C'n (x)
/,
= 0,
+...+c;(o;=o.
0)
_ _
350
Differential Equations
[C/i.
*ir+if'=o
we
get
(5)
Hence,
it
be taken that
may
yl
of
equation
is
(4)
(4)
and
(3)
= \nx
may
taking
t/"+~ =
and # 2 =
into account
we obtain
jt,
Whence
and
>l
and, consequently,
of
tionships:
a) x,
b)
ing
x\
1,
d) x,
x+1,
x +2;
2969.
Form
a linear
a)
b)
c)
d)
g)
h)
x'\
e *, e**\
homogeneous
differential
equation, know
= sin x,
y 2 = cos x\
==xe*\
y
2
y^e*.
2
y^x* # 2 = *
e*
f)
c) 0,
its
x\
e) *,
1;
2x
<
f/,
= ^x
y*
= ^x
sin ^,
f/ 8
= ^ cos
A:.
y that
of solutions of a linear
satisfies the
initial
conditions
Sec. 12]
351
its
knowing
particular solution y
^.
x*(\nxl)y"xy' 4y = 0,
particular solution y =x.
knowing its
By the method of variation of parameters, solve the following
inhomogeneous linear equations.
}
2973. **(/"
3;t
xy'
2
2974*. x*y" + xy'
y=x
2975. y'" f (/'sec A:.
Sec.
coeflicients p
U)
k
If
and
fc
2)
3)
of
equation
kz
(1)
is
(2)
\vritten in one
/?,
of the following
k.\
if
(/
2. Inhomogeneous
equations.
if
*,=a + p
and * a =a
of a
pi (p 76 0).
linear inhomoge
+ py' + w=fW
(3)
may
where y
is
and
side
Y=x
2.
Qn
/ (*)
(x) t
a(r=l
or r
= 2).
352
__
[Ch. 9
Differential Equations
If
cp(a
^ 0,
bi)
then we put
Y = e ax
[S N (x) cos bx
K = x re ax
where
r=l).
is
fc
the
is
the roots a
of
multiplicity
Nmax
bi
{n,
m},
secondorder
(for
equations,
In the general case, the method of variation of parameters (see Sec. 11)
used to solve equation (3).
2
Example 1. Find the general solution of the equation 2y" y' y 4xe *.
2
&
l=u has roots fc,~l and
Solution. The characteristic equation 2&
(first
type)
homogeneous equation
e* + C 2e
The right side of the given equation is/ (x) =
Y e zx (Ax + B), since n=l and /=0. Difleren(x). Hence,
twice and putting the derivatives into the given equation, we
is
==C
f/
=4xe zx =t ax P n
tiating
obtain:
the corresponding
of
%,** (4 A X
+ 45 + 4^) __ e i* (2Ax + 25 + A)
2
e *
(Ax H B)
4xe zx
zx
= 0,
whence 4
and 5
=
2A
Thus, K^
oH
g*
anc^
.
Jo
+ =
is
Example
2.
Solution. The
coefficients,
we obtain
/l
fl
= 0,
form
*
Example
fc
3,
Solution.
i.
will see
fe
is
of
the form
/'
Sec.
12]
0, 6=1, P n (jc)=0,
particular solution Y,
where a
#=1,
Q OT
= *.
(*)
To
353
= 0,
fc=l, r=l).
twice and substituting into the equation, we equate the
coefficients of both sides in cos*, xcosx, sin*, and xsmx. We then get four
44 = 1, from which we deter0,
0, 4C = 0, 25 + 20
equations 2A + 2D
1
1
X2
X
mine A
cos * f j sin *.
0, C
0, D
Therefore,
(here,
Differentiating
=
=
3. The
is
= C, cos + C
jc
x2
2
sin
is
principle of superposition of
the sum of several functions
and K/(/
l,
then the
sum
3,
y'+py'+w^fiW
y
is
A:
sin *.
7
solutions.
If
are the
.., n)
cos
j
tion (3)
2,
44
K=
(<
i.
2 ..... n).
= Y + Y +...+Y n
n
(3).
yy'^Q.
=
+
y=
=
=
2987. y"5tj'\4y
2988. y"+ 3tf' +20
2989. 0"
2990. 0^
2991.
= Q\
= 0;
= 0,
y=5
= 8 for * =
for jc0.
y=5
0' =
= 2 for x = 0.
t
y'
1,
+ 40 = 0;
+ 20' = 0; 0=1, 0'=0 for ^ =
= a, 0' = for x = 0.
f
/=;
2992. 0"
2993. 0"
+ 30'=0; =
= 0; =
+
f
ji
for x
for
jc
=
=
and
and
=
=
for
x=l.
a)
Indicate
0"40 = A:V
b) 0"
121900
90
the
x
;
= cos 2x\
= 3.
for
for
the given
_ _
354
Differential Equations
[Ch. 9
= sin 2x + e**\
x
d) y" + 2y' + 2y = e sir\x\
 5</' + 60 = (x* + l)e* + xe**\
e)
y"2y' + 5# = xe* cos 2x #V sin 2x.
c) y"
4y' f 4y
</"
f)
=
/ ^ +# = +
^ + + = ^.
+
/
2995. y"
jc
4i/'
4(/
2996.
*'
6.
2997.
2^'
^
2998.
8^ 7^=14.
2999. y"y^e*.
3000.
3001.
3002.
3003.
f
3004. t/'
3005. y"
2y'{ 5y
3006. Find the solution of the equation y"
0.
satisfies the conditions y=l, */'= 1 for x
+ 4y =
sin x that
3007.
2)
^2
+ x=/l
o)
Consider
sinp/.
the
cases:
1)
pco.
3008.
3009.
3010.
3011.
3012.
3013.
3014.
3015.
3016.
3017.
/
t/"
y"
y"
2y'
y"
2(/'
y"\y'
8y = e
= 5x + 2e x
^_y'^2;c~l
8cos2*.
.
3e
x
.
+ 2r/ + y = ^ + ^ x x
2y + lQy=s\r\3xie
/_4f/' + 4f/ = 2^ +
if
3y' =
/
{/"
f/"
3018.
3019. Find the solution to the equation
that satisfies the conditions /=, f/ /==l for ^
y = 2xsmx.
2x
4(/==g
sin2A:.
/ H 9y = 2x sin
2y'=e
= 0,
tx
o>;
Sec.
12]
=
+
=
=
355
3026. tf2y'
3y x(l+e' ).
3x 2xe*.
3027. y"
2y'
x
3028. */"
4y'+4y xe*
2xe'*
3029. y"
3y
2y'
(x^ l)e*.
3030*. y"
y 2x cos x cos 2x.
3031. t/'
2y 2xe*(cosx
sinx).
+
+ =
=
variation
of
following equations:
3032. y" + y
ianx.
3033.
3034.
3035.
=
y" + y = cot x.
= .
y"
2y'
y" + 2y' + y =
3036.
of
parameters, solve
<
the
3037.
3038. a)
(*/
</"
b) y"
y = tanh
A:.
x
2y = 4x*e \
one load
where, obviously, k
tion
is
x=C
and
d*
77
Tt
=
:
cos
when
I/
/
= 0;
and, consequently,
 1
+C
I/
sin
whence C
=a
t.
7*7*
The
^ ~" ^ *
initial
The
general
conditions yield
solu
Jt
=u
and C a = 0; and so
neglected).
12*
356
_ _
(Ch. 9
Differential Equations
of zero.
the axis of rotation; the initial velocity of the ball was zero;
b) at the initial instant the ball was located on the axis of
rotation and had an initial velocity v 9
.
Sec.
13.
Linear
Differential
Equations
of
Order
Higher
than
Two
with
Constant Coefficients
#t
>
<
is
characteristic
equation
Q.
(2)
Namely,
2)
then
if
to
the
equation (1):
*x
y l e cos PX, #,
yt
2. Inhotnogeneous equations.
equation
y4
m,
of
...
is
and 3
of Sec.
12.
Sec.
Euler's Equations
14]
__
357
3045. y'"
3048. y' v
2J/"
3t"
3049. y'"
3050. y'v + 4y
= 0.
'
w'v' + ^O.
'
*054.
w' 1
sss
^T
'
ai/ = b.
3060.
3053.
n(nl) ,.
= x'
MS,..
SB:
y'"+2y"{2y'+y = x
that satisfies the initial conditions y (0)
14.
Sec.
Euler's
Equations
y^f(x)
(I)
where
ax
+ b^e
1
.
Then
and
Euler's
is
equation
transformed
coefficients.
z
into
linear equation
+ xy' +{/ =
1.
==e
Tr
~Sx
dx~z==e
(~di*~~~di)'
whence
= C, cos + C, sin +
y = C, cos (In *) + C a sin (In x) +
y
or
1.
with constant
358
_ _
[Ch. 9
Differential Equations
the solution
(2)
may
</
= **.
(3)
y'
(/,
...,
we can
(n}
find the
0i
If
= **.
a
is
p*
correspond
2m
0,
= **ln*.
*/,
= ** (In*)
..., y m
y 4 =*Mnx.sin(plnx) .....
2.
We
Solving
find
y^C
Solve the equations:
3069.
3070.
*'g + 3* + = 0.
*V xy' 3(/ = 0.
xYx(/'44(/ = 0.
<,
3071.
3072.
3073. tT
3074.
3075.
3076.
there
cos (p
+4l/=0.
equation, after
3068.
it
= *a In x cos (P In *),
^mi^*" (In*)*"
3Xy'
we
to
put
Substituting
it
X *y''
Solution.
(\nx)
m, then
Example
=x
^y_
4614
= 0.
cancelling
out x k
we
get
the
Sec.
15]
Systems
of Differential
359
Equations
+ y = 2x
conditions y = 0,
*V
that satisfies the initial
Sec.
xy'
Method
*/'
Equations
of elimination.
system of two
form
we
first
(1)
to x.
instance, of
is,
We
of
when *=1.
of
normal
system
differentiate
of
the
one of
value found,
A.. \
(3)
secondorder
(4)
where C, and C 2 are arbitrary constants. Substituting function (4) into formula (3), we determine the function z without new integrations. The set of
formulas (3) and (4), where y is replaced by \>, yields the general solution
of the system (1).
+''T*
Solution.
We
with respect to
x:
^ + 2^dx^+ 4^4.
dx*^
From
the
first
equation
we
will
dx
we determine
have ^
ax
5
&
**
T
+*+
;
l+4x
75
&
dy
TT"T
ax
2y
and then
j
Put ting
and j into the equation obtained after differentiation, we arrive at a secondorder equation in one unknown y:
360
[Ch. 9
Differential Equations
Solving
it
we
find:
and then
We
do likewise
can
in
the case
of
equations.
3078.
=z
JJ
3085.
dx
r/
= 0, z =
when
je
= 0.
when
= 0.
3079.
3086.
3080.
dz
= 0, y=\
dT
dx
3081.
4/_//
3087.
dy
dz
3088*.
dx
xy~
c)
3082.
da
__
dy __dz_
x\y~~~ z
dy __
yz zx
'
dz
xif
3089.
3083.
3084.
dz
3090.
.Sec.
16}
361
of
Power Series
is
it
form of a power
series:
00
'(*
y=2
n=
n
*o)
0)
The
undetermined
equation.
We
in the
form
of the
Taylor's series
y(*)
^ ^^ (**)"
(3)
putting X Q in place of x
Example
Solution.
1.
We
put
of the equation
+ In + 2)(rttl) <:+,*"+...
Substituting y and y" into the given equation,
Collecting
powers
together, on
of x
the
left
of this
we
coefiicients
362
Differential Equations
[Ch.
have
cs
^~
and so
forth.
Generally,
3.46. 7...
(k
=1,2,
3,
...).
Consequently,
(X*
c =f/
and c = y'Q
Applying d'Alembert's
where
for
< x < + oo
Example
2.
3.46.?..
.3* (3fc+
1)
+ '" )*
(4)
oo
X^
X1
it
is
readily
seen
of the
equation
y'
Solution.
We
We
put
have y =\, i^
sively find
l.
(/',
at
*l
The procedure
may
x) or
= 2e*
x.
similar for differential equations of higher orders. Testing the resulting series for convergence is, generally speaking, complicated
and is not obligatory when solving the problems of this section.
is
With the help of power series, find the solutions of the equations for the indicated initial conditions.
In Examples 3097, 3098,
3101, test the solutions
3099,
obtained for convergence.
2
3093. y'
y x
y
3094. y'
x
1; y
2y
= +
= 2 for * = 0.
= +
= y for x=l.
= y for x==a
0' = / + *;
= for * = 0.
y' = x*
y*\ #
for
(1
x)y' = l+x
y\ y =
\
3095.
3096.
3097.
f/
Sec. 17]
363
= for x = 0.
=
for * = 0.
0\ 0=1, #'
+ = 0; y=l, */'=0 for =
+ = 0; 0=1, 0'=0 for x =
= 0; * = a; ~ = for = 0.
= 0;
3098*.
3099.
3100*.
/'
3101*.
= 0,
y'
Jt
*/
*/
3102.
To
homogeneous
u=
Cn u n
(1)
The coefficients
conditions.
from the
are found
t)
initial
_
~~ a
where a
string).
?
(T Q
the
is
tensile
of the
and Q
force
string
(2)
dx*
dt*
at
time
the
is
if
its
linear
ends
x=
density
of the
and * = / are
2
Fig.
fixed
and
=~*
at the initial
(/
Solution.
x) (Fig.
It
is
instant,
107) and
required
its
= 0,
107
the string had
to find the
solution
= u(x,
t)
of
equation
(2)
boundary conditions
a(0,
00,
!!(/,
0=0
(3)
_ _
364
\Ch. 9
Differential Equations
and the
initial conditions
(*,0)
We
^ *(/*),
;<*, 0)
= 0.
(4)
=X
u
Putting
(x)T(t).
equation
(2)
ZL(0*1W
a 2 7tO~~
(5)'
l
'
(x)
Since the variables x and t are independent, equation (5) is possible only
the general quantity of relation (5) is constant
Denoting this constant
X 2 we find two ordinary differential equations:
when
by
=Q
)*T(t)
and X"
(x)
+ K*X
(x)
= 0.
(t)
X
where A, B, C,
From
are
X(0) =
cannot be equal to
this reason,
XA
= p
we do
To
Let
constants.
arbitrary
we have
(3)
(since
sinX/
For
condition
where k
is
and
zero
at
an integer.
It
kan
kan
Ak
(, cosj
equation
A k and B k
knx
kant\
knx
cos
satisfies
We
and the
so that the
(2)
boundary conditions
sum
of the series
Since
(4).
CD
du
& =2*
it
kan (
~\~ A
= 0,
sm
kant
we obtain
kant\
p + ^cosyJ
and
0)
2, 3,...).
(3).
kant
tj siny
(k=\
kan
sin
knx
^
(3).
should
Sec.
17]
du
..
function
A k and B^
coefficients
is
it
365
necessary to expand in
= ^
in
_
x
(lx)
and
the
^ ^n
(x, 0)'
0.
at
From
we have
/
ft
if
&
is
Ak
odd, and
if
&
is
knx
32h
even;
/
kast _
=
*
will
jix
fA
Osin
,
d*
T J
A
= 0,
be
cos
/
sin
3103*.
its
ends,
sin
0<jt</
at
A
= 0.
fl*
time
initial
the
form
string, attached at
of the sine curve
it
t.
time
= 0,
of
(2/if \)jtx
= 0,
receive a velocity ~
the
1.
points of
a straight
of the
l are
and x
string at time t if the ends of the string #
fixed (see Problem 3103).
3105*. A string of length /=100 cm and attached at its ends,
and *=/, is pulled out to a distance A
2 cm at point
x
*=;50 cm
the
initial
time,
and
is
c^u_
~~ a 2
d/ 2
f
where a
<Pu
dx*
(E
is
is
impulse.
366
_ _
'
Differential Equations
[C/i.
where a is a constant.
for any time t in a rod
100
cm
if
temperature distribution
u(x, 0)
= 0.01
A;
(100
x).
we know
the initial
Chapter
APPROXIMATE CALCULATIONS
Sec.
1.
1. Absolute
absolute
A^/l^a + A
error.
or,
more
is
located within
>
the inequality
\*l ^*
,
(2)
is
called the
of the
actual practice
A^a,
we
number
number
approximate
6=
for
a.
Since in
the
limiting
relative error.
one
where k
is
the
first
significant
/
is
known
that
6^
I
,
i
,
places
definitely
has
narrow
77:
we can
number
a.
And
conversely,
it
if
1)
n correct
If
unit
the
\10/
meaning
2(k\in
>
of the
digit
\i
when n
of
decimals
the
in
word.
the
In
particular,
narrow meaning
if
number a
the
"if I To)
approximate number a does not exceed a
for example, are numbers resulting
place (such,
of
an
[Ch. 10
Approximate Calculations
368
Henceforth, we shall
not otherwise
(if
assume that
all
digits in the initial data are
the narrow sense. The results of intermediate calculations may contain one or two reserve digits.
We note that the examples of this section are, as a rule, the results of
final calculations, and for this reason the answers to them are given as
approximate numbers with only correct decimals.
4. Addition and subtraction of approximate numbers. The limiting absolute error ot an algebraic sum of several numbers is equal to the sum of
the limiting absolute errors of these numbers. Therefore, in order to have,
in the sum of a small number of approximate numbers (all decimal places
of which are correct), only correct digits (at least in the broad sense), all
summands should be put into the form of that summand which has the
smallest number of decimal places, and in each summand a reserve digit
should be retained. Then add the resulting numbers as exact numbers, and
round off the sum by one decimal place
If we have to add approximate numbers that have not been rounded off,
they should be rounded off and one or two reserve digits should be retained.
Then be guided by the foregoing rule of addition while retaining the appropriate extra digits in the sum up to the end of the calculations.
Example 1. 215.21 f 14.182 f 21 .4215.2(1)
14.1(8)421 4= 250.8.
The relative error of a sum of positive terms lies between the least and
greatest relative errors of these terms.
The relative error of a difference is not amenable to simple counting.
Particularly unfavourable in this sense is the difference of two close numbers.
Example 2. In subtracting the approximate numbers 6 135 and 6.131 to
four correct decimal places, we get the difference
004. The limiting relative
correct
in
stated)
0.001
error
6=
is
.J.
+1
0/XM
=4 = 0.25.
j
..
,t
0.004
Hence,
decimals
it
difference is correct. Therefore,
is
always advisable to avoid
subtracting close approximate numbers and to transform the given expression,
if need be, so that this undesirable operation is omitted.
5. Multiplication and division of approximate numbers. The limiting
relative error of a product and a quotient of approximate numbers is equal
lo the sum of the limiting relative errors of these numbers Proceeding from
Ihis and applying the rule for the number of correct decimals (3), we retain
in the answer only a definite number of decimals
Example 3. The product of the approximate numbers 25.34.12=104.236.
Assuming that all decimals of the factors are correct, we find that the
limiting relative error of the product is
of
the
Whence
result,
if
number
the
it
is
correctly, 25
final,
mth power
of
^0.01 +^0.01=^0.003.
decimals of the product is three and the
be written as follows: 25.34 12=104, or more
correct
should
34.12= 104 2
6. Powers and
of the
of
0.3.
an approximate number a
the
th
the
mth root
is
of
an approximate number a
number
a.
7. Calculating the error of the result of various operations on approximate numbers. If Aa lf ... Aa,, are the limiting absolute errors of the appro,
Sec.
1]
xitnate
numbers a t
an
S = /(a t,
may
369
AS
of the
resuU
..., a n )
error
is
then equal to
,**
*Ji/r
".++
=
Aa=A6=i=2Q; 1^4.4
the approximate
is
then equal to
2.0976...;
number y
is
'
^SOTT^JQ
^TT;
we
leave
equal to
we can
be sure
2.1,
=
r=
error of
U UUi>
0005

20
'
"2"
UM
admissible
..
,a n
...
posed
is
indeterminate.
Example
5.
The volume
(equal
to
=~2 R*
2R)
tan a.
at
an
by
angle
To what
of a
plane
degree
of
accuracy
should
we measure
the radius
_ _
[Ch. 10
Approximate Calculations
370
#=s:60 cm and the angle of inclination a so that the volume of the cylindrical
segment is found to an accuracy up to 1%?
Solution. If AV, A/? and Aa are the limiting absolute errors of the
quantities V, R and a, then the limiting relative error of the volume V that
we
are calculating
is
3A/?
2Act
R "Nn^a
...
We
assume
3A
^ < m
1
and
_<2Aa
100"
Whence
cm
=1
60
sin
mm;
2a
mm
1%
if
we measure
Compute
a)
148.163.871;
b)
29.7211.25;
c)
34.2234.21.
Sec. /]
371
to
a)
5.684
5.032; b) 0.144
1.2; c)
216:4.
b) 65.2'; c)
3119. The
side
of
1.5
2
.
square
is
45.3
cm
(accurate to
mm).
of
the
roots
(the
radicands are
1/27715; b) j/65^2
c)
KsTT.
3124.
to 221
Compute the
volts
volt
be taken?
3126. It is required to measure, to within 1%, the lateral
surface of a truncated cone whose base radii are 2 m and 1 m,
and the generatrix is 5 m (approximately). To what degree of
372
_ _
Approximate Calculations
[Ch. 1Q
to
*P ~~ 1
4
'
flL
'
d*bs
where / is the rod length, b and d are the basis and altitude ol
the crosssection of the rod, s is the sag, and P the load. To
of accuracy do we have to measure the length / and
the sag s so that the error E should not exceed 5.5%, provided
that the load P is known to 0.1%, and the quantities d and 6
cm?
are known to an accuracy of 1%,
cm,
what degree
/50
s2.5
1. Newton's interpolation formula. Let * x lt ... xn be the tabular values of an argument, the difference of which h
0,l
Ax; (Ax/
*,+,
x/; i
., y n are the correspond..., n
1) is constant (table interval) and #
y lt
ing values of the function y Then the value of the function y for an intermediate value of the argument x is approximately given by Newton's interpolation formula
,
where
o=
and A#
"7
= #,
A2
t/
= A#,
A#
...
the polynomial
diilerences of the function y. \\hen x
0, 1, ..., n),
x/ U
0, 1,
., n). As
(1) takes on, accordingly, the tabular values y { (/
particular cases of Newton's formula we obtain: for n=l, linear inter potation;
the
of
To
use
Newton's
for /i
2, quadratic interpolation.
simplify
formula,
it is advisab'ie first to set up a table of finite differences.
If y
f (x) is a polynomial of degree n, then
& n y.
= const
of
formula
(1)
is
where
=
is
I,
..., n) and
more convenient:
(),
x.
For
Interpolation of Functions
Sec, 2]
373
^0
decimals
Example
sin
1.
Find
sin
2615'
the
using
tabular
data
sin
26
= 0,43837,
Here,
/i
= 60',
26
15'
q
Applying formula
have
sin
that
2615' = 0.43837
26
_!_
'
60'
(1)
0.01562
first
(0.00014) = 0.44229.
Using formula
we
will
we
(2)
have:
and
?C'H
n\
2!
(iO,
1,
2,
...).
Here, for q we take the common value (to the given accuracy!)
m + >. Whence x jt
cessive approximations q (m}
<;<
{<//!.
Example 2. Using the table
of
the equation
smhx
of
two sue*
374
Approximate Calculations
Solution. Taking y
10
we have
4.457,
,_54.457
~
1.009
We
(Ch
0.543
5
^i.oog
0.5650.435
0.220
1.009
=0.538;
*!> (x
(x
__
x2)
(x
*o) (*
xn )
*,).
XQ) (x
(x
* 2)
(x
xn )
Xk ^) (X
.(X
'
'
'
'
"
'
log
1=0.000,
log 2 0.301,
0.477,
log 3
=
=
log 4
0.602,
log 5 = 0.699.
Use
linear interpolation to
and log 4. 6.
log 3.1,
1.7,
Iog2.5,
Interpolation of Functions
Sec. 2]
375
sin 11
sin 12
= 0.1736,
= 0.1908,
= 0.2079,
sin 13
sin 14
sin 15
= 0.2250,
= 0.2419,
= 0.2588.
=
Find y
for
3135.
= 5. 5.
function
Form Lagrange's
y
for
JC
= 0.
value of
mm)
mm.
14
376
(Ch. 10
Approximate Calculations
Compute
by means
The approximation
/(*)=0
of the
(i)
consists of two stages: 1) separating the roots, that is, establishing the intervals (as small as possible) within which lies one and only one root of equation (1); 2) computing the roots to a given degree of accuracy
on an interval [a, b] and
If a function /(A) is defined and continuous
of equation (1).
/(a)./(6)<0, then on [a, b] there is at least one root
or /' (x)
This root will definitely be the only one if /' (x)
when
<
>
a<x<b.
/~\
(2)
To obtain
the intervals
second approximation c 2
[a,
c,]
or
[c,,
b]
at the
root
that
is,
c2 ,
crt ,
we can make
where
377
Sec. 3]
u=
min
<x<
(/' (x)
.
lim *
n > oo
To evaluate
we can
the errors
<
1,
2,
...)
is
mono
\f'(x)\.
xQ
a=
<b
where
sequence x n (n
the
tonic and
.,
= a,
is
it
more convenient
= *_,
which yield
the
a/^.,)
i/i
same accuracy
l,
2,
formulas
...),
(3')
as formulas (3).
&.
f(b)f"(b)>Q, then in formulas (3) and (3') we should put x
4. Iterative method. Let the yiven equation be reduced to the form
If
= <PM,
(4)
where \y' (x)\*^r< 1 (r is constant) for a ^x^b. Proceeding from the iniwinch belongs 4o the interval [a, b], we build a sequence of
tial value *
numbers x lt x 2 ... according to the following law:
,
If
a<jc
rt
<6
(n
l,
2,
...),
is the on/r/ roo/ of equation (4) on the interval [a, 6]; that is, xn are successive approximations to the root .
The evaluation of the absolute error of the nth approximation to x n is
given by the formula
it
IS
_ xn
y
^^s
xn + l
j
Therefore,
if
xn and x n + l coincide
r
to
_r
xn
within
E,
then
the
absolute
limiting
Q to
(4),
we
an equivalent equation
A,
is
7
[x
Kf
(x)]
f
1
Kf
(jc)
.378
__
Approximate Calculations
lent
equation
values of A,;
l_ A,( 2\
The
=x
this
X ]
initial
= 2x
In *
\nx
k(2x
number
U = 2.5 =0,
equation
/'(jc)
and
4)
close
is
that
4;
is,
10
[Cft.
= 2~. We
(for
for
the
r^O.6.
.6
close to
is
=x
Inx
0.5 (2x
4)
or
Example
equation that
of
(5)
2.
lies
*f
=2+
*,
= 2 + 4
Considering that
all
^2. 448,
In 2.450
*4 = 2
(p(*)
y In2.458ss2.450,
stop
here
error.
Here,
= 2 + ~lnx
approximations
to
and
xn
the
third
decimal
place
has
<P'(*)=^..
lie
in the
interval
[2.4, 2.5],
we
get
in the
approximation to x 9
is,
by virtue
of the
A==
^^=0.0012 ^=0.001.
we can
lies
of
this
Sec. 3]
of
<x<3
Wee
We
Here,
>
On the interval 2
we have:
/(3)f (3)>0. Hence, the conditions
Equations
/' (x)
of 3 for
> 0; /(2)f(3)<0;
= 3 fare(x)fulfilled.
and
*
take
jtj^S
=2
4)
In 3
0.6(23
0.6(22 4592
0.6(22.4481
0.6(22 4477
= 2. 4592
= 2.4481
*,
* 4 = 2. 4477
*,
(3')
4592;
In 2
4592
In 2. 4481
In2. 4477
= 2 4481;
= 2. 4477;
4) = 2 4475.
4)
4)
At this stage we stop the calculations, since the third decimal place
2. 45.
We omit the
does not change any more. The answer is: the root,
evaluation o! the error;
5. The case of a system of two equations. Let it be required to calculate the real roots of a system of two equations in two unknowns (to a given
degree of accuracy):
f(*.
0=0,
and
let
this
d(x,y)
xx
= +
j/,
= +P
linear equations
is
= *!+<*!,
*,
where a p $ v are the solution
Similarly
we obtain
of the
^1
= ^1+ Pi,
380
_ _
Approximate Calculations
We
b) Iterative method.
(6),
[Ch
10
=
\ y (D(*,
(
(f)
y)
\<S> v (x.
#<r<
(8)
x>f
(6),
is
= F(x
If
all
(*, y n ) belong
to
yz )
t,
then
*/,c
lim
n
lim
+ oo
y n =i\.
oo
which
is
equivalent to
(x.
provided
(6)
a.
that
Rewrite
0.
it
in the
form
Y.
y)^F(x
jnd
a,
p,
O (x,
y, & such
y} will be
that
the
y),
derivatives of the
zero in the initial
approximate solutions
partial
equal or close to
a,
Y.
fi,
o as
of the
,v
t/
= 0,
= 0.8,
= 0.55.
Sec. 3]
Solution.
fv (x*
Computing
Here,
= 1.1;
<P*
y)=x*
f (x t
(*<>.
= 192,
0o)
+ y*\
= 1.6,
y )
equivalent to the initial one)
,
is
J
in the
i/ c )
1.
<fy(*
381
y)=x'y fx (x
q> (x,
__
/la, pi
VI Y. *l
form
a, p,
of
the
+ 1.60+1.920 = 0,
l.la
p0,
+ 1.925 = 0,
+ 1. lY 6 = 0;
1.6 Y
i.
y^
e.,
which
=x
y=y
x
0.3(^
2
2
0.5,
b^QA.
1)
0.3(A
2
r/
0.5 (* {#
1)
y),
+ 04 (x*y)
equivalent to the initial system, has the form (7); and in a sufficiently small neighbourhood of the point (x Qt y Q ) condition (8) will be fulfilled.
is
by means
and
two
decimal places.
s
x
10.
3138. X
4
*
05* 1.55 = 0.
3139.
+
8
4* 10.
3140. x
Proceeding from the graphically found initial approximations,
use Newton's method to compute the real roots of the equations
to two decimal places:
3141.
JC
3142. 2x
\
_2jc
In*
50.
4
= 0.
3143. 2
3144.
= 4x.
logjc=y.
382
[Ch. 10
Approximate Calculations
3154. x*
3155. e*
'
+ 2x
+ e *
= 0.
= 0.
"
~~
" Lff
x*
157
+y
'
= 0,
\Qgxl =0.
~~
3156.
3158.
Compute
3159.
jc
jc.
Compute the
x=l
to four
the
integral
decimal places.
Sec. 4. Numerical Integration of Functions
of
If (x)
[a,
is
a function
continuous on
b]
= x + ih
Xi
a,
let
xn
of
we divide the
[a, b]]
= b,
of
interval of integration
calculations
h==
Let
(x
0,
2,
1,
..., n)
is
That
is,
when evaluating
the integral,
the
in
terval h
of
V^e
The value
of
h obtained
is
rounded
a==
~~ n
h
should
in the notation of
Simpson's formula
h
Q
K#o + #n)
(3)
Numerical Integration
Sec. 4]
of Functions
383
M 4 = max
where
when
!

(x)
To ensure
integral,
the
(5)
That
the interval h
is,
is
of the order
that n
J/JF,
is
The number h
is
rounded
off
an even integer.
Remark. Since, generally speaking, it is difficult to determine the interand the number n associated with it from the inequalities (2) and (5),
practical work h is determined in the form of a rough estimate. Then,
val h
in
after the result is obtained, the number n is doubled; that is, h is halved.
one to the number of decimal
If the new result coincides with the earlier
places that we retain, then the calculations are stopped, otherwise the pro
cedure
is
repeated, etc.
which
of calculations
from formula
(3)
with interval
by the trapezoidal
Carry out
the calculations
the Simpson formula.
formula and by
3161. Approximate
J (3*
formula
putting rt=10. Evaluate this integral exactly and find the absolute and relative errors of the result. Establish the upper limit A
of absolute error in calculating for n=10, utilizing the error
formula given in the text.
384
\Ch. 10
Approximate Calculations
i
* *
calculate
Simpson formula,
to four
J *
decimal places, taking n== 10. Establish the upper limit A of absolute error, using the error Formula given in the text.
Calculate the following definite integrals to two decimals:
3,63.
3,68.
Ife.
(!<,.
Jl
~.
3164. C
3169.
317
>
3166.
[x\ogxdx.
8187.
Q  7i
dr.
fcos* dX.
FT
\+X
Jcos*
,
3172>
the
places
7
improper
ft
is
chosen
,so
QO
that
7^722
<
integral
Jy
rr
~r x
where b
10
y+
situated
quadrant.
1.
A method
of successive approximation
be given a firstorder differential equation
(Picard's
y'^f(x.y)
= # when x = *
Equations
method).
Let
there
<1)
.
Numerical Integration
Sec. 5]
of
385
The solution y (x) of (1), which satisfies the given initial condition, can,
generally speaking, be represented in the form
y(x)=
lira yi (x)
* 00
(2)
*//(*) are
from
determined
the
formulas
(*)=#<>+
If
R{
and
in this
satisfies,
is
x
yti (*)) dx
in the
neighbourhood
Vi)f(x. i/JKJltfitfil
of
I*
ft
(x.
where
= min(a, ^
M/
\
and
successive
definitely
(2)
Af = max/U,
/?
approximation
y)\.
And
is
/?
 y n W \<ML* ~
The method of successive approximation (PicarcTs method) is also applicable, with slight modifications, to normal systems of differential equations.
Differential equations of higher orders may be written in the form of systems
of
differential equations.
To do
it
be required, on a given interval
to find the solution y (x) of (1) to a specified degree of accuracy e.
we choose
this,
the interval [*
X] into n equal parts so that h*
Xf are determined from the formula
,
X
=x +M
(i=0,
1,
2,
< e.
..., n).
1900
by dividing
/;
(/
(x/) of
the desired
[Ch. 10
Approximate Calculations
386
where
f
=0,
1,
2,
...,
n and
(3)
*i"
=/(*/ + A,,
To check the
it
is
advisable
to
verify
the quantity
e=
The fraction 6 should amount
to
few
reduced.
Rn
y*m
Urn
'
15
where /i = 2m, y 2m and y m are the results of calculations using the scheme (3)
with interval h and interval 2/i.
The RungeKutta method is also applicable for solving systems of differential equations
y'
with given
= f(x,
y> z).
*'
= <p(x,
y,
z)
(4)
= z = 2 when x x
by the Milne method,
=(1)
X
we in some way find
conditions /
3. Milne's method. To solve
initial conditions y=^y when X
values
initial
yi=y(*i),
t/
Q,
y=0(*i).
subject to the
the successive
=*/(*)
of the desired function y (x) [for instance, one can expand the solution y (x)
in a series (Ch. IX, Sec. 17) or find these values by the method of successive
approximation^or by using the RungeKutta method, and so forth]. The ap
*=
\vhere
fi
= f(x
it
r/ t
(i=4,
5,
..., n)
are
+~(7"
y^ and7i = /(*i,
Hi)
To check we
Sec. 5]
387
does not exceed the unit of the last decimal \(y m retained in the
y (x), then for f/ we take I// and calculate the next value y/ + 1
10~ w then one has to start from the berepeating the process. But if e/
ginning and reduce the interval of calculations. The magnitude of the initial
interval is determined approximately from the inequality h 4
10~ m
For the case of a solution of the system (4), the Milne formulas are
written separately for the functions y (x) and z (x). The order of calculations
remains the same.
Example 1. Given a differential equation */'=*/ x with the initial condition y(0)=1.5. Calculate to two decimal places the value of the solution
of this equation when the argument is x
1.5.
Carry out the calculations
If
e/
answer
for
>
<
by
We
Solution.
integration from
0.25 by means of points x f (i
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6); we denote by y f and y^
the corresponding values of the solution y and the derivative y'
We calculate the first three values of y (not counting the initial one) by
the RungeKutta method [from formulas (3)]; the remaining three values
we calculate by the Milne method [from formulas (5)]
1/4. */s
y&
The value of // will obviously be the answer to the problem.
We carry out the calculations with two reserve decimals according to a
definite scheme consisting of two sequential Tables 1 and 2. At the end of
Table 2 we obtain the answer.
#
#, x =^0, // =1.5
Calculating the value y r Here, / (x, */)
fl
/i
= 0.25.
A^
=i
(*<
0)
*(>
= / (*o.
=
/
/
0o) h
+~
)=s
0+
.5000)0.250.3730;
(0)
\
+ y j = ( 0.125+1.5000 + 0.1875) 0.25= 0.3906;
fc
Xo
/i
& (0)
*i
=n *o+y.
0o
\
+ ) ^ = (0 125+1.5000 + 0.1953)0.25 = 0.3926;
^=
0.25+1.5000 + 0.3926)0.25 = 0.4106;
(
(the
first
three
decimals
in
tins
20
0.3906Q.3926_ .1
= 0. 13.
10.37500.39061""
By
in
13*
Similarly
Table
1.
we
calculate
the
156
388
Approximate Calculations
Table
1.
Calculating^,,
f(x, y)
=1. 5000,
^=1.5000,
Applying formulas
jr 2 ,
y9
We
have: f(x, y)
jf4 .
= 1.8920,
=
1.6420,
^'
(5),
we
y t = 2.3243,
r/,
[Ch. 10
^=1.8243,
/z
y,
= 0.25,
,== 2.8084;
= 2.0584.
find
^
= 1.5000 + 4
A OK
(2
1.64201.8243 + 2. 2.0584)
= 3.3588;
1+3.3588 = 2.3588;
=
02
+ ^(01
h y'
t)
.
hence, there
is
'
= 2.3243 +
3.35883.3590
no need
(2.3588
+ 4 2.0584 +
.8243)
= 3.3590;
Sec. 5]
389
= =
(1.5)
= 4.74.
late
</
q lt q 2
We
?, where
= h y' = hf (x
2
2,
// 2 ),
qs
= hy' = hf (x,,
3
V'=f(x,
I/O
f/2
i/5
y)
q:
_ _
Approximate Calculations
390
Thus,
Adams formula
numbers
the
utilizing
we
= + 
A#,
it,
<7,
+ A*/
A? 2
</ 8
A<7 2 ,
calculate, by
in
table of differen
[Ch. 10\
A 2 ?,, A 8
means
of
</
situated
formula
+ IZ A <7,+
2
r^
A*<7
After
(7)
finding
diagonally in
A//,,
we
calculate
we calculate q^~hf(x^ f/ 4 ),
difference table and then fill into it the
2
A 3<7,, which are situated (together with 4 ) along
finite differences A</,, A ^ 2
a new diagonal parallel to the first one.
Then, utilizing the numbers of the new diagonal, we use formula (8)
4 in it) to calculate A// 4 */ R and q t and obtain the next diagonal:
(putting n
A 2 <7,, A*<7 2 Using this diagonal we calculate the value of */6 of the
ft, A^ 4
desired solution y(x), and so forth.
The Adams formula (7) for calculating by proceeds from the assumption
that the third finite differences A 3 </ are constant. Accordingly, the quantity h
of the initial
interval
of calculations is determined from the inequality
4
/t
<10~ m [if we wish to obtain the value of y (x) to an accuracy of
#4
*/3
introduce
8
*/ 4
A# 8 and
</
into the
].
In this
sense
the
Adams formula
is
(7)
equivalent
to the
formulas of
(3).
Example
2.
Using the combined RungeKutta and Adams method, calcu(when #1.5) the value of the solution of the
x with the initial condition f/(0)
1.5 (see
y'y
Example
1).
We
Solution.
of
Example
1.
differential equations
=
=
= + +
=
= 2.
of
the
Table
3.
</)
y4 y
= * +
*/;
fc
by the
=y^0.25
Adams Method.
Answer: 4.74
Table
1
153
Adams Method
Approximating Fourier
[Sec. 6]
Coefficients
393
/i = 0.2,
use the RungeKutta method to
approximately the solutions of the given differential
equations and systems for the indicated intervals:
3179. 0' =
x; 0(0) = 1.5 (
calculate
3180.
3181.
=
0'
0(1)
0';
y'=*z+
z'=0
1.
x,
(Kx<2).
0(0) = 1, z(0) =
(0<x<l).
=
=
=
=
=
+
z' = x + 20 + 3z;
Compute y and
3186.
f0'
3187. 0*
30
=2
3188.
y=
when
0V +1=0;
and
when x = 0.
when x = 0.
when x = 0.
0'
when jc=l.
=1.5.
A:(JI)
A:
0=1,
A:
^ + cos2/ =
3189.
=
= 0.5.
=
0'
z
2,
= 2,
0;
Compute y when
Find
z,
z;
when x=l.
Compute
when x = 0.5.
)2r'=y
and
Compute
= 2,
0;
x = Q,
Jc'
when
f=0.
x' (n).
the function y
and y Q
f/ 12
We
~f(x n
(n
points
f(x) at equidistant
equidist
set
= 0,
1,
xn = 
...,
of
up the tables:
y* y\
yu
Sums
yz
y* y*
y\9 y> y*
(2j)
Differences (A)
Q u l uz
Iu
U* U 6 M 4
Sums
s l s 2 s,
Diilerences
tv
Sums
Differences
12)
be the values
Approximate Calculations
394
The Fourier
may
\Ch
coefficients a n b n (n
1, 2, 3) of the function
0,
y
be determined approximately from the formulas:
,
6t
a2
=s
&,
s,
+ 0.5(s,
&8
s 2 ),
= 0.50! + 0.866a + a
= 0.866 (1, + *,),
= a, a
2
10
= f(x)
8,
8,
(1)
where 0.866
We
have
f(x) zz
Other
'
30
10
schemes
are
also
used.
(an cos
nx +
Calculations
b n sin nx).
are
simplified
patterns.
From formulas
(1)
by the use
of
= f(x)
we have
= 9.7; a, = 24.9;
=
13.9; 6 =
8.4;
6,
2
=i0.3; a a = 3.8;
6,
= 0.8.
Consequently,
/ (x)
sin x)
+ (10.3 cos2x
+
Using the
for
(3. 8
+
cos 3*
Sec. 6]
395
values
equidistant
of the
.
argument.
3190. </ =
7200
= 4300
=
5200
y =
=
9.72
y,
= 8.97
=
8.18
y,
= 1.273
y = 0.788
y = 0.495
#,
4
=
=
6.68
y,
= 9.68
 2.714
=
3.042
y,
= 2.134
3191. y
t/,
3192.
J/
/2
f/ 4
t/ s
4
s
= 7400
 2250
=
y,
/,
= 3850
= 7.42
y,
=
6.81
y,
= 6.22
yg
</ 8
= 0.370
=
0.540
y,
=
0.191
y,
y,
= 7600
= 4500
^, = 250
0,
</,
=5.60
/ 10 =4.88
/ n =3.67
y.
y,
=0.357
= 0.437
n = 0.767
#,
t/
f(x)
(x>
first
several
ANSWERS
Chapter
1.
then a
b) + b
+ \b\. Whence (a
= & a (^ 6 \<\ab\
& ^ a
Hence, a
a
\ab
= a/ + 6 3. a) 2<x<4;
\ab = a +
b) <a + 6
< x < 0; d) x> 0. 4. 24; 6; 0; 0; 0; 6. 5.
3, x >
c)
.; ~; 0.
(*)= x +
a=(a
Solution. Since
>a
and
\b\
Besides,
.
<
b) x
1;
.
.
1;
7.
b)~oo
<*< + oo.
/2<*< +
be 2
+*
*
but
16.
19.
oo
2<0,
this
22. q>(*)
= 2^
i.
5* 2
10. i>(x)
a)
T = JI,
T=
Periodic,
e)
y=
*KO,
or
e.,
should
either
x<l,
15.
18.
a)
Even, b)odd,
= i[f (x) +
/ (x)
(x)}
7 =ji,
c) periodic,
0<x<c; = 6
t/
if
even, d)odd,
2n
r = r,
c)
2,...).
1,
3^ + 6x23.
if
i.
Arji<A:</ Jt + ~(/2 = 0,
21.
x,
<*<
2^0,
K*<2.
\<x<
2<x<2.
2
n, b) periodic,
^
u
nonperiodic. 27.
is,
oo
13. a)
l<;t<2. Solution. It
2)<0. Whence
(A:+ 1) (*
Thus,
impossible.
0<*<1. 17.
20 K*<100.
26.
that
14.
l<x<2
e.,
+00).
2<0;
is
1,
4< <
00,
*=0,
jc^ K2.
2
or ^
<^<
Jt
12.
b)
x'^0,
A'+l^O,
Jt^*2,
oo;
d) periodic
C<
m q^ when
=
m
+q
qil +q
/^A;^/,!^;
28.
= ^i^i + ^2(^
when
+ /2<^</, + + =
'i)
/1
37.
^;0;
7. 38.
a)
/.
=2
x=
29. (p[x)(jc)]
=Q
when
2l 2
2Jf
;^[(p(x)]
1,
>
= 2^
(x
2)
30. x. 31. (x
when #
>
1,
when
+ 2)
y <Q
2
= when x =
when jc<
and * = 2, / >
when
1 <x< 2,
1; b)
< when oo < x < 1 and 2 < x < f oo; c) z/>0 when oo<x<  oo;
when x = 0, x =
]/~3~and A;= /" "3, r/>0 when
V%< x<0 and
d) j/ =
1
i/
i/
oo);
b)
and
l<x<f
x=V y +
y<0 whenO<^<!
oo,
and
39. a)
=  (y
3)
Answers
c)
if
y lanyf
= arc tan
43. a)
c)
*/
#=
y=u
= arc
l
a)
^=;
d)
VlogT;
when
d)
= 210>
oo<#< +
oo);
e)
* = # when
oo<0<0; x=/l/ when
= 2x 5; b) # = 2a = cos.r, c) =
u
u=
x
42. a) # = sin x; b)
sinw, a = 3
</
y = 2(x*
!/""<
t/
c)
= cosjc
oo);
40.
<y<^\
41.
oo<#< +
397
JC

oo<x<0 and
1)
and
x<l,
if
b) y = log (10
=
y x when 0<x< + oo.
< 1/2S;
10*),
46.
*>1.
if
oo<x<l;
\j
dix VI, Fig. 1. 51. Hint. Completing the square in the quadratic trinomial
2
we will have y y
and yQ (4ac b 2 )j4a.
a(x * ) where *
b',2a
Whence the desired graph is a parabola y ax* displaced along the *axisby
See .Appendix VI,
53. Hint.
XQ
and
the
t/axis
along
yQ
by
= +
The graph
is
See
Hint.
58.
2.
Fig.
a hyperbola
Appendix
y=
shifted
VI,
along
Fig.
the
3.
*axis by
Hint.
61.
X Q and along
2
the t/axis by
(
x+
yQ
Hint.
62.
part,
4.
we have y=~
o
13
9
/
'
Fig.
Hint.
71.
Hint.
Fig. 7. 73.
See
See
a=A cos
cp
and
b= A
sin
 V
In our case,
cp,
we
will have
y=A
sin (x
cp)
where
=
Hint. cos x
V& + b
and
(p
arctan(
4 = 10,
cp=0.927. 92.
= jr(l+cos2jc). 93. Hint. The desired graph the sum of the graphs
= sinjc. 94. Hint. The desired graph the product of the graphs
= sinx. 99. Hint. The function even For x>0 we determine
and 3) y =\. When x
at which
>+<,
# = 0; 2) y =
is
yl
yl
=x
=x
the
and
and
points
t/
is
is
i/ 2
y+\.
1)
\\
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
15.
Fig.
12.
120.
See
See
See
See
Appendix VI,
Appendix VI,
Appendix VI,
Appendix VI,
Hint. See Appendix VI, Fig. 13. 121. Hint. See Appendix
132. Hint. See Appendix VI, Fig. 30. 133. Hint See Appendix VI,
Hint. See Appendix VI, Fig. 31. 138. Hint. See Appendix VI,
Hint. See Appendix VI, Fig. 28. 140. Hint. See Appendix VI,
VI, Fig.
13.
Fig. 32.
Fig. 33.
134.
139.
Fig. 25.
141. Hint.
Answers
398
Form
a table of values:
Constructing the points (x, y) obtained, we get the desired curve (see Appendix VI, Fig. 7). (Here, the parameter t cannot be laid off geometrically!)
142. See Appendix VI, Fig. 19. 143. See Appendix VI, Fig. 27. 144. See
Appendix VI, Fig. 29. 145. See Appendix VI, Fig. 22 150. See Appendix VI,
x 2 It is
1^25
Fig. 28. 151. Hint. Solving the equation for y, we get
now easy to construct the desired curve from the points. 153. See Appendix VI, Fig. 21. 156. See Appendix VI, Fig. 27. It is sufficient to construct
y=
the points
(x, y)
to the abscissas x
corresponding
= 0,
a.
157. Hint.
^
*]
Solving
haver=
cos 8
>
q>
+ sin
r="
x = 0.4
:2.9,
0002;
f)
= 2,
*2
2.5;
=i=
166.
= 0.86.
=2
= 2, ^ = 5; * = 5,
a) *!
^ = 2,^ = 3;^ = 3, y = 2; c)
2
A^=9;
0.0002.
a)
3.6,
4; b)
I.
172. 1.
169.
A^
c)
Xl
/i
>
logAr<
a)
0.
192.
oo.
183.
193.
oo.
~~.
173.
+2
184.
2.
194.
174.
0.
3.1;
y,25s
A
=.,
yi
10; c)
^=2.7, y z
= 2;
x,=2,
^2
9;
Sit
**=
167.
32.
/i
>
W = 99;
b)
f/
168. 6
when
8C
l,
163.
will
//
165.
;
^^=
d)
> ~
V
a)
c)
32)
= rsincp, we
161.
F = 32 +
^=
32)/
Fig.
ft
e)
'
.),,'
/2
when
y,
_1^
2
1=JV.
=15
*);
^=2;
*,=_;
VI,
Appendix
KK
r = e? (see
= rcosq,
have
will
coordinates
polar
x=1.50;
e)
we
(p
1M.
.1
b)
= 0.6* (10
162.
b)
tancp=~
Hint. Passing to
3sin cp cos cp
160.
d)
and
YX* f y*
1.
175. 3.
+i = g
2
f
185. 72.
oo.
195.
186. 2.
196.
170.
1.
+ l) (2/i+
3a a
188.
197.
a)
a)
002;
>N
when
(e<l).
0<*<6(AO;
176.
187. 2.
0;
177.
b) 2*
b) 1; c) 2; d)
178.
j.
oU
Hint.
180.0. 181.
1).
179. 0.
oo.
3* 2
198.
1.
199.
^
1.
Answers
200. 3. 201.
i
202.
1
203.
204.
399
12.
205.
 i
206.
207.
1.

208.
=:. 209.
x
215. 0. 216.
a)
228.
A.
1.
4o
236.
217. 3.
b) 0.
224.
218.
225. cos
ji.
A:.
244.
245.
251.6.252.
e*.
ji.
i
239.
a)
e" 1
Solution,
1.
m
233.
).
a)
241.
1.
247.
lim (cos*)
221.
0;
lim [1
1.
1.
242.
i
4
249.
"*.
cos x)]
(1
X0
X+0
1.
b)
234.
e" 1
248.
227.
240.
Jt.
214.
246.
0.
I(rt
.
250.
238.
JL
226.
232.
I.
237.
230. 0. 231.
Jt
243.
22'
.
213.
~:j4=.
235.
212.
j/jt
sin a.
229.
211.
^s\n2\
z

210.
2sin a
"m
Si nee lim V
2 lim
21 lim
=e
1.
b)
*>o
(see
follows
it
the
in
preceding
lim
a),
As
Solution.
"/==.
e
7=0,
V
i
case
^n
X+Q
=e
Since lim
X+0
= _J_,
2
2 lim
=
Put
lim (cos*)*
1.
256.
1.

257.
6*^1=0,
1.
where a^0.
Hint. Put
263. a)
267. a) 0; b)
1.
1;
b)
268.
= a,
i
a)
259.
264. a)
1;
b)
1;
b)
1.
258
'
Ina. Hint.
*
where
=<?
Hint
260. In a
262.
that
*).o
lOloge. 255.
253. In 2. 254.
follows
it
269.
(see
1.
a)
Example
265. a)
1;
b)
1;
1.
b)
259)
1.
270. a)
= e na
a
261.
266. a)
6.
1; b) 0.
oo; b)
+00.
Answer*
400
271.
Solution.
but
if
when x=l;
whenx = 0;i/ =
l<x< + oo.
280
x=l
x>
when
when
276.
281.
kn (fe=0,
then cos 2
&
If
/Swi,
x>0.
277.
^g.
6=0;
1
1
compound
c)
>
x\
1000. 289. x
1<0.005;
b) x
= 0.01;
b) 6
c) 3.
293
299.
3.
6)
a)
300.
x

kn, where k
316.
a)
/(0)
x+ A*
= n;
b)
when
^* 2^
b)
A:)
is
<,\
we
/(0)1;
310. a)
an integer
I
c) /(0)
313.
= 2;
7=
301.
292.
a)
1.
= 0.1;
1;
2;
b)
298.
1.
Hint.
0.98(09804);
1)
d)
Take
3.167(3.1623)
c)
have
Hint.
< 0.05;
a)
15. 297.
296.
b) 4; c)
2;
309.

3.875(3.8730);
4)
jx
1 ~
0.985(0.9849);
Ax
<
Ax
No
295.
a)
U>100;
b)
^=6;
10.954(10.954).
d)
y^zT
curve
a)
2<
x
Second, b) third.
a)
the
*>10;
a)
\&x\<x
cos
285
=x
279.
si.
"
0<e<l;
d) 2; e) 3.
when
(xf AJC)
j/
290.
0.0005
l^"x)< Ajc/V^x.
integer; b) x
inequality
5
U>
0.0095(0.00952);
inequality cos
<
+1;
3)
Ax+
the
is
when
291.
c)
when x<0; # =
= 4"
of
asymptote
0.043(0.04139). 303,
then
Ax/(V A:+
288.
<~
7)
the
is
1.03(1 0296);
=3
> 0,r
i
a)
072(0.7480);
= 0.001.
b)
1;
c)
1.03(1.0309);
If
c)
)/"lO= l/"9Tl
2)
Q t = Q<fkt
interest);
1;
!
where k
0<x <
278.
lim <4C n
nMo
284.
nj
*
.
y=x
line
j/
x 2 *oo.
fL
straight
Q/^^Qo
287.
274.
y=x
when
275.
the
= x.
*,*;
282.
4
J/
then
...),
272.
/=!.
273.
2,
1,
and
1.12(1.125);
5)
Hint.
307.
J/xfAx /"il
advantage
+kn, where
the
of
is
an
= 2;
kind. 318. x =
d) f (0)
e)
=
= 0;
/ (0)
f)
/(0)
1.
317. x
2 is a discontinuity of the second
1
is a removable dis2 is a discontinuity of the second kind; x=2 is a removable
continuity. 319. x=
320. x
is
is a discontinuity of the first kind. 321. a) x
discontinuity
a discontinuity of the second kind; b) x=0 is'a removable discontinuity. 322. x=0
is a remo vable discontinuity, x
kn (k=\, 2, ..) are infinite discontinuities
323.
x=2jifcy
(fc
= 0,
1,
2,...)
are
infinite
discontinuities.
x^kn (=0,
is a
1,
2, ...) are infinite discontinuities. 325. x
1
is a removable discontinuity;
discontinuity of the first kind. 326. x
1
is a point
of discontiauity of the first kind. 327. x
1 is a discon
324.
x=
Answers
401
x=0
x=
x=0
x~k
II
Chapter
341.
344.
3;
a)
a)
0.21;
b)
1560;
624;
2ft
c)
+A
0.01;
b)
342.
0.1;
a)
100; c)
3;
b)
c)
1;
.;
2*(2_l)
e)
g^'i);
A*
jt+AxfJ^x
2;
354.
a)
~
lim
A!?
A/H)
At
lim
"^
d)
^ =E =
AJ^^O
sin 2 x
a)
12
"~
c)
]im f(x
A**O
the
L^
0.16;
/ (x)
time
at
time
t.
at
time
t.
A =^
b)
t.
at
substance
21 
Ax
temperature
of
347>
+ Ax)
turn
of
angle
quantity
0238;
21
2
357.
Ax cos x cos
"
is
"" h;
(x)
the
is
l;
_ _
2
"
35l
0.25.
= J^ = sec x.
cos x
(x+ Ax)
1
Solution.
359.
.
the
is
356.
Ax
lim
Ax>o cos x cos
cp
where
Ax
0.249;
lim
lim
AJCM)
201
'=
where
Ar
>
Ax
where
b)
l;
/(*+Ax)~ /(x)
2,
lim
AfM>
b)
Ax
c)
b)
rX =
dt
355.
dt
353. a)
JP=
b)
Ar
~~
a)
IT)
346>
AX
c)
(xf
Ax)
a)
3x 2
358.
n8)=
Solution.
sec x.
AX
b)
lim
Ax
*o
4
x*
^ (8
c>
7=
2 V^
A ^~^
(8)
Ax
A*M>
+ Ax 8
= hm
Ax
AA:^O Ax
8
8
[ J/ (8 + Ax) + ^/ (8 + Ax) + j/
]
= Hm
= 1. 360. r(0) = 8, r(l) = 0,
=
12
Ax^o 3/(8+ Ax) +
2^/8 + Ax+4
=
=
=
For
the given function the equation
x
Hint.
3.
0.
361.
0,
x,
/'(2)
= x 362. 30m/sec.
2.
364.
363.
/'(*)=:/ (x) has the form 3x
=
365. nx
^. 366 L 2 tanq>=3. Hint. Use the results of Example 3
8
..
_
xo
and Problem
1.
1,
365.
367. Solution, a)
f'(Q)^ lim
Ll
!_=
lim
Ax
AJC+OJ^/
AX
4 oo;
Answers
402
1^15^=
Ax
/'(!)= lim
b)
lim
2fe+l
lim
sinAxl
=1.
Ax
A*>+o
5x
*+A
371.
'
3x
l
+n1
6ax
= x x* = x
9y2
^
A
sin/.
y'
= 0.
390.
sin 2
xe x
391.
xV(xf7).
x 2 e x 396. e x
^x
cot x
387.
/^arc sin
3x 2 lnx.
398.
402
_ tanh2x
403
toco.h^dnh*
cosh x
2
2x 2
405.
x
407.
x
411.
Vx
12fl6+18^
2x arc
(1x
412.
//.
fex2
.
>X
16x(3
+ 2x
2 8
)
"~
420. 2
419.
2
2 sin x
15 cos
xln 2
sin
x sinx.
_2cos^
sin>
3cosx)
arc sin
....
414.
2(l+Jt )V^arctanjc
_3jari!*)l
/"l
x*
x2
/I
1tan
+ tan
COS 2 X
.Hint. x
3 cos x
cos*x
Ssin^^
I)
418.
y.
2
3a fax}b\
fax
b \
424>
cos 4 x
L
!
f
tanhx
421.^^^
423>
(1
427.
xsmh 2 x
sin 8 2/
422.
425.
cot x
+ x coshx.
sinh x
3(xln* + sinh*cosM
413.
In
401.
*~ 1)
.
x /
* (21n
397.
2 2
)
.1/j/l;!.
X
f
416.
8 2
v5
*>y*
393.
(2x
41B
^f.
"
X2
j/~i
arcsinxf
*\ arc coshx
cos x)
(sinx
arc sinh x
406.
I)
384.
2x
388.
.
'
4()4
1
1
^1
x In 10
x
1+1H/A.400.
x
x
x
399.
on
4***
x 2 (2x
392.
x+
wy
1*
383.
sin
386.
394. e* (cos x
3 sinx.
2)
380.
OOU.
+ 5)
5x
377.
5 cos x
fW49ft
VJA
7 zo
(x
ji
374.
JL
Hint. y
373.
2x 8 370.
2. 382.
7=
x arc tan x.
389.
rn
/2*fl
l + 2x
369.
2 (1
2
+ 2.
o*7A
OIS7.
379.
r,
1
x
376. *
+ dx)
(c
12x 2
8
.
+ b(m\n)t
U*U.
Y
385.
3x 4
l/x
r^
1.
5x
/'
c)
sin Ax
~ L^iJLJ=l;
,.
lim
5x 4
368.
JL
2x
375.
==00;
\\
*JL
'=
mat m
372.
^_
lim
= sin +
2
+ 2 sinx
2 V^lSsinx
lOcosx
1
'
2 1^1
>
'
^
'
(1
+ x ) (arc tan x)
Answers
403
429.
430.
cos(x
.
5x+l)
2*
1)
}
asin(ax +
433.
(2x5) X
4 32.
434.
p).
sin(2/+q>).
X 2 COS 2
X
""*
?21i
435.
436.
sin
n2
x cos 2x 2 sin 3x 2
437.
438.
Solution.
a
l
(2x)'
,
V^l
"~ 2
lA
(2x)
439.
4x
x/V
442.
10xe~*
443.
p^jf
440.
446.
sin2
+2
450.
t
/
cos 2 In
453.
(1
j
In x) x
5x2 cos
4x
456.
(1 jx
(sin
5x)' cos
2 
sin 
tanx
x
6
10).
cot x log
4 arc sin x)
}5sinx
e.
VI
454.
x\
x f
^
449.
arc
+ x In
(1
x
(e
+x
452.
xlnx
1
.
2xi0 2 *
448.
^^
451.
x2
441.
447.
2.
445.
In 5.
pX
t
"~
2 J^jc
2*5~* f
444.
2x \ In xjx \
2
'
+ sin
5x
cos 2
= 15 sin
= 3 sin
=
6 J)
x2~sin
5xcos5xcos 2
xx
3
5xcos
r
sin 
x 2 f4x
3
457.
x'
.
458.
459.
463.
4x 3 (a
465.
2x 3 ) (a
5x 3 ).
sin
479.
.
476.
x cos 4 x
10tan5xsec 2
 1
484.
sin
f
]/"l
x2
.
'
478.
3/
sin
2/.
482 .
arc sin x)
xcosx 2
477.
5x.
2
.
OB
485.
K a
sin 2
+p
AQC
V^x
cos 2 x
486.
'
1+x 2
487.
491.
1^2x
xa
492.
arc sin
...
25x 2 arc
sin
5x
Answers
404
494.
 
495.
1+cos 2 *
a w *lna. 502.
f
e*cos3x. 505.
504.
(1
Psinhpjf)'. 539.
542.
/?*
499..
506.
548.
l(/tanx
^
544.
545.
sinx
y+
I1^3
.
5
V (0)= =^;
/'+
(0)
tion.
or
567
do not
We
sin ' x
.
+ l/Tosxln a).
1
,' =
549.
when x
have
c)
6n. 554.
553.
/I (0)=
exist. 555.
y'
xy'=y(\x)
= e" x (1
566.
*
/_
/+
d) /'_ (0)
=/'+
(0)
+ (0)0;
1,
a)
/'
x.
556. 2
+ ^.
=^
557.
(0)=1;
(0)
< 0;
y' (0)
does
f'W
= 1,
xarctanhx
546.
y'
550.
^L
x2
{
552.
(1
2coth2x. 541.
540.
a)
',*,.
b)
exist;
tanh 2 2x)
(1
cos2x
547. xarcsinhx.
sin 2xe
500.
x
p sin pO 503. e" sin p*.
e*(acos p/
2xMna).
+ 4 sin*
_)/.
6tanh 2 2x
543.
x y In 2 x
not
"""
1+*
^'a^fn
496.
2xcosa + xt
= 0,
1.
b)
/.
(0)
e) /'. (0)
558.
2
,
and
561. Solu
= (lx)
(1 +2x)(l +3x) + 2(l+x) (1 +3x) + 3(x + l) (1 +2x).
~
x).
Since e' x
it
Answers
40S
24
573 '
>
574.
'n*.
575.
*
2!li
+ cos x Inx
SIn
578.
576.
'
 sin * tan x)
(cos * In cos *
(cos x)
58
'
581.
"
586.
590.
601.
tity.
,;
603.
.
2
2j/)
arc tan 2
=^63
(2, 12).
45.
623.
26'.
626. (1,
3).
620
624.
627.
</
arc tan
b)
d)
y5 = 0;
^2y
=
x
+ 2 = 0.
l=0;
34 = 0.
13
= 0,
GA;
(3,0):
t/
2x
y=l
1;
x\
616.
xy
a) 0; b)
~^r 36
1=0; y = 0.
the
for
625.
21'.
633.
(0,20);
= 0;
6x
Jt
2//
x
2f/fl=0
fi
o
point
1,
1).
6;
t/
= 0.
639.
14;c
638.
634.
At
xf2; y
(1,
15);
1^
lo
2^
7x
= 0.
637.
45.
y=2
a)
635.
5yf 21=0.
622.
0.
c)
+y
+ y2 = 0; c)
3 = 0;
e) 2x + y
1=0
= Ilf
= 2x
632.
3 cosy
10
11
631.
r
10
615.
y,
6 08
an iden
is
605.
_=_
\nxxx
*.
593.
.
lf3ju/ f4(/
yVx*+y*
589.
f.
={
oo.
.
602.
ex
tan
tan^.592.
597.
1.
fir* ra.
588.
W.
a);
+x*)arctanx
585.
=x
0;
636.
the
2\
point
(1,0):
at the point
41
=0.
Answers
406
640.
The equation
Hint.
of the
tangent
^{^=1.
2y Q
is
ZXQ
crosses the xaxis at the point A (2x 0) and the yaxis at B (0, 2f/
the midpoint of AB, we get the point (* y Q ). 643. 40 36'. 644.
at
the
at
bolas are
and
intersect
point
(0, 0)
tangent
The para
arctani=^88'
648
652
'
'
the
at
= 2jia
/1+4JT 2
t

~.
arc tan
=a
fl
^in/sec.
The
2u g/sina
+g
To determine
system. The range
on
velocity
the
Sf =
'
S,
= a;
cm /sec;
0;
656.
2jt.
q>
is
the
of
slope
657.
The equation
660.
range
2 8
5,,= ^;
of the trajectory
*
sin
\sy=x tan a
2a
The
vector
velocity
cm /sec
is
velocity,
cosa
axes
the
~
'
are
and
The magnitude
j
of
the velocity
CO8
cm
40
of
he
2
360
at
the
g,
density
x2
681.
5* g/crn,
is
+~~210,Y
4
.
u = 5;
x*)
.
671
+ 2).
i*
cosh
682.
a
vl
//
6 79. y"'
= 6.
680.
~64sin2x
684. 0;
1; 2;
2.
of the rod
the density
2 cos 2x
669.
2 arc tan x
672.
is 0,
674
(1
The mass
666.
the density at
x*
668.
e
(4^
3(1
y cm/sec
m'/'sec. 665.
56x 6
667.
60g/cm.
2(1 ~"* 2)
.
673.
JT
at
is
670.
Q
,
is
is
~
663.
Hint.
of
655
'
tani=
2__p2.
uj
tan^i
angle
S,
y +2(p
}/~l4ji
654.

rt
~
n ~
>
647.
(1,1).
an
'
653.
point
Finding
).
685.
/'"(3)
The velocity
The acceleration, a 0;
0.6. 686. The law
0.006;
the
is
x
acoscof; the velocity at time / is
point M,
2
acD cos(of. Initial velocity, 0;
awsincof; the acceleration at time / is
aw 2 velocity when *
initial acceleration:
is
aco; acceleration when
The maximum absolute value of velocity is aa>; the maximum
*
is 0.
2
n
(n)
(n+l
value
of
acceleration
absolute
is aw
687. y
n\a
688. a) n\ (1
\
x)~
is
of
4997;
motion of
4.7.
b)
_ ir +
i
.
689
=
=
Answers
407
d)
2 n jc
691
^(OJ^tn
692.
1)1
a) 9/
8
;
b) 2/
+ 2;
XU+*);
b)
sin
693. a)
.
$
<
=.
696.
708.
o
711.
x=\
718.
721.
725.
^b)
3
a)
and
AJC
No.
719.
dy= 45
^~^
=l
697.
f .712. Ar/
714
d//
cf(/
= 0.009001;
=.
A:
M+
(AA')
720.
7,0.
d(/
when
717. For *
16
713. cf(l
^5 = 2^Ax, A5 = 2^ Ax +
722.
"J
256
//
d/0.009.
^=^0.0436.
0.0698.
'
709.
2
2
ft4.
'
726.
j;
4o
"
707.
777
4a
/"T^?.
c)
= 0.
= ;=i 0.00037.
723.
y*xe
735.
738.
740.
~dx.
IJ
0.045; e)
5"=^ 2. 25;
739.
565_cm
^^4.13; ^70^=8.38;
200=5=5. 85. 741. a) 5;
/70=^4.13;
J/
^/10=^2.16;
.
"""
d) 0.9.
742.
1.0019.
743. 0.57.
744. 2.03.
748.
~(^)
sin,ln, +
fc).
753.
2
.
.754.
(d **'
iy
(1
750.
~ + 0. 025^0
^)*/i
^640=^ 25
b)
749.
3.2"
sin
3.
l.l;c)0.93;
*( dx ?
.
(1
(dx)*. 752.
751.
81.
X2 )
e
/a
__
Answers
408
755.
xcosa
sin(*sina + na)(d*)
758.
763.
(2,
765.
4).
2(
3U'
C<8,<1.
0<B<1.
0<6<
c*
770.
sin
error
(
_ = H
x \
(1 
2!L_
8
= 77:.
get:
x \
f
where
2
where
J,,
= 8 *,
2
?6*,
775.
both cases g
We
Solution.
6jc;
have
factors in
powers
of
#,
in
__L
^ + _x  x.
^1f)
40
Expanding both
= 0.
~ sin
x^ +
sin g 2 ,
L
.
&
_i_
*
we
*=
than =7
5!
762.
b)'
less
is
exist.
j_
a
In
not
function.
769. sin
1.
~ + ^
The
773.
768.
0<0<
x = x
the
of
does
(2)
/'
772. Error: a)
1.
b)g = ~.
since
No,
discontinuity
= +6 (x 1),
where
757.
is
=^;
a)
where
1)8>
x = ~x
/l
^~^1H
//T"
y

x \
8
1
J
y*
^~9~2
Tne n
expanding
powers
778
oo
788.
1.
we
779.
~.
788.
same polynomial
get the
780. 3.
n<l.'
for
802
of
789.
793. 0.
781.
790*.
1.
795. 1
804.
Find
lini
^
u ~>0
791. a.
0.
796.
805.
where S
hh
783.
792.
797.
806.
oo
1.
IT
sin a)
(a
807.
>
799.
1.
1;
for
800.
808.
1.
the exact
is
784. 0. 785.
oo.
for
^77.
810.
1.
expression
for
801.
e*.
R2
= ~
x
x
=^rlHrn~2
\2
782. 5.
803.
the
l;
1.
Hint.
area
3"^
of
the segment (R
is
Chapter
(00,
III
812. (
increases; (2, oo), decreases.
oo, 2), decreases;
813.
814.
increases.
(2, oo), increases.
oo),
0) and (2, oo),
increases; (0, 2), decreases 815.
2) and (2, oo), decreases. 816.
1),
817.
increases; (1, oo), decreases.
2),
8) and (8, oo), decreases.
818. (0, 1), decreases; (1, oo), increases.
819. (
and (1, oo), in00,
1)
811.
2),
(00,
(00,
(00,
creases;
creases;
1,
1),
decreases
oo
820.
increases. 822.
j,
(00,
(00,
(2,
00,
(2,
oo),
0),
increases
increases. 823.
821.
(0,
oo,2),
],
de
decreases;
409
Answers
(0,
824.
increases.
oo),
(2,
oo), increases
decreases; (1,
1),
and
00, a)
(a,
*=
when
0)
and
828.
No
(00,
825.
decreases.'
oo),
827. ymax
1296 when x = 6.
extremum. 830. t/m in = when x=Q; t/ mln =0 when x= 12; t/max
when x= 1; t/ mfn =^ 0.05 when
0.76 when x=5=0.23; i/ max =
831. t/min^
2
833. #max =
832. No extremum.
x=^1.43. No extremum when x = 2.

when *=0;
/
= 3/3
when x =
i/
840.
[/
=2
x=
when
837.
j/
2,
845.
y mln
when x = 2
value
is
m=
when x =
Af
75
^= 12
for x
fjkJ:^
c
f/
min
for
when x =
1;
j (fc^O,
for x
2,
1,
is
is
(2fe
r
".
(fe^0,
1) JT
when x =
844.
f/
m?n
.
l when
4
when x = 0;
No extremum.
M = 7rwhen
value,
= 5.
//max2
m^=0 when
852.
1; M = 27 when x = 3.
m = 1579 when x =
Each
side
whose
863>
f
1)
= l; M=JI
854.
j
when
m
a)
M = 3745
when
be equal to

10;
864. The
Isosceles.
865.
850.
\.
The
side
866.
terms must
of the
Smallest
849.
when x = (2fc
m=~
851.
of
tlit
half
the
g
altitude
^L
y3
mln
7
where
f/
=6
= 
x=\
848.
...).
b)
861.
4.
<7
868.
846.
= g when x=l.
x~
greatest
= 10; M = 5
2,
when
842. y mln
= /2
s/"3 when
y mta =
839.
max
when x = 2K
K^3"
x=1
when
1.
y min
r/
max =
*,
base.
= 0.
t/
when
y min=l
Ji;
835.
836.
^==^
9rr
^ n; ^/max^^cos
l
when
853. /n=s
when x=l; M=^2o6 when x = 5;
862.
when
fcjT
p=
when x = 3.2.
yg
x== _l.
856.
=9
x=
x=12.
#max
= 3/3"
min
ymln ==0when
and x
f/
(/
847.
834.
w ^n
t/max^^
=2
max
841.
...).
^L;
yO
*=12
Scos^when
843.
when
m ax= 5 when
1,
mm 0 when
838.
is
to
equal
radius
869.
of
the
its
Altitude
diameter
base
of
R ]/
the
of the base
ro
where
cylinder,
i<
__
RV'2

410
__
Answers
where
is
where
is
cone
jrr,
where
Radius
872.
sphere.
876.
The altitude
of the cylindrical
+ *yo = 1.
^* XQ
^
878.
879.
The
3 \
j J.
881.
~Y=.,
arc cos
4
885.
a)
and
ty.
P min = y%aqQ.
spheres,
the
impact
with
m*V
+w
b),=
=;
If
n=
"I/
(if
this
is
battery
number
the physical
points
^"3")
points
3),
oo,
6)
2,
J,
*.
^_
884.
886.
not an integer or
is
meaning
M,
M lj2
concave up;
...);
oo,
4r
,=
obtained
is
as
concave
2),
0),
(4/e
+3)
0)
1/~3,
(/*
0)
and
^, (4
Af 2 ( 6,
down;
0(0,
+ 5)~
l)it,
2&Ji),
f(2fe+l)y,
concave down(fe=0,
xkn.
0).
895.
V
and (1^3,
points of inflection,
not a divisor of
(2,
oo),
892.
(6, Vo(0,
(0,
is
of the solution
must be
of
inflection
of
^L
inflection.
(00, oo), concave up.
12),
point
concave down, ( 3, oo), concave up; no points of inflection.
and (0, 6), concave up; ( 6, 0) and (6, oo), concave down;
inflection
and
jr
1,
M (2,
oo,
of
I/ ^M
is
(~a;
of
coordinates
concave up;
where
887.
the
6J/~2,
AM=a
883.
is
The
velocity
888.
880.
that
zero;
= \l*
a^Tand
on the parabola
lie
The angle
882.
arc tan
of the ellipse.
is,
must be
part
/HI
jr, that
angle of
is,
R,
is
/~2
^
oo),
896.
concave
down
oV
(00,
concave down;
(&
897. (2/m,
1,
898.
i2,
[0,
\
...);
the abscis),
V&J
concave
Answers
[7^,
down;
;
899.
oo
V/>
concave
up;
0),
concave
up;
900.
(00,
3)
_JL
^=
(0,
oo),
and
(1,
W)
(Y*
oo,
inflection.
411
a point of inflection.
is
a point
is
oo),
of
concave
1),
=
901.
of inflection are M (
3,
T and M (
=
=
= 0. 902. *=1, x^=3, =
x=
903.
904.
x.
2, y=
*,
905.0
= right 907. jc=
= x, right. 906. =
left,
left,
y=x, left,
= 2, left, y=2x 2, right. 909. 0^2 910. jt=0.
= *, right
908.
911. * = 0, 0=1.
912. i/^O.
913. *=!.
0=1, left, = 0, right.
= x n, left; y = + right. 915. y a. 916. ma x = when x 0;
914.
4 when x = 2\ point of inflection, Af,(l, ~~ 2
917 ^/max^
when
min =
r
= 0; points of inflection Ai lf
when
jf=V 3; m
~)
== 4 when x =
918.
y min = Q when je=l, point of inflection, M, (0, 2).
m ax
919 f/max^ 8 wnen ^ =
2,
m n = when = 2; point of inflection^ M (0, 4).
when A'^0;
of inflection
920.
M lt2 (Y5, 0) and
points
//min^
down; points
A'
1,
J.
1.
iy
1,
1,
l,
JC
JT,
)
r=:
in
jc
1,
1;
//
Jt
\,
totes, x
923.
924. (farm
0=xl.
~
1,
= 0.
= 0.
when
Ai
J2/"3,
lf
of
point
= J;
Ai(5,
\
of
0(0,
inflection,
jc^=
*
1;
0min
and /^(4,
(8,
and
4)
3,
940.
938.
= 0;
m n=
x
s
asymptotes,
x
0,
=4
when x =
V%
0max=
935.
2.
when jg=
^nax^
936f
~YH
max
when x =
of
points
= 0.
when
Asymptotes,
941.
= 3.
jc=
1;
1;
4;
max
j
ym n
=y
942.
and
max
\\
4r J
0.
y
=l when
x^4;
929.
Point
0.
97
930.
nnx =
4 when
max =
'16
,
931.
= Q and
=2
f/
= 3v
933.
;c
0(0,
/I
0).
932.
(8,
934.
(0,
Endpoint,
point of
(Q
x
t
m =
M 1>2 (1,
= 0,
points
of
and M f (1,
(when x = 0)
0);
1)
in
~~
=2
= 0,
2)
and
4)
Endpoints,
when
inflection,
asymptote,
939.
max =2
K 2); asymptote,
4 wh'en x==4; point of inflection, 0(0,
~~
^
3 /
4
4 when x
when x
2, 0mi n
inflection,
when x =
'
and
=
x
asymptotes,
r
asymptote,
0);
M lt (\
\
x2 and
= 0.
and
and
0).
asymptote,
943.
0);
V
M, t(l,
when
=2
x~\\
vvnen
m in^=
0);
x.
=4
928.
2 V 2 when
2) are endpoints;
ma x
are endpoints. Point of inflection,
B(Y$*
0=^
0);
asymptotes,
;
=
asymptotes, x
77];
y
T2); asymptote
O.
asymptote, AT
1/2,
asymptote,
when
inflection,
m jx ==l whenx=l;
^)'.
inflection,
M(
of
points
926. # ma x~
^2
mm
inflection,
= 0,
min
(l,
f/
of
/y
inflection M,
lt
4 when i=l;
of
1;
point
wnen
0max~'Qo
925.
asymptote,
and
Points
922.
when jc=l;
when x^O;
^max^
when x
max
=3
927. y m n
921
when
944.
= 0;
0min^
= 4;
=K
asymptote,
T7=
1/2
0.
0);
when
x=2.
Answers
412
J/max
1/~JT
TT= when
V 2
o
of inflection,
of
M,
x
3a,
= 4;
949.
=2
rnax
of
point
/min=
953.
=g
min
f/
2
2,
of
= 0;
when x = g;
*
as
1+0
 ,0
jc
points
j n+
2Jfeji;
t/
~+
fare cos
On
the
*=n;
M, 4
nal
2fen
[0,
(fe
= 0,
= 0, # =
1;
n + kn,
j
~^J+2fejx,
m in
2 20,
2it],
ji,
...);
i/
max
when
2A5Ji
(fc
t/
max
Odd
of
when
of
x=
Asymptote,
x oo).
2;
points
defined on
max
the
=
2,
...);
function
with
1,
Periodic
inflection,
~;
V$
M k (kn,
ml n=0.71
when * =
86;
^=0.37);
J
when
and
0)
1;
956.
m in =
(0.57,
when x = 0;
^=
2n. y m n
inflection,
x=
= 0,
39
# = 0.
"""472)
x (as
period
j Jif2/5Ji;
y
not
is
asymptote, A:
1^0.63;
with
960.
points
yg )^l5j.
962.
jc
the function
*=
when
when ^ = 0; points
0.95).
when
max
and
(rr==
~V,
(e
t/
^e ^ 7
= 0.
when
74
2,
ji],
J.
Oj.
1,
950.
1,
y m{n =
j+
wn en
y
asymptote,
);
f\ e
function
interval
i/
inflection,
^3
y mln ==
2ji.
Ai
inflection,
of
f
lf 2
= F ^054
Mk
of inflection,
= 0.
asymptotes, x=*l.
(when x+
oo) and y
period
max
Points
'
~\
inflection,
959. Periodic
point
1.33);
Asymptotes,
when
Nk
of
when x=l;
inflection,
interval
x=
f/
inflection,
1>2 (1.89,
957. Asymptotes, r/
Q.
958.
of
point
point
point
asymptotes,
point of
0)
when x = 6;
/2
max =
t/max^
0.70);
0(0,
3
= 07=
947.
nl,
951.
^14.39,
954.
*/
M^J
^ = 4=.,
wnen
x*0.
946.
points of inflection,
(e"'*
3,
/ 8 ^ 2 i/"~
^2
when ^ = 0.
asymptote, y
inflection,
>:
j
a,
2 (
Af,
= Q.
asymptote, y
and
j
when * = 0;
^
of
w min
when
y+Q
/iooy
inflection,
952.
945.
j^r=V, asymptote, x = 2
when
jc=l;
when
x=l
/12,
points
//
/min
5
points of inflection,
inflection,
asymptotes,
J ')
(3
3,
*.
2;i.
2xc.
when
0.13) and
On
inter
i/max=l when
__
Answers
Ji
^nin
'
When * =
=l
(1.21,
when
= 2n;
M,(2.36,
0.86);
A4 e (5.50, 0).
of
points
with
function
when * =
3
asymptotes, x=rJi
Even
965.
=
c
^+
Mk
inflection,
+ ^Jt
kn,
^min
skill:?,
function
A:
= arccos
^zr
(/
lO^
with
m
J^
(jt^arcsin
On
2it.
the
when x^Ji;
0(0,
0);
M k (kn,
function,
//
and
Odd
m in =
n + 1 +2^n when
**+oo).
inflection (centre of
974. Odd
Oj
Even
966.
when
^min=F
n]
t/
(/j
ma x
M!
t/max^
y
Oj;
i/g)
0,
2,
1,
57
Odd
969.
when
...).
A:
function.
t/
JI
A;
(/
+fr
when
972.
(/
JC==1;
symmetry)
of
points
/JJT;
2,
1,
(as
inflection,
2fcrc);
when x =
^max=
(0, Ji);
"
^^

asymptotes,
...).
(as
971.
x*
Even
and
oo)
(node); asymptote, y
Whe "
X=S ~" I;
y = x + 2n
(left)
P oint
and
l.
y=x
= 1.856 when
=
M
of
0,
inflection,
+ (when
asymptotes,
point
^y
and # = * In2.
(as ^^+00). 975. Asymptotes, # =
oo) and y = ^
(right).
l;
function.
t/
m in=1.285 when
f
^^
(1,
function.
[0,
^= when
2k 4
=^.^1
#==
oo)
970.
j JI+/JJT.
vvhen
0.34).
= J +
1
asymptotes, x^y ^ (6 = 0,
= 0; asymptotes, =
t/mln^ when x
+ /en;
j
1,
=

of
points
interval
inflection,
57)
n;
...);
[0,
fejt)
(fcjt,
'
asymptotes, x\.
2,
1,
the
of
points
(2
graph
= 0,
^)
when
inflection,
interval
0.86);
( (/I)=
.(/Si/S)'
Odd
points
of
=.
= arccos
967.
968.
Limiting
(4.35,
= 0whenxn;t/ mln =
when
max
0.86);
period
On
when
Ai^O.36,
asymptotes, *
...);
2n
period
= F=
(fc
#min
V~2
~
ym n = L
2n.
+ 2foi
2,
1,
period
t/
arccos^;
= arccos 7=)'
(arc
periodic
with
when ^ =
rr^s
Af t
= 0,
(fc
y J
0.86);
period
ji
inflection,
function
periodic
*=
wnen
M 4 (3.51,
0);
Periodic
963.
= ^ 7
ymax
413
JC=1;
t/
t/
max
ji
Answers
414
976.
j/
*=1;
m n =1.32 when
i
2jt.
period
t/
min
asymptote, x
when
x=^ji
g
= 0.
+ 2&JT;
t/
2,
1,
arc sin
and
^ +
2;ri
M^ Urcsin
wnen * =
max ^=e
= 0,
(fc
with
978.
(2fe+l)n,e
4(0, 1)
Endpoints,
^
B(\, 4.81). Point of inflection, M(0.28, 1.74). 979. Points of inflection,
4.81 (as **oo).
0.21 (as x +
(0.5, 1.59); asymptotes, #
oo) and r/
980. The domain of definition of the function is the set of intervals (2kn t
where fc
Periodic function with period 2ji.
...
0,
1,
2,
2/jJtfji),
A^
and
t/
when * =
max
The
981.
domain
of
Points
^
(/e
r/=1.57;
lf
2,
1,
2/jJi
i/^
1
y mln
as
*
Domain
of
(limiting
period
+ kn.
i/
min
Limiting
asymptotes,
...);
definition,
increasing
<~
2/jn
]x
y mm =l when
2jr
984.
Asymptote,
985.
Endpoints,
^ 0.69
2ji.
period
monotonic
0;
with
986.
987.
>
endpoint).
when ^^0.
^^ +
2,
1,
definition,
with
function
Periodic
kn.
of intervals
= 0,
asymptotes,
...);
asymptotes,
...);
the set
function
Periodic
1.57
(fe
983.
as
+
0)
(2fcji,
0.
2,
p0.37; y
integer.
1,
57);
an
is
of
...).
= 0,
,(1.31,
*=
Mk
asymptote,
(fc~0,
is
2,
1,
Domain
982.
2fejt.
0,
(&
definition
inflection,
function;
2&Ji
of
where
(2fc+jrjJi
x=
when
4 (+0,
endpoint,
Q);
t/max^ 6
^ 144
(/
of
point
!;
inflection,
when / = (0 = 3); y mm = 1
M, (0.58, 0.12) and M 2 (4 35,1 40). 988. Jc inln =
when / =
(x^3) 989. To obtain the graph it is sufficient to vary / from to 2jt.
a (cusp) when
^min^ awhen^ji(// = 0); ^max = awhen / = (#0); min 1
t/
+2
3T
inflection
when
fl
(cusp)
when
<
7
V'Se
\
when
8
,
y
U = 0);
points of inflection
7jT
j
*=
I/" 2,
i.e.,
to=
^)l
^max =
XJ.
i.e.,
44
r wnen
m in=
Jf
ma x
5jl
r4
990.
3jT
= j
when
(x;
= 0);
TT=;
i/
= 2x
when
_ /"^"t
(cusp); asymptote,
wn ^n
*
= 0.991.
+ oo.
992.
l(jK:
= e);
and when
points of
t=
xmin =l
i/
m in =
andymln =i
when
= 0.
Answers
$93. ds
cosa =
dx,
415
<*>
where
=
x
sin
tanh
998. ds
.
997.
= 2asin~rff;
cos
ds
sin;
cosa=
cos/; sin
sin
=a
sin/. 1000. ds
"(p;cosp=
cos
dx:
d^;
= cosh
cos
1002.
a=
~
999. ds
cosp
V^l +(p
ds^
995.
tit
I/
(X
~3asin ^ cos/
62
Ka 2
c=
d<p;
ds==
dcp;
tp*
cos*
1003.
=
an2z
zzz
K^36.
1006.
4^
/(=
1010.
^"3^2"
1007.
1012.
both
at
1005.
"
vertices.
&2
;
'
ds==
KB =
1011.
(
^).,0,3.
(!"*..
,=
a sin 2t
1016.
!023.
.

^a
ilfl,
3)
1019.
8.
^
a cos
1017.
pK
= ~(X
p)
and
sin
= cos 29.
K^
[
f
R^
= a/.
1018.
1020.
1026.
1009.
1014.
^
f k2
d(p;
3
1015.
1004.
cos.
/?
(2,2).
l025 
_
8
^c
8
,
where
=a 2
2
.
Chapter IV
In the answers of this section the arbitrary additive constant
ted
for the
aV.
1032.
2x 3
+ 4* + 3*.
2
is
1033.
omit
416
Answers
1037.
'+
'
a 2 xa'x
1038.
J.
j/
<*
''~.
'*'
JC .
3x 2
3x*
fi
1040.
'
13
4//2
1042.
+
1043.3=
In
4=
2/10
1044.
= sec
x;
b)
1045.
ln(x+
/4 + x
1048*.
b) x
1;
/"lO
xcothx.
^j~
1050.
'
_i
J
Solution.
numerator
the
.
^
1063.
1065.
^.
cotx
1052.
we
1057.
cl.
Inlx
1059.
.
~~'
3* 2
]/
_Jiy(a_
1062.
y.
1066.
^=
2
).
In
/7 + 2
+ b + x V ab
+ V7 + 8x
1064. 2
~.
.
fll
,,
L arc tanx
get
1054.
I06li
:ln
In
1049. a)
Solution, f
In (2
1073.
2/2
*
1
1067.
Put
denominator,
~+
(x+W
/x +l.
Hint.
Solution.
1056.
1060.
"
1058.
the
by
I' + T
sin
rj
Dividing
arc
1053.
1055.
x.
tan
arc
1046.
).
x=l
1051. a in
tanx
a)
1009.
1068.
1072.
/"2
arc
~=
tan
arc sin x
Answers
1075.
^ In (a * +
2
1079.
V^=
31nx +
1077.
2
ft
=l n
5
1078.
^.
^*
1). 1076.
lnjt
arc tan
)}
417
^
1081.
are tan
1082.
1083.
1.
^(arcsmx)
1086.
\e~
1090.
2
1092.
1084.
,/
H
r?
3 Ina
i
1095.
In
1097.
e*
1
+ 3)
In (2
3 In 2
1102.
1098.
1109.
Xcos(logA:)
Hint. See
arc sin
HOI.
__
!. Hint. Put
in
1109
lilt.
sin
jc=
~ tan
sin
(fljc
cos 2).
tan(x
).
1117.
^cos(l
^'.1119.
Xln
sin
1122. 5 In
sin
4
1125.
In
1120.
.

^ cot x
lnsinx.
1121.
21ncos/"x.
1123.
1.
tan*
1118.
r).
lncosx.
ft

1110.
tan
1
lOx
1112.
ft).
a In
1116.
+ ^)
In
1108.
/"x.
~(1
008(0
ax
1113.
jJ
1104.
e*
^cos2ax. 1107. 2
1106.
hint
'
!n~5"
1100.
_^L_J.
1103.
2sni ^r.
1096.
Hint.
Jr
V
1099.
(a
1105.
1126.
^.
sin
1124.
(a
ft)X
1127.
1129.
1128.
4a
1130.
sin
1132.
1131.
^tan ^.
U33.

5
1134 .
_3^_lJL.
141900
M55.1
U 36.
tan
j).
+
2au.)
l(ln tanf

23
Answers
418
4 In
3a
ocot3x
tanh
1140. In
1144. In
r
sinhxl
ln(x
1152.
lr
1155.
1153.
In
tan x
fls n
n49
1147.
arc tan
J/
1150.
In
lnx*4x+
Incoshx.
1143.
lntanhx.
1146.
"
1148.
Xarc tan
1142.
*/(5=x^.
1145.
1139. +
2arctane*.
1141.
1138.
_. 
1137.
 )
]/
1151.
sec
1156.
1)
'
1157
*. 1158.
arc sin (x 2 ).
1159.
&
in
1160.
taniwx.
/(^
Vx
2 In cos
1165.
1172.
sln
1168.
1169.
1170.
l^arcsin^A
1173.
1175.
\n(e*
^21n
1171.
tan
1167.
tan^l.
K.
=.
iln
1166.
a
f
1181.
/"l
<40 
1187.
2
jc
 1=r:
7
1182.
1185.
arc sin
ln(secx+
arc tan
/tanx\
I
== }
1183.
2cot2x.
1
1186.
.
2).
= In
p=.
+ 2arctanx.
lnx
1174.
Ve*x
tan
jr
lntanox.
arc cos ^
1184.
V 5 f
sin
2x
sin2x
.
Hint.
=
x
1189.
s inh(x
1190.
Latanh*.
1191. a)
~=arccos^
when x
> ^2;
b)
In (1
+**);
Answers
(5*'3)';
c)
d)
2arctan \e*
1195.
V 2x41
aarccos
arccos
1204.
if
> 0,
and arccos
In*
1201.
.
~ V2~x ^ V2x
1202.
1196.
1.
Putx =
Hint.
TT arc sin x.
e)
1194. In
419
In
21n Inxf


2
.
~J
x<0*)
if
Hint.
'
Put
= ~
substitution x
be used in place
may
~
x arc
1216.
sin x}
x2
1217.
^r~
1214.
^T^Y
the
of
(9x
In (1 x
x^
*
xcosx.
sinx
12 18.
x arc tan
3*
st
1215.
Note. The
substitution.
trigonometric
1212.
x.
^
o
igf
y
of undeter
3Jf
* and
Cancelling oute
equating the coefficients of identical powers of
3
122
B=
whence ^
^;
=Q
(x)e
ax
where P
polynomial
Hint.
*)
is
).
after differentiation,
X 2e* x
of repeated integration
mined coefficients:
or,
xlnx
1211.
a.
1213.
1206.
good
See
rt
of degree
Problem
c=
2f
= 3C +
In
the
x,
we
get:
6eneral
^ orrn
p n to e ax dx =
(x)
1218*.
1220.
3e
"(xh9x
+ 54x+ 162).
Hint.
See
Answers
420
Problem
cos 2x
mined
1221.
1218*.
Hint. It
where P n (x)
polynomials
px dx
(x) cos
arc sinx
+ In
sin

1236.
x8
Inx
O^2
^
(x+ V^l+x
Ay2
^Ar
tan ~^
2
arc sin x
j
4
2,
e* (sin x
1232.
xcotxf
1230.
'
1228.
sinx
cos x)
x2
ft
+2 V
,
get
+ ^ In (1 + x
rt
1246.
1+
   ,
In
cos 2x
]/T=Ixx
""
xcos
2
<rt
'
x2 x
and
+2 V
1248
'
(2 In x)
'
2xsin (2 In x)
10
a=x
du = dx
x (arc sinx) 2
1244.
).
xtan2x
._
1247.
X
2
In x
2 In x
~^^
1242.
/ cos2x 2sin2x
1240.
x.
fy*
1238.
1).
Inf^x.
+X
1245.
2x.
1237.
1,
1239.
x arc tan x
x2
/m _
+ 3x.
1).
arCMn *
Xarcsinx
Xarcsin
1234.
(x*+
[ln(lnx)l].lnx.
X (arc tan x) 2
we
1225.
1250.
1218*).
"
x In
1229.
x*.
1238.
1241.
(x) are
ln *
arc tan x
1227.
1231.
and R n
Problem
(x)
(see
ij(,
l/T

undeter
of
Qn
2xlnx + 2x.
xln x
1224.
/"xlnx
method
the
apply
is
of
^Inx^.
y
o
1226.
1222.
form
1223.
2x
also advisable to
is
coefficients in the
Pn
sin
4^8
Whence
^ ( x ~r
x dx
and
x*dx
2(x +l)
1)
125K
Hint.
xy a
^x* + s
a=
Utilize
arc sin
the
identity
Solution. Put
j..
x;
we have f }/aa
a ~2
1252.
= Ka x and
x'dx = x ^a ^
xa
f /^2
\
Ka
=.
,f
x 2 dx+a2 l
dx
whence
;
a*
x 2 ].
^a2
Answers
Consequently, 2
y~a*x
l257
Fn
arctan
x*
2
fa arc
Problem
1258
TTT
ln
1259.
~.
sin
1252*.
Hint. See
Va
See
Hint.
arc sin

o
2
dx = x
421
4A
^~
/
f ~<T=
ln( *
1260. x
2).
arc tan
7=.
Larcsin^P^.
^
,262.
xf31n(x
1261.
arc tan
1263. arcsin(2jc
1).
(jc
T
1256.
2t
arc tan (x
(x
~
1254.
arc tan
'
~ V& +**
1253.
(A:3).
1264. In
1/2
1265.
1266.
4jcf5.
=^
In
1267.
'71
5/"1
1268. In
arc sin
1269.
x
arc sin
1271.
"*
,273.
9
arc sin
+ 2*
2 In
1272.
sin 
y$
+5).
1274.
2x41

arc tan
1276.
1278.lncosx + 2+
~'
y\
1279.
1281.
jc
In 2 x
4 In x
+ 31nx
1283. In
2 arc sin
l!L~.
1280.
o
3
31nA;
2
5*
+ In
1284.
1282.
(x4)'
 b
x
\
+a
.1285.
1+*
(*!)'
1286.
30
27
1288.
1290.
11
4j
1289.
2U3)
^r
.
49
5)
49 (x
+ 2)^4*
x~5
xf2
1292.
1293.
ln
x3
In
U~l +
[
In
Answers
422
X arctan(* + 2).
x*x V
arc tan
In
1300.
+jii*
_arctanx TT^jT ^
1305.
1304.
5=41.
arc tanx.
In (x
1310.
y ln* +H
7
lnx
FT
^/(a* +
6)']
1315.
56
X 6
3
In
In
1324.
(A:
1

2 arc tan
J
x7
1)
tan x
_ J_ J
'
Sx^Sx*
2 arc tan
1317.
^=.
1322.
I)
arc
+1)^o
^3
Xarctan]/.
=il.
3 In
7(jc
(l+/l.
3^/16 ^/"x
1320.
l)"
(A:
._
4(x
9(jc_l)>
= (*
arc tan
1312.
1313.
1
.
i
Put
Hint.
*+l
tan (x^1).
1311.
1306.
X[2
1303.
4r (8
+ 21n
'+4^
arc tan
1298.
1299.
1302.
arc tan x
,,.,
1297.
In
1295.
K"\
+ arctan(*+l).

= arc tan
In
1294.
1316.
1318.
1319.
*/l.
arc tan
^1x.
1323.
(jf_2)+I
In
where
423
Answers
=7+l).
1327.
*li
+i
1329.
arc sin ^
1330.
1331.
4/7=1
* + l).
retan
2
cos.,.
(*
1340.
1334.
where
1337.
1332.
+1)
,336.
1
.
1338.
sin
1339.
gsin'x.
cosx+jtos>
1342.
*J^**. 841.4eo.^.
>..+
^=
cot*
_
7 i_sin6x.
144
1347.
__.
35
,849.
1
21
._.
._
, 344 .
3 In
tan x
cot
jc
Jt
1348.
tan x
tan
+ ^
o
+2lnt.n.
+ To tan
1351.
^.
1350.
1353.
COS 2
"[
ln
,357.
3 cos*
*+i
t,n
_S2*lf_insinx.
1354.
1358.
cot'
sin 4 A:
In
8siu*x
+ cot x + x.
1361.
1362.
xlB
SrRj{"^
.
cosx.
,366.
.369.
arc tan
^'
.
1367.
,370.
11
tan! f
1359.
where I
" iain
+3.
1365 '
.368.
lE_^M+<P).
JJ^
cos
137 ,.
!!H +
Answers
424
5*
sin
sin
7*
^
Jo
tan
!
1374.
tan
In
f
*
1373.
1376

tan
1372.
'
*
In
1377.
tan
We
3 cos x
Solution.
Whence
4 P (2 sin* {3 cos*)'
12
5
.,,
Q
a= !3'
r
iiC
f
arc tan
1381.
5>
have
lO
^^
fraction by ccs 2 x
= j2^_
<.
In
*^
lo
id
2 cos x
===
+ 2p = 2
p3sinx + 2crs*
= 3,
3^
(2 sin x
3a
and,
,
2^77+3^7^
J
rfx
Si
1379.
3 sin x
put
2u
We
P== !3
+ tan 4V
^
2sin *
3 cos x)
consequently,
12
==
13
5
2
ln
1380.
In cosx
situc(.
1*3
= arctan
1382.
See
Hint.
V*
Problem
See
Hint.
Problem
1384.
1381.
1381.
4 In x
1387.
V2
/" 2 f
sin
Vi
sni2*'
~~"
/\
r~~~
/"
t388.
4ln^^^.
arc ian
1
.
sin*
sin*)
sin
In
cos*
.
r
cosh *
!
1396.
2coth2*.
12
or
j=.
O
arc tan
1394.
5)
+m+
1401.
JT
In (cosh
1397.
If
sinh*
*)^^
2
* iA?\l
(f V
Hint.
'
*
,
cos*
*
*
jsin
cnth 8 *
coth*
1398. *
identity
+ 21n
'
tan
1393.
tanh
the
arc tan
x+cos*
1jsmx
^>
1395.
1390.
sin*
Sm
1392.
Use
Hint.
sit
(2
1389.
sinh *
^
*
sinh 2x
r
*
^^
5
,
.,
..
..
...
cosh*
^ (sinh*
%
J*
cosh*).
'
1402.
^2
^ cosh 2*).
425
Answers
1403.
~ ^2 + x + In (x +
2
1404.
H06.
1405.

J/"^IT~2
1407.
~
1408.
3+ Kx
8ln x
In
6x
2x
+ +2
1
1410.
7.
+ yV
^ VV
1409.
In
17)
4*
6x
JT
97
**
1413.
Uarctan.
2
54~']
1416.
1419
1423.
4
4 sin 4x4c<
c s4x:\
sin
_~Z + o
._.
142
*!
a1)
V>
2*
+2
arctan(2x+l).
1436.
,.
V\+x*)2 V\
/.^x'.
2x+109...
4 arc tan (x
.434.
n
cosxsin 'x
l428 '
1430.
...
1432. In
arcta "
+,3
2?
tanx.
e*
1425.
sin2x
xln'(x+
1424.
1426
TT (2
1422. x
lnk*l4O
25.v'3.
Y*
1415.
1418.
'
1417.
1421.
1412
L=ln
1414.
1x
1411.
1).
1431.
1).
_+
1433.
j In
1437.
1435. 2 ,
arc tan
In
x'
Answers
426
lx 2
2
'"
'
2x
arc tan
1439
l439
^r
1440.
3
1442.
l"\
In
/2X45VJ/(2jc)
1443.
J/5^x
x 2 4T,'
4 In
I)
^lVr>_ 9 _
arc sin (8*
(8xl)
1458.

arc tan
,r
where
cott
1462.
*
cos5<
1463.
3cos5x
tan
T^ In
~sin2x.
1467.
X arc tan
+2
In
+ secjcicosecjc.
2
A.n\
^ ).
>
ax
y 2
1473.
In
tan *
'
r^^.
ax).
1477.
1475.
^uu1).
~ (cos
~cot
*
cos 2
6)
t^ +
tanS *
an
1472.
^"tan
x tan
1478
x+\).
T r=X
1
^= xarc
j/
+ 2+

tan x
,465.
= arc tan
1469.
hi
In
ln tanjc
Xarctanl
X In (sin
tan 2
1)
=
1461.
J/JT^t).
1453.
1471.
(1
1450.
1452.
1466.
J/x+1
1
1448.
X arc sin
5^
1444.
1446.
tan
3*+
?=?
A3
tan
1479.
^74. J_ x
a
In cos 3x
le.
1476.
fin O=5
427
Answers
1480.
1483. .n
J481.
^?
+ ln
sinhxl
1485.
1486.
x.
1488.
l+cot*co tje .
1489.
2.
*coth*4
iarctan^^
1 */(?
1490.
x^'+fir
1494.
In
1496.
(coslnx
lcos5*~
t499
'
+ sinlnx).
sin5*V
1497
1498.
x2
2) arc
tan
1 [(^
y x sin 5x + 3x cos 5x +

^^r
'
1500.
In (2
'
,
Chapter V
1501.
vjg~.
1502.
a.
fc
x=\
metric
progression:
sina
Problem
See
Hint.
xl
x =^l,
the
=x q
in
2)
at?
1512.
f cos
x
1,2,
sum
.
x
5^ = 2 sinh*.
**
1516.
gral
in o
/i
cos
1513. *
1517.
.,
xn
= x$ n
Hint.
'
'
Solution.
1\
+ ~~T" J
,
'
formula
3da
1)
1511.
1518.
the
1508.
sin x.
In.
1506.
Utilize
156.
cos n}^ a
^~
2
V
2; J
1510.
1/1,2,
^r^V^=+ 7T +
X on the interval
1505.
on
cos*.
In*.
1509.
x b q*,
_l
2sin
=5
points of
x2
1504.
3.
to x
1507.
1505.
+ sin2o+...+sin/io =
 r ;
1503.
2.
The
be
sum
as
mtc 
lim
Therefore,
[0,1].
may
~~
1515.
sn
*oo
^
2
1519. In 2. Solution.
o+."H \ may
M\ 1+1arH
[
The sum
i+Ji
n
n /
s"
n
= i H
n+1
/i
\^ +
+2
. . .
H
/I
+M
sum
of
428
__
Answers
form
the
t520.
p
1526.
xk
=l+ n
= arc tan
tanh
;
1
1552.
1555.
=.
1556.
1524
"T
4
^2 =
f
J
1525
^r
o
1=
4o
arc tan 2
~.
1533.
o
15 38.
~.
1543. sinh
^r
if
1557.
Diverges.
= i
p^l.
p>l;
2ji.
(*
1549.
if
1547. Di
p<l.
(jc)
= x^
1564.
l + ~ln3
3
x)?"
(1
n.
Diverges.
1565. 3
1569. Converges. 1570.
1566. Diverges 1567. Converges 1568. Diverges
verges. 1571. Converges. 1572. Diverges 1573. Converges. 1574. Hint. B(p
1563.
~.
2
1554.
1559.
e J
1550.
Diverges.
diverges,
1558.
1546. 2.
cosh
2 \
+ sinh
Diverges.
~.
1534.
1539.
In 2.
^
if
diverges,
1553.
1.
tang
1545.
In 2.
H*
^
p<l;
if
1537.
1542. arc
(In 2)
1551. Diverges.
1532.
^.
%+\.
4
o
^7= + ir.
9^36
1541.
1548.
1531.
1523
35~321n3.
ln
oo
1528.
1536.
tanh(ln3)
verges.
sn
oo
lim
Therefore,
= 334
152
1522.
In
1530.
~ In
1544.
2 ..... n).
!,
[0,1]
n >
1527.
1540. 0.
 1
jln
1535.
on the interval
(&
1521.
j7


1
;
since
lim
/(x)x
Con%
q)=
^=l
and lim
^)
(1
"^/(x)=
1,
p<\ and
q<l,
> i
that
is,
x p
~l
Hint. ?
1575.
(/>0.
where
(x) dx,
e~*. The
first
integral converges
when p>0,
when p
the second
is
IL
2
1577. 2 /~~2
("
In
/7rff.
1578
00
1580.
1584.
C^f1+'
f !?"**#.
1
J
2~
1585.
1589. 4
n.
1581. x
^
1586.
1/5
1590.
~ 1"
o
= (6
a)/+a. 1582.4
^
2 1^1
H2.
1591. In
4^
^y
1587.
21n3. 1583.8
1~~.
4
1592.
1588.
~ + T^
^JT.
21^3
/""S
1593
nr
o
Answer^
1594.

Z
1599.
600
^rr^
o
1601.
1
429
+ l^.
4(^
2
1 6(>2.
1603.
1.
00
1604.
1605.
z\
b z
606
r(p+l)=C
Solution.
we put *P
~
du = px. p l
e~ x dx
U,
v=
dx,
xPe~*
dx.
= dv.
Applying
Whence
e~*
and
we
(*)
get:
"
1>35
(2fe
246
2
,
n=
ii
2k\
number;
an odd number
is
even
an
is
246
2k
t608
^7 V
...
128
_
"
1609.
'
3l5
_ 63jt
10
~"
^,
^B
'
512
Hint.
'Hr^
Put
1610. a) Plus; b) minus; c) plus Hint. Sketch the graph of the integrand for
values of the argument on the interval of integration 1611. a) First; b) second;
c)
1612.
first.
1617.
Hint.
1624.
2</</"5.
1618.
The integrand
1.
1613.a.
1625. 
</<l
10
4O
1639. ab[2
1641.
2a2<r 1
1636.
In 3.
~.
In
1642.
(2+
2n + 
and
1631.
na8
1640.
g
1643.
6n
1620.
t638
1632. ~p
2
.
= 32
1626.
4~
1633.
4i
1623
%< l <^12.
0</<~

= 2(coshl 1).
^+~~2
6
/~~3)).
^a
naa
~~4O
1637.
15n.
1644.
^jt</<yJi.
1630.
1616.

1619.
Take account
Hint.
1635. 4.
V"l
1615.
~.
1614.
1049.
yln3.
+ ~V
^jii?
1645.
Hint. See
and
1.
1646. 3jra2 .
Hint.
~ n+ p
1650.
Answers
430
1651. 3na2
1655.
na
Hint. See
Pass
Hint.
1664.11)^2.
VhT^tf.
1667.
l/T+ln(l+/n
1673.
1674. 2a
1687.
1691.
1696.
b)
(5
t;^
= ~;
&
^(15
2
6jia;
,705.
+4
c 2 ).
av
16 In 2).
^. 1710.
~a
o
s
.
na 2 /"p^.
V5
1)
2n6 2 f
(eccentricity
of
Ao "P
ellipse).
8
.
1695.
1U
1701. a
10
1703.
na.
1707.
}.
nabh (
1704.
4U
1708.
+ ^oC /)
nabc.
1713.
5
1715.
1717.
Do
1719.~rta 2 1720.
.
^tfx*.
8
~nh*a.
1699.
no*.
1690.
1694.
1688. 1
lUi)
1712.
nln.
+
+ 4) = ^(2
+ sinh2).
z
1722.
*.
i[5^T8].
torus.
^^.
z
na'.
face of a
Jia
n(5^T) +
17l8.^(e*ff
4
1711.
je
0]. 1682.
1685.
In 3).
10
1706.
+l).
1676.
V2" + ln ( 12"+
1693.
1698.
1689.
1716.
1702.
+$ +fl 6).
DOT !;
1714.
2n a.
1697.
+
*(x*
^
4JW
&
(9n 16).
c)
Ji
= 2n. 1692.^^.
o
1709.
1688.
1672. ~(e
fc=ln
4 [4 +
1684 .
ln(2+VT)
^^
JQ!.
, 68 3.
^(10/161).
a= 1.
sinh 2
cosh q
ln~
1675.
1665.
V'"?11!). 1671.
/T".
Appendix VI,
See Appen
Hint.
coordinates.
polar
Hint. See
~.
1659.
the
the lo P
1668.
1670. In (e
lflln.
aln.
to
For
Fig. 28.
.
Hint
fl2 
0<+oo
1658. a2
1654.
1666.
1669.
6na2
1653.
Appendix VI,
1657.
Fig. 30.
VI,
+ 2ab).
parameter
dix
1652. n(b*
^(e1
a)
\
81^
In
where
~~~8
b) 16n
a 2 ; c)
~
a
Answers
~jia 2
1724.
1725.
2ita
(2
J=y = y.
M x =M K =~a
1730.
a 24sinh2
1729.
= y = ~a.
1737< *~=Jia
^^SB
I736t
^ss
<
2na 2
1731.
1732. x
^=
M x = V
M X =M K = ^
1727.
M & = ^.
asina
._00
na 2
1726.
/2~).
M = ~
1728.
43 1
=
4a
,__
1738>
tion.
az dz
2ft f
Whence
z=
2nfl
tance of
j
=
z
Ct
Due
?r.
from
altitude
symmetry, x = y = Q.
to
vertex
the
the
of
cone.
At
1739.
dis
Partition the
Solution.
cone into elements by planes parallel to the base. The mass of an elemen2
tary layer (slice) is dm,YftQ dz, wnere Y * s * ne density, z is the distance
the
of
from
plane
cutting
vertex
the
of
the
cone,
= JZ.
Whence
h
Jt
1740.
h.
0;
0;
+g
_^
a )
Due
Solution.
to
symmetry.
5T=
r= ^a
[a
radius of a crosssection.
11
"33
1742. I a
1745.
= zab*\
/=yjt
concentric
the
moment
/?J).
The
circles.
of inertia 7
have:
zdz
o
3
=Qa. 1741. /==jta
11
4""
I b =z^a
(#J
We
b.
1743.
7=/?& 8
1744.
15
Solution.
We
mass
each
of
= 2nCrdr =
partition
such
y n(/?*
= JW&
"4

the
ring
element
IW
b
into
= T na*b.
4
elementary
dm = y2n.rdr
and
^nR*Hy.
to
the
cone),
=H
s
is
moment
of
Answers
432
/=Y
inertia
ia
cone. 1747.
2jttf (
Ma 2
cylindrical
volume dV
dr
^lr^
the
where y
is
radius of
=  Ma
lows that y
of inertia I
V=2n 2 a 2 b\
1748.
= 4nay
I/
S=4n 2 ab.
4
f/^rr
b) x==(/
= T7n.
sen
that
1U
so
centre of
1750. a) x^=0,
the
the
circle; b)
^=4o
where b
is
the base, h
trom
gravity
is
1749.
= ~^/?
//
a2
=A
na'v,
a)
fol
ita'y, it
7=//~=4
o
Solution.
The volume
about
of
its
the
base,
is
\\hence
base.
of the solid
is
triangle.
where x
zb'i.
diameter
the
1753.
x=<Mua>t:
The elementary
Hint.
a;
the
double

equal to V
rft/i
By the Guldm
distance
of
the
is
force
of
(force
centre
tlu>
H

D flt,=
theo
1751.
vt'
^
lnl+.
1752.
Hint.
the altitude
the
"
71
with
a triangle
2Jtx
I/
f
coincides
jcaxis
M=

elementary
L./*dr
of the
An elementary
h = 2a
a tube,
densit y
into
sphere
a
is its altitude.
the
is
is
the
is
where
'
partition
which
axis of
2nrhdr, where
We
Solution.
the
tubes,
^)
f
1754.
is
gravity)
the
equal to
weight
= ynR
1757.
of
water in
dx,
A=ryR
2
.
l^&
1759.
A = ynR*H.
on
mass
is
1760.
equal to
1758.
^=
F= k
=R
A ^ R*TM
tn0h
j
where
A=
When/i = oo we have A
The
kgm.
force
acting
r is
F=mg
+
R
m^
Solution.
/lo.mg/?.
we have
^Q 7910* 0 79 10
it
follows that
kM=gR
The
h.
krdr
*
= mgR.
1761.
kmM
1.810
{ ^
\KK\nJ
ergs.
Solution.
__
Answers
The
is /
433
= ^i
work
J=S
Jd.x
*'
4
4=800 nln2
1762.
ergs.
in the
expansion of a gas
v\
from volume v
volume v
to
A=
is
p di>=p
In
i>
1763.
UQ
an
For
Solution.
adiabatic
the Poisson
process,
i>i
*^1.4,
holds
A=
Hence
true.
=5=
15,000
kgm.
^0
(
J
law
pv
= pj>^
where
Ms
^dvk
k
v
4=~jiu.Pa.
1764.
the pressure
Solution.
on unit area
If
of the
the base
the radius of
is
support p
p
z
The
3ta a
by
frictional
forces
Therefore,
on
of
revolution
complete
A=^x
work
the complete
force
is
one
in
ring
frictional
2uP
formed
them
of a shaft,
r*
dr
is
JifiPa,
Solution.
j M#
= ^~da where
dK=^L2
1765.
<D
from
the
axis
of
The
da
rotation,
kinetic
an element
is
the
is
of
of
energy
particle
area, r
surface
of
the disk
the distance of
is
= ^j.
density,
it
Thus,.
Whence
1767.
K = ^/?
co
= 2.310
K^J,*^
8
1770.
P = abyxh.
1772. 633
Igm
1771.
P = ^_
p = ^.
o
(the vertical
1774.
M^~
1769.
of
766
work required
p^fo +
component
gf
* =  X M*W.
fe
^fr)
1776.^
__
1777
151900
Solution.
Q==
cm. 1775.
^^^
2
10>r
(k
is
the
Q= (v2nrdr =
.
^n
equat
,
directed upwards).
is
gravitational constant).
is
a6
2
f( a
UJ A
Hlnt
r*)rdr
Answers
434
along the large lower side of the rectangle, and the yaxis,
perpendicular to
ua
it
in
middle.
the
S=\J
Solution.
1778.
dv,
7^=a,
at
vt
t'a
whence
1780.
dt
dv,
M*=:
and
acceleration time
the
consequently,
(xt)ktdt + Ax=j(l'x*).
/=l = S.
is
1781.
Q =0.12 TRI*9
S=
Hint.
cal.
V=
1782.
2
(i/
x 2 )*.
1783.
(x
/"4z
t/)
Oje//
1786.
/<*,
x2 )
= \+xx
replace
by
x.
_,
Then
.
It
1=^;
1789.
f (x,
y)
in the
form
^ Ri
Solution.
o~~^
= x~\+V"y.
* === (a
In
Hint.
2
~
and,
Solution.
the
Then
and
y.
+1
and
+ y~u,
1790. / (a)
*=1+/(VT
/(w)=:w
When *=1
a)
= l/V
Designate
v, x
identity
hence,
f (x)
/(=M= I/
then
1788.
(xy) 2
UV
^=
/?
1787.
}3
_...
f.
j^S.
we
1791.
}2a.
have
the
"
1)
put
/(</)
identity
Single circle
K#<1);
#=
(Kx^l,
(x^y^x
<
y=
*<
>
x<t/<
_ __
Answers
435
<
<
<
>
y^Cx*
>
<
1800
is
Hint. Putting y
=y
continuous everywhere,
when
<p2
f/ 1
q^M^O.
^0,
2v u
(y) =
is
since
we
for
yl
the denominator * 2
when
Similarly,
jt
From
everywhere continuous.
is
function z
=^ const,
(0, 0)
= *, = const,
f/
the
^0, and
function
since there
is
no limz. Indeed,
X
which
*
r cos cp,f/
r sin <p), we get z~ sin 2<p, whence it is
passing to polar coordinates (x
>
if x
and y + in such manner that (p const (Os^qx; 2rc),
2(p. Since these limiting values of the function z depend on the
direction of cp, it follows that z does not have a limit as x and y + 0.
evident that
then z * sin
1801.
~^3(jc 2
1803.
^=
1805
dx
ay),
^ = 3(#
dy
=
(
x*
l*'
dy
Answers
436
.s,^i/
ox
xy*
x*
dz
V2x'2y*
yx*
cos^.
dy
ln
,810.
ox
dz
V2x*2y*
oz
4813.
1815.
 
1820.
/;(1,2,
= 4,
0)
1821. r.
5^.
1828.
.
tan p
x=zxtf2*"
5=x2*"ln2,
r=i/2*'ln2,
1827.
cp (x).
2^
tana = 4, tanp=co,
1)
^=y *
= arc tan ^ +
1826. z
^(1,2,0) = !
= ~,
fy (\, 2, 0)
1,
1814. r
1'
If^T'
to see that the function is equal to zero over the entire xaxis and
the entire i/axs, and take advantage of the definition of partial derivatives.
1831. A/
Be convinced that f'x (0, 0) ^(0, 0) 0.
4Ax+ A(/ 2Ax 2
2
4dx
&\
f 2AxAi/tAx Ar/;
a) A/
b) A/
df
dy\
d/= 0.062.
df
2
1833. dz'^3{x*y)dx
3(y*x)dy. 1834. dz 2xy*dx 3x*y dy. 1835. de
Check
2
\**
i. 2
(xy
dxx
y dy). 1836. dz
= sin 2xdx
sin 2(/di/.
1837. dz
y.
18401 dz
=
+
= 0.
1838. dz
1841. d0
=
(xdx
+ ydy).
dx
1839.
^=
1842.
d/(l,
1)
dx
sin
x
1843.
du =
1845.
du=xy +
t/z
dx
+/x dy + xy dz.
y^.
(5dz
3dx
1846.
1844.
4di/).
1848. d/
r/dx
:74
= 0.062
1850.
(x
dx
y dy
+ z dz).
zdx+\xzdy +
dw
du
r
+ xdt/dz.
1847. d/ (3, 4,
cm 3
5)
(rela
of the area
the sector equal to zero and find the differential of the radius from that.
1851. a) 1.00; b) 4.998, c) 0.273. 1853. Accurate to 4 metres (more exactly,
of
4.25 m).
1854.
n ag ~Ef.
1855.
da==^
77
(dy cos
dxsia
a).
1856.
^=
Answers
sin*
In sin*). 1861.
d*
.
=_.;
x'ly
= 0.
<!/+
(
z)[^(x,
i/.
y)
1865.
l867 
S=^
j)
dx
=W:
*
dx
ty'v (x,
^l
.l.
_
221
66
+ /^(*,
1862.
dx ,,.
1+x 1
= 2x/,
1863.
1864
437
( *
The
1873.
y)<f' (x)].
>+<
"
increases
perimeter
at
20/52 V5 km/hr.
1875.
 9 ^3
1876.
1877.
1878.
1.
J^..
1879.
<fc
68
c) (7,2,1).
1884.
cosa=sr,
o
cos p
cp
^QQOQr
^=83 37.
9/3/
1885.
COSY =
1891.
I7
1/1
9 = 7=.
y 10
=
1894.^=0.
1895.^
^ xd^
^x
dy dz
A
= mn;
0)
v (0,
and
tiation
the
,,
irpyi+^i
[~2
that For x
ticular,
fj,,(0,
2
f/
cos
(0.
0)
/y
= /i(n
and
for
0)=
of
+ yvj
(when
any
1.
1899.
(jry)
definition
4\
grad a=6;
,897.
^yi^
^;=
^'
'
1898.
1887.
1888. cos
O.
^
^=
lfiol
2A?.
(/,
1902. Hint.
1).
partial
A'
/^ (0,
Similarly,
1
J/
y.
MO.
Whence
find that
0)
verify that
f",IJC
and
= m (m
derivative,
?4 0)'
y)^
we
(0,
of
differen
f'
x (x,
1;
in par
0) = 1.
1903.
"ii
g^r/ii\".
1904.
if
/("'
0)
+ 4*0/
Jll ,
(M,
y)4*
w (,
y) =3
consequently,
\Q,
1);
u).
o);
438
Answers
1905.
= q>W +
t915.
+ * (y). 1916. d*z=e*y x
(*, /)=*cp
d*u = 2(xdy dz + ydzdx + zdx dy).
1917.
+ x dy)* + 2dx dy].
Y* X
1919. dz =
d*z = 4<t"(t)(xdx + ydy)* + 2<f'(t)(dx* + dy*).
1914. u(*.
I(y
1>(</).
!/)
((/)
dx
1918.
(f
= a M (a, o)
x
x
1921 dz = (ye*f'v + eVf"uu + <2ye +yf'nv + y*e* w dx* +
+ 2 (&f'u + e*f'v + xe*yfuu +e x + y +xy f + ye* x fo dx dy +
1922.
d'z = e* (cos y dx* + (xeyfu + x*e*yfuu + 2xe*+yfuv + e**Q dy\
1923.
d'z =
3 sin y dx dy
3 cos y dx dy + sin y dy
# cos x d*
1924. d/(l, 2) = 0; d f(l, 2) =
3sinxdx*dy 3cosy dxdy + xsiny dy*.
2
1920. d z
.
f'
(\
tlv
).
d 2/
1925.
+ C.
1926. xy
^?+p + C.
1931.
1927.
y ln(^ +
1929.
a=
1932.
1,
/
0)=
0,
(0,
+ 2arc
6=
1,
^,=
1938.
1.
Hint.
Xdx+Ydy.
expression
condition
1939.
f^f'y
of
1940.
+C
'
l933
total
xy
C.
JC
2
//2
+ y + 2 +C
f
1937.
the
~+
1930.
2zjC. 1935.
t/z
the
+ C.
tan
+ 2^ + 3x2 + ^
1936.
+ + + c.
Write
1928.
8
1934. x
~ + sin x + C.
x't/
for the
differential
a=f(z)d2 + C.
1941.
^y
;ri=
dx2
a2
^I=TI.
dx*
a*y*
2
a5^1;
y*
of straight
equation of a pair
r
dx 2
1946
1943
1945
=3
The equation
M
defining//
&
^= ^
ln
1;
or
x^ *
1944
*%2
=8
is
the
=
^
dx y
_
or
8.
axy'
dz_x
<9jc
1943.
lines.
(\y)*
dy
^42.
xf/
'
%~~
dx
(axy)*
dz_Gy
yz
z
'
dx 2
2
3xz2
(xt/
'
a
)
^^
dz_zsinx
'
dx 2
cosy
x2
dz
'
dx
cosx
t/sinz*
d/y
'
Answers
d*z
d*z
:
dx*~
a*b*z>
dxdy
*;*;
1954. d2
439
1953.
dy*''
dx
2
dw;
*
i/
^^dr/
2*
f
.
1955. d2
= 0;
d 2 2=
).
Tc(^
IO
1961.
r
2
rf
l/
l956
)
T"
r^
1;
dy);
=00;
dxfy
dz
11111
"^"*
= 0.
T~9
1964.
dw
:^;
1965.
=
,966. a)7
dz
c cos y
1967.
,
sin
).
1971.
a)
20;
pp^.
sina
1974.
q,^.
1969.
=F;(r,
cos
q>
9)^.
 +
+ ^O.
b)
g0.
~=0.
1975.
tt
cp)
cos
<p
dz
1968.
dx
1970.
1972.
~. z== 0.
1976.
Answers
440
3*
1983.
+ 4j/H2z
/ a 2 f &2
169
= 0.
+ 4y + 6z =
1985. x
21
1986.
Ai
1987
^
*
Projection on the
on the xi/plane:
1994. Projection
._w_ )=0
<
/zplane:
_
~n
1.
3y*
on
Projection
I^Q
the
xzplane:
=

3x 2
4z
A
1=0.
,
der
i/)
_1)H2(*1)
(2
/(^
2001.
z)f
(/,
A/(x,
1998.
+
=
2[/i(x~t/
*.
1999.
2005
>
[(jt
+
=
I)
4
+ k,
I)
(//
z+/)
z)
.
1)
f(x
+
(y
2003.
Dl
Un?^
a)
= (x
+ H,
/ (x, y, z)
2000.
z) + k(yx
2004.
1).
(*/!)(</ l)(zl).
+ x,+.2002.
!)(!/
b)
yy
is
when x =
no extremum
Y^ y =
for
1^2
x=j/ = 0.
when
and
2013.
2 max
at the
jc
= = 0.
i/
1"\ at points
2017.
min
T^
2015.
y==
a"d
""Ff
zm i n
of the circle
4
3
and*=
X^TTL, t/^
points
when
*2
when x =
y==
'~'Vf'
x=0 = 0;
wne "
21
+y =
2
j
1.
2016. zmax
2 14 '
F?'
nonrigorous
= 1^3 whenx=
z=l.
ab
* ==
at
3
the points
2018.
w min
;?Tnax
"=1
maximum
1,
=4
1.
when
=Y
J/1' z== ^ 2019. The equation defines two functions, of which one
has a maximum (z m ax
8) when *=1, f/=2; the other has a minimum
2jwhenx 1,0 = 2, at points of the circle (x 1) 2 + (t/ f 2 2 ^ 25,
(Zimn =
JC
eacn
of
these
The
func
equalities
__
Answers
e=3
441
2
1^25
(x\)* (f/f2) and
consequently exist only inside and on
2
2
the boundary of thecircle (x
25, at the points of which both
I)  (l/
2>
functions assume the value 2
3. This value is the least for the first function
and is the greatest for the second. 2020. One of the functions defined by the
the other has a
2,
1,
r/
equation has a maximum (*max"~~~ 2) for x
minimum (2 min 1) for x
2, both functions have a boundary extremum
1, y
*=#=.
2023.
=5
2022. 2 max
12*
4i/
x=l,
for
for
imta
4jt
= 2;
2 min
2024.
max
f/
~.
^~.
+ 16r/
33=0.
5

for
(f
2,
1)
j/
fl
2)
=2
x==
for
/"T
^^ T
I/
IT;
b) greatest
= 0,
2030.
2).
1,
= 0.
2=
j/
value
1.
ll
m,
m 2 f m,
i>
rp
3
of
~T
the
ellipsoid.
2046
Major
for
/""2"
value
= =
for
for
smallest
y^0;
1,
t/
(in
j/2V,
44
a
2b
^2V*
s=s3i
j/
= 6,
 J
The dimensions
2 Q43.
of
the
= = 26+2V,
2a
Isosceles
2041. Jgaa
2c
2044. *
2036.
"T^' where
V 3
axis,

>/a. 2039. Ai
\/a
>
~p,~/>, and
7^*
3
J/2V,
\/a
\/a
2Q42
axes
*=
for
x==
for
y=l;
,
*2a
parallelepiped are
TFT
= 0,
Cube. 2038. a
1a
i
z== "~
are
2040. Sides of the triangle
fe
value
dary minimum).
27
for
smallest
t/=
2 for x
triangle. 2037.
2.
f T)'(f
=3
Greatest value
2025.
r/
a)
value
I/
f T)=
2,
(1,
"3
for x
= 5 + *:i,
/
/^
\
#2
1,
b) smallest value 2
I)' (41,
(2,
for
=j
= 2, 2 =
= 2, 2= 2, "max^ 9
*=1,
= 2 = 0; Wmin^C for x = t/=0 2^C.
*=
at the points
.6Mor x = 2, y=4, 2=6. 2028. u max 4
1,
2026.
MMIX =fl 2
2.4
2027. w max
for
2 max
j/
2021.
minor
b,
a,
and
= 
axis, 26
= 2.
are
2045.
Hint.
the
x=
semi
The square
of
the distance of the point (x,y) of the ellipse from its centre (coordinate origin)
2
2
The problem reduces to finding the extremum of the function
is equal to x fr/
2
2
9. 2047. The radius of the base of the cylinder
5t/
x*\y* provided 5*
Bxy
.
Answers
442
is
/2 + ~=,
the altitude
with
the
^
14
2049.
1^2730.
cos
the ray
J
of
the
of
point
sin
BM=^
a=p.
function
/^/ji/^
2052.
7 2 , / 8)
f (/
must
lie
ft
which
at
between A, and B t ;
to finding
* the
01
t/2
5t\2
AI
5
Find
Hint.
the
minimum
a + b tanp = c.
minimum
the
of
Kl
= /J/?; + /*# +
that
provided
second kind
/J/? t
M,
is
 
UjCOS
2051.
length
The problem
reduces
r
5
y 2 cosp
J)
its
A,M =a tan a,
a, cos
Uj
 
is
"T
7 V^L

5 \
1 1
medium
one
is
the parabola
(o
of
^
EE^^!
2050.
frm
line
straight
^=, where
/2
+/ +/
/!
/.
2055. Tacnode (0, 0). 2056. Isolated point (0, 0). 2057. Node (0, 0). 2058. Cusp of first
kind (0, 0). 2059. Node (0,0). 2060. Node (0, 0). 2061. Origin is isolated point
it
if a>6;
is a cusp
of the first kind if a
and a node if a
b.
6,
2062. If among the quantities a, b, and c, none are equal, then the curve
does not have any singular points. If a
b<c, then A (a, 0) is an isolated
c, then B (b, 0) is a node; ifa^fc^c, then A (a, 0) is a cusp
point; if
2053.
2054.
(0, 0).
of
Cusp
(0, 0).
<
a<b =
of the
2
f
/3
kind. 2063.
first
y=x.
/ ''.
2067.
whose equations,
2068.
if
2064.
2066. **/
x#^=^S.
the axes of symmetry
y^R.
2065.
y ^2px.
of
the
ellipses
xy~
2069. a)
are
taken
as
the
of nodes)
2073.
x^ a (envelope).
and
1/~3V
1).
2074.42.
2082. 4/
(*
for
f:=0,
A;
= 2cos_^,
0=1/^13
z?=2y+3ft,
f/
for
y=~
*8
2075.
parabola;
= 4/ 2084.
+ 2ycos/l3Ar;
2070.
#=4
c) ellipse;
= 2sin/,
any
w=
/;
2i;
for
XQ
+Z
Q.
= 3/
^^
11
2080.
= Q, v=4j, w=.
(screwline);
2/cos
2072.
2077.
d) hyperbola.
(ellipse); for
w=
i
^
2076.
5.
sin
2071. 7
2v 2
2ysin
t\
u=
3/; fo
2/sinH
w2tor
any
Answers
x=cosacoso);
2085.
co/ sin
of
sin
uy
a>
2
2088. 0"/ a
screw
(*
y
= 
[(sin
a cost
are
2090. T
sin
cos
(*
x + 2z
COS(T,
0./J*.
acos/
,
sin
cos p
==
+ 4r/f12z
114
2096.
(normal
,
(4,
.
ing
(tangent);
j
_
cipal normal);
2V
=y+ =
plane);
(tangent); x
(tangent);
(principal normal);
,
1
z=
/2
of
= sin/;
plane);
(tangent);
plane).
(pri "~
t
cosv,
= 0.
^ilx*
(binormal);
cosp 2 =
==;
cosJ 1
=_ 2 ^
/4
(oscu^ating
TT~
^~j
cosines
(osculating
~T?T
= _
^.=^l = i^l
2097.
= cos/;
6r/fz
cos Y
=
__t>r
12*
plane);
=
j
=^T
*"T
...
(binormal)
directi on
The
a cos
2093.
asint
normal)'
a
====
k]\
/\
 zbt
VI
/;
cos(v,z)=0.
^r&cos/r =
y
^ sin
;
"; P^=.
/5
/105
..
1^3^
2)
a>/
cos t)J
art
cof
+ *);
(sin
^
cos
cos a sin
cousin a cos
is
(o*
[(cos
^
smt
tangent
2aa>u sin
.,
y
cos
\
*>
(tangent);
/
x acost
v=
a cos CD/
(circle);
2
co /
;
^"
co
where w = 
+ cosO /+(sin
the
/i
T= 
2091.
fc).
2092. t
cos
V aV + u
2089.
=
u=K
CD*
2086.
= sincof
w
+
sin acoscof; z
y
cos
cofc
443
jc
"""3"'
+ = (osculat= + 2 = z2
i/
i/
g
2098. a)
(normal plane); b)
__
(tangent); x
(tangent);
+ # + 4z10 =
2_>^3
2/*2^=0.
r/
a)
6 2 )ejz
=
c)
^
2/*3z =
2101.
c) b*x\x
a*yly + (a
~ =
ing plane);
(normal plane);
(a
6 2 ).
==
~~A""J:
f 3
+ y = 0. 2100. x
=
18 = 0;
6y + 2z
2102. 6.r8/z + 3 =
(osculat
4*
=a6
=^"' 2
(P rinci P al normal);
Answers
444
* +6
J
3y
=o
binormal )
(osculating
TSBS
= 0.
\i
fl>
2107.
when
M
.
/=!,
=
=u
'
>
(principal normal);
/+ *
v== /
>
J7*
K=
99
/C=41/T7
/
r
14
w,
2jc
=*
= 0,
/"To
2106
2108. a)
When
i
w w =2;
V~i\ b)
a)
2112.
plane);
7^=i
19z~27
2111.
*=0
bx
(binormal). 2103.
= ^=.,
oy x
2,
=2
wn
= 0,
/~TQ
I/
'
"^ j^
Chapter VII
9
2113.
2120.
x=l;
9^
44.
O
.
O
2114.
= ^r
*=!;
2125.
= 0; t/=y25
= 2.
J*Jf(*.
f/
6;
x = 0;
It
00
y)d(/.
= 2.
= 3.
2122.
2126.
2129.
=x
r/
2JC
JC
+3
2Af
72
f (x,
12
'
2I32
'
/ (x,
2130.
1
2119.2.4.
21
00
f(x,y)dy.
t/
^^
J dj/ J
12
J/^
dy
^2
ix
=
JdxJ/(*.
00
10
00
42
2131.
i/)rfx
y\
2127.
11
2128.
x=2
1;
TT/7*
44
2116.
\JL
= 3.
~.
2115.
L**
2121. ^
7t
ln~
,/T
y T
t/
= + 9;
A:
Answers
2133.
dx
Vl 
f (x,
""
i/)d</
d*
y)dy =
f(x,
K 4 *
+J
d</
"
dx
*,
dy
J
~
dx
r
dy
V*tp
c/
~yr^p
vr~^y~*
V* X*
y)dx +
f(x,
*

2134.
/(*,*/)
x*
+j
445
Kl+
JC
/(Jt,
f(x,y)dy=
J
V* n*
!/)
^+
U. y)d^+
dy
vihT
IA:
2135.
1+ Kl
(x,
r
e) \
\)
+ 2aa
r
dy
48
2136.
dx. 2137.
'
l dlj
jc
f (x,
y)
dy=
*j
i/
f(*>y)** +
f (x t
%)
81
dy
f (x,
y)
dx
_
1
y*
dy
JL
12
2138
o^
ao
Ji
Vu
Vx
22
f (x, y)
dt/
20
ax
oo
w
"
y) dx\ d)
dx
V
i^Kr~7^
/a
/(AT,
rfy
Jf
4f/ a
y) dy
Vci*  v*
i#
/ (*,
_o^
r~;
 x?
dx
a)
f(x,y)dy
^rn?
]*y
Va?
y*
f(x.y)dx.
d[/
(x t y) dx*
t/)
444
__
Answers
*=0
bx
(binormal). 2103.
(osculating
plane);
'
>
__ Q
(principal normal);
v,y.
30
= 0.
19227
2107.
9100
2109.
21
2108. a)
 n Ke
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