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An introduction to Moroccan Arabic [by] Ernest T. Abdel-Massih.

Abdel-Massih, Ernest T.
Ann Arbor, MI : MPublishing, 2011.

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ACet 7.

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etf44t(444~j -

2071

Published in 2011 by MPublishing

University of Michigan Library

1973 Ernest T. Abdel-Massih

This volume is reprinted from the 1982 revised edition by arrangement

with the Center for Near Eastern and North African Studies, University

of Michigan

Permission is required to reproduce material from this title in other

publications, coursepacks, electronic products, and other media.

Please send permission requests to:

MPublishing

4186 Shapiro

919 South University

Ann Arbor, MI 48109

lib.pod@umich.edu

ISBN 978-1-60785-218-6

Tapes accompanying this textbook may be ordered from the

University of Michigan Language Resource Center

1195 North Quad

105 S. State Street

Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1285

(734) 764-0424

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flacs@umich.edu

FOREWORD

The preparation of this volume was initiated and supported

by the University of Michigan Center for Near Eastern and North

African Studies as part of its general program of research and

training on the languages and cultures of North Africa. A

number of studies in anthropology, history, and political science

have appeared and others are in preparation, as well as a complete

course in Middle Atlas Berber.

We are indebted to the Ford Foundation for the grants to

the Center that have made this work possible. We are most grate-

ful for the assistance of the people and government of Morocco

to our faculty and students.

First Edition

August, 1973

W. D. Schorger

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INTRODUCTION

This book grew out of the great need for an introductory text in

Moroccan Arabic for college students. Most students beginning the study

of Moroccan Arabic in modern universities are prospective field

researchers in the social sciences, or linguists with special .interest

in the field of Arabic dialectology. To assure interest among such

users of this book, maintenance of a .level of linguistic and cultural

contact commensurate with their background and ability was felt to be

of great importance. With such considerations in mind, overly repetitive

sentences and sentence patterns .have been avoided.

This study was originally the product of a research project sponsored

by the Center for Near Eastern and North African .Studies at the University

of Michigan. Following .preliminary .research in Ann Arbor, a variety of

field materials was collected during the summer of 1969, in preparation

for the teaching of a course .in Moroccan Arabic during the 1969-1970

school year. A large number of field tapes were checked for linguistic

and cultural content by the author with the assistance of native speakers

of Moroccan Arabic. During the preparation .of course materials, all the

data were carefully .checked by the author with Mr. Ali Kanouni, a native

of Fez. This work resulted in the .publication of A Course in Moroccan

Arabic in .1970. The contents of this present book are a revision and

expansion of the units of the above-mentioned book.

The present volume consists of seven parts. Part 1-3 are available

on tapes and should be studied in order.

Part One, "Phonology", consists of detailed explanations

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vi

of the phonological system of Moroccan Arabic, and twenty pronun-

ciation drills to acquaint the student with the system of trans-

cription employed here. This system is in striking contrast to other

systems of transcription used for Moroccan Arabic, particularly with

respect to tense consonants, short vowels, phonological structure of

words, etc. (see pp 1-38). It is advisable that the .student master this

system completely before beginning the units of the book. This mastery

can be achieved by repetition of the pronunciation drills with the help

of the language laboratory tapes.

Part Two, "Basic Units", is composed of ten units that present the

essential grammar of Moroccan Arabic. Part Three, "Conversations", is

comprised of ten units that introduce dialogues varying in length and

structural complexity with explanations of new grammatical points. The

conversations are designed to serve as an introduction to Moroccan

culture as well as reinforcing the basic patterns of the dialect.

Part Four, Appendix A, consists of twenty-four verb tables. Part Five,

Appendix B, the "Glossary of Technical and Grammatical Terminology",

presents, in a simple and concise manner, most of the terminology and

grammatical information that a .student of Moroccan Arabic will encounter

in using the language. It is hoped that it serves as a brief reference

grammar of the language. Part Six, "Lexica": Arabic-English and English-

Arabic, include all vocabulary items used in this volume, and in the

author's Advanced Moroccan Arabic, Center for Near Eastern and North

African Studies, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 1973.

It is worth mentioning here that the .Advanced .Moroccan Arabic is entirely

based on this volume. It contains thirty-eight texts which are adapta-

tions of field tapes and serve as an introduction to Moroccan ethnology,

history, folklore and literature.

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vii

Part Seven, xrayf 1ha, or Jeha Stories, is in Arabic script and also

in transcription. It consists of seven stories which all are on tape.

The preparation of this book has been made possible by the cooperation

of a number of individuals. In particular, I would like to express my

appreciation to Mr. Mohammed Mahmoudi for his helpful comments, construc-

tive suggestions and for his hard work with me. Many thanks are due as

well to Mr. Ali Kanouni, Mr. Mohammed Guerssel, and Mr. Mohammed Mahmoudi

for recording the units for use in the language laboratory. I would also

like to express my gratitude to Peggy, J. Owens for her devoted and most

conscientious efforts in typing the manuscript, and for her helpfulness

and great dependability throughout the work on this study.

To Loraine K. Obler, I owe an especial debt. I am deeply grateful to

her for her insightful observations and constructive suggestions during

the preparation of the manuscript. To her goes my sincerest thanks and

deepest appreciation for her interest and great assistance in the study.

I would like to thank Mr. Umar Hassan and Mr. Jamil Ragep for their

valuable assistance on the Enlgish-Arabic Lexicon.

I would like to express my thanks to Professor William D. Schorger

who as the Director of the Center for Near Eastern and North African

Studies initiated the program of research on North African languages

and linguistics at the University of Michigan and has whole-heartedly

supported it.

The Center defrayed the costs of research assistants, field trips,

typists, tapes and tape recordings, as well as providing me with the

time and opportunity to carry out the field research and analysis.

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viii

As always, I am deeply grateful to my family and, in particular,

to my wife, Cecile, whose patience, constant encouragement and deep

understanding have sustained my efforts during the work on this book.

To Professor Ernest N. McCarus, who introduced me to the field

of Arabic dialectology, I present this study.

Ernest T. Abdel-Mass ih

Ann Arbor, Michigan

March 1982

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ix

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword

......

.0

Introduction

0 0 0 v

..* ..vi

PART ONE - PHONOLOGY...................... .

1.

Introduction .............

2.

Organs of Speech .. .......................2

.............2

Diagram .. ..........................3

3. Consonants and Semi-Vowel Inventory ... ..............4

3.1 Explanation of Terminology

. . . ... . .. . ..

Diagram s. .. ................

........6

3.2 Places of Articulation .. ....................10

3.3 Manner of Articulation. ............... ......10

3.4 Voiced - Voiceless .. ......................11

3.5 Emphatic - Plain. ................. .... ...11

3.6 Remarks on Pronunciation of Consonants and Semi-Vowels. .

4. ?ronunciation Drills ... ....................13

4.1 Pronunciation Drill 1: Moroccan Arabic sounds that occur in

English. ................... .......13

4.2 / q , x , x, h,T , r I. .. ..................14

4.3 Pronunciation Drill 2: / q , x , Y ...............15

4.4 /h/.................................17

4.5 Pronunciation Drill 3: /h/...........

.........17

4.6 I,..............................18

4.7 Pronunciation Drill 4: /T . .. ........ .........18

4.8 Pronunciation Drill 5: / x ,

, q,h , V /I. ...... ...18

5. Emphasis , Labialization, and Tenseness ... ..........19

5.1 Emphasis .... ........................

19

5.2 Pronunciation Drill 6: Emphatic Consonants. .. ........20

5.3 Labialization. .. .........................21

5.4 Pronunciation Drill 7: Labialized Consonants. .. .......

5.5 Tenseness. ... .................. ......22

5.6 Pronunciation Drill 8: Tense Consonants ... .........22

6. Moroccan Arabic Vowels................

......22

6.1 Vowel Allophones........................23

6.2 faf/

. . ..

. . .

. ..

. . . .

23

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6.3 Pronunciation Drill 9: /a!. .. ................24

6.4 // . .. .................. ..........25

6.5 Pronunciation Drill 10: l //.. ................25

6.6 //..............................26

6.7 Pronunciation Drill 11: /u/...................26

6.8 Phonetic Schwa or Short Vowel..........

........27

21

12

6.9

7.

7.1

7.2

7.3

8.

8.1

9.

9.1

10.

10.1

10.2

10.3

10.4

Pronunciation Drill 12: Phonetic Schwa .

Phonological Structure of Words . . . . . . . .

Stress

........

Pronunciation Drill 13: Consonant Clusters

Pronunciation Drill 14: C: , C:C , C:C: .

Diphthongs

. . ...

... .... ....

Pronunciation Drill 15: Diphthongs . . . . . .

Interchange of Phonemes.. .......

....

Pronunciation Drill 16: Interchange of Phonemes

General Pronunciation Drills

.......

Pronunciation Drill 17 . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pronunciation Drill 18.

...........

Pronunciation Drill 19 . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pronunciation Drill 20 . . . . . .. .0....

27

27

29

29

31

31

31

32

32

33

33

36

37

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32

PART TWO - BASIC UNITS

UNIT ONE

I.1 Text.

.....

1.2 Grammatical Notes . . . . . . .

1. Noun gender

...

2. Definite article .

3. Noun-modifier agreement

4. Equational sentences . .

5. Noun-adjective phrases'.

I.3 Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . .

1.4 Grammatical Notes: Feminine in

1.5 Drill 1-. . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6 Vocabulary....

.......

I.7 Grammatical Note: Assimilation

1.8 Vocabulary.

..........

I.9 Drill 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .

I.10 Drill 3.. .......

..........

..........

..........

..........

..........

..........

. . .. . . . . . .

..........

/a#/.......

..........

....

111.2

111.3

111.4

111.5

111.6

111.7

111.8

III.9

III.10

III.11

111.12

111.13

111.14

111.15

111.16

11..1/.

111.18

111.19

111.20

IV.1

IV.2

IV.3

IV. 4

IV. S

IV. 6

IV. 7

IV. 8

IV.9

IV. 10

IV.11

IV.12

IV. 13

IV.14

IV.15

IV. 16

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IV.17

Review-Drill 2

Text

Grammatical Notes

1. /was/

2.-6. Demonstr

Text . . . . . .

Drill 3 . . . . .

Drill 4 . . . . .

Text

..

Grammatical Note.

Text

Drill 5 . . . . .

Drill 6 . . . . .

Drill 7 . . . . .

Text .

Text .

Grammatical Notes:

Word Study List:

Drill 8 . . . . .

Drill 9 . . . . .

Drill 10 . . .

... .........

... .........

............

............

natives ........

.. ..........

.. ..........

.. ..........

.. ..........

Suffixed pronoun set

.. ..........

.. ..........

V.11

V.12

V.13

V.14

V.15

V.16

V.17

Drill 6.......

Text: Possession

Grammatical Notes:

Drill 7 . . . . . .

Drill 8 . . . . . .

Drill 9 . . . . . .

Drill 10 .

Possession

UNIT SIX

VI.1 Review-Drill 1

VI.2 Review-Drill 2

VI.3 Review-Drill 3

VI.4 Review-Drill 4

VI.5 Review-Drill 5-

VI.6 Review-Drill 6

VI.7 Review-Drill 7

VI.8 Text: How much? . . . . . . . . . .

VI.9 Grammatical Notes . . . . . . . . . .

1. Cardinal numerals 11 - 19

2. Verb form . . . . . . . . . .

VI.10 Drill 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VI.11 Text: fktb/..

VI.12 Grammatical Note: Sound verbs

VI.13 Text: Sound verbs

VI.14 Drill 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VI.15 Text: Form II verbs

VI.16 Grammatical Notes . . . . . . . . . .

1. Form II verbs

.......

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2. Derivations

VI.17 Text: Form II verbs

VI.18 Drill 10 ... . . .

.......

......

VI.19 Text: Sentences for Practice .

VI.20 Drill 11

.... . ...

VI.21 Text: Imperatives

. ...

VI.22 Grammatical Note: Imperative inflect

VI.23 Drill 12 ......

VI.24 Drill 13

........

.......

UNIT -SEVEN

VII.1 Review-Drill 1

........

VII.2 Review-Drill 2 . . . . . . . . . . .

VII.3 Review-Drill 3 .. . . . . . . . . .

VII.4 Text: Sentence conjunction . . . . .

VII.S Text: Ten Forms of sound verbs

..

VII.6 Grammatical Notes: Derived forms . .

VII.7 Text

..

. .........

VII.8 Drill 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VII.9 Drill 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VII.10 Drill 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VII.11 Drill 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VII.12 Text: Yes-No questions . . . . . . .

VII.13 Drill 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VII.14 Text:. Imperatives . . . . . . . . .

VII.15 Grammatical Notes: Object pronominal

VII.16 Verb List.. . . . ....... ........

ions

97

97

99

100

101

101

101

VII .17

VII.18

VII.19

VII.20

VII.21

VII.22

VIII.1

VIII.2

VIII.3

VIII.4

VIII.5

VIII.6

VIII.7

VIII.8

VIII.9

VIII.10

VIII.11

VIII. 12

VIII.13

VIII.14

VIII.15

VIII.16

VIII.17

VIII.18

VIII.19

VIII.20

VIII. 21

VIII. 22

VIII.23

VIII.24

VIII.25

IX. 1

IX. 2

IX.3

IX. 4

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IX.5

IX.6

IX. 7

IX.8

IX.9

IX.10

IX.11

IX.12

IX.13

IX.14

IX.15

IX.16

Drill 9 ..............

Drill 10

Grammatical Notes: Cardinal numerals

Drill 11

Drill 12

. ......... . .

......

Grammatical Note: Third Person Direct

UNIT eIGHT

Review-Drill 1 ...........

Review-Drill 2 . . . . . . . . . . .

Review-Drill 3

..... .....

Review-Drill 4

..... .....

Text: Medial weak verbs

....

Grammatical Notes: Medial weak verbs

Drill 5.--....-..........

Text: Final weak verbs . . . . . . .

Grammatical Notes: Final weak verbs

Drill 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Text: Final weak verbs . . . . . . .

Drill 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Drill 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Drill 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Drill 10

........ . ..

X.2 Review-Drill 2

166

X.3 Review-Drill 3 .......................167

X.4 Review-Drill 4 .. .....................168

X.5 Review-Drill 5

..

. .

. . . .

. .168

X-6 Text: Past habitual.....................171

X.7 Grammatical Notes......................172

1. / ka n/ as tense marker.................172

2. /radil/+ imperfect verbs................172

3. /x : /.........

................172

X-8 Drill 6.................

..........173

X-9 Text : Imperatives......................173

X.10 Grammatical Notes: Imperatives................174

X.ll Drill 7. ....................

......175

X.12 Text : Two-verb verb phrases.........

........173

X.13 Grammatical Notes: Two-verb verb phrases . . . . . . . . . 176

X.14 Text ... ...................... ......176

X.l5 Drill 8. .. ........................177

X.16 Text ........................

.....177

X.17 Drill 9. .... ......................17 9

X.18 Text : Asking directions...................180

PART THREE - CONVERSATIONS

UNIT ELEVEN

XI.1 Greetings.........

.................186

XI.2 Proverbs.................

..

.......195

UNIT TWEBLVE

XII.1 Phone Call. ................. . .

Vocabulary . .

. . .

. . .

19 7

. . .198

XI I.2 Qulestions.............

.............199

XI I.3 Proverbs. .......... ................199

UNIT THIRTEEN

XI II.1 With Ahmed' s Family.....................201

Vocabulary. .. ......................203

2(111.2 Grammatical Notes......................204

1. /Ilabd : ma!. .. ....................204

2 . /bas/I.. .......................204

..........204

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3. Participles............

4. Constructs...............

.......206

5. Verbal Nouns .. .............

.......207

X I II.3 Questions. .. ........................209

XIII.4 Proverbs...........................209

UNIT FOURTEEN

XIV.1 At the Dinner Table......................211

Vocabulary.............

...........216

XIV.2 Grammatical Notes......................218

1. Ordinal numerals.............

.......218

2. /wa lu/ 'nothing' .. ..................219

3. Object pronominal suffixes .. .............219

X.TV. 3 Questions. .. ........................223

XIV. 4 Proverbs .. ................................224

xv

UNIT FIFTEEN

XV.l Ahmed and George Meet in a Detroit Coffee Shop .. ......226

Vocabulary........................230

XV. 2 Grammatical Notes..........

1. Ibayl:aI 'that'

...... ......232

. . .

..

. . . . 232

2. Comparatives and superlatives............

.233

3. Either... .or......................233

4. /ras/..................

......233

XV.3 Questions..........................234

XV.4 Proverbs...........................235

UNIT SIXTEEN

XVI.l Ahmed and Lila Visit George and Mary.............237

Vocabulary ... ......................24 2

XVI..2 Grammatical Notes.......................245

1. /rna wale/.........................245

2. /bIhaII 'like' ...

. . . . .

. .245

4. Ihad s: i makan . .....................45

5. /was/..

.. .................. ...46

6 . relative clauses ....................4

7. optionality of /ka-/............

.......46

XVI.3 Questions .. ............... ..........247

XVI.4 Proverbs...........................248

UNIT SEVENTEEN

XVII.l George and Mary Visit Ahmed and Lila.............250

Vocabulary. .. .....................253

XVII.2 Grammatical Notes.. .. ....................253

1. / ku n/ .. .............. .........255

2. / nuI

. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .2555

3. /ai (i) .. ................ ......255

XVII.3 Questions . ................. .........256

XVII.4 Dinner at Ahimed and Lila' s. ..................256

Vocabulary. . . ......................259

XVII.5 Grammatical Notes :. ......................260

1. /qliI bas.../ . .. .. . ... .. .. .. . . . .260

2. /mafy a mat........................260

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XVII.6 Questions...t. .............. .........260

XVII.7 Proverbs ... ........................261

UNIT EIGHTEEN

Mary and Lila

XVI II.1 A Phone Call.....................

Vocabulary .. ......... .... .. ...

..........263

. .264

XVIII.2 Grammatical Notes .. ............... ......264

1. Ima i / futures . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . .264

2. /ma tnd k/ , Itdf assimilation. ..... ... .. ..264

3. I/an daba/.........................26S

XVI II.3 Questions .. ................ ...... .. ..266

XVIII.4 Mary Visits Lila.............

Vocabulary..............

xvi

........ .....27 0

........

. 266

XVIII.5 Grammatical Notes . . .

1. Variants . . . .

2. Bedroom . . . .

3. Relative I:i.

4. Kinship terms

XVIII.6 Questions . . . . . . .

XVIII.7 Mary Visits Lila - Part

Vocabulary . . . . .

XVIII.8 Questions . . . . . . .

XVIII.9 Proverbs . . . . . . .

UNIT NIN.TEEN

George and Mary Arrive in Morocco

XIX.1 At the Airport in Sale

. .0

Vocabulary .

XIX.2 Grammatical Notes

1. 'used to'

2. possibility

3. /Yir/ . .

XIX.3 Questions . . . . . .

XIX.4 With Ahmed and Lila's

Vocabulary . . . .

XIX.5 Grammatical Notes . .

1. /xtq/ , /xlaq/

2. 'excellent'

3. /hadi amayn/

XIX.6 Questions ... . . . .

XIX.7 After Dinner . . .

Vocabulary . . .

XIX.8 Grammatical Notes: 'Z

XIX.9 Questions . . . . . .

XIX.10 Proverbs.. . . . .

t;

Family in Rabat

272

272

272

272

272

276

277

279

280

281

283

285

286

286

286

287

287

288

291

292

292

293

293

294

294

298

299

299

300

302

304

304

304

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:he same'

XX.ll Grammatical Notes ... ...................318

2.. Structures with numerals

' . .. . . . 318

2. Conditional sentences.................320

XX.12 Questions . ..........................321

XX.13 Proverbs. ..........................322

APPENDIX A - Verb Tables. ... ....................324

APPENDIX B - Glossary of Technical and Grammatical Terminology . " 351

LEXICA ..............

................380

Arabic-English .. ........................381

English-Arabic..........................409

ZHA STORIES - XRAYF ZHA

435

Text 1 - Jeha and the Clay Pots.................437

Vocabulary..........................438

Questions.............................

Arabic Text 1 - zha wlqdur .. ..................440

Text 2 - Jeha, His Son, and Their Donkey.............441

Vocabulary..........................441

Questions............................443

Arabic Text 2 - zha w:lidu w:

dyalhum..............444

Text 3 - Jeha from Morocco and Jeha from Algeria .. ......445

Vocabulary ..........................445

Grammatical Notes - Conditional Sentences. ...... .....446

Questions ....................... ....448

Arabic Text 3 - zha ntaa imayrib Crd sla Tha nta~ a lz.'it bas

ytt : a .. ........ .. .............448

Text 4 - The Age of Jeha' s Uncle .. ..................449

Vocabulary, Questions. ...................449

Arabic Text 4 - ha itamu. .. ....................449

Text 5 - Jeha and the Donkeys. .. ................430

Vocabulary .. ........................450

Questions ...........................451

Arabic Text 5 - h1a wJJ~tmir ...................451

Text 6 - Jeha and the Ducks.....................452

Vocabulary .. .......................453

Questions ............................453

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Arabic Text 6 - ha wlbrkat". .................454

Text 7 - Jeha from Duijdi and Jeha from Fez

. .. .. . .

Vocabulary. ..... ..................4S55

Questions. ...........................456

Arabic Text 7 - zha duzda wzha dfas.................456

INDEX................0........... .................457

x713.i

..455

TABLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS

Map of Morocco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

Figure 1. - Diagram of the Organs of Speech .

...

Table 1. Moroccan Arabic Consonants and Semi-Vowels . . . . . . . 4

Figure 2. - Places of Articulation . .

Figure 3. - Tongue Position for /t/.... . .

Figure 4. - Tongue Position for /t/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Figure 5. - Tongue Position for /s/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Figure 6. - Tongue Position for /s/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table 2. - Moroccan Arabic Vowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Table 3. - Moroccan Arabic Vowel Allophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Moroccan .Arabic Script Sample . . . . . . . .. ... .0.

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xix

. . . . . 376

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wT. r

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/4'

T.te daeeecut

7&4ww"

4w&;a

-.." ,&,&A ff

ow-,d4j-

ININIPP, . W,

d laht!

Map of Morocco

Sebta

Tetouan

Chechaouen

o Oujda

oVolubilis

o Fez 0

Taza

Meknes

Sero

Azrou

Midelt

El Jad:

Saf i

Aga&:

Ifni,

Marrakesh

Ksar es Souk

Erfoud

Ouarzazate

Zagora

oGoulimine

DISTANCES FROM CASABLANCA IN-MILES

Al Boceima ..

Agadir ........

Azrou ........ .

Chechacuen ..

El Jadida .

Erf oud. .. .. ..

Fez ...........

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Goulimine...

Larache .......

338

330

189

205

62

403

183

453

180

Marrakesh .

Meknes.......

Midelt ..

Ouarzazate ..

Oujda .........

Rabat .........

Safi ......

Tangier....

Taza .......

Tetuian ........

149

146

267

273

403

58

158

236

257

248

ii

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PART ONE

PHONOLOGY

Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

PART ONE

PHONOLOGY OF MOROCCAN ARABIC

1. Introduction

Since we are primarily concerned here with spoken Moroccan Arabic

rather than the written form, it is only appropriate to begin this

volume with some discussion of the pronunciation. To help the student

pronounce the sounds of this foreign language, some details about the

organs of speech and the articulation of Moroccan Arabic sounds are

given here.

2. The Organs of Speech (See Figure 1)

The stream of air expelled by breathing passes out of the lungs and

is used for speech. The larynx is a cartilaginous box at the upper end

of the trachea or windpipe. The importance of the larynx in speech is

that it contains the vocal cords, or vocal folds which are two horizon-

tal folds of elastic tissue. The triangular space enclosed by the two

vocal cords is referred to as the glottis. The tongue has four sections:

the apex or tip, the blade or front, the dorsum or back, and the root

which forms the front wall of the pharynx. The tongue is one of the

most important movable articulators. The upper front teeth are

important in speech formation. Both the lps_ are of importance in

speech. The roof of the mouth could be divided into four parts:

the

alveolar ridge, the convex portion of the mouth just behind the front

teeth; the hard palate, which is the portion behind the alveolar ridge ;

the velum or soft palate, which is the area behind the hard palate;

and, finally, the uvula, the small appendage that hangs down from the

very edge of the velum.

There are three major resonance cavities: the mouth, which is known

as the oral cavity, the nose or nasal cavity and the throat or the

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pharynx; their main function in speech is to serve as resonators.

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Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

Upper
3

Lip

Lower

Lip

Pharynxc

Figure 1. - Diagram of the Organs of Speech


Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

3. Consonants and Semi-Vowels

.0

as

0r

0d

4.1

Oo

swd

0S

CS

b8

0z

$.i

'-4

i->

i->

voiceless

p*

stop

voiced

voiceless

fs

h h

fricative

voiced

v* z

nasal

voiced

lateral

voiced

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flap

voiced

rr

semi-vowel

voiced

and Semi-Vowels

Table 1. Moroccan Arabic Consonants

*These phonemes occur in a few words borrowed from

French, e.g. /rapist/ . /lab:ist/ 'unpaved road,

trail' (French 'la piste'), /paris/ 'Paris' (French

'Paris'), /avri1/ ../abriI/ 'April' (French 'avril').

3.1 Explanation of Terminology

Speech sounds are usually described in terms of:

(a) Place of articulation, i.e. position of the speech organs during

the production of a sound, e.g. position of the tip of the tongue in

relation to the upper teeth is referred to as Dental when we pronounce

/t/ (notice that English /t/ is alveolar).

(b) Manner of articulation, i.e. the way in which the speech organs

perform during the production of a certain sound, e.g. when the lower

Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

and upper lips form a complete closure thus stopping the air flow as in

the case of a /b/ which is here termed "Stop".

(c) Voiced - voiceless, this refers to whether or not the vocal cords

vibrate. A voiced consonant is one which is accompanied by vibration

of the vocal cords; for examble /b/ in the English word "boy". A

voiceless consonant is one which is produced without any accompanying

vibration of the vocal cords; for example /f/ in the English word "foot"

The difference between voicing and voicelessness can be felt strongly

if one covers one's ears with one's hands, then pronounces the English

words "pear" and "bear" paying attention to /p/ and /b/.

(d) Emphasis: In addition to the above, Moroccan Arabic is charac-

terized by having a set of "Emphatic" consonants which are sometimes

referred to as either "Velarized" or "Flat".

An Emphatic consonant is one which is produced by pressing the blade

of the tongue against the palate so that the articulation is velarized

or alveolarized rather than just dental (See Figures 3-6). Table 1

lists / t d s Z

I/ as the emphatic counterparts of the PLAIN

/ t d s z I r / . We will refer to / td s z

ir Ias the "Primary

Emphatics". The occurrence of a primary emphatic consonant will cause

a plain consonant in the same syllable (sometimes in the preceding

and/or the following syllable) to become emphatic. This set of

changed consonants will be referred to as the "Secondary Emphatics".

The domain of the spread of emphasis is the syllable, which means that

a syllable has all or none of its sounds emphatic. This also means

that in Moroccan Arabic all of the consonants occur as both emphatic

and plain because of the influence of emphatic consonants on plain

consonants as explained above. .

The influence of emphatic consonants on vowels is very noticeable

to a non-native speaker. This is particularly clear with the vowel

/a/, when in the environment of an emphatic consonant. Listen to your

teacher pronouncing /tab/ = [t1b] 'to be cooked' with the a as in

English father, Bo, cot and then listen to him pronouncing /t ab/ =

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[tab] 'to repent' with the a as in English cat, na, lac.

Now try pronouncing /lab/ and then /tab/ and notice when pronouncing

the first word how your tongue is drawn back, spread to the sides

completely filling your mouth with the dorsum of your tongue raised

Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

1. Bilabial /p b m wI 2. Labiodental If vf 3. Dental ft t d s s

z z I1~

4. Alveolar /n r r/ S. Alveopalatal /5 j/ 6 . Palatal /yi/

7. Velar /k S/ 8. Back-Velar /x Y1 9 . Uvular /q/ 10. Pharyngeal

/ tc/ 11. Glottal I h /

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Figure 2. Places of Articulation

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Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

Figure 3. - Tongue Position for /t/


7

Figure 4. - Tongue Position for /t /


Phonology

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Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

FK
8

Figure S. - Tongue Position for /5/

Figure 6. - Tongue Position for /s/ .


Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

Phonology

and most cases your lips are slightly rounded. Watch your teacher

pronouncing /tab/ and see how even his cheeks bulge and also watch the

tension he builds up in the muscles around his throat.

The influence of emphatic consonants on plain non-emphatic neighbor-

ing consonants is also very clear, e.g. /drb/ [drab] 'to hit' can be

transcribed as /drb/ or /dtb/. The latter form marks /d/ as a primary

emphatic and /C/ as a secondary emphatic, since only / t d s z Iir /

can occur either as primary or secondary emphatics. In any case, all

emphatics do color the neighboring consonants. Thus, when there is

more than one emphatic, we may not mark them all, e.g.

dars - dars

dars 'lesson'.

(e) Labialization is a feature of the peripheral consonants / b m f /

and / k q x y

I . It is here indicated by a rounded stroke over the

consonant, e.g. b . Labialization is manifested as simultaneous

lip-rounding when producing any of the above-mentioned consonants.

Thus, fb/ is pronounced as

bw or bw and /k/ is pronounced kw or

kw . Notice that / b 'm /can vary with

bw , mw , fw , or

bu ;

mu , fu .

(f) Tenseness is a very important feature of Moroccan Arabic. A

tense (also fortis) consonant in general is produced with more force

than its lax (also lenis) counterpart. Tense or fortis here refers to

two identical consonants with no intervening vowel pronounced with

stronger articulation and greater tension on the muscles of the articu-

lator and, usually, aspiration. Lax or lenis refers to a single

consonant pronounced with lesser muscular tension in the speech organ

and weaker, laxer articulation and, usually, no aspiration. A tense

consonant has precisely twice the duration of a single consonant.

The intensity and aspiration (puff of breath) which are characteristic

of the tense consonants give them' a syllabic quality (i.e. maximum

degree of sonority in the syllable) so that /b:/ is heard as [abb] or

[ebb] . This is transcribed in most other systems that treated

Moroccan Arabic phonology as /ebb/ . The same systems use [a] in the

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transcription of [htt] as [ahh] . In our system of transcription [ebb]

is transcribed as /b:/ and pronounced [ebb] and [ath] is transcribed as

/h:/ and pronounced as [ ah] . The raised up vowel - [a], [a] - denotes

Moroccan Arab ic

10

Phonology

that it is purely phonetic, i.e. totally predictable and causing no

semantic differentiation.

3.2 Places of Articulation (See Figure 2)

1. Bilabial: lower lip and upper lip ( p b m w )

2. Labiodental: lower lip and upper teeth ( f v )

3. Dental: apex of tongue and upper teeth ( t t d d s s z z 1

4. Alveolar: apex of tongue and alveolar ridge ( n r r )

5. Alveopalatal: apex of tongue and front part of palate ( s z )

6. Palatal: tongue blade and palate ( y )

7. Velar: tongue dorsum and back of palate ( k g )

8. Back-Velar: tongue dorsum and velum ( x y )

9. Uvular: tongue dorsum and uvula ( q )

10. Pharyngeal: root of tongue and pharynx forming a stricture ( h e )

11. Glottal: produced by complete closure and instantaneous release of

the vocal cords. The sound / 9 / is produced in the glottis or the

opening at the upper part of the larynx, between the vocal cords and

thus called glottal stop or glottal catch.

3.3 Manner of Articulation

1. Stop: refers to consonants characterized by a complete closure of

the air passage, thus blocking the air stream momentarily, e.g.

closing of both lips in production of /b/ ( p b t t d cj kg q ' )

2. Fricative: refers to consonants produced by friction caused by the

air moving through a narrow passage in the mouth ( f v s s z z

x yh rh)

3. Nasal: refers to consonants produced with the uvula lowered, allowing

the air to escape through the nose, so that the nasal cavity acts as

a resonator ( m n )

4. Lateral: refers to consonants produced with the tongue touching

only the middle of the palate, thus allowing the air flow to escape

around one or both sides of the tongue (

1. )

5. Flap: refers to a consonant produced by the rapid vibration of the

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apex of the tongue. It is a single tap of the tongue in which the

Moroccan Arabic

11

Phonology

tip of the tongue makes a single rapid contact against the alveolar

ridge ( r r )

6. Semi-vowel: a sound partaking of the nature of both a consonant and

a vowel ( w y )

3.4 Voiced - Voiceless

Voiceless Consonants

Voiced Counterparts

t.

Sz

in

3.5 Emphatic - Plain

Plain Consonants

Emphatic Counterparts

(Primary Set)

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Moroccan Arabic

12

Phonology

3.6 Remarks on the Pronunciation of Moroccan Arabic Consonants and

Semi-Vowels

A look at Table 1 shows that Moroccan Arabic has more consonants

than English. Most of the sounds are pronounced like their English

counterparts while a few are quite unlike anything in English; and,

therefore, require great practice on the part of the student.

3.6.1 Moroccan Arabic consonants pronounced

Counterparts

Moroccan Arabic

p (occurs in for rowings)

almost like their English

As in English

boy

pin

toy

dog

cat, Katherine

go

vine

so

zest

she

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fine

pleasure, measure

me

no

well

yet

(occurs in borrowings)

The following

following:

sounds also exist in English, but please note the

/I/ - Moroccan Arabic /I/ is like the /1/ in English lazy, leave,

late rather than the /1/ of English feel, pull, role. Moroccan Arabic

/I/ then is like the first /1/ in the English word level but never like

the second unless velarized (primary or secondary emphatic).

To realize what this means you might like to try to say "pull", then

start the word "leave" where you finished "pull". Now you may realize

that initial l's in English are different from medial/final ones.

Moroccan Arabic

13

Phonology

Thus Moroccan Arabic: /1a/ 'no', /ila/a 'if' or /ma/ 'capital, money'

have an /1/ like that of English leave; and Moroccan Arabic / :ah/ 'God'

has an /I/ like that of English pull. Linguists refer to the first /1/

in level as "Clear" /1/ and to the last /1/ as "Dark" /1/ . Moroccan

Arabic plain /I/ is "Clear" and the emphatic /1/ is "Dark".

/h/ as in English "he"

/h/ is not difficult when it begins a

syllable or a word, e.g. Moroccan Arabic /ha/ 'here is' or /mfhum/ 'It

is understood'. But the student may have difficulty pronouncing /h/

when it is within a syllable or word final, e.g. /Ighwa/ 'coffee' or

/rah/- 'there he is'.

/1'/ is a sound that should not give the English speaker any trouble.

/1/, the glottal stop, which is produced by complete closure and

instantaneous release of the vocal cords, is sometimes found in English

as in New York dialect pronunciation /bo'l/ 'bottle' or as the initial

sound of English "ouch".

In Moroccan Arabic ,words or utterances never begin with a vowel. In

all cases where a non-native speaker hears what he thinks is an

initial vowel, it is always / ' + V

/; thus, /ana/ is / "ana/ tI'.

4. Pronunciation Drills

(All Pronunciation drills are on tape in the language laboratory.)

Each drill is read three times. The first reading is to acquaint the

student with the items of the drill. The second reading allows spaces

for practice. Ideally, the third reading should be practiced without

looking at the printed drill. Also note that, while a drill is meant

to help the student master a certain sound, sometimes a minimal pair

containing a previous sound is also drilled for purposes. of practice

and differentiation..

4.1 Pronunciation Drill 1. : Moroccan Arabic sounds that occur in

English.

Notice that /a/ = [a]

as in English cat, na, lack

bab [bab]

abadan

he repeated

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tab

door

never

Moroccan Arabic

14

Phonology

fat

he passed by

ka n

he was

malak

ana

angel

l'ais lam

dar

Islam

he did

gal

he said

fat

he passed by

ra f d

carrying (m)

sala

he finished

labas

fine

saf

he saw

as

what

lam

he blamed

ma I

capital, money

zad

he added

daz

za

ta

he passed

'

he came

crown

mat

he died

nam

he dreamt

Ia

no

wai da

one who gave birth to a baby

wad

river

rab

it (m) was ruined

gab

he became grey-haired

dab

it (m) melted

bat

he spent the night

ban

it (m) appeared

4.2 / q , x ,

, h , , r / - This group does not exist in English.

1) Of this group, /r/ is a flap, i.e. a sound that is produced by the

very rapid vibration of the tip of the tongue (apex) ; it is very often

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equal to a single vibration of a trill, e.g. /zra/ 'he ran', /rab/

'it (m) was ruined'.

Moroccan Arabic

15

Phonology

2) / x , y , q , , e / are all back consonants known as gutterals.

Their place of articulation is back velar, uvular and pharyngeal.

/ x , Y / are back velars, /q/ is uvular and / 12 , e / are pharyngeal.

3) /x/ is a voiceless back velar fricative. Its place of articula-

tion is back velar. To pronounce /x/, produce /k/, then move the dorsum

(back of the tongue) back and produce a fricative; this produces /x/.

This will sound somewhat like the "ch" of German doch, lachen, and nach,

e. g.

xa I [xaI ]

Ixdma [a Ix dm)

maternal uncle

work

4) /y/ is a voiced back velar fricative. It has the same place and

manner of articulation as /x/. Try to produce /g/, then move the dorsum

of your tongue back and produce a fricative. Let us call /Y/ the

"gargling" sound.

5) /q/ is a voiceless uvular stop that is produced by the tongue

dorsum (back), forming a stop against the uvula. Notice that /q/ is

further back than /k/ and should not be used as a substitute either for

/k/ or for /g/, for that is where we get some of the funniest minimal

pairs, e.g.

qib [qaib]

kMb [kaib]

heart

dog

I qiaw i [a I qaI wI] the testicles

I k iaw i [a I ka IawI] the kidneys

qw:ad [qawwad]

gw:ad [gawwad]

pimp

-guide

4.3 Pronunciation Drill 2. : / q , x , y I

aqlbi

oh my heart

akibi

oh my dog

Iki1awi

Ig91aw i

gw:ad

guide

xa I a

katYi i

Ixdma

maternal aunt

it is boiling

the work

expensive (m)

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Yal i

the kidneys

proper. name (m)

Moroccan Arabic

16

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

xima

lYla

16

Phonology

a tent

high cost

ximtha

her tent

Ya I y a

xa i ya

kami

i xari i

it (f) is expensive

it (f) is empty

finished

abroad, outside

ma ka n i

magana

my place

watch

i xa I

xaltu

the maternal uncle

his maternal aunt

qu I

Sul

say!

say!

Yu l

ogre

qruda

monkeys

Yr i b

strange

bYa

he wanted

b qa

he remained

b' yit i

you (s) wanted

bqiti

you (s) remained

bkit i

rab

you (s) cried

it (m) is ruined

Ixia

i ra

wilderness

he ran

Ixala

kayiri

the maternal aunt

he runs

kayrfdha

he carries it (f)

Iqhwa

coffee

I Yaba

forest

Ixdma

Irla

work

high cost

the shirt

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I qam i is

I qayd

the administrator

IbYrrir

I xat m

I xizana

Ixima

Moroccan pancakes

the ring

the library

the tent

Moroccan Arabic

17

Phonology

l yd a

the lunch

q1lub

hearts

Iqani

he met me

rqiq

.thin (m)

qa I ha

he said it (f)

qab i na

he met us

kayqab i ha

he takes care of her

I kra

the rent

1 kuka

Coca Cola

4.4 /h/ is a voiceless pharyngeal fricative. Pharyngeal sounds are

produced by a constriction of the root of the tongue against the pharynx.

This is not an easy sound. It is advisable to practice pronouncing /h/

by producing a vigorous constriction of the pharynx slightly below and

behind the extreme edge of the velum. This can be achieved by drawing

the body of the tongue back toward the posterior wall of the pharynx

with considerable force. Try this and it should produce /h/. Let us

call this sound the "panting" sound.

4.5 Pronunciation Drill 3.

hala

/I/

condition

kayhaw I

Iah

he is trying

he threw away

I a bu

he threw it (m) away

Iamd

ai

praising (m)

my condition

haw I

he tried

ih lib

the milk

h na

we

I hsab

h anut

arithmetic

shop

halawat

I I wa

pastry, cookies , cakes

candy

one (m)

h lib

milk (m)

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wahd

Moroccan Arabic

18

Phonology

4.6 /C/ is a voiced pharyngeal fricative. If you try to pronounce the

English vowel "a" as in "fat" with your tongue pressed down, you will

hear /t/, which we will call the "bleating" sound.

4.7 Pronunciation Drill 4.

ealhigh (m)

cad

yet, just

kayeawd

resrin

he repeats, he narrates

twenty

cazib

eaIya

excellent

high (f)

kaytibn i

beid

I like it (m)

far (m)

eliha

on it (f)

el ihum

on them (m)

cguza

old woman

I Cgayz

viuz

i eiuza

zCma

imic

the old people

old man

the old woman

that is to say

together

bat

he sold

4.8 Pronunciation Drill S. : / x ,

,q,h,c/

t al ihigh (m)

ya I i

xa I i

hail

expensive (m)

my maternal uncle

my condition

hadi

this (f)

Yad i

xa 1 u

qaltha

ihri ra

he is going

his maternal uncle

she said it (f)

Moroccan soup

qa I u

they said

monkeys

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qruda

gil llittle

h a nut

shop

Moroccan Arabic

19

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

19

Phonology

I mayari ba

x I ah a

hwant

hdaha

cbid

I aIam

I Yaba

Ixima

Im'ila

I bh ima

mnaha

eahdna

ea I ya

'faIya

xalya

ha'i la

ha hiya

ha hna

xda

Yda

hda

bda

hda

Moroccans

he ruined it (m)

shops

near her

slaves

the world

the forest

the tent

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living.

the beast of burden

with her

he promised us

high (f)

expensive (f)

empty (f)

excellent (f)

here she is

here we are

he took

lunch

near

he began

to present

S. Emphasis, Labialization, and Tenseness

5.1 Emphasis

Emphatic articulation refers to the pressing of the blade of the

tongue against the palate in the formation of some consonant sounds ; the

articulation is then velarized or alveolarized rather than dental, or

pharyngealized rather than velar.

As mentioned in 3.1 c , the domain of emphasis (that of flatness or

velarization) is the syllable. We called / t d s z I.

/ a "primary

emphatic" set, the occurrence of which causes other non-emphatic

consonants to become emphatic. This latter set is here termed the

"secondary emphatic" set, e.g. /db/ 'to hit' has /d/ as a primary

emphatic phoneme and / C/ as a secondary one. It is worth mentioning

here that the transcription of this word without marking /r/ as emphatic

Moroccan Arabic

20

Phonology

is also acceptable. It is hard and almost impossible to pronounce

emphatic /c/ and non-emphatic /r/ next to it. Thus, /db/ - /drb/ 'to

hit' and, similarly, /t b1./ - /t bi/ 'drum (musical instrument)' are

acceptable variants in terms of transcription. Variant transcriptions

may occur throughout the Units of this book for words where / t d s z /

occur as secondary emphatics. Thus /ras/ - /ras/ 'head' - when Moroccan

Arabic is written in Arabic script, this alternation will show up as

alternate spelling with either of two different letters either (y.'for

/s/ or upOfor /s/.

Notice that in pronouncing a plain non-emphatic consonant the position

of the tip of the tongue is dental for, let us say, /t/ and the back of

the tongue is depressed, whereas in pronouncing its emphatic counterpart

/t/, the tip of the tongue is. touching the alveolar ridge and the back

of the tongue is raised up toward the velum. Also, note that in the

case of the pronunciation of an emphatic consonant, the lip muscles

are somewhat extended forward whereas they are relaxed when pronouncing

a plain consonant. See Figures 3 and 4 for /t/ and /t/ and Figures 5

and 6 for /s/ and /s/.

5.2 Pronunciation Drill 6. (Emphatic Consonants)

(In the environment of emphatic consonants, /a / is pronounced as in

English "father" and /i / is pronounced as the vowel of English

'mate" without the glide.)

rab [rab]

it (m) is ruined

ratb [ab]

it (m) is curdled

ra kb

he is mounted

'a qb

rbab

he controlled

rebec, a string instrument

r bat i

native (m) of Rabat

tab

he repented

tab

it (m) is cooked

dar

he did

dar

house

sword

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sif [sif]

sif [sef]

summer

maza 1

not yet

mazar

he did not visit

Moroccan Arabic

21

Phonology

wI :a

wz:ahi

nam

or

of course, by God

he dreamt

nad

he got up

ban]1 i

it (m) appeared to me

barnka

bank (<cFrench)

fasi

native of Fez

fad i

unoccupied

kaysumu

siny:a

they fast

tray

sir

go!

sib

find!

sag

he drove

zrabi

z i na

zuQ*

kra

rugs

ornament

blonds

he rented

q ra

he studied

darha

he did it (f)

darha

her house

kar i

he rented

qa r i

educated

5.3 Labialization (as mentioned in 3.1 e) is a feature of / b m f k q x

Y / and is manifested as simultaneous lip-rounding when producing any

of these consonants. Thus /3> is pronounced as bw or bw

and /'k/ is

pronounced kw or kw . Notice that / b m T / can vary with bw , mw

fw , or bu , mu , fu . Notice the distinction in meaning for

instance between labialized /z/ and its non-labialized counterpart /x/

in such words as /xra/ 'feces' and /2a/ 'other (f)', /Ixra/ 'the feces'

and /Ixra/ 'the other one (f)'.

5.4 Pronunciation Drill 7. (Labialized Consonants)

In the environment of labialized consonants:

[a] and is pronounced as in English "father"

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a-

e--- {e] and as the vowel in English "made" without the glide

u -- [0] and ranges between the vowels of English "door" and "soul"

Moroccan Arabic

22

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

byd

22

Phonology

buyd

malf -mwaif

Ifad -Ifwad

kbar

kbar

xa

krasa

Yrab

Yr i b

'nt

qn ut

qndi I

enad I

hi:

hi

white (p)

to be accustomed

internal body organs

big (p)

other (fs)

chairs

crow

strange

corner

corners

oil lamp

oil lamps

open!

solution

5.5 A tense (also fortis)consonant in general has twice the duration of

its lax (also lenis) counterpart. Also remember that the intensity and

aspiration which are characteristic of the tense consonants give them a

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syllabic quality. (See 3.1 f above.)

5.6 Pronunciation Drill 8. (Tense Consonants)

kayt bu

kayhb:u

t :aman

tm:a

timid

t:Imid

d:a

bra

bC:a

he is crawling

he loves him

the price

there

pupil

the pupil

house

the house

to the house

letter

outside

6. Moroccan Arabic Vowels

To produce a vowel sound, the tongue is arched High, Mid or Low in

the mouth. The arching of the tongue is either toward the FRONT of the

palate or the BACK. Thus, we describe the vowels in terms of these

Moroccan Arabic

23

Phonology

five parameters. We now can say that /1/ is a high front vowel.

The position of the lips, whether spread as in /ia/ or rounded as in

/u,o/, is important in describing vowel sounds.

Vowels are all voiced; that is, vowels are produced with vibrations

of the vocal cords.

Front

Central

Back

High

Mid

Low

Table 2. - Moroccan Arabic Vowels

6.1 Vowel Allophones (or positional vowel variants occurring in specific

environments)

The following table shows the Moroccan Arabic vowel allophones .

Notice the modification of the parameters High, Mid and Low. Also

note that Central or Centralized vowels are shorter in duration than

the front or back ones.11T-7

Front

Central Shorter

Back

High

Low High

High Mid

v=YI I

Mid

Low Mid

High Low

Low

Table 3. - Moroccan Arabic Vowel Allophones

has the following allophones:

as in English ' fat', occurs in the environment of non-emphatic

consonants;

/a/

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6.2 /a/

[a]

Moroccan Arabic

24

Phonology

[a] a little further back than the "a" of English 'father' , occurs in

the environment of emphatic sonsonants ;

[] (centralized pronunciation of [a]) occurs word finally in the

environment of non-emphatic consonants. Notice [] is shorter

than [a];

[z] (centralized pronunciation of [a]) occurs word finally in the

environment of emphatic consonants. Notice [] is shorter than

[a].

6.3 Pronunciation Drill 9.

/a/

a/a

dar

[dar]

he did

dar

[dat]

house

fat

[fat]

he passed

tar

[tar]

it flew

fatr

[fata]

he is not fasting

tab

[tab]

he repented

tab

[tab]

it is cooked

yad i

['&dI]

he is going

Ya I[Yar]

sab

[ab]

b iawat

hole

he grew old

[b rawat ]

letters

ai

Ia

[)a]

no

bra

[bra]

letter

sab :a

tal:a

[sab :a]

[Ial:a]

ybra

youth (f)

madam, lady

[ybr&]

Hia

[I11]

ta

[ita]

9um: h a

d:aha

cover

[ 9ummah). her mother

[d:ahi]

[ha :a]

he took it (f) away

pilgrim (f)

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haz:a

needle

if

Moroccan Arabic

25

Phonology

6.4 /I

/i/ has the following allophones:

[i] as in English 'beat, occurs in the environment of non-emphatic

consonants;

[e] as in English 'mate' , occurs in the environment of emphatic

consonants ;

[I] as in English 'bit'; occurs word finally, in the environment of

non-emphatic consonants ;

[I] (centralized pronunciation of {I]=[I )), occurs word finally in

the environment of emphatic consonants. Notice [I] is shorter than

[I].

6. 5 Pronunciation Dr ill 10 . : / i/

Iii] / e]

snin

lib

zit

ki fai

tir

sift

sif

s: if

sif

s:if

sif

s: i f

ei s

biban

[i] / [I]

ya I i

qa i

sft i

h3ami

fd : i

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nb ( i

[snin]

[Zib]

[zit]

[kifa s]

[ter]

[seft]

[sef]

[s:ef]

[sif]

[s: if]

[ ei ]

[b i ben]

[qadI]

[i ftI])

[IyamI]

[ny'bI]

[fadgl]

years

pocket

oil

how?

a bird

to send

summer

the summer

sword

the sword

live!

small, little

doors

expensive

judge

Moroccan Arabic

26

Phonology

6.6 /u/

/u/ has the following allophones:

ju] as in English 'cool', occurs in the environment of non-emphatic

consonants;

[o] between English 'door' and 'soul', occurs in the environment of

emphatic consonants and back velars;

[v] as in English 'wool' , occurs word finally in the environment

of non-emphatic consonants ;

[ur] (or [UW]) , occurs -word finally in the environment of emphatic

consonants. Notice [r] is shorter than [v].

6.7 Pronunciation Drill 11.

lu/

[u] / [o]

dud

dur

s:uf

e' um

Yui

hanut

c ud

d uI fm

xubz

mu' tabar

kanaxud

kayaku I

quit i

Iv]_/ _t]l

dyalu

r du

fthu

qbtu

sd: u

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bYd u

[dud]

[dot]

[s :of,

[" um]

[Yo 1 ]

[hanut]

[tud]

[dolm]

[doef]

[xobz]

[mue tabar]

[kanaxud]

[kayaku I]

[qu It I]

worms

turn!

wool

swim!

ogre

shop

a piece of wood

oppression

poverty

bread

excellent

I am taking

he is eating

you (s) said

his

he invited him

he opened it (m)

he caught it (m)

he closed it (m)

Moroccan Arabic

27

Phonology

6.8 Phonetic Schwa or Short Vowel

In addition, Moroccan Arabic has a non-phonemic (with no semantic

significance) phonetic schwa or short vowel - V [a]

This occurs

as a transition between consonants or consonant clusters. It is

voiced in the environment of voiced consonants and voiceless in the

environment of voiceless consonants. The vocalic transition has variants

ranging from {a] or je] to [2] or [a].

[a]: [a) occur in the environment of /e/ and /h/; []) [] elsewhere.

Examples : end i

ktb

ki:mn

x1 :a

{ ndI]

[kt b]

[kal10m]

[x0l]

I have

he wrote

he spoke

he let, left

6.9 Pronunciation Drill 12. : Phonetic Schwa

en d na

I hm:am

I hmdu Ii

Ibab

fhm

bnt

I bnt

$: rim

fh :mu

kayqd:

six

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bITY

[candne]

[ 0,n dni) ln

[* It a ammam]

I :ah [ a l mdul II l th-]

[albab]

[fthm]

[bent]

f lb nt]

. [*iiarim]

[f hh mu]

[kayqdd]

[s l*x]

[b i o]

we have

public bath

praise be to God

the door

he understood

a girl

the girl

the window

he made him understand

he can

to skin animals

to be of age, be mature

7. Phonological Structure of Words in Moroccan Arabic

If a consonant is followed by another consonant, there is a predic-

table transition. Transition between /C/ and /C/ is heard as vocalic

and is represented here by a superscript schwa [0] to represent the

short vowels [0], [e], [a] and [a] discussed in 6 above. Schwa occurs

as the first speech sound formation in English "about" or as the last

Moroccan Arabic

28

Phonology

speech sound formation in English "sofa". The following examples and

drills are meant to help the student master this very important feature

of Moroccan Arabic phonology, namely the pronunciation of consonant

clusters. Drills 13 and 14 include the [*] in the transcription.

Notice that [a] is voiceless in the environment of voiceless consonants

and voiced in the environment of voiced consonants.

Following are some helpful rules for the predictability of the short

vowel []:

1.

/CC:/

[CeCC]

2.

/C:C/ - [CC*C]

3.

/C:C:/ ---+ [aCCaCC]

4.

/CC:C/ ---+ [CCC*C]

5.

/C:V/ ---+ [0CCV]

6.

/CC:V/

7.

/C:VC/ --+ [ CCVC]

8.

/VC:/ -

9.

/CVC:/ -- [CVCC] (no change)

10.

[C0CCV]

[VCC] (no change) (='VC:)

/VC:V/ ---+ [VCCV] (no change) (='C:V)

Examples:

1. sk:

Compare s:k:

2. d:ra

3.

:q:

d:r:i

4. kI:m

bd: I

fy:q

hm:m

bl:I

5. b:a

r:uz

6. Ib:ik

t:a

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km:a

7. I:j1

8. 9ab:

[ e ekk]

[*skk]

[*iiqq]

[Edd0 rr-I]

[kallm]

[badd iJ

[f yyaq]

[h mmam]

[*bb a]

[*rroz]

[isbbik]

[ kmmm]

[Y*tt]

[*1Iii1]

['abb]

to doubt, suspect

doubt, suspicion

corn

the crack

the boy

to speak to

to change

to wake up (someone)

to give a bath

to wet

my father

the rice

window screen

to make someone smoke

to cover

cigarettes

Moroccan Arabic

29

Phonology

~4oroccan Arabic

29

Phonology

9. mux :

10. 'am:a

[muxx]

[9ammi]

brain

as for

7.1 Stress

Stress does not produce semantic differences in Moroccan Arabic.

Primary stress may fall either on the final syllable (terminal) or on

the second from the last (penultimate). This is predictable on the

basis of syllable structure. Stress is terminal if the last syllable

of the word has the structure [CVC] or [CeCC], e.g.

mski n

frhan

mhlI uI

samht

sawbt

sI:mt

[mask in]

[f8r-hn]

[s~raht J

E sawlat

poor

happy

open (m)

I forgave

I fixed (something)

I greeted

Stress is penultimate if the last syllable of the word has the

structure [CV] or if it ends in [-C], e.g.

sI:mna

[s*1 amni] ~we greeted

[mahluli]

open (f)

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nmhlula

kI:m

[ka11am]

sabba

[sahba]

he talked (with, to)

girl friend

Also notice stress shift with the suffixation of pronominal suffixes,

e.g.

ki ina

kIinah

ki:m

ki:mni

[ki ini]

[ki insh]

[ka iim]

[kal1amni]

we ate

we ate it (m)

he talked (to)

he talked to me

7.2 Pronunciation Drill 13. (Consonant Clusters)

:m

fhm

e[' Im]

[faham]

kI:m Ifqih [kahlam alfgih]

Iwid Ikbir [*1wald alkbir]

as xbar s::a ? [as xbadu Liahh]]

nhmdu 1 :ah [nahamdu 1Itlah]

to teach

to understand

talk to the teacher!

the big boy

how are you?

fine

Moroccan Arabic

30

Phonology

hr:ktlkum t:bla [ha rra kt a kurn att bab~] I moved the table for

'ah 1n wa sahiln [ 'ahil n w a smh 1an] Hello

sbah l x ir [asbah a alxeifl

[xraz]

s :r rn

[ssarzm]the window

s l: m

yu

good morning

he went out

[Sa 1lam]

to greet

d: I asild i , mrba b ikum vndna come in, sir, welcome.

[atfadda 1 s dI , mrh a b ikumrn ndnae]

k I: mt hum [ kall 1amt hum]

mt krfs in tmat karf s in]

If:

[jaff]

I talked to them

messed up (mp)

to wrap up

sq [agq]to split

yr= garr

srn: a

toconfess

[s mrnM]

to name

t:a['t t a]

to cover

I:a[.lYadd ]tomorrow

t :a

tihattVj

tb :ax

qd:m

to present

[ 'addab ]

bx:

Eharrarth5]

qr: a

[ gaer r ]

g r: u [

h l: u

hd : u

he taught

he made him confess

ld du

[hadd%.u.]

hm u

[ hammuj]

s f :ha

he opened it (m)

Iha l Ia IV]

adv

1m:mu

he opened for him

his limit

he ironed it (m)

Haumou (proper name)

Eha,,namvU]

Esa f fa hi]

zf :fha

to steam, burn incense

he liberated it (f) or her

[ha 1 1v}

0~:1U

to educate, instruct

[ b acxa]

hr: ha

Ezaffafhae]

[ a d du]

he gave him a bath

she pitied him

he wiped it Cf)

his grandfather

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i d: du

a cook

[qaddamJ

ad:b

Sd_: u

until

Etabbax]

[ia d da dV]

he renewed it (m)

Moroccan Arabic

31

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

31

Phonology

7.3 Pronunciation

zffat

hd :ha

hd:dha

fat ha

ft :tha

hr: u

hr:ru

sh :a

sh :hha

tfs:at

mhs~sa

xiz~u

xz :z u

htl:at

tfl:zat

dl :aha

d i : I ha

qs:a

qssha

Drill 14. (C:

fassbb a]

(zaffafatj

haddaha]

fIhaddadhav]

ffattathaJ

jna !a:raru]

ft f aset

fmhaa~

Exilzzu]

Exazzazul

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[ht azza]

fdal Iaeha~J

fda! IaI he]

[qassaJ

[as asa

C:C , C:C: )

alum

she wiped

her limit

he ironed it (f)

he passed her

he broke it (f) into pieces

he made it (m) hot (for food)

he liberated it (in)

health

he caused her to be healthy

it (f) got flat (e. g. tire)

having smoked hashish

carrots

it caused it (m) to be rusty

she protested

she had a walk

he let it (f) down

he put for auction

story

he cut it (f) (with scissors)

8. Diphthongs

Moroccan Arabic has the following diphthongs : aw , ay , l y , 1iw , uw

8.1 Pronunciation Drill 15. (Diphthongs)

rawd

faw n

fayn

repeat!

to help

where?

fay q

awake (in)

y d: i w

they take along

Moroccan Arabic

32

Phonology

9. Interchange of Phonemes

The following phonemes vary according to region for different speakers

of Moroccan Arabic: z - z , s. s

q - g q g-

yC -.iC ,

wC -_uC .

9.1 Pronunciation Drill 16. (Interchange of Phonemes)

z..Z

zuz zuz

two

mzw:i . mzw:ui

married (m)

$S s

srim - s czmwindow

sms.~sms.-ms-sms

qal gal

sun

he said

bqra bgra

cow

qul:i - gul:i 'ul:i

tell me!

yC -i C initially before C or CC or C:

ybra ~ ibra

yktb iktb

needle

.he wrote

wC uC initially

This variation depends on whether the preceding word

ends in a consonant or a vowel. /w/ occurs after a vowel

and /u/ occurs after a consonant.

w alh d u i r i n

twenty one

xmsa wei r i n

twenty five

(here: u - w 'and')

10. General Pronunciation Drills

Following are four pronunciation drills. Students are advised to

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master these drills before beginning the units of this book.

Moroccan Arabic

33

Phonology

~4oroccan Arabic

33

10.1 Pronunciation Drill 17. (General)

fd:it

kayd:iha

Ixudera

eawn:i .

lahha (lah:a -

Ihrira

s:iny:a

I maYari ba

maYr i b i

mia

fayn Ibnat ?

ha huma Ibnat

awd dak s:i

ia , asidi

iwa , bawdu.

in rapid speech)

abadan

safi

iwa [:a yhn:ik

bs:iama as i.d i

I finish

He is taking it along (f).

vegetables

Help me!

He threw it (f).

Moroccan soup

the tray

Moroccans

Moroccan (m)

he went

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Where are the girls?

Here are the girls.

Repeat that thing.

No, sir.

Well, repeat it!

Never!

Finished, all right.

Well, goodbye.

Goodbye, sir.

door

to manage

bank (cFrench)

he passed

apples

three

the price

material

lump (of sugar) , adobe brick

length

road

the road

he did

the house

watermelon

10.2 Pronunciation Drill 18. (General)

bab

db: r-

banka

fat

t: f:ah

t iata

t:aman

tub

tub

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

34

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

d: Ca

34

corn

mn i n

where from?

t m: a

there

hma r

donkey

hmr

red

s: i f

the sword

s: i f

summer

sb:h2

to glorify God

s b:h

to say good morning to

s:aIam

s:ala

peace

prayers

srif

a noble man

s:rif

the noble man

[basir

tms: a

man's name

walk!

zrban

in a hurry

z:rby :a

the carpet

mazal

not yet

zar

he visited

h z:u

carry it (m)!

xiz:u

carrot

z ra

a ar

ari

ari

S:a r

S:r i

he ran

neighbor

my neighbor

he is running

the neighbor

running

Ia

i ta

I:i

no

if.

which

of course, by God

tat :a

madam, lady

nhd

n:har

nud

n :as

rig

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wi :ahi

to shout

day

get up!

people

to return

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

353

Phonology

r:zu'

rail

returning

a man

r :as

the head

darha

he did it (f)

darha

her house

r :a il1

the man

i am I a

pregnant

kaml

eaml

complete

he is doing

al i

high

xa Ii

my paternal uncle

Yal iexpensive

hal1i

my situation

had i

this (f)

qad ijudge

Yadi

he is going

xawi

It (m) is empty.

cl :it i

you (s) raised

xl :iti

hi :iti

you (s) left

you (s) opened

Yl :it i

you (s) boiled

bx:r

ded: u

to steam, burn incense

against him

rah

he went

wk:1

to feed

bq:aI

grocer

wY: I

fh:am

to deepen

coal merchant

f hm

understanding

fIam

coal

fh:mu .

Make him understand.

twe:r -He got stuck.

his father

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b:ah'

Sa I f

Tad

to be accustomed to

internal organs of the body

kba rbig (p)

hak:a

thus

Moroccan Arabic

36

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

36

Rrab

~nt

'gntar

gar:u

'Rrasa

~Yr ib

hi:

qridi 1

qrnad!

other (f)

crow

Open!

corner

cantor

cigarettes

chairs

strange

solution

oil lamp

oil lamps

10.3 Pronunciation Drill 19. (General)

Iwid mrid

bnt kb ira

mra mzyana

d : r: i f r h a n I n a l h r a y

h~md gis ti s:Ilya Ikbira

hada rai I mzyan

was hada ra~i mzyan ?

hmrd tndu dar mzyana

was had s: i dya lk ?

suft u I bart2

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masuftus lbart2

sir xdm

sir t qd i Iaia r:as k t

fayn d:rari ?

d: rar i f lmdrasa

fayn Ibnt ?

ha hiya lIbnt

yal:ah nmsiw nsrbu Ii kas

datay imit.

I a , s u krn as id i , ba ra ka 1 ahu

matmsis tnt5

mamsas Ilmdiasa lyum

*The boy is sick.

a big girl

a nice lady

The boy is happy.

The red bag is empty.

Ahmed sat on the big chair.

How much are the tomatoes?

This is a nice man.

Is this a nice man?

Ahmed has a nice house.

Is this thing here yours?

I saw him yesterday.

I did not see him yesterday.

Go and work!

Go do something for yourself!

Where are the kids?

The kids are at school.

Where is the girl?

Here is the girl.

Let us go and have tea

together.

f ik. No, thank you, sir.

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

37

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

37

d:ariza Irayriby:a Iu'a sahia

hada laxr t :mrin , wsaf 1

Moroccan Arabic is an easy

This is the end language.

of the drill and that is it.

10.4 Pronunciation Drill 20. (General)

lahin wa sahin

'as xbarkum asidi ?

labas lhmdu Iii:ah

lal :a fatma as xbark ?

labas asidi, lI:ah

yzv lf ik I balaka

mnslxir

mnslxir

fayn iasi ?

mnawsi I d:ar

sl:ml i tblmwval in d:ar

b 1:Y'l: ah s l aink

fayn

smntlIi as i d i , was katc r'f

I lam i ea ?

Hello.

How are you, sir?

Fine, thanks.

How are you, Madam Fatma?

Fine, sir, thank you.

(May God bless you)

Good evening.

Good evening. (response)

Where are you going?

I am going home.

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Greet the family for me.

I will.

Please, do you know where

the University is?

There it is (the University).

It is that big building.

Please, do you know of a

nearby drugstore?

No , there is not one here.

You have to go to the city.

How are you, Mr . Ahmed?

Yes, thanks.

Please, how can I get to

Meknes (from here) ?

[ iam i ca t m: a q ud : ark

dik limiuara Ikbira

srnl~i asi di , was katerf si

farinasyan qr ib ?

la asidi , iakayns fhad l huma.

xs :k tth bt I:mad ina

si hind nta bixir ?

ntan asidi bixir I Isndu Ii I:ah.

mnn:a ?

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

38

Phonology

Moroccan Arabic

38

tK It mehad s:ari"ht t:a t wsl

'ah in wa sahiln"

'shin wa sahin asidi

s:aIarnu 'a i kum"

wacaI ikum 1s:alain

ga xbarkwn

1labas baraka l:ahu f ik asidi"

was t byi tmi mtznaya I d: a daba ?

ya 1: ah asidi , xI : ina mnn had

s:da'

Go up this avenue until you

reach the railway station

and take the train.

Hello.

Response to "Hello"T. (to a

man)

Hello, Hi.

Hi. (Response)

How are you?

Fine, thanks, sir.

Would you like to go home

with me now?

Yes, I will go with you.

All right, let us go and

forget about this headache.

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*** *** ***

Phonology

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PART TWO

BASIC UNITS

UNITS 1 - 10

40

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 1

40

Unit 2~

UNIT CUE

I.1 Text

bit Cm)

ibit

bit kbir

ibit kbir

kbir (in)

room

the room

a big room

1b roomn is big.

big

a bay

the boy

a sick bay

The boy is sick."

sick

wid Cma)

iwid

uid =id

iwid 'id

Sw1dJ

[Leiwed]

='id Cm)

bnt Cf)

That

bnt kbira

lbnt kbira

(baitj)

a girl

the girl

a big girl

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The girl is big."

kbira (fT)bi

big

Moroccan Arabic

41

unit 3

Moroccan ~abic

41

Unit 1

mra (f)

1mra

mra mrida

1mra ida

a woman

the woman

a sick woman

The woman is sick.

Uri a (f)

sick

** *

1.2 Gramatical Notes

1. Nouns are either masculine (m) or feminine (f) in gender.

2. The definite article in Moroccan Arabic ( M.A.) is /#1-/

prefixed to nouns and adjectives.

3. A modifier agrees with the noun it modifies in gender.

;.. The equational sentence here has the formla:

Noun (definite) + Adjective (indefinite)

ibit kbir .

lbnt kbira .

'The room is big.' (m + m)

'The girl is big.' (f + f)

Notice the agreement in gender:

(M + m) or (f + f)

5. N oun (indefinite) + Adjective (indefinite) is a phrase:

bit kbir

'a big room'

' a big girl'

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bint kbira

Moroccan Arabic

42

Unit 3.

Moroccan Arabic

42

Unit 2.

1.3 Vocabulary

(1.) Noun (mn) indexfinite

bab

kUin:as

ktab

(2) Noun (f ) indefinite

haza

aaaj

se

Noun (mn) definite

ibab

lku2n: as

2.ktab

Noun (f~) definite.

1 aa

lm gana

door

notebook

book

thing

watch

sack

(3 ) 1difier (m)

kbir

~id

mlua

moifer

kbira

syira

ri da

=nYana

mhla

sick

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big

nice , good

open

* * *

1.4 Grammatical Notes

1. Notice that the feminine nouns and modifiers listed above end

in /-a#/..

* * *

Moroccan Arabic

43

Unit I

1 .5 Drill I

Form sentences using the following nouns and adjectives:

magana -mzana, bit - kbir z s - syira , bab - hil

ra - mida , wid -syir , bnt - kbira , ktab - mzyan

kun : as kbfir

I .6 Vocabulary

Noun indeffinite

~'azl (mn)

nas (mn)

d.: i (mn) (drrzJ

zib (n).

sbitar (mn)

zrby :a (f) [zarboyy ]

zit (f )

t:wira (f) [taswirl]

Noun definite

s:'2i (%sflz3] basement

s :rem Em] nwindow

n:as

people

d:r:i faddrrz] boy

z:ib

pocket

l:ilnit

s :bitar

hospital

t:bla

table

z :rby3 a[ zzerb~]ng

z:it

oil

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t: s~iraa a picture

Moroccan Arabic

44

tit 1

1.7 Grammatical Note

If~ a noun begins with one of the following consonants, / r r n

1 31 s s

z z t t d d/,then the def'inite article /l-/

assimilates to this consonant, i. e. it becomes like it,9 e g.

sfli ,'

r= ~l,

1-sfli -p s :fli Eess2? J

'the basement'

'the man

f'the boy t

* * *

1.8

Vocabulary

Modifier (Adjective ) is)

le.-an Ca7

nqi

msdud tmasdudJ

I~dif ier

frharza

'7: :Sfl

agra

msduda

~s: Xa

(Adjective ) (fs )

f[msdudli]

frs3 eJ

ha.p

tired

clean

closed

dirty

1.19 Drill

Form sentences using the following nowms and their given

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modifiers.

45

Moroccan Arabic

U nit 2

45

Unit I

(1 ) foun (is)

bab

bit

Tid

ktab

r=3.

dr: i

sbiar

uld

sfli

Moifer (ms

mhul

kbir

msdud

nqi

?ran

kbir

The door is open.

The room is small.

The notebook is dirty.

The boy is big.

The window is closed.

The book is good.

Thema is sick.

The kid is tired.

The hospital is clean.

The boy is bappy.

The basement is big.

* * *

(2) }Noun (is)

dar

bat

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Z'by: a

a rasa [mdras ]

tswira

but

is

ksbira

msdbuda

fr~aa

The house i s open.

The tug is small.

The sack is dirty.

The girl is big.

The school is closed.

The picture is mic e.

The Woa is sick.

The chair is clewn.

The girl is happy.

**

Moroccan Arabic

46

Unit 1

Moroccan Arabic

46

IJ.O Drill 3

a. Translate the foallowing s antences .

b. Fora similar sentences.

Ibab th2u1

lbit si

S:Tm usdud

?:S.1 grid

s; bitar nqi.

Iwid frhmi

s:;ili kbir

d: a miula

Z :rby: a srza

lbnt kbira

1mdrasa -msduda

1='a mrida

B:ly7a nqy~a

lbnt frb.aa

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Z: it g:

Unit 1

Moroccan Arabic

47

Unit 2

MorocCan Arabic

47

Unit 2

UNIT TWO

11.1 Review-Drill 1

Was r :azl frhan

y:i , r: azl fan

I s the manhappy?

Yes, the man is happy.

interrogative particle of

the "dot Will" type

was

7: ih

N o t i c e /w a i / i s f o l l o w e d b y a d e f inF o i i a u s i n n n w r

your sentences.

yes

Lite noun hare.

using the following, and translate

1.

3.

5.

7.

9.

U.

13.

15.

17.

19.

21.

23.

25.

27.

mass mblu.a

- mzya

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sbita -nqi

slya - nqy a

znsa - kbira

'iya - rri'a

bit-

wid - kbir

ktab -

ink a- rri'Ta

tyw.'a - soya

3~sa - msduda

2.

4 0.

6.

8.

10.

12.

16.

18.

20.

22.

4.

26.

28.

dr: i -t:

bab - m4lu1

afli no kbir

kun s - kbir

bnt - mzyaa

ad- m ula

tqwia - kbir'a

- msdud

'by sa - mayaa

zit - nqysa

wid -fran

Ioroccan Arabic

48

Unit 2

Moroccan Arabic

29. zit - E

48

30. ktab -mzyan

11.2 Word Study Lists

(1)} Nouns

Singul~ar(s)

bib (in)

bit (mn)

inagana .(Ii

vid Cm)

bnit Cf)

ba a (f)

rail (fa)

tbla (f )

tsirra (f)

ktab (Cm)

r1 ()

dr" i (m).

Zib (an)

Plural (p )

.g~at (f)

m gi CM)

wlad

bnat

in'sesz

tbaljl

tsar~

ktab

Ilyat

zabi

zbiy sat

g7alat

drari

root

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door

f oteb ooak

Vat Ch

boy

girl

sack

taig (p.alac=

clothes)

window

table

house

picture

book

chair

carpet, rcag

lady

kid (boy)

pocket

unit 2

Moroccan Arabic

49

Unit 2

l4oroccan Arabic

49

Unit 2

sbi tar (mn)

Tmd rasa (f)

3, rsi m)

=ibza .(f)

sbab (in)

iy:a (f)

sfli (in)

zit (f )

xiibz (at)

?:bat (mn)

Las (in)

Plural . (p )

sbitarat

a.dari s

2.yali

xiibzat

nas (in)

ho spital

school

chair

nigb t

a loaf of bread .

People

mornin g

even in

in seinet

oil

bread

Rabat

Fez

(2) )bdifiers (Adjectives and/or participles)

insdud

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-l"ul

kbfr

ziqi

fs

iblula

msduda

kbira

ins:aa

yain

insdudin

On&

kbr

fly"

m lulat

insdudat

'rs3xt

arat

ziqy:at

good, nice

oper

closed, locked

big

dirty

littl, -l

clew

Moroccan Arabic

so

Unit 2

ms

ifsMPf

=rid

=rids

ma: s

a na

-fbn frhana

r ai

urad

mradat

'7y: enin ry aat

"aaya

frh~in

ca1yin

sick, ill

tired

frbziat happy

ealyat

hii

2. * Nouns are singular (s) or plural (p) in number. N otice that

plurals are not }redictable in the case of nwuns (see 11 .2

above, Also see P lurals. B roken Plural and Sound Plurals

in the "Glossary of Tecbnical T erms") .

2. The feminine singular of a modifier ends in /-a#/.

3. The masculine plural (up) of a modifier is achieved by adding

/-in#/ to its (us) form, =nless the (ms) has the form CC iC,

in Which case, the plural is CC aC (C = Consonant) , e. g.

ms

uhilmbulin

kbir

id

open

ibar

big

u'a4il

4. Thie (fp) of a modifier is achieved by adding /-t$/ to its

(fs) form except in the case of/aajectives of the CCiC type

which form their (fp) by adding /-.at#/ to (uip), e. g.

aza

kbir

kbira

zann

iar

mynt

good, nice

kbarat

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uymzy

big

4oroccan Arabic

51

U nit 2

Note the change of final /-i#/ of (ms) modifier to f/-y-/ and /-ys-/

in the following examples:

nqi

n sa

nqy sin nqy: at

clear

11.14 Drill 2

Form sentences .

1. dx ari - f'rY ani n

2. bnat - frb aat

3j. but i- 4ba.i

5. ians - iw xin

6. s :am m indidin

7. toa

- inzyanin

8. Iasai

9. ~'yalat - mriat

10. ktub myanin

11. Ibali -nqy: in

12. biban - ulin

13. y - f:xin

1I. aa - T

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* * fi

Moroccan Arabi c

52

Unit 2

Moroccan Arabic

52

Unit 2

11.5 Text

iwid lkbir fan

lbnt lkbfra friaa

Iwlad lkbar fxhaia

lbnat lkbarat frhanat

[ d a2 kbir Parham ] The big boy is happy.

C aibant Glkbirmfr2~

The big girl is happy.

r aL~a-d lkaear i~rbzin ] The big boys are happy.

[albt Gabarat f rna3 The big girls are happy.

* * *

11.6 Irriaa3

Was 2.wid lkbir frb~an?

y :ih , Iwid. lkbir frran

Is the big boy happy?

Yes, the big boy is happy.

Form siola~r questions and answers using the following. Translate

your sentences.

1.

2.

3.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

bnt

kbira -

ilya - m .

t a lys. -

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tbali -

bit - m lul -

wiad - o a

qbi az'at -

drari - $t;

at

-$

t aw

- ,a'-

frbana

nqy:a

maduda

myanin

may: flin

min

- yauin

Swyszin

myanin

ai * r

53

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 2

53

Unit 2

11.7 Text

1 } r:aZ3. fd:a

d: r: i fimdrasa

..

1. sa flbit

dab s1 I:bJa

Eai fddar ]

~ dd"?=i folmd&rasa]

L~xn9k- ?lbit]

The man is in the house.

The boy is at school.

The sack is in the room.

The book is on the table.

f.-A f

13.m 'a

in

on

(preposition)

(preposition)

***

11.8 Text

ha r: al

ha lktabh.

ha a

ha nta .

ha nti .

halma .

ha atty..

ha

Here is the man.

Here are the books.

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Here I am.

Here you (ins) are.

Here you (es) are.

Here we are.

Here you (p) are.

here is, here are (presentational

particle)

***

Moroccan Arabic

54

Unit 2

MO'OcC~ ArS.bic

34

II. 9" Drill 1L

;:azl f4:a

The man is in the house.

The book is on the table.

F orm similar sentences.

1.

2.

3.

1..

5.

6.

7-

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

l3..

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

Jb a bit

dr;i m asa

=sxa bit

taw - mm'asa

ma - gbiaa

ilys. - bit

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'abi - 4a

"yalat -bit

=ai- ]krsi

:aft f as

wld - bit

ktab - kursi

Vaa- lya

tyalat -sf11

wid -;ba

21.

22.

23.

2L~.

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

33.

3[4.

35.

36.

37.

38.

39.

4.

nas - sfli

Ibl -md~asa

izzia -kui si

~wayz - a

tw- bit

Unit 2

Moroccan Arabic

55

Unit2

1~oroccan Arabic

55

11.10 Text

'ayn ?

fayn 1wld ?

ha huwa iwid

ha

huim

fa~n lhIt ?

ha hiya lbnt

Where?

Whiere is the boy?

Here is the boy.

here is

he, it (in)

Where is the girl?

Here is the girl.

hiya

she,, it (r)

fayn d:rari ?

ha bum d:razi

Where are the kids?

Here are the kids.

bumn

the7 -(m )

fags ihuat ?

b na bntfa n lktab ?

lktb fumq B:1ya .

Where are the girls?

Here are the girls.

Where is the book?

The book is on the chair.

faq

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on

Unit 2

56

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 2

fayn biya s; lya ?

tht rt ht]J

i'ayn t ; ba ?

t; bla hda ibab

hda

fayn r: a 1

r: all fd; ar

fay

ba?

Z:rby: a Eir t:bla

I1mwa qud:albb

qud;ai

Where is the chair?

The chair is under the table,

under

Where is the table?

The table is near the door.

near

Where is the man?

The man is in the house.

in

Where is the carpet?

The carpet is behind the table.

behind

Where is the sack?

The sack is in front of the door.

in front of

***

wid mf- m'a

fayn iwid?

ha huwa iwid.0

1w2.d f l z4'asa .

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Form similar sentences (one questienzand two answers) using:

Moroccan Arabic

57

Unit 2

Morocan rabi

57

1.

2.

3.

4..

5.

6.

7.

8.

;b: a -tt _-rba

bnt -

- f- ;bi~a

- ea

kurs i

azl - qud~am -c$a;

kurs i - -j~

a- Ida- bab

gasa4w fuq a- s1ya

vw

11.12 G atica1 Note.

The independent pronouns are:

ana

nta

you (ms)

nti

h uwa

hiya

you (fs)

he

she

bna

ntumA

hm

we

you (MP)

they

:'c x *

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11 .13 Drill 6

fayn iwid lkbir ?

iwid lkbir fli ~s.

Form similar sentences using the folli

2. ='sa - kbira - e1i= bra

3. ktnrsi - : - quids a- izm

4i. Eby: a - mzyana - lda -bob

5. s1ya - kbira - mt - bab

Whre is the big boy?

The big boy is at school.

ring.

nitw

Moroccan Arabic

58

U nit 3

Moroccan A~sbic

58

Unit 3

UNIT THREE

111.1 Reiew -Dzilll

:C-ail fy:as wd:r:i flm4 'asa

The mmn is in the house and

the boy is at school.

VIdwu

and

Form similar sentences sng

1.1

2.

3.

1.

6.

7.

'yalat- f - bit - bnat- f - sf21

Wi3d- qud: am -c~a -but - f - m~asa

Vaasa - t~t - V a

anmagma - Iasi

kum: as - l - lya - ktab -t~t -lba

As~a - Oda - bab - ;:;by: a -bda - iim

~ial - f- sf21 - "yalat - f- bit

',, ;a -faq - rbla - ktab -ti~t - kursi

111.2 Review - Drill 2

(a) ibit mbluil - (b) ibyutat lin

Give the plurals of the following words, then forma sentences using

your plus as in sentence (b) above. Transl.ate.

1. bab a s=dud

2. lena as -

3. tbl - kbira

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40. wld -vr

Moroccan Arabic

59

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

59

5.,

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

bnt - i da

m - amzyana

azI .. y:5.as

,gana -mzyrama

kcz'si nq~i

xuxbza kbira

11.

12.

13.

24.

1-5.

16.

zit - Z10J:a

twi 'a - zyaa

Zby :a " - .T

zib -kbir

- !nqi

kta~b -kbir'

7C .J A

111.3 Text

hada

Nadi

hadu

Nadu

'a mzya is

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rza1 nyanin .

'yalat meaat

This is a nice

This is a nice

These are nice

These are nice

man.

woman.

men.

women.

hadak a 1 y

badik a myana

hadwk ria1 mz~yin

haduk 'yalat myanat

vas had r: a 1 zyaz ?

was had 1 a zyena ?

was had r:iaa myain ?

vas bad 1 '7alat mZyriat ?

va dak rlam = ym?

vas duk r~a1wann

That is a nice man.

That is a nice woman.

Those are nice men.

Those are nice women.

Is this man nice?

Is this woman nice?

Are these men nice?

Are these women nice ?

Is that man nice?

Is that woman nice?

Are those men nice.

Are those women nice?

x x

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

60

Unit 3

111.4 Grammatical Notes

1. The question introducer particle /was/ forms a question of the

'D)o', 'Does', 'Did', 'Is', 'Are', 'Were' type.

2. The demonstratives 'this, this one, these, these ones' :

hada (ms )

hadi (fs )

hadu (mp, fp)

must be followed by an indefinite noun.

3. The demonstrative 'this, this one, these, these ones' :

had (invariable)

must be followed by a definite noun.

4. The demonstratives 'that, that one, those, those ones't:

hadak .(ms)

hadik (fs)

haduk (up, fp)

must be followed by an indefinite noun.

5. The demonstrative 'that, that one, those, those ones':

dak (ms )

dik (fs)

duk (up,fp)

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must be followed by a definite noun.

Moroccan Arabic

61

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

61

Unit 3

6 . Compare the following two sets:

and

a) hada rail mzyan .

This is a nice manl.

b) had r:ail. mzyan .

This man is nice,

c) hadak rail mzyan.

That is a nice man.

d) dak r :a~2. mzyan . That man is nice.

and

111.5 Text

was had n all mzyan

la,

huwa mali ryen

ia ,

sazyn

y7ih

maior ma... s

Is this man nice ?

Yes, he is a nice man.

No, he is not nice.

N o, he is not nice.w

yes

no

negative morpheme

I1I.6b Drill 3-

vas had ibit kbi?

y s ih , bad .bit lbir

la , bad ibit n si kbfr( ikbins)

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Forsmila sentences (one question and two answers) using the

Moroccan Arabic

62

Unit 3

following. Note /hnad/ is invariable and is followed by a definite

noun.

1. bnt - kbira

2. tea mzyana

3. "yalat - m 'i cat

5.9 bya -nqy: a

11 .7?Drill t4.

Substitute using the nouns below mekinig the necessary changes in the

demonstrative and the modifier.

(a) hada 'a'il yan

m~a ,y3alat , taaw ,man , zixasi , Eby: a , mguoat

(b) badak azL1 myan

Substitute same as in (a) above.

111.8 Text

ktsb y~za good book

ktabi yan

ktabk mza

ktabu mza

your (fis, fs) book is good

his" book is good

her book is good

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ktabha mzyan

book is good

Moroccan Arabic

63

Unit 3

MoToccan Arabic

63

ktabna izys

ktabkum mzyan

ktabbhum =ran

11. 9 Gr..atica.1Nate

Notice the pronominal cu~fffixed

-k

-u

-na

-.kum

-ph

our book is good

your (nom, fp) book is good

their (ap, fp) book is good

set for possession (my, your, etc.):

MY

your (us, fs)

his

her

our

your (MP, fp)

their (MP, fp)

**

*w

111.10 Text

gand bud dar usyaa

tudi dar mzymia

vndk a yaa

rndu dar =yans.

enidha ders yaa

'ndkzm a

yana .

endhmdar zyana

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Abmed has a nice house.

I have a nice house.

You (mns, fs) have a nice house .

He has a nice house.

She has a nice house.

We have a nice house.

You (mp, fp) have a nice house .

They have a nice house.

particle of possession

(French ' chez' , English in one' s

possession; at one's place')

end

***

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

64

Unit 3

111.2.1 Drill 5

hada ktabi whadak ktabk

Fort similar sentences using the following. Make necessary changes

in the gender and number of' the demonstrative.

1. his house

your (s) house

5. your (s) rooms- their room

2. my books- their books

6. my girl - your (pa) girls

3. your (s) book- my books

1.. her boy - our boy

111. 12 Drill 6

,bnd~i ktab izyan

Form similar sentences using:

l. they ;by: a - kbira

2. we - t~aw - izyanin

3. I _-4a.-mz=yana

4.. you (s) 40zxsa -kbira

111.133 D rill 7

was tndk Ta ;myeaa?

y: ih s

F arm similar questions and answers

1. tndu but usyana.

2. tndkum ktiab -yanin

3. "'mdhum Ja' kbira .

14.. tndba 'by:a ngy:a..

5. "mdi znia kbira .

5. he - lsya - a :x

6. she -ma.gaa

mzyana

7 . you (p1) - b2,a- kbira

nd~i a'zya

using the following.

6. "ndk kursi .r;.

7. endu m.gana mmyana .

8. "ndna bnat mzyanat

9. tndkmw2.ad ?baa

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10. "mdi amzyaa

7. your (p1) books- his book

Moroccan Arabic

63

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

65

111.14 Text

was rndk si magana yana ?

yt=ih "ndi mea myanin bz :af

had Imagarna hadi,

tamnh-a xin dxbhms

uwiadA -tamha xmsa wsb' in d'hm .

bz:af bad ~

t: afl buwa hada

iwa , ,- yhn; ik asidi.

bs~l aa

Do you have any good matches?

Yes, I have very good watches.

How much ?

This watch here

costs 5O dirhams,

and this one costs 75 d irhams.

That is very expensive (too much).

Well, that is the price.

Well, goodbye (then ), Mister.

Goodbye.

ii

bz: af

Shal

tami

mawsbsin

d'bm /d'ahm

iwa

3a

e~g. a I~:d

sid~i

asidi

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a, some, any (followed by indefinite -

noun or adjective)

much, many, very

how much? how many?

price

fifty

seventy-five

the thing, mtter

Well , then

goodbye

vocative particle

oh Mohamed! (calling him) ""

(hey you)

my master (Mister)

mister (calling or addressing

someone)

Goodbye.

bslina.

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

66

twit 3

Moroccan Arabic

66

Unit 3

111.1 5 Text

sa dir:yal lkilu

aan: a wa~d lkilu

c ag: P. kilo

ar 1 a zap~ kilo. .

a1'1:a tizta kilnu.

ara1 :a rbca kilu

2Za1: a msa k.1u

sat ibtata ?

Sa'en:a st:a kilu

ara:a sbta kilo

ai a tmtya kiln

arm: a tsra kilo

ara: a tsra kilou

ara

S: a(C<aa + 2a)

m.tisa

ryal

btata a batsaa

How much are the tomatoes?

Ten rials a kilo.

Give me one kilo.

Give me two kilos.

Give me two kilos .

Give me three kilos.

Give me four kilos.

Give me five kilos.

How much are the potatoes?

1Nine rials a kilo.

Give me six kilos.

Give me seven kilos .

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Give me eight kilos.

Give me nine kilos.

Give me ten kilos.

give?: hand over! pass ! (limited to

ierative ara (ms), an (s), armw(a) )

give me, give us

tomatoes

Moroccan coin equivalent to one

U.S. Perml

Potatoes

**

Moroccan Arabic

67

Unit 3

111 .16 Grammatical Notes

1. The Cardinal Numerals 1 - 10.

(kly the numeral 'one has a f'eminine form. The rest are

invariable.

wahd (mn) / whda (f)

one

Jui O ZUEtwo

tiata

three

rbca Eerbca]

~a

ou

Ezxms ]five

st: a

six

sbva (s%mlJ ]seven

tsea

ts'ud

its

]ten

nine

2. Notice the structure of a Construct phrase with the numerals

1 -10.

a) Numeral 'one'

wand luld

wahd abut

one boy

one girl

Notice that /wahd/ (in) is used with both 'boy' and 'girl'.

Compare:

one boy

but whda

one girl

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grid vahd

Moroccan Arabic

68

.t 3

Here the numeral is in the slot of what we termed previously

"modifier". It is actually used as an adjective. Also note

that if there is a modifier such as /strir/ 'small', we still

get the gender differentiation:

wand stir

whda s'rira

one (in) szll , a sm3ll (m) one

one (f~) szi ll, a amli (f) one

Noate tbat the numeral" one" is followed by a definite singular

noun or by an indefinite singular adjective.

van Id

one boy

vahd3yirone (mn) sia 3l, a small one

3. The

eal "two" has the form Zaiz iaz, and can be followed by

an indefinite plural noun,

iz wlad

two boys

or by a definite plural noun preceded by the particle /d/ ' of ':

zu dlwlad

two boys

Notice the following structure :

wahd uu

a couple

4. Nuerals 3 - 10 are followed b a plural definitennpcdd

by /d/ 'of'. Lcainples :

tiarta diwlad

tiata dlbenat

tbhree boys

tree girls

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***

Moroccan Arabic

69

Unit 3

111.17 Word Study List (on tape)

The words in the following list are of great use in everyday speech

and therefore are compiled here in this unit rather than scattered

throughout the units of this book. The list is not intended to be

memorized all at one time, but it should be practiced and referred to

at various intervals. Notice that in listing fruits, vegetables,

grains and other shopping items, the noun of unit (n.u. - see the

"Glossary of Technical Terms") is listed first, followed by the

plural. Then the collective noun (coll. - see the "Glossary of

Technical Terms) in parentheses. This convention is followed only

when more than one form occurs. The gender of the noun of unit is

predictable and, therefore, is not listed here. However, it is shoei

in the lexicon at the end of the book. In general, nouns of unit

ending in -a# are feminine like other nouns. hus, fula / -t (ful)

'fava beans' means that fula is (f); and gaz 'kerosene' is (m).

However,/zit/f'oil' is marked for (f) because its gender is not

predictable.

suq (m) / swaq

stir

fula / -t (ful)

eds

tyn:-.ea (pmug)

suk:az

atay

nvnat

market, marketplace

corn, maize

wheat

barley

fava bean

lentils

chick pea

sugar

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flour

tea (never takes the definite

article)

mint

Moroccan Arabic

70

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

70

qhwa

qhwa Tbr a

qhwa hbub

hb; a / hbub

hb :

gaz

bitrul

gar~u

algid

adra

xya

g~usa /-t

(fg-us)

xiZ;uya / .t (Xiz:u)

l5ta (lft)

matisa (s. and coil.) mai

btata

baaa

bsla / -t (bsl)

tumor(turn)

lubya

zlb aa

krurnb k

sifrual

fifla (f) / -at

fifla zxa (f)

coffee ( drink)

coffee (powder)

coffee (bean's)

grain

kerosene

kerosene

cigarette

met cbes

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vegetab1s

cucumber

cucumber

carrct

turnip

tomtc (never takes the definite

article)

potatoes

mnica

garlic

green beer's

peas

cabbage

squash

Cauliflower

red pepper

green pepper

olive

Unit 3

71

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

71

Un MtO3

as:a (x5: )

r 1a (fil )

kraf s

my dnus

aqsbur

quqa / -t (qu)

drizala (dnial) bdx ala (bdnal )

4 sI ihura (f )

=.bza / -t (zxibz)

xabz dd.- r

Xabz ds:cir

=abz dlgq

lbt zaii

3iwa / -t w-hlwi

ia1lu (s. ad p.)

d: Sa I -t

kb'b yzal

okra

lettuce

radish

celery

parsley

corriander

anti choke

e ggpan t

msbrcom

honey

molasses

loaf of bread

cormr bread

barley bread

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wheat bread

French bread

pastry

sweets

spital-shaped, filled pastry

a mwet cookie, in the shape of a

gazelle horn, filled with dates,

almonds, and honey

variety of pancake

i'broccan pancake

byrira / byrir

0rifer / ~ayf

Maroccan Arabic

72

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

72

sb:aky:a / -t (sb;aky~a)

'Yry:ba / -t (Y;ayb)

kba/-t (kh)

briwa / -t

(briwat)

g iwsa / -t (griws )

fakiya /-t

fa.ki

t%aa / -t (tif:ahi)

m masa / -t (inmamas)

banana / -t (banan)

brquqa / -t

(brquq)

li'a / -t (3.um)

:1tsina / -t (ltsin )

mandarina / -t (man darin )

bhamia / -t (haind)

XI2a / -t

(~)

ra a / -t (rman)

tnba / -t (tub)

zbiba

(zbib)

butida (s. and c ol. )

dl: aba / -t (d1.: ah)

bt~ixa / -t

(bt:ix)

tnsa / tan

tuta / tut

b: imluk

z'bula / (ztbul )

Moroccan cake made with honey

a Moroccan tea cake

ring-shaped pastry filled. With nutis

a pastry made with almonds and

dipped in honey

small round cr mchy cookie

apple

apricot

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fruit (also dried fruit)

banana

plum

orange

orange

tangerine

lemon

peach

pomep'anate

ppe

raisin

pear

watermelon

melon (not including 'watermelon )

date.

mlberry

strawberry

cherry

fig

pric~y pear, Indian fig

Unit 3

73

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 3

73

Unit 3

bh ib

lbn

Zbn

Zbn d:m: az

frima z umi

zbda

zit (f

zit lo'ud

mik

buttermilk

:riz

sabura

sabimn dr: iha

sabun d~bm.:am

sabun d ya2. ltsil

sabun dt : sbin

ilha

lb;a-;

bza

kamin

ma'em m) ft z~va /mai

bida

(bid)

'Ibm

bgri lOW :b dlbgi

y1rii

lhm dl'rlmi

cheese

goat cheese

imported cheese

butter

oil

olive oil

any vegetable oil (other then_ olive

rice

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Oil)

maron i

spa ie tti, noodles, vermicelli

soap

toilet soap

toilet soap

washing soap

washing soap

salt

black pepper

cumin

restaurant

egg.

meat

beef

ntton , lamb

Moroccan Arabic

74

Unit 3

l4oroccan Arabic

74

24M mthun

'w az miim:r

d;iaz, z1i

h-~ta/ -t (hut)

taz ii

ksksux

sksu

surba

~lad :

qtban

gban

kimf itur

msur

limes mrsur

ma

ma bard

ftur

fda

kas (m) / kisari

tasa (f) /-t

zlafa (f~) / zlayf

?tar (in)/

at

mr lqa (f } / -t

me alq

ground meat

chicken

roasted chicken

fried chicken

fish

s tew dish

couscous

couscous

S owp

salad

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Moroccan soup

shish kebab (pieces of meat)

-shish kebab ( gown d meat)

jam

juice

orange juice

water

cold water

breakfast

lunch

supper

glass

cap , smel metal bowl

bowl

plate , platter, dish

spoon

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

75

Unit

Moroccan Arabic

75

Unit 3

tbsil (m) /tbasl

lfrsit.a (f) / -t al fast

=s (m)/ ras

zif (in) / zyuf' zyzira

mdil (mn) / a adi

bir: a

wiski

crab

crab byd

srab bin'

crab ruzi

liinntad

lagas

tai

plate, dish

table fork

napkin, hsrndkerchi ef!, scarf'

napkin

coca cola

beer

whiskey

wine..

white wine

red wine

rose wine

lemonade

ice cream

ice

***

111.18 Drill 8

S'ra dr.-Y a2 lklu.

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How much are the tomatoes?

Ten ryals a kilo.

Substitnte using: 3, 7, 5, 8, 2, 9, 6, 4.

'w' 7

Moroccan Arabic

76

Unit 3

1 11.19 Drill 9

a;'an: a tiata kilu dl.:ubya . G ive us three kilos of~ green

beans.

Substitute f~or the numeral /talata/ and the word /lubya/ Ibeanst :

2, L., 6, 8, 9, 5, 10, 7.

burwi da

111I. 20 Drill 10

s a1 dlktub "nd) ?

tudi sadlktub .

How many books do you have?

I have ten books.

F orm similar sentences using:

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3, 5, 2, 6, 10, 9, 7, 8, 4j.

Moroccan Arabic

77

unit 14

Moroccan Aabic

77

UNIT FOUR

IV.2. Review- Drill 1

hada wid =yam~

Substitute:

hiadi

hadu

hadak

hladi k

haduak

cn, magana

ktub ,t~a

d': i , a1

Iba, bat

k~asa , 'ryalat

kbfra,

~yani as r":in

=rid , za

ia , r'y aa

kba; , mzyaast

IV. 2 Review - Drill 2

s1at bad 2ktab

smsa 4d'abm

Substitute using:

10, 3, 6, 9, 2, 5, 7, 8, 4 .

IV. 3 Review - Drill 3

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'nd~i bz :of ds~uka

Unit 4.

Moroccan Arabic

78

Unit j

Substitute using:

atay ,n ena&", zbz , qhwa , abun , g:

zlbana , xiz:u , bta a.

**

IV. 4 Reviaw - Drill 4L

-s~almsuas

Aiwa ,bz:af had s~

=teya d;:yal asidi

-iwa , st:a dT:yal

Form similar dialogues asking about the price of:

luy ,t :a4

mja

rlXi u

im *, *aa, la

IV.5 Text

a sink asidi2

a sik ala: a

a sawi?

a ma ?

S=1 sfr

smizaa

sh ia.

What is your name, sir?

What is your name, madam?

What is his name ?

What is her name?

I+ name is Hoda (f).

His name i sJ afar (m).

My name is Salva (t).

my name is Zobra (f).

!y name is Yna (f).

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Her name is Daila(f) .

, wqid , ms i sa , lubya

Moiocc= Arabic

79

Unit 4

Moroccan Arabic

79

Unit 14.

si dawd

sumi zab:

seta nu"a .

smi id.

His name i s David (in).

His name is Jaber (in) .

Her name is Nora (f).

My name is Abmad (in)

interrogative particle

sin in) / 'asm'" (p)

name

smiya (f) / smiyat (p)

name

'ism (in) I amiyat (P)

lal:a (f) / lal~y:at (p)

name

madam

Notes From now on plurals of nouns will be listed following their

!!l~glar forms without (p), e. g. sin (in) / 'auma' 'name'.* If the

plural is- a sound plural, i .e . ach~ieved by a suffix, -t# or, -at# or

-'in#, e . g. sya f) 'name' , smiya~t 'name s' will appear as

sia (f) / -t 'name' . Broken plurals will be listed following

their singilar forms, e. g. suq (in) / swag 'mrket' .

IV. 6 Text

fin yradi ?

fin radya ?

fin 'ra din ?

fin *radyat ?

'radi llmdrasa .

'radya 3ld:ar.

'radi ls~uq

fadya ls: uq.

'radyin lixizama

yradyinllqha.

ana 'radi lmrsa .

where

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Where

Where

Where

are you (ms) going ?

are you (fs) going?

are you (up) going?

are you (f P) going?

I (m) am going to school.

I (f) am going borne.

He is going to the market.

She is going to the market.

We are going to the library.

Thiey are going to the coffee shop.

I (m) am going to school.

Moroccan Arabic

Unit14.

80

Moroccan Arabic

80

=na rYa d:a '

nta yadi 1ls~uq

nti 'radya l1xiz a .

huwa 'Yadi ilbusta.

biya yadya 2Ibanka.

hus. radyin liqhwa .

ntu a radyin is imime

I (f~) am going home .

You (ins) are going to the market.

You (fs) are going to the library.

He is going to the post office.

She is going to the bank.

We are going to the coffee shop.

You (mp) are going to the movie .

ntum 'radyat is:bitar

yu ydin siagar "

hum Tadyat 11im 'am .

fin fayn

'radi (in)

5U4(i)/swaq

xizana (f') / -t

ibusta

ibaxid

banka / -t

qhwa (f) / q ai

sitim / -t

laga (Cf) / -at

I~tam (ac) / maaim inai

You (fp) are

They (mn) are

station.

going

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going

to the hospital.

to the train

to the restaurant.

They (f) are going t

where?

going (participle)

market

library

post office

bank

coffee shop

cinema, movie house

train station

restaurant

* * *

IV.7 Text

fin maa ?

Where are you (ins) going ?

Where are you (fs) going?

Moroccan Arabic

81

Unit 14.

MOOCCSfl Arabic

81

Unit h

fin masyin ?

fin msyat ?

maxi llma asa

masya l4:2

masi ls:uq

masya ls:uq

misyin llxizana

miyin flqhwa .

Iv. 8 Drill 5

asmk asidi ?

asmk alalla ?

Whero are they goi.ng?

Where are they (fp) going?

I (mn) am going to school.

I (f) am going home.

H e is going to the market.

She i s going to the market .

Wes are going to the library .

They (m) are going to the coffee

shop .

What is your name,. Sir?

What is your name, Madam?

(female): smi visa , aha ,

=a7: , yama

x x*

IV. 9 Drill 6

fin Y adi Cia i) ?

yadi 13: ar

Where are you going

I am going home.

*Fom similar questions and answers using the followings

1. radyi n lm-asa

2. masya

mba

3. yadyat -s soq

9. masyat - $

10. * adyat lags

11. ms i - mvam

12.v maiya - m asa

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1.. m'i - s; in ima

5,v yadya -Ixizana

13. msi :inim

6. tadi - 1buca

l14. aya - :bit

7. myin -s:suq

15. nm3,i - ibi t

8. yadyin - qhwa

17.v yadyin - buca

16. 'radyin lage..

Moroccan Arabic-

Unit 1

Morooca~ ATabic

Unit 14~

IV.1O Text

1w t

the time (telling time )

lY: a~

the days (days of' the week)

s~hurthe months (months of' the year)

(1) sbal s : 3r ?

What time i s it?

shat. 'Ps: ata ?

What time is It?

shat c'nd cma?

What time is it?

1whda

1:00

ZuOwZ:U

2:00

t:lata

3:00

l~sa

5:00

S: to

6:00

s;b a

7:00

t:m1ya

t: s~d

8:00

9:00

1vra

10:00

ihdas

11 :00

t: uas12:00

1uhda nisazz

iwda wqgsm

1:05

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1uh da wmsa

1:00 sharp (exactly)

1:05

Moroccan Arabic

83Unt24

lwhd~a vv sra

lvhda wttulut

1:10

1:20

lwhda wmsa w srin 1:25

z :U qi : asa vwsrin 1:35

z :U qi : s am

1:35

z Vu irx sa w rin 1:35

Z;UZ 'ni' . qsam 1:35

z;uz yir z'bl' am1:40

Z:uz .rI: qs=yn1:50

z:UZ 1 airub

1:50

:tom qmaya n1:50

z :UZ q1.: qra1:55

Z~uqi: Tb" &yq

uz rir v dqsa

1:56

1:56

nix.q3: ayq 1:58

1:59

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Z:us q.: dqia

Moroccan Arabic

nt48

unit 4

84

E:.UZ+

rir dqiqa

tq ribn

nisan

q mty(i) / gram

;b%% ;wa%% a ;nb

tulu t

qI:

'rir

1:a

dadiqa (f) / dqayq ~ .mat

s~ayn

tqribn tq;iban

1:59

almost 2:00

2:00 share

direct, exactly

section (here : five minutes ), class

1/4

1/3

1/2

less

except (for)

except

minute

ten minutes (dual form two sections't)

almost

(2) f t : mya ds :bah

f t : sud ds :bah

at 8:00 a.m.

at 9:00 a.m.

fsbadlviy:a

a t 7 : 0 0 p . m.f h a d l : ia t 1 0 0 p .

:mca ZW43jfl Z:UZ

around 2:00 o' clock

early in the morning

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f ~ bad bkri

f s :bah

!d~:b

in the morning

at noon (ref~ers to any time between

1:00 and 3:00 p.m.)

fir fa3lzrJ

at dawn (/1f'r/ 'morning prayer'

between 5:00 and 6:00 a.mn.)

f lax I:i1

late at night

midnight

1si:athe everting' (between 4: 00 Bad 8: 00 p.m.)

21:i2. 'the night' (starts apprximteay aroim4 8:00 or 9:00 pm.

Moroccan Arabic

85

unit 4

Moroccan Arabic

85

lyum

lbarh

lytum lr'siy: a

rYd-.a fs:bah

Yd: a fd:hur

w11barh

sbali

cSiy:a

w~ayh

bkri

y m (l)/ 9:8

lyum

Td : a

lbar3h

bted 'rd. a

w1brh

today

tomorrow

yesterday

this evening

tomorrow in the morning

tomorrow at noon

the day after tomorrow at night

the day before yesterday

morning

evening

with

around

early

noon time

dawn

day

today

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end

tomorrow

yesterday

the day after tomorrow

the day before yesterday

IV.11 Text

91Sb 1~ / 'asabi " sipnn / -t

nbar l 1.in

z~har t:lat nha t %ata

nbar 1sbv

a ireek

~bday

Taesday

Wednesday

I'broccan Arabic

86

Unl4 1!'

Moroccan Arabic

86

Unit 4

nb ?xis

char Z;m a

nba s:bt

nhar Thd:

'usbue

simaa

si ti.ata awl- a rbca di asabi v

'had 2Iiusbu%

1 'usbuc' lmistaqbaa

l1 ztsbub 15j

m bcd tiata dl'asabiQ'

naa Z :m'a f1'usbu%% lmstaqbal

$;1imua 1m iya

mbed iUtzda : inat

'usbut (m) / 'asabit

sizeana (f) / -t

albas (i) / -at y: ai

W:a

wa

lmdi

lhadr

1mstaqbal

bed

ma*

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

a week

two weeks

three weeks

some three or four weeks

this week

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last week

next week

next week

after three weeks, in three .weeks

(on) Friday of next week

next week

after two weeks, in two weeks

week

week

day

some

or

the last, past

the present

the -hare

the itoze

after

from, of

Moroccan ArabicUitI 8

Unit 1

87

IV.l2 Drill 7

;:b'a vn1 :

It is 2:20, 1:35, 9:10, 6:05, 8:30,

9:00 sharp, about 3:00.

What time is it?

I t is 4g:30.

IV.13 Drill 8

za ft~sea dg =bad .*

za

He came at 9: 00 a.m.

he came

Substitute. Translate youir sentences.

t bd ki l ,lym, tspdd*

3., b* ,*umbr

IV.l14 Trill 9

adi yi

fl ]da utulut

He will coma at 1:20.

Substitute.

3:1.0, 8=30, 5:30, tomorrow, 6s10, the day after tomorrow, early in

the morninig, today, at 11:00 at night.

IV.15 Drill 10

'lradi yi nha s:bt

Suzbstitutte.

He will come am Saturday.

Monday, .naxt week, Thursday, in three weeks, Wednesday, the day after

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tomorrow at night, Friday, Tuesday, Sunday.

Moroccan Arabic

88

Unit 24

Moroccan Arabic

88

IV.16 Text

shr (in) / shutr

yfl: ay=

foray'

mis

,ulyzz

Yut

sbtambi' stambir

'tktubr -ktubz'

nuwaubir

duzambir

duianbir

wad s:hr

~h aynz

tit shur

sj rb' e shat awl :a s h

Si st: shut awl: a sbt shut

ux daba Lay

ux bed st: shut~

bad l'am

l'ran l3mdi

month

the month

January

February

March

April

June

July.

August

September

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October

November

December

one month

two months

three months

some )4 or 5 months

some 6 or 7 months

after 2 months (2 months from now)

after six months

this year

last year

Unit 4

Moroccan Arabic

89

Unit 4

k4oroccan Arabic

89

Unit ~

lsam 1mV-Zi

Ir'ani lmstaqbal

m daba ' asmyn

next year

next year

after 2 years

after 6 years

aly f mk ?

'ndi sri 'am .

m ndu aWe rin cam

s.hal f via ?

shat f~m'i

fsndu tsi snin

How old are you?

I am twenty years old.

How old is he?

He is twenty-five years old.

How old is she?

She is thirty-five years old.

How old is he ?

He is nine years old.

He is eight years old.

scamples of variant pronunciation of some of~ the months :

zanyieh

January

f evzieh

avril

Februaary

April

nuvambr

di samr

November

December

shy {(a:) / shur

sbrayn

Q rin

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moMnth

two months (dual form)

twenty

thist-f'ive

dabano

now

Moroccan Arabic

90

unit 4

Moroccan Arabic

90

Unit ~

m dabs

bed

=n bed ~mbed

end

from now, within

after

after...

age

particle of possession (have)

** *

IV.17 Grammatical Notes

1. The dual form of the noun in Moroccan Arabic exists only

through borrowings from Modern Standard Arabic in a few

words, e.g.

ynmayn

Ehrayn

eayn

two days

two months

two years

sa'tayn

two hours

ztratayn

two times

2. The full forms of the cardinal numerals 1 - 10 were introduced

in 111.16.

Hue we see short forms of these numerals,

/tlt, rbe, zms, st:., she, tin, tse, esr/, used before hours,

minutes, days, months, etc.

tit snin

three years

tsr lhu

nine months

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* * *

Moroccani Arabic

91

Unit t~

IV.138 Drill 11

ha da b T;ay;

Substitutes

April, =Jie, November, January, March, December, July, September,

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August, May, October.

Moroccan Arabic

92

Unit ;

Moroccn Araic

DaUnit&

UNIT FIVE

V.1 Revijew- Drill 1

fad Msi ( yadi ) ?

Where are you going ?

mas ls:uq .

Masi

I am going to the market .

school , restaurant

aya

c .nc , post a Mice.a

'radyin

lradyat

coffee shop, train statiocn

hospital, home, library

r x

V.2 Review - Drill 2

3a1l to dk f lmagana ?

lwb~da wbt

Substjtutes

3:05, 9:10, 11:20, 6:15, 7:30, 8:25, 12:00, 2:05, 3:40o, 7:50,9 8:45,

8:0 0 sharp, about 6:30.

* * r

V. 3 Review- Drill 3

'radi fy$:badbkbri

S ubstitate:

tomorrow, tomorrow at 8:00 a.m. , tomorrow at 7:00 p.t. , tomorrow

at noon, tomorrow at midnight, tomorrow night, the day after

tomorrow in the morning, in two weeks, in a month, in JIM ~r,

Friday, Sunday, in October, Monday.

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x * X

Moroccan Arabic

93

Unit 5

V .j Review - Drill 14

ia lbari fl: it .

He came yesterday at night.

Substitute:

the day before yesterday, the day before yesterday at dawn, the day

before yesterday at 4: 25 p.m,, usa, Thursday night, Saturday at

noon, December, June, May, Augzst.

V-5 Text

lxi&sa 1hma raa

Asa lxdra xaiya .

1.Z sa ibida kbira..

ibit lkbir byd (bias

s:nduq lkh-l s~

s: rwal Ihwi bali.

t:umibil Z :rqa idida

lya2:aof r: wdi XaWI

lqamih ws:rwal :uf ' UVs:Xifl.

The red sack is full .

The, green sack is empty.

The white sack is big.

The big room is white.

The black box is small.

The brown trousers are old.

The blue car is new.

The grey pitcher is empty.

The yellow shirt and trousers are dirty.

The brumette is pretty.

?am' (in

mi (mn)

Va dzq (mn) / iadq

srnal (in) / snawil

bali (m) I balyin

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:mnbi (f) / -at

Asid (in)

qau.ia (f) / qmeay

zwin (Cm)

full

emty

box

trousers

old things

car

new

af pitcher

shirt

pretty, beautiful

I aroccan Arabic

94

Unit 5

Moroccan Arabic

V. 6 Text:

94

Colors

ln (mn) /lowan

color

ms

bd

sfr

?~m.di.

urdi

- :si.

smawi

limumi

qrfj

zbibi

ziti

Ziplz

qhwi

jk 3 ] bla

[by) ] bida

ja~r) x~ra

t'q ]

qa

Sdiysa

twrdz]I ardy:a

bauy-a

~aya

tqrfj

qfe

.q]

.~

tk1l )

[zrqa]

iseqra3

Utz'yyR]

zdr

z~

"af

" in

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byd

q3y:in

Zitufytifl

qhis:in

black

wite (awis ms)

red

green

blue

yellow

brwxiette (calexion)

blond

~ey

rose (colored)

ping

sky blue

broini sbpreen.

pale yellow

cinn

coloredi

vtaat colored,

golden tit

imrpli~a red

frost gee

olive pren

brown

dark brow

light green

zbibisa

zity a

zi:tuz a

Unit 5

Ibsoccaa Arabic

95

Unit ;

?bbTOCCSfl ~'abic

95

Unit 5

v.7 ill1 5

(1) was had s :rwal gf; ?

la , asidi , had s:rwS.l bye

(2) was had lktub xu4# ?

la , a&si di , had lktub 4u

Are these trousers yellow?

No , sir , these trousers are whites.

Are these books green?

No, sir, these books are red.

Form similar sentences using the following colors and objects:

shirt, white, green

box, black, red -cars,1 blue , hi to

sacks, brown, yellow

V. 8 Text

M~odifiers

ms

frhai

w gat

kslan

myul

Idid

xayb

bali

zvin

fs

frhana

mwgaza

kslana

mvyua

Idida

asya

xayba

zwia

mrain

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balya

krslan in

idad

vawyin

zaybin

balyin

m -sin

zwini0n

frbanat

nmZat

kslaiat

*lay'lat

zdadat

'ate'at

zawat

raybat

balyat

u n: sat

zwinat

hppy

lazy

lazy

busy

new

full

eapty

ugly

old (things)

stupid, bad

pretty .

r **

Moroccan Arabic

96

Unit 5

Moroccan Arabic

96

Unit 5

Vr. 9 Text

mafrhais

afrban say

mfrhana.s

mflfrhana2 ay

mfrh in "s

'mframin sag

maf r-aat s

mafrbaat ay

I (m) am not happy; he is not

happy; you (ins) are not happy.

I (I') am not happy; she is not

happy; you (fs) are not happy.

We or you (inip) or they (mp )

are not happy.

They or you (fp) are not bapp.

V.30 Grammatical Note

The negative morpheme has the variants mali ma...

ma...say , e.g.

ft Idids

not new (in)

not new (in)

not new (mn)

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** *

Moroccan Arabic

97

Unit 5

Moroccan Arabic

97

Unit 5

v .n2 Drill 6

Was had 5:T'Wa3l did?

la, wiadid

la, mazidsay

Is this pair of~ trousers new?

No, it is not new.

No, it is not new .

No, it is not new.

Formi questions and answers substituting for /s: rwal/ arid /did/

using: shirt, nice - sack, Tful

box, big

elf , wvi.

=WY in*

V.12 Text

ktab Iwid

lktab dyal Iwid

lktab diwid

lktab dyalu

ktabu

ktab Iwlad

lktutb daIwlad

lktub diwlad

lktub dyalhm

ktubh

the

the

the

his

his

bo's

boy's

boy's

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book

book

book

book

book

the boy'ts books

the boys t books

the boys' books

their books

their books

'ass , dad

98

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 5

Moroccan Arabic

98

ktab lbnt

lktab dyal lbnt

lktab dlbflt

lktab dyalha

ktabha

the

the

the

her

her

girl's book

girl's book

girl's book

book

book

lktab

lktab

lktab

lktab

lkbir dyal 1wld s: nr

s: rir dlwldl lkbir

dyal Iwid lkbir

Ikbir dyal iwid

hada ktabi uhada ktabk

had lktab dyali whad lktab

dy-alk.

bada dyali whadR dyalk

bad lktab badR dyali wdak

lktab hadak dyak .

had Jktab z:did dyal. lbnt

had lktab z: did dlbnt

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had lktab fdid dra2.ba

had lktab E:did ktabba

had lbaky:a 3:Ti a dyaba .

had lbakysat s:gar dyalnm.

the big book of~ the little boy

the sml book of the big boy

the book belonging to the big boy

the boy's big book

This is my book and this is your

book.

This book is mine and tbis book

is yours.

This is mine and this is yours.

This book here is mine and that book

there is yours.

This

Ths

2is

Thi s

new book belongs to the girl.

new book belongs to the girl.

new book is hers.

new book is hers.

This smil1 package is ours .-

The se smll packages ares theirs.

Unit 5

Moroccan Arabic

99

Unit 5

Moroccan Arabic

99

Unit 5

ifluka. Ibida dya2ha. kbira

ifl.ayk s ?ar daylhum t ate;

bakiy:sa (f) / -t

fluka (11 / flayk

dyal

His new car is small.

Her white boat is big.

Their small boats are full of

people.

package

boat

belonging to, ' oft

belonging to, t of'

V. 13 Grammatical Notes

1. Compare the expression of possession using the particle of

possession dya2.t'belonging to: and the possessive suff ix sets

ktabi

ktabk

ktabu

ktabha

ktabna

ktabkum

ktabbum

lktab

Slktab

w~ lktab

lktab

.lktab

lktab

lktab

dyalu

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ali~

dyalu~

dyalna

dyalkum

my book

your (s) book

his book

her book

our book

your (P) book

their book

2. Also compare the different ways of expressing possession in the

following sentences.

100

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 5

Moroccan Arabic

100

krtab bhl

lktab dyal hm

ktabu

ktab Iwid

lktab diwi d

lktab dyal awid

lktab dyalu

ktabu

ktb o Dft

lktab dl.bnt

kabdyal l~t

lktab dyaha

ktabha

Ahmed' s book

Ahmed's book

his book

the boy's book

the boy's book

the boy's book

his book

his book

the girl's book

the girl's book

the girl's book

her book

her book

***

V.14 Drill 7

dyal m b ad lktab badR ?

Whose book is this (here)?

dlyal

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who?

whose?

dyalu "

ktabu .

It's Ahmed' so

It's his.

It's his book

Unit 5

Moroccan Arabic

101

Unit 5

Moroccan Arabic

101

Unit ~

had lktab hada dyalu

This book here is his.

Form

(a)

(b)

similar sentences.

Substitute for /1ktab/ using: znsa , baky:a , srwal , slya.

In your answers, substitute for /Irmd/ using: the girl, the boys,

you (p), you (s), us

V.15 Drill 8

had lwld hada fr.an

had lbnt hadi fr.ana

had Iwlad hadu fr .in .

had lbnat hadu frtanat

This boy here is happy.

This girl here is happy.

These boys here are happy.

These girls here are happy.

For each sentence substitutes lazy, dirty, big, little, busy, new,

nice (good), clean, brunet (complexion), tired, blond.

V.16 Drill 9

bad lwld hada masi ey:an .

This boy here is not tired.

Substitute using the modifiers in Drill 8 above.

r *r

V.17 Drill 10

had Ilvad hadu masi fr anin

These boys here are not happy.

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Substitute using the plurals of the modifiers in Drill 8 above.

Moroccan Arabic

102

Unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

102

Unit 6

UNIT SIX

VI.1 Review - Drill I

had Iwid fran .

hada wad fran.

had iwld hada fr)an .

This boy is happy.

This is a happy boy.

This boy here is happy.

Substitute using: big, busy, nice, lazy, tired, little, sick, clean,

new, dirty, blond, brnet (complexion), ugly.

VI.2 Review -Drill 2

had lbnt freana .

hadi but fraana

had Ibnt hadi fr ana .

This girl is happy.

This is a happy girl.

This girl here is happy.

Substitute using the modifiers in Drill 1 above.

***

VI.3 Review - Drill 3

Using each of the following modifiers, form three sentences similar

to the ones below: big, busy, nice, lazy, tired, little, sick,

clean, new, dirty, ugly, small.

had lwlad frzanin .

hadu wIad fran iin .

had 1wlad hadu franin.

These boys are happy.

These are happy boys.

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These boys here are happy.

Moroccan Arabic

103

Unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

103

Unit 6

VI.Lj. Review -Dril1l .

dak lwld frhaa

duk iwlad frhmiin

dik lbnt frhais.

duk ibnat frhan&

S ubstitute using the

VI. 5 Review -D rill S

dak iwid fra

dak iwid mafrhan .

hadak 'mid frhai

hadak iwid mxifry

That boy is happy.

diose boys are happy.

That girl is happy.

Those. girls are happy.

modifiers in Drill 3 above.

* sr r

That

That

That

boy is happy.

boy is not happy.

is a happy boy.

boy is not happ.

S ubstituze using .the 5odifi ci's in D rh 3 above.

VI6 Review - Dnr1 6

dik lit frhana

dik lbnt mfrhanas~

hadik bnt frbaa

badik 2.bntmfr)aa

That

That

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Thiat

girl is happy.

girl is not happy.

is a happy' girl.

girl- is not happy.

S ubtitute using: busy. tired, nice.

* * *'

Moroccan Arabic

104

Unit 6

~4oroccan Arabic

104

Unit 6

V . 7 R eiew -Drill 7

duk Iwlad frha in

duk lwlad matthanins

baduk wiad frh -i

dhose boys are happy.

Those boys are not happy.

Those are happy boys.

Substitute as in Drill 6 above.

* * *r

Vi.8 iext

ihbaa mti Sa ?

zw

lfanTk.

w~rbta dlkilu

pastas-

wa

[eaa]

How Bauch are the tomatoes?2

Fiteen franks.

(5 franks equal

one U. S. penny)

Weigh four kilos.

fif~teen (see VI .9 below)

to weigh, weigh:

vi. 9 Grammatical Notes.

1. Cardinal Numerals 11- 19 have two forms : futll for ms that end

in /-Z#/ or /r#/ anid shorLtforms without the /-l#/ or

Ezaples :

hdar 'Id

hdafr bnt

0. 0

hdasl trid bdas dilrlad

Mail bat h" s dzb.t

009

eleven boys

eleren girls

Pul form of 11-19 ending in{:.,1J+ singular or short form of 11-19

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endir g in /4- / + d + plural.

Moroccan Arabic

105

nnt6

Moroccan Arabic

105

Unit 6

tnasr 4

tit :asr

rb c tasr

x~mstasr

st ;aST

sb tasr

t~litasr

is-etasr

hdasl

rb tas

,zxst:s

st: asl

,sb tsj

t~itas.

,ts'ta:

hd3as

taa

*tlt: as

Lrbctasw

L , pastas

st~as

L, sbctas

mts

I. , ts~tas

eleven

twel~ve

thirteen

fourteen

fifteen

sixteen

seventeen

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ei 0teen

nineteen

2. /wzn/ #'to Weights is a triradical verb, i.e. it htas three radicals.

A radical ca be either a con sonant or a vowel. Here, /wzn/ is

the root; it is the dictionary entry for the verb 't weig4h' and

is also the third person masculine singular past tense (perfect)

form, i. e. 'he wei41ied' . In this oartionular "FORM" (see VI .12

below)., the dictionary entry, the third person masculine singular

form in the perfect (past), and the second person masculine

singular ' imprative are all identical.

Vi .10 Drill 8

~~hal~~ kb n a?

tnas

s al m zusas"ndha ?

#nas

Bow many books does she have?

Twelve.

How may sacks does she have?

Twelve.

Moroccan Arabic

106

unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

106

Unit 6

~ndha

"ndbz tna"Sr zncb

cries taslktab

endhatna~1 ia.

end1ia that dlktub

~'ndhatna~ 2~iv.

She

She

She

She

She

She

has

bhas

has

h~as

has

has

twelve

twelve

twelve

twelve

twelve

twelve

books.

sacks,

books.

sacks.

books.o

sacks.

Substitute for fitb/ and /=saf in similar questions and answers,

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using nmrals 11, 19, 15, 16, 13, 17, 12, 149 18.

VI.l1 Text

1. kt~b bra md .

ktb tab]

bra (f) / bra:at b3.'7:at

2.0 ktbt braahn d .

ktbti bra lbmd.

ktb bra Thmd .

ktbat bra lbmd

EkabtJ3

Ekabt!]

Ekt%]I

Sktro

He wrote a letter to Abmed,

to write

letter

I wrote a letter to Ahmed.

You (s) wrote a letter to Abmed.

He wrote a letter to Ahmed.

She wrote a letter to Ahmed.

We wrote a letter to Ahmed.

You (p) wrote a letter to Agmed.

ktbna braTh3 d . LktbiJe

ktbtui bra Thmd . Cktabtu)

Moroccan Arabic

107

Unit 6

Morocan Aabic107

nit.

ktbu bra Thmd kGtv

They wrote a letter to Ahmed.

***

VI.12 G a~ical Note

Verbs of the type. /ktb/ 'to write:t, /wzn/ 'to weight , /xdm/

Ito.Work' , are triradical verbs as stated in VI .9. Since none

of the radicals is a vowel, w:. will call these verbs S onmd

Verbs. We will also call suzch verbs as /ktb , wzn , xdm/

Form I. For the vrerb paradiga of Form I Soumd Verbs see Table 1

Appendix A.

* .c *

VI.13 Text

sr u a lqh wadr a w d

drbat1 ld

lbst qa izia zdida

lbrtu lbnt

ixi bz:af .

We drank~ the cowffee.

She hit the boy.

They sat on the chairs .

I put on a new shirt .

You (p) found the girl.

H.did not work a lot.

to drink

to hit

to sit, to sit down

to wear, to put on

db

gis

lbs

i sabJ

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drb]i

[glsJ

[lb%1

Moroccan Arabic

108

Unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

108

Unit 6

~br& zbarJ

zdm xdaim]

bz; :f

to find

to work

a lot, much

negative particle

VI .l3. Drill 9

iwid zb; l~sa dyau

The boy found his watch.

Substitute:

nti , lbnt , hpuma , a , ama , d: rari , hiya, huwva , ntuma ,nta.

VI.i5 Text

hr:b s:r:ark Mlhbs

hr-,b hah ~]

sr: aq (mn) / sr:Saqa

bbs (in) / hbasat*.&w bus

hr: bt : r: aq . hrTatJ]

hr-.b s: : a3 . (hTTabJ

Be caused (helped) the thief to

escape from jail.

to cause (help) to rum away, to

suge

thief

jail

I helped the thief to rim away.

You (s) helped the thief to rum

away.

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He helped the thief to run away.

Moroccan Arabic

109

Unit 6

hr:bat s;r~aq . Ihrrabat J

She helped the thief to run away.

hr:bna s :r;a- . [he rabnE]

We helped the thief to run away

hr:btu s:r:a . thrrabtu ]

You (p) helped the thief to rn

away.

}r:bu s;r:a . harrbu J

They helped the thief to run away.

*x * -x

VI.16 Grammatical Notes

1. /hr:b/ 'to cause to run away, to smnuggle' is here termed Form II.

Form II Sound Verbs are (hypothetically) derived from Form I.

Not all Form II verbs have corresponding Form I verbs. Compare:

hrb

(I)

hr:b (II)

to escape

to cause to escape

Derivation of Form II* is here achieved by doubling the second

radical , thus;

(r -r: ), i.e. hrb I , hr:b II . The

meaning of Form II is usually causative, e.g. lb 'to play,

le:b 'to make someone play'. The conjugation of Form II

(Sound) in the perfect (past) is similar to Form I (Sound).

See Table 2 Appendix A.

2. The following verbs occurred in the above texts of this unit:

drb 'to hit', hbs 'to imprison', wzn 'to weigh' and xdm 'to work'.

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Note the following derivations from these verbs:

Moroccan Arabic

110

unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

110

drb

drb

0bs

hbs

wzna

Zd=a

16dr%

Ga~rb)

Ehbas ]

Ewzbsn)

EvznI]

[wan I

to hit

beating

to impri son

to weigs

Weight

to work

work

More examples are here listed:

wid

wid

rzq

rzq

[ewld)

[z;]

TzqJ

to treasuare

a tra.tre

to give birth

a boy

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to grat (by God)

bounty, compensation

Unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

111

.t 6

Moroccan Arabic

111

Unit 6

sdq

frh

I s48q J

Ensax~

s9 fqa2

to be: rig~t

trulth

to b b ,7

Joy

to cpy ,

a opy

srq

srqa

ifq

3fqa

to steal

theft

to be cmpassionate

pity

Notice the following :

CCC is pronounced CC C in a verb

CCC is proocd C CC in a (derived) noun

CCCV is pronounced C0CCV in a (derived) noun

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x' r

Moroccan Arabic

112

Unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

112

Unit 6

VI. 17 Text

$I: 1f ih.

sx:flat 1

hs:n 1:hya

k31u 1da.

I greeted the religious teacher.

She heated the water.

He shaved his beard.

They completed the work~.

s1:.m

S:I

fqmh

2hya

Is exxn 2

illessen]I

(m) / fiq a

{fi / -t

to greet

to warm, to heat

to shave

to finish, to comlete

religious teacher

water

beard

worktIn. 3

ml2=

***

VI. 3.8 Dril2 10

ana kik3.t Ixdma cyali 0

I co pletod mV work.

Substitute:

hna .

, fal a ,

tjn , ntz bnat , nti , bhiya , buwa

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intar , md

Moroccan Arabic

113

Un:Lt6

Moroccan Arabic

113

VI. 1.9 Text : Sentences for Practice

dyali .

ntV ktbti 1'nW f3.kzmas

ntij

dyalk .

huwa ktb 1nwnf123m: 8.

dyal.

hiya ktbat1as1 1mfl: s

yaln3a..

bntumktbt1u1w i t1 ~: a

dyalku.

bzzm~ ktbu lrw

m a

dya~hum.

mart

Im

ciwa(m)/J

debt .kb dyaai

drbti Ikib dyak

dxb ikib dysin

dz'bat Ikib dysaba

drbtu ikib dyalkum ,

I wrote the address in my

notebook.

You (s) wrote the address in your

notebook.

He wrote the address in his

notebook.

She wrote the address in her

notebook.

We wrote the address in our

notebook.

You (p) wrote the address in your

notebook.

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They wrote the address in their

notebook.

address (home )

I hit my, dog.

You (s) hit your dog.

He hit his dog.

She hit her dog.

We hit our dog.

You (p) hit your dog.

Unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

114

Jnlt 6

Moroccan Arabic

114

drbu .klb dyalhunn.

gist bia si fls: s5&

gisti bna Si fl : sass

gis bna Si n s: 55aa.

gisat bna si as sacsa.

They hit their dog.

I sat here for about half an houer.

You (s) sat here for about half~ an

hour.

He sat here for about half an

hour.

She sat here for about half an

hoar.

We sat here for about half an hour.

You (P) sat here for about half Pan

hour.

They sat here for about half' an

hour.

here

gl ca n

glst bia

Si

US:

sacs

saca

gls~i ba i 21$:seaa

bna

Zbrt 1mg ama na .

zbrti Ilmagmia a

ibz' zmgz~a ma .

~brat iaaa ka.

a a za .

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Ebma m

=brtu 2ma Irna .

"ba

14*

mga Ia.

I foumd the watch here.

You (s) found the watch here.

He foumd the watch here.

She found the watch here.

We f'ord the watch here.

You (p) found the watch here.

They found the ieatch here.

~Jnit 6

Moroccan Arabic

115

Unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

115

xdmt tmL-a 'eayn

zdmtitm: a amyn

xd ta

amayn

xdmrla tm a eamayn

xdmtu tm: a samayn

zdm tm: a eayn

hdrt mn" wld .

hdrti me " lvd .

hdr me" liid .

hdrat ms iid .

hdrna in wi d .

hdrtu in" wiad .

hdr

Erbt bz: o dliqhwa.

frbti bz;aof diqhwa

Erb bZ:a' dlqhwa

Erbat bz: of digha .

I worked there f'or two years.

You (s) worked there for two years.

He worked there for two years.

She worked there for two years.

We worked there for two years.

You (p) worked there for two years.

They worked there f'or two years.,

there

I talked with the boy.

You (s) talked with the boy.o

He talked with the boy.

She talked with the boy.

We talked with the boy.

You (p) talked with the boys.

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They talked -ith the boy.

to talk

with

I drank a lot of~ cof ee .

You (s) drank a lot of' coffee.

He drank a lot of coffee.

She drank a lot of coffee.

Unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

116

Unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

116

Unit 6

'bna bz : of dlqhwa .

krbtu bz:af dlqghwa

srbu bz z ofdlqghwa

We drank a lot of coffee.

You (p) drank a lot of coffee.

They drank a lot of~ coffee.

* * *

VI.Zf.l Drill 31

(1) bl; ftsI~zk 2bm

b3. -. (II)

(2) wslt al t -'-'as=.

W 3.(II)

'l:m (II)

lqraa

I greeted Ahmed for you. (lit.:

I I caused your greetings to reach

Ahmed.' )

to make something reach, case to

reach, deliver something

I took the girl to school.

to connect, to see that someone or

something gets to... t e b y h w t e d

to teach

studies, reading

Jtrm similar sentences using the following persons for each of the

ez~es above.

lbnt , hiawa ,ba , ;:ial

b t uns , nt~ , nti

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***

Moroccan Arabic

117

unit 6

Moroccan Arabic

117

mat 6

VI.21 Text

vn3

l~i lI

tl:D1. I

ktb I

ktbi =

ktbu 3

s1:m 3

s 3m

51.:31

twzen]I

Ew zn:])

[' 11Gm]

I~ aimz

tktb b)

Ektb:])

Ekatbu 1

r[sa1 ]

IEsal 10m ]

Is1131] r

Weigh!

Weigh!

Weigh!

Teach!

Teach!

Teach!

Write!

Write!

Write!

Greet!

Greet!

(to

(to

(to

ms)

fs)

P)

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Greet !

(to ms)

(to Ys )

(to p )

(to

(to

(to

(to

(to

(to

as)

t)

ms)

fs)

P)

VI. 22 Grauatical Note

Imperative inflections are sufixs. Prom Pors I and II Soumd

triradical verbs, we get:

_u

(ms) (-0 meas'no suffix')

(Cs)

*(p)

Moroccan Arabic

118

UnIt 6

Moroccan Arabic

118

Unit 6

vi 23

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Drill 12

Wf 1 kiln d1l:im

gisi bna I

ktb bra lead :

Weigh two kilos of oranges ! (to ms)

Greet the religious teacher! (to P)

Sit down here! (to f~s)

Write a letter to Abimed:

Direct the above imeratives to the following persons .

(1) nita , nti

(2) n ti , rita

(3) rtum ,nta

(14.) nti , ntuma

*r

"

vI.24 Drill 13

Substitute as shown in brackets.

(1) Rinzdz bz : of (d. rani , rita )

(2) maktba t~ 1b'a S ad (iwld , aia )

(n tum , huma)

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(6) mw slats lbnt 11m4'rasa

Moroccan Arabic

119

Unit ?

Moroccan Arabic

119

Unit 7

UNIT SEVEN

VII.l Review -Drill 2I

Substitute as show in brackets:

2. hiya. wznat ma isa.. (]na , ntrma)

3. hum ktbu lbawat .

(ana , huwa )

5. I;=a nbna ima . (ntum ., .hom)

6. nti gisti bna . (nta , ana)

7. huwa lbs 2qsmiaa dyalu .

(asa , nta)

8.o utim xdmtu bz:af . (huwa , hiya)

VII 2 Review "Drz.fl2

Substitute as shown in brackets:

2. clmna lbnt lqraya

(hawa , eta)

3. kml-t ]1Mam dya2.i (nti , hum)

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***

Moroccan Arabi:

120

Ujt ?

VI I. 3 Review - Drill 3

Substitute as shon in brackets (imperative stractures) :

1. sl :m cla and (you f , you P)

2. wzri kilu dl : imn (you mz, you P)

3. kmlulxd--dyaluzm

(you m, youf )

1 . gishbna (youP, you f)

5, b4 m' Iwid (you fyou p)

6. ktbi ba 1l ad (you p, you f )

7.

ikib (you f , you P)

VII.Ij.Text

lqhwa.

ipid dx'b ikib wlbut drbat

llura .

lid lbs lhwaz Z :lociwlbnt

lbsa~t llwa# lbalyin

huwa rfd s~nduq lkbir uhiya

r~di br lm

a dyalu fuq

dyalba tht :b .a

arb ir i

:a dlofblib

The man drank the mn ilk and the

girl drank the coffee.

The boy hit the dog and the girl

hit the ball.

Abmed sat in the big chair and

Ai sha sat in the small chair.

The boy wore (put on) the new clothes

and the girl wore (put on) the old

clothes.

He picked up the big box and she

picked up the small box.

The man found his watch on the

table and the woman found her watch

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under the table.

He drank just a little bit of milk

Moroccan Arabic

121

Unit ?

Moroccan Arabic

121

Unit 7

11~.1ib

kib / kiab [ksab1)

kua / -t kwai

1 way (IM')

rf'd [ rad ]

y'ir

5oY :a

milk

dog

ball

clothes

to pick up., to carry

exc aot, but = only

little

VII.S Text

ktb bra Thtd.

l:m wldu lqraya..

sawb tzubi1 dyalu.

aral lmeilik wair dyain

3.tauaaa

t~l : rd:rs dyalu

tfahm ea lfqih

htm lfib

stem lb~sklita dyali

He wrote a letter to Ahmed.

He taught his son how to read

HeI fixed his car.

The king sent his minister to

Tangier.

He learned his lesson.

He reached an agreement with

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the teacher.

The stew was burned.

He respected the teacher.

Be became red, he blushed.

He used my bicycle.

1.

:I

8 ;'tosend" Fob 17 is among the very few verbs used in M. A.

as a direct borrowing from Standard Arabic. Porm 17 has been rep.Laced

by Form . I. Thus, for almost all speakers, the form is frsl' to send' .

Form 17 is ,cm the decline in M.A. If it ever occurs, it occurs in the

educated dialect.

M oroccaa Arabic

122

Unit 7

Moroccan Arabic

122

Unit 7

guuxs

b skli ta (f) / -t

lesson

bicycle

VII .6 Gra.mtical Notes

2.. The ten sentences in VII. 5 above exemplify the ten forms of

Moroccan Arabic Sound Triradical Verbs (I X) .

2. Forms II X are called derived forms (theoretically from

Form I).

3. Forms II - X (as Forms) are here listed in order:

6tru1cure

a1R2R3

tRlP23

RtRR3

sawb

arsi

II

InT

to

to

to

to

teach

fix

send

learn

IV~ (rare)

iifabm . VI

VZ

[tahrq]

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htaz'm

agreement

to be burnt

to respect

Derivation

(~dical2is doubled)

(-a- infix between

R1 and R

(a- prefix)

('b- prefix and R

is doubled or t-

prefix to Foarm II )

(tr p,.prefix and -a.-

infixi/between Rland

R2; r t-prefix to

Form III)

(t-. prefix)

(-ta- infix betwee

k an dP2 )

(-a- infix between

(at- prefix)

,,,al

l bmr

atR1R2R3

sttml

IX

IEstSabmft

(rake) to become red

to use

=some speakers have now prefix: nhrq

t hrq "to be bunt *.""

' to be burnt' ; others have /t :-/ tt ]

Moroccan Arabic

123

Unit 7

Moroccan Arabic

1Z3

4. Forms II - X: meaning

It is hard to state for

however, in most cases:

Form II

Form III :

Form IV

Form V

Form VI

Form VII

Form VIII:

Form II

FormX

sure the meaning for derived verb forms;

to make, or cause to be

to make or cause to be

to cause to be or do

to be, to become

to do something mitually

to be done, medio-passive

reflexive of Form I

pertains to colors or defects; to

be or become a certain color, or

to have a certain defect

may have the same meaning as Form I;

to force oneself to...

5. Conjugations of these forms in the past (perfect) are identical

with that of Form I (see VI .11). Their imperative forms also

have the same suffixes as those of Form I (see VI .21, 22).

See Tables 3 - 8 Appendix A.

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w, ,

Moroccan Arabic14

124

Unit 7

VII.7 Text

xdmt Ibarh ilbiru dyali

salbt kul: mzai

tsl :1t bz ;ao dlmsa'il

had 1xd .

tfaht mra 2fqih

huwa htarm r: a~y dyali

am strait duk 1kiitub dyalu .

tbrqat :aT dyalhium.

biro (in) / birizyat ~ bi uwat

1.: Si

msacala (f) / msa' i3

racy (in) /'awa'

Yesterday I worked in my office.

I finished everything .

I did everything well.

I learned a lot of things from

this work.

I reached an agreement with the

teacher.

He respected my opinon.

I used his books.*

Their home was burned.

office

everything, everybody

problem, matter, issue

opinion

vIL8 DT*1 .

substituzte as Lomalin bakts:

2. ;: a~l uakbs iqhva dyalu (inta , had)

3. lwld -4tb ikib chai (ntuina., hiya)

14. a:as gi.sa v1islyat l2baz; (him , znta)

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5. 1 na milbsnas irayi z:&-&d (am , hiya)

6. hiya rfdat lbaky~at (n: a , uaa)

8. l'yalat h 4;m bz :af (bns , fa lm)

* r

Moroccan Arabic

125

Unit ?

VII.9 Drill 5

Answer the following questions in the aff'irmative, then in the negative.

1. wa ssl:mti l : fqih ? (was "interrogative particle")

2. was k: tbtu $ u~us dyalkm ?

3. was "l:mat widha lqaya?

1.was s: nu ima ?

6. was k1n lx dma dysihum?

VI I.1O Drill 6

Subttiitt as shown in brackets :

1. mawbats I : umbil dyalha (ana , nti)

2. Iwid )lam lfqih

(lbnt , d: rari )

3. st~m2l sua xbil dy ali (ntum , nta)

VII.llI Drill 7

gIs f : a dyalu si sactayzi , wcs t.;s dyalu, k-,:l 2dma dyalu

flewy:a wbs :n l:rya dyalu wibs ] s~u wsl.:m 'lband wzl (descend)

11ga~az wwawb 1:tUbil dyalu

(1) Translate the passage thn use as ib jeet s /ntua , )naf.

(2) Put the passage in the negative using /nta/

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x w Xc

126

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 7

Moroccan Arabic

126

VII.3.2 Text

(2) 'Was hdrast mwak ?

la , mb

t may.

(3) }Was ttl: m ihad s:i ?

la , in.zal.

~z a

(is ~al mtkl:matis 'a abind ?

iwa, Safi daa . tkl :mt

in?ah had g: ba~

iwa

safi

daba

(5) rbti atay dyalk ?

(6) sari

atay

Did you work today?

Yes, I worked a lot.

Did she talk to you?

No, she did not talk to me.

Did you (p) learn. this thing ?

No, not yet.

not yet

Haven't you talked to Ahmed yet?

W ell , it is all right now, I talked

with him this morning.

well

all right, enough, finished

now

Did you drink your tea?

all right, enoughi, finished

tea

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* *

vii .13 Drill 8

Traslate:

(1) nzdi zrbiy:a ba& balyas wy: a

~ndk bz~of dMhwayzw

snu i zzabi yein

Qndha b : f dt:Sal'

Moroccan Arabic

127

TInj t 7

Moroccan Arabic

127

cndha 'rr Si 5WY: a dZ :it

s'ndkmca baky :a kbfra

'ndhu2 baky: a kbira

maktb~ S 4;dyalu

mabat i ibib dyalha

uatk1:mrnas muba lfqih

mall1sut~s "1a fatima

(2) was had s~ dyalk ?

was bad lktab dyalu ?

was had lmragaia dyalha ?

was had 1msa dyalk ?

(3) w uta mgid ?

was nta eY:n ?

y:Lih v7: 2mSWY: a

was hiya mAlua SWoY:3?

la ,

ess~aay .

(1) tbhreat d: as dyaahum

stem na t:vmbil g: dida

mtrmai ~st:umibil Z: dida

tk2~mi a abm

YmnU mtisa fs:uq

ibis almagana dyalba.

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***

Unit 7

Moroccan Arabic

128

Unit 7

Moroccan Arabic

128

Unit 7

VII1.14 Text

ktbli bra I

ktbilha bra

[k

ktbilna bra I 3{

kthuah12.m bra I

'YSl: i 1ks I 3C<

'rsli.i ikas

'yslfla Ikisan I

~tbi1h

ke tbullhurj

Write (ins) me a letter!

Write (l's) her a letter!

Write (f s) us a letter!

Write (p) them a letter!

Wash

Wash

Wash

(mns) the glass for me !

(i's) the glass f'or me!

(p) the glasses f'or us!

sawbli t:unibil I

btzr h3

htarm2h I

s1l:mi I

'rsl Ya2 Jd~s1

kas (a) / kisai

Z-

Fix (ins) the car f'or me:

Respect (ins) him!

Respect (f's) hi3m!

Respect (p) him!

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Teach (ins) me !

Teach (f's) me!:

Teach (p) us !

to wash

glass

to, for

VII-1 iSGramatica1 Notes

I. Obect Pronominal 'ufixes associated with transitive verbs

(and the preposition "i of, from')3

Moroccan Arabic

129

Unit 7

l4oroccan Arabic

129

-ni

-ha

-na

-hum

2. Object Pronominal

1- 'to t (after an

me

you (s)

him

her

us

you (p)}

them

suffixes associated

intransitive verb) :

with the preposition

-1

-k

-u oo--ih

-ha

-na

-kum

me

you (s )

him

her

us

you (p)

them

VII.16 Verb List

So fbar we have learnied the f'ollowing verbs : (Notice: A preposition

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showan after a verbmen that the verb can be imtmnsitiye and mal

occur with this particular preposition.)

Form I.

ktb (1-)

xdm (m 'a)

to write (to)

to work (with)

Moroccan Arabic

130

unit ?

~roccan Arabic

130

gis (' 1a)

hd~ (m'ia)

rid

zbr

srb

drb

hb (in)

lb s

r'sl 'Ys1

to sit down (on)

to talk rith)

to pick up

to find

to weigh (for)

to drink

to bit, to beat

to escape (from)

to wear, to put on

to wash

Form Z:

bl1 (1-)

Ws:2. (1')

5l:m (cla.)

hs:n

Form I

"I

sawb

to convey (to), to make reach (f'or)

to mke something reach (to, for)

to greet

to teach

to warm, to heat

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to shave

to finish

tofi~x

Form VY:

t .: m

to learn

Unit 7

Moroccan Arabic

Unit ?

131

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 7

Form VI:

t f sbIMm ( ~a)

to reach mutual understanding (with)

Form vii:

Form VIII:"

hta m

Form IX:

Form XZ:

stcm1

t:brq

nb~q

to burn

to respect

to become red

to use

*t *

VII.17 Drill 9

T s~to the following imperatives.

1. to ms

2, to. fa

3. top

Write a letter to Abmed!

Work with the boy!

Sit on the bigochairs !

4~. top

TalktoAhmed !

5,v to =s

.6. to fa

7., to p

8. to m

9. top

Pick up the package !

Wegh the tomtoes !

Drink your milk !

Hit the dog!

Wasbyour clothes !

Greet paed!

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10. to fa

Moroccan Arabic

132

knit ?

11. to ms Fi the new car1

12. to v Finish your work!

13. to ra Respect th% girl !

14~. to fs Use may new car !

VI-18 Drill 10

1w2.d -g2Ls bra

iwid sg1ss bna

(Note: assimilation of -s# to fs/ of' the negative mor'pheme m ...s3

Form similar sent ences using the follovng.

1. fa~ina - ktb ba - 3

2. 'eli - h ms lfqih

3. n : as-

l.itylt

- atay

lb s - wayi- zdad

5. Ts5Z1 -?]Sin

1:hya

6. ba - km:l 1lcdma

r r r

VII .19 Gramtical Notes

Cardinal Numerals #20

ssrin20

tlatin

30

;bein4.0

.5o

stria

60

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~in

MOrOccaz1 Arabic

133

Unit 7

133

U~t 7

sbrin

tm~in

tstin

zy a

v3d utrin

trzayn utlatin

;bta wmsiu

mea wsb' n

sts a wtmnain

sb'a wsttis

tmn ya~main

ta'td ii beim

sbva vts'in

ts'ud ututin

Note /w- amu/ SdW: W"" after

tnayn thain "two"n

ny Sw bca wesrin

mrsa web~a watsin

Wo sa wsavtlti

mitayn

tit r: a

;be y: a

St: Q' Wa

70

80

90

100

32

33

54

75

67

58

49 -

67

J49

99

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86

vowel, n- after caisonant.

124.

167

135

102

200

300

400

600

Moroccan Arabic

134

Unit ?

Mozocoan Ara~.c

134

Unit 7

tb= my:a

alf / alaf w uluf uflufat

mitayn usbba

t2.t my &a wwa 'a

a3if ta'e ya wtlata wsbtin

alfayn

tit alaf

;be alaf

abt alai

tat alaf

e alf

700

800

900

1000

207

318

593

1973

2000

3000

4000

7000

9000

10000

ulyim / ulayn

ulyimaayn .ui U mlayxa

bly

1, 000,000

2,000,000

billion

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* * *

VII. 20 D ri1n1

T raalate.

tiatin , abta wbtin , aw vnay

, ;bta vabtin , alt ut t ws

wbta , = Ws a wUIni , bt x s wtstin , zm w sa utlata wtn

aif utat awsa utinza wtlatin , tsaa==in , ea wtlatiu.

* * *i

Moroccan Arabic

Ui 3

trait ?

135

VII.21 Drifl 12

Give the Moroccan Arabic fore

37; 95 1883 369; 1537; 67; 555; 357;

37O,345,678,123; 678.

1103; 8100; 23.94.56; 934,345,

** *

VI i.22 G mtical Note

MThird Person Drect

Object Pronominal. zff ices

Direct bject

you s

he

she

we

YOU p

ktbt

ktbti

ktb

ktbat

ktbna

ktbta

ktbu

[m.8.

f.s.

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

hun

bum

bun

hum

hun

hm

hun

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ha

{____________lI

Direct object ao s. is fu/

after a consnant and /h/!

after a vrowel.

ktbt 4:s

-ktbtu

ktbna4s5

-ktbnah

inktbts v:WSr - Riktbtui

uakbnas 4:r8- inktbnsh-

Also note that this applies to pitepositions oding in voels, e. g.

fbi/ 'with',f/ta/ 'with' , /tla/ 'on', /iS!' in' , f/maf behind,

after' ,f/waf ' after, bend', /jda/ 'near, neat to, at one's place'.,

fwyrsa/ 'with' and the presentational particle f a/ ''hacre is, are' .

Eza=3les

)dah

'with him'

utaba

'at his place' Ibdaha

'here he is'

'with her'

'at her place

'here she is'

;abs

Moroccan Arabic

136

Unit 8

Moroccan Arabic

136

UNIT BIGHT

VII.1 Review- Drill 2.

Answer in negative.

2. wag ktbat 4:;s dyalha ?

3. was btti lqhwa dyalkum'

,was zb~i

a cdral bdnd?

5. was kI nlat lzd dyalba ?

6.o was awbt Iuinibil dyali ?

7. was rfd $ nuq ?

8. was Ibsti 11payZ sdad dyalk ?

10. was st"nlti lbsk1ita 2. na ?

Viu .2 Review IDrfl2

Alswer using pronouizal Buff izes as follows:

w s 1 ltil xda ?

ls , kslthas

1. was ibat lqhwa 9

2. was b'tl mgn?

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3. was rfd 9p:D41q ?

Unit 8

19 ___ _--- A ..LS .

t1~4

M1oroccanZI aD1.C

137

1.. Ras 'rsl ikas ?

5" Ras is1:Ua "1sfqih ?

6. Ras sawb sumbi1 ?

8. Was tf sbmt mpa an~d ?

9. vas t 1:Kti 4: 9

10. was 4s santi 1: to ?

VIII. 3 Review D rill 3

sal fs: ata ?

l 1da wbt

Substitute using:

3:05, 7:10, 8:15, 9:30, 6:145, 2:1.0, 8:20, 9:25, 6:30.

x w~

VIII.1~ Review - Drill 14

Give the Moroccan Arabic for:

19, 23, 17, 85, 16, 77, 11, 3, 109, 68, 2, 55, 1973, 2000, 7, 853,

923, 55, 200, 190, 23, 4, 5109, 99.

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*t * *

138

M oroccan Arabic13

unit 8

VIII.$ Text

(1) bea~

zar

xaf

1Zarida

bna lyum.

f as 1 "sbuc lm di

m iki~b

He sold his car.

He brought the newspaper.

He was here today.

He visited Fez last week.

He was afraid of the dog.

zarida (f )

IL

bat (1)

Mab (1)

kaz: (u)

zar (u)

xaf (a)

IZara' 1

newspaper

to sell-1

to bring

to be

to visit

to fear

Visit (mss)

Have (ms)

(2) zib l2arida I

ziir fas!

=1 1:ah I

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the newspaper!I

Fez

the fear of Clod!

1: a

God

** *

VIII. 6 G rsmtical Notes

bas i) , ;a (u) , f (a) are triradi cal verbs, The only difference

between bas and ktb is that bat has a vocalic medial radical. This

radical changes in the imperfect (see IX. 8) and in the imperative

(see conjugations below). The vowel of the imperfect is always given

Si Sev III.6.

Moroccan Arabic

139

nit 8

in parentheses following the medial weak verb, i.e. bat (i), :;. (u),

zaf (a) . This vowel is the same as that of the ierative for this

group of verbs (F orm I medial weak). The medial weak verb vowel

changes in the perfect . P aradi gs for the verbs /ba/ (i) ,/An/ (u),

and/zaf/ (a) are here shown- in the perfect and imperative. S ee also

Tables 10 - 12 AppendixzA.

Perfect

you (s )

he

she

we

you (p)

they

bat (i) 'to sells

be t

bseti

bat

bset

k (ui) to be'

kmt

kzni

2mf (a) 'to be afraid'

xft

xfti

xaf

aat

bsna

by to

bare

kUfl:a

Inm rtu

xfna

=ftu

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kanu

Imperative

ms

ifs

bi-e

bis'i

bic'u

IIon-

Iozi

kunu

xaf

zafi

=nu

Moroccan Arabic

140

Unit 8

VIII.7? Drill 5

G iven the following verbs, form (a) imperatives (ms, fs, P).9

(b) usefuil sentences using the Words listed nest to each verb.

ban (a)

to appear

bat C.i)

to sell

daz (u)

to pass

( i)

to fly

qm , lbai.)

(d~rari , un bna)

(hiawa , w~afi )

tam (ui)

to swim

saf (11)

to see

zad i)

(:if ssuq )

(la

(IwId , lbah)

(ana , tea:d , hua)

to add, to continue (ata , sink:ar , fatay)

U4 (Cu)

to throw away

qam (u)

to get UP,' to

(bna , 2qmaz)

(thin i ,M lkurzi )

stand up

qam (i)

to prepare

(;:azl , atay)

(e. g. tea)

VIII.8 Text

(1) ta lktab liwid .

He gave the book to the boy.

bda 2xda dyalu lytm .

xda d:Wa .

tta Ci)

He began his work today.

He took the medicine.

to give

bda (a)

to begin

xda (-u)

to tak

medicine

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dwa C m) / myat- 'adwiya

141

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 8

(2) cti ktab Thmd I

bda lxdmz

id atay

Give (ms) the book to Ahmed!

Begin (ms) the work!

Take (mns) the tea!

VIII. 9 Grammatical N~otes (conjugations are on tape in the language laboratory)

1. bda (a),

(i) and xda (u) are final weak triradical

verbs (Form I). Vowels in parentheses indicate changes in the

imperfect (see IX .8) and the imperative (see paradigms

below). The convention (4.u) means that the final /-.a#/ of'

xda changes to medial /-u-/! as in its imperative (is), mid

Ztke

Study the following paradigms for perfect and imperative

of Form. I finaal weak verbs : CAlso See Tables 13 - 15 Appendix A.)

Perfect

you (s)

he

she

we

you (p)

they

bda (a) 'to begin:

bdit

bditi

bda

bdat

bdina

bditu

bdaw

't8ito give=zda

Ttiti

"ta

tat

' ina

"rtitu

133

EU) tto taket

idit

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tit

xdina

xditu

xdaw

iditi

xda

xdat

Moroccan Arabic

142

Unit 8

Moroccan Arabic

142

Unit 8

Imperative

ms

bda

belay

bdaw

"sti

"tip

'rtiw

VIIIao Drill 6

G iv m the following verbs, form affirmative and negative perfect

sentences using the gives =b j ects and objects.

zwa (j)

q-a (a)

kla (-u)

k.a (i)

bqa (a)

'to empty,

t to read'

"to eat't

* to smk

'to remint

- (l af)

- huwa

- (1b~'a) - aa

- (t~~aba) nti

- (lga ;u)-

- (tn-a) -

lbnt

* t -

VIII.12. Text

raa llmdrasa fs: bah bkri

nsat 1.= a dyalha fixiz . .

hdina mgwa l d .

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faq ft:Ssa ds~bsh

'Tab 'samyn fbariz"

He went to school early in the

morning.

She forgot her sack in the

library.

We presented Ahmed with a watch.

He woke up at 9 a.m.

He was (absent) in Paris for two

years.

He got up and left.

na d ma

Moroccan Arabic

143

Lhit 8

m~ai)to go, to walk

nsa (a)

to forget

bhda (i)

to give a present

faq (i)

to wake up

'tab (i)

lad (u)

to be absent

to get up

VIII.12 Drill 7

Substitute as shoes in brackets.

2. f aq bkri 1y m . (nta , ntuim)

i f.an~d f s sinima . (hiy'a , bum)

5. qam atay bn: tnat . (nti , sa)

6. yab fbariz tit ihut .

(3jna , nti )

7. zab lzarida dyal .17M .

(hiya , nta)

8. a4 irwab tfs:aka fluid . (ana , hiya)

9.* bat j um bil dzylu l mnm:d .

Cbiya , ana)

10. kan bna ft: sea dd bad~ . (hum,, ntuua)

VIII.13 Drill 8

Give the Moroccan Arabic fors

1. Visit Ahmed!

to s. s.

2. s ell your cart to f .s.

3. Bring the newspaper!

to mos.

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ii. Visit Fez! to p1

Moroccan Arabic

144

Unit 8

VIIIl. Drill 9

Substitute as showri in brackets.

2.. a lktab liwid . (aria , nita)

2. bda lxdza. lyum . (rita , hiya)

4,. wa 1ma flkas . (hiya , rita)

5. bqa f;:bat v am . (bra , huma)

7. kia Jxiibz mea z: ituri . (ritum , hiya)

8. km bz : f lyum . (hums , aria)

9. 8~a 1lmt 'asa bk'i . (aria , nita)

10. nsa ktabu f4: a . (rita , hiya )

U1. hda mgena librit . (hum , rita)

VIII a5 Drill 10

Translate.

1. m i: d

2 lmaa fQ:bSa bkri , wrfa .meait 1s:u4 wbat m iisa

2. asina lktub dya nrd mzbm: d

3. kiaw 2kak an"rdi lbarl .

4. na4 rsins suq

6. iringa mflu:af .

7. wal bda Wl: amzal ?

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8. 4 s tay wzidlu s:uk: a

Moroccan Arabic

145

Unit 8

Moioccan Aabjc

145

VIII.16 Text

(1) fy :q wldu bkri.

ZX1: a t:u!Elbil dyalu Ida

: a lbazh fl:it

Wr:a lktab 1r:a.l

fysq

Xl: a

'~fl aS

wr: a

He woke his son up early.

He left his car by the movie

theater.

He sang last night.

He showed the book to the man.

to wake (someone) up

to let, to leave

to sing

to show

(2) Xl:j t:umibfl hna 3

If:q lwld I

2:i I

wT;2, lktab lind 3

Leave the car here?

Wake the boy up?!

Sing? (me)

Show the book to Abmed?

* * *

VIII-17 Gramatical Notes

1.

'to cause to wake up' is

Form I faj (ip) to wake up'.

Form II medial weak, derived from

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Coare the ifolloyin:

Form Ii (medial weak)

Xw: f 'to frisiten'

Zw:l ' to elnate, take off'i

Fobrm I

zaf (a)

zal. (u)

(medial weak)

'to be afraid'

'to be elininated'

Unit 8

146

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 8

Moroccan Arabic

2.46

Unit 8

tar (i) 'to fly'

ned (u) 'to wake up'

yab (i) ' to be absent'

wa (i) 'to live'

ty:z itto cause to fly'

flW:d 'to cause to wake up=

y'y:b ' to cause to be absent'

: s 'to cause to live:

Notice that Form I verbs of (a) and (u) type have /w:!/ as the

medial radical in Form IT, whereas Form I verbs of (i) type

ha

e/ : st emd a a i a nF

I2 xl :a, and wr:a are Form II final weak verbs. The vocalic

change in the imperfect and imperative is always (i).

Study the following paradigms for the medial weak Form II

verbs : f y :q to wake up' and kw :n 'to create, to ma~ke' and

f or xl :a 'to let, to leave t for Form II final weak. (Alo ee

Tables 20O 23 Appendix A. )

Perfect

you (s)}

he

she

we

you (p)

they

fy:q 'to wake up'

fyt:qt

fy: qti

fy:q

y:qat

kw:n 'to create'

kw:nti

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kw-.nt

kw:na

Xl:a 'to let, to leave'

X14-Pit

X2:Lti

X3. -

xl: at

fy: qna

fy:qta

ily -.qu

kW~n ~a

kw:ntu

kwF~u

xl~aw

Imperative

ms

fy:q

fs

fy:Qi

fy~qu

kw~n

kw-nu

Xl : i

x1:7

xI:iW

Moroccan Arabic

147

Unit 8

Moroccan Arabic

147

Unit 8

VIII. 18 Drill 11.

T ranslate the following sentences.

3.

2.

3.

6.

d:r:i xaf =1 ikib . 1k2.b xw:f' d:r:i

lbnt nadt bki . 1ma flW: at lbnt

'a

'as bna 'camayn .n :as ry ;':az2.(ndbum camayn

Xl : a :um bi dyalu 1Oda 1aa

W : a: dya2.u llbnt

viii a9 Text

rfe' I:bla.

2'a;aby:a (f)

H e translated the book intoA rabic.

H e mfved the table.

to translate

to move , to swing, or to she sometbhing

Arabic language

:%P *

VIII. 20 Grazr atica3. Notes

1.

an 'to translate' and f fr to move' are quadrzlitera2.

(quadriradical) sound verbs.

2. Thiey are con~jugated the same as triliteral sound verbs. (See

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Table 9 Appendix A.)

Moroccan Arabic

148

Unit 8

?4ooccan Arabic

148

Unit 8

Perfect

you (s)

he

she

-we~

you (p)

they

ti 'to translate t

trzmt

tomt)]

001zrm t t r a t ]

"

[.~t

v~Ldi

,tQ tu

tritm

It,9rzamtuJ

" .O~

Imperative

ms

trW

we ni

eAemJ

Ett' m]

I .ZZ

3. Other quadri-l'teral stems are :

rgt (Efag c]

to explode, to blast

Zll, Efzazel)to shake

tmt tamtamJ]

to stutter

S uch verbs as zlzi ' to she' and tmtm 'to stattez"* are also

referred to as "Reduplicative" .

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*c * *

149

Moroccan Arabic

Unit 8

Moroccan Arabic

149

Unit 8

VIII. 2I Text

sd: lbab

hs: r:bi.

hb: int

Zr: .1biklita.

d:a lktab

a fas lbarh .

He

He

He

He

He

He

closed the door.

mowed the grass.

loved the girl.

dragged the bicycle.

took the book (along with him).

came from Fez yesterday.

Sd;

~bi

hb:

d: a,

ia4

3d3

ECm}

[he bb 3

.d

idd j

to close

to mow

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grass

to love

to drag., pull

to take along

to come

(i)

(3)

* * *

VIII. 22 Grammatical Notes

1. sd: 'to closet gi 'to mow',

'to love' and it: 'to drag'

are biradical verbs. They will be referred to as "doubled verbs"

since the final radical (B2) is a tense one. They are

conjugated differently from triradical verbs. Conjugations of

Ed: 'to grab' and dq: (0-) in the perfect and imperative are

listed here for practice. ( (-u-) here refers to a medial

/-u-/ that appears for some doubled verbs in the imperfect

and imperative.) Also see Tables 16 and 17 Appendix A.

M orcccaa Arabic

150

U nit $

M oroocan Arabic

ISO

Unit 8

Perf~ect

you (s )

he

she

we

yo (P)

they

s: t'to grab

sd: it

Sd iti

sd: at

sd: fla

sd: iti

dq: (-u-) 'to 2sockI

dq: it

dq_:=ti

dq:

dq:3t

dq: me.

Am~ -m I

dq:u

duq:-

duq: i

duq:u

Imperative

ms

fs

Sd: j

2. la 'to come' and d :a ='to take away't are bAdi cal weak

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verbs. Their conjugation is similar to final weak Form I

of the "t (i) type. la and d :a are here canvugated in the

perfect and imperative. Also see Tabl.5 18 and l9 Appendi A .

Perfect

you (s)

he

she

la Ito comet

lit

iiti

zat

d:ea 'to)take 8a1oig'

d: it

d: iti

d: a

d:at

Tin -I + R

%s- -- - - - -- a-_i_ -

Moroccan Arabic

we

15 1

r.

zin?

d: ins

you (p) ~itu

d: itu

they

aw

d: aw

Imperative

ms

azi

fS

aiy

aZiW

d: i

d: V

d: iW

V111.23 Drill 12

Substj tut s as showni in brackets,*

1. ua$m lba l1ltaaby a .

(aria , hiya )

2. f f :bjsa bzsaf . (nita , riti)

3. Sd: ibab dyal "au . (hum. , ritum)

14.. 1s:;:bit f $:bS) bkri . (1ma , nita)

7. dsa 1qd4 ilasuq . (hums , riti )

8. za m fa~s lyum . (aria ,)bria)

:'c

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152

Moroccan Arabic

unit 8

VIII. 24 Grammatical Mote s

The following are complementary notes on the verb in the perfect and

imperative.

(1) Imperatives (also imperfect form) of the following Form I sound

triradical verbs have a medial (-u-):

dxl

to enter;

skn

to reside;

xrz

skt

dxul

Biter!

skun

to go out;

Reside!

ZX=u

to be silent; sknt

szn

to be warm;

qtl

to kill;

sxon

qtul

Get out!

Be silent!

Get warul

Kill!

(2) The following verbs have variant forms which are listed here:

kia - kal

xda zad

saft sift

(3) M

to eat;

kul

to take;

to send;

sift

Bat!

mad

Take!

Send!

(i) 'to go' has the imperative sir (ma), s_i (fs), siru (p);

and _a 'to come' has the imperative a

(ma), a:y (fs)

(4) COie imperative form that has no corresponding perfect form

(nor an imperfect) is:

ara (ms) , ari (fs) , araw (p) Give! laud over!

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***

(p).

Moroccan Arabi..

153

VI II.25 Drill 13

T ranslate.

1. dal ' zid 1. Eb atay t

2. sir Z4:a 3t

3. aziw bkri ~d a!

4.aziy !

5. ara lktab

6. cif j lbra lmdt

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7. kIz1 S !l lksksu dyalk

Unit 8

Moroccan Arabic

154

3nit 9

Moroccai Arabic

154

Unit 9

UNIT NINE

IX. 2. ReVi si - Drill 1

Give the negative for:

2. ktb 4:;s dyalu (aria)

3. itb lqhwa dyalu (hums)

1 ,. owb t.imxbi1 dy'alu (bra)

5. zaf m ikib (nti)

6. faq bkri 1yum (rita)

7., as f: ba.# ve ayna (ritumrn)

8. zab i1zaida dyalbum (aria)

21. wa Irmn fikas (rita)

12. qa lktab 1ba

(hiya)

13. kI= bz :aof lit (rturn)

24. nzsa ktabua f4: a;(burn)

15. hda rnana lbrit

(rita)

iX.2 pReview - ]) i11 2

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tswer in the negative using pronoiunal SuffS.XOB.

M oroccen A rabic

155

Unit g

M oroc~ A raie 155U

mit,

1. was ''slat ikas ?

2. was Ibsti 1 isaya z: dad dyak ?

3. was rfd 9:ndiu1 ?

4.was s1: m t1 1!qih ?

5. was tfabmat nta an~d ?

6. was orb ;umbi1 ?

8. was batu 'J:uibi1 dya2bum ?

10. was faq bksri leam?

IX. 3 Review - Drill 3

Give the iepratives for:

1. Via lktab livid (f.s.)

2. bda lzdm lym (p)

3. id a t: f: aka d: r: i ( . s. )

14. zwalaflkas (u. s. )

5. qaMiktab lym (f.s.)

6. kia 3ksksu {(zos.)

7.a.1 lg:U dyalk (p)

8. msa iuM asa (f . s)

9. bhda .gmaa fbnt (p)

10. bqa bna lyum (f .s. )

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** i *

Unit 9

Moroccan Arabic

156

IX. 4 .Text

kayktb lsnwan dyali

kayktb =ysn

kaync s b)k'i.

kayc~m Wldu lq;aya .

kayd: s daba

kayebawn bn Tx

dyalu.

k y~aui bind f s' dyU

kaytkl ~m luglizy: a ~~

ha huwa , kaytkl:m bra .

kayhtarm hn.

kayt rqdaba.

kastmLni :1uibl dyain dim.

He is writing my address.

He writes nicely.

He goes to sleep early.

He teaches his son how to read.

He is teaching now,

He helps Awmed rith his wok.

He is helping Ahmed with his work.

He spak

good English.

There he is, talking outside.

He respects Ahmed.

It (min bur

now.

It turns red.

It is turning red.

He always uses his car.

ass [nt*%]

2qaya

q;":a

lnglzy: a 4lugl iza

nglizi

is

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b;: a

to sleep, to go to sleep

reading,

to teach

English langaage

English (in) Nisba

Outside

almas

***

Moroccan Arabic

157

U nit 9

ix. Gra-C~ticta:lNotes

1. The previous text has sentences containing verbs in their present

tense [imperfect, as opposed to perfect (or past) forms].

Imperfect corresponds to English present, progressivre and

habituial.

2. Notice the use of the imperfect prefix /ka-/ (which has the

variants /tam-/ /da-/ and /la-f for some speakers) . /ka-/ is here

ref erred to as the Frequentative Particle and the imperfect plus

/ka-/ is ref erred to as the Frequentative Form denoting habitual

or progpessive action (SaeAppendix B).

Imerfect with the Frequentative Particle /kca-/

k~tb 'to write'

kaniktb

you (ins)

you (f's)

he

t ki ktab ]

katktb

f taktb]

katktbi

(1mtktb? ]

kayktb

[] ykt%]

she

katktb

[kmtektab]

we

kanktbu

you (P)

they

E[kktbo]

katktbu

kayktbu

[3 tktbv ]

[(oyekctbv 3

3. All sound forms I X con juite alike in the imperfect. See

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Tables 1- 8 Appendix A

Moroccan Arabia

158

Unit 9

4.The term "isba'7 that appears in parentheses after an hglish

gloss is a term used by Arab grammarians for a certain class of

adjectives. These are all regu2ar in form

/dm~rib/ 'Morocco,, /ma'ribi/ (mn) "Moroccan' (Nisba) [i.e. per-

tamning to Morocco. The full paradigm is :

ma yib i (ma), mayriby :a (fs), m'rriby : in (mp), mvf'riby :at (p)

Also :

amirika 'America',,,airki (in) 'American' (Ilisba).

The full paradigm is :

(fp)

Ix.6 DrillIj

Substjt ate as shiot in brackets.

1. kayktb zuz b'awat f s:3mna (ama , nti)

2. katnva dim bki .

(tntu~m , ba)

3. 2"yalat kaytkl; t dim bz:aof (ta , huwm)

1.. 1wld kaytawn ;: ail f3lxdm dyalu . (ama , hum)

5. kayt'l:mi 1ngizy~al

6. kyai

aa

(hiya , ama)

a z:d bz: sf .(nti ,

7. kayrfd 9sn q {(ite. , biya)

8.

maatl ya= . t(sta ,msa)

9. kaysttul I:uintbi1 dya].u (hum , ama)

10. kath ua lfqih (eta , mti )

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**

159

Moroccan Arabic

Uarit 9

Moroccan Arabic

2~59

Unit 9

Ix. 7 Text

k y i Z it

uq kyzib w ldu an lmdrasa 3k1 :

har .

d.~kayzur f2s5fs: if

kayxaf TIikiab bz 81'.f

kayr ti Ibawa lbntu

kaybda lxdmnabkri

kaya~zid d:wa dyalu 3o1: c5y: a

He sells olives i~n the market.

He brings his son from school

everyday.

He always visits Fez in summer.

He fears dogs a lot.

He gives candy to his daughter.

He begins his work early.

He takes his medicine every

evening.

kaYyf: qwldu ]all: sbah.

kayzl 1 t :uaszbil dyalu 1hda l3ihkaa.

kaytram ibra l.r:azi

Iayhb: lbnt bz: of

kayd: i l' ~dyalu an ah

diva .

kayi i f s: bh bkr i

S: if

s:.w

r: bis'

1 if

zjhkaui (f)/- t

1yd~a (in) / -mat

He wakes his son every morning.

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He leaves his car by the court .

Be is translating the letter for

the ma.

He loves the girl very mach.

He always takes his lumch along

with him.

He comes early in the morning.

sumer

winter

spring

autu n

court of lmV

1lunch

***

M o2roccaf Arabic

160

Unit 9

Ix. 8 Gramatical Notes

1. The conjugation of medial weak verbs in the imperf'ect is here

listed with the pref'ix /ka-/ (Frequentative particle):

Ierf'ect with the Frequentative Particle /ka-/

you (ins)

you ('s )

he

she

we

you (p)

they

bar' i) 'to sell f

kanbi"

katbi

ka.tbic'i

kaybic

katbic

kanbicu

katbi vu

kaybieu

xa'(a) 'to

3satxaf

be afrai c'

ka Cu) 'to bet

kattm

kayzma

k2"Xaful

iatzafu

kayzafu

kayor

katki m

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k~knu

sat~ou

kaykiu

Notice : The vowel in parentheses is that of the imperfect (also of the

imperative; see VI II.6. A.so see T abler 10 - 12 Appendix A.

2. The c uugatioi of Form l final weak bda (a) 'to begin',

'to give' and xda (E.-ut) 'to take' in the imperfect :

(See Tables 13 - 15 Appendiz A. )

er'ect with the Frequentative Particle /ka-/

he

she

(MS)

(i's)

bda (a) 'to begin'

kaibda

katbda

katbday

kaybda

katbda

sa (i) 'to give'

kateti

~tti

zda (Cu) 'to take'

kaiad

kat~ad

ktax&i

kas~d

kataxud

Moroccan Arabic

161

und t 9

1~oroccan Arabic

161

Unit 9

Imeerf'ect

we

you~ (p)

they

kib daw

katbdaw

kaybdaw

kan~stiw

katv'tivw

kayiw

kazdu

kataxdu

kayazdu

3. Conjugation of Form 11 medial weak fy:q 'to wake s.0o. uD, kw..n

'to create, to make' and of Form I final weak xl:a 'to let,

to leave' in the imperfect: (See Tables 21 - 23 A pendix A .)

ImDerfect with the frequentative Particle /ka-'/

you

you

he

she

(is)

(s)

'y :q !'to wake up't

kanf y :q.

katfy :q

katfy :qi

kayfy :q

kat fy:q

kanfy:qa

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katfy :qu

kayfy :qu

kw :n 'to create'

kann

katkwv:n

katkw ni

kaykw:n

katkw:n

kankwnmu

katkwrtnu

kaykw nu

xl:a ' to let, to leave'

kanxzl:i

katxl :i

katxl:fir

kayxl:i

katxl. :i

kanzl :iw

katz). :iw

kayzi :iw

we

you (p)

they

4,. conjugation of the sound quadriliteral verb / im/ t'to translate t

in the imperfect is the same as that of sound triliteral verbs

(see IL.5.3 above) ALSO see Table 9 Appendix A.

5. The paradigms for the biradicals/bb :/ 'to love' , fdq :/ (-u-) ' to knock'

and /d/' to take along' are here listed in the iperfect . Also

see Tables 16 - 19 Appendix A.

Moroccan Arabic

162

Unit 9

Moroccan Arabic

162

Unit 9

Imperfect with the Frequentative Particle /ka-m/

you

you

he

she

(fs)

~b: t to love'

1kanhb :

kathb :

kathb :i

kaybb:

kathb:

dg : (u-) I'to knock't

kanduq :

katduq :(> kduq:)

katduq :i ( kad uq : i)

kayduq :

katduq : (> kaa uq :)

d:a 'to tak~e along'

kand: i

lztd :i

katd :iy

kayd :i

katd :i

NC

you (P)

they

kathb :u

kayhb :u

kn~iq *-

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katduq :u

kayuq :u

(>kaduqu)

kand :iw

katd :iw

kayd : iw

IX.9 Drill 5

Substitute as ohhmn in brackets.

1.v kaybit lq~ fs:uq . Chum , bza)}

2. katiib lktab dya~ha ll asa . (ama,$ uwa)

1.. kamf mil b lb

5. kayn 4b'i .

a.

(a , bewa)

(atum , 'iya)

6. ayq in stay bn: em' . (biya , mna)

7.*kayi lkablivid. Cans , zita)

8,. kaybda lzdm bki . (Cats , biya)

9. k1ayizwi 3.m fikas. (hiys , zti )

10. kyqa Iazda 1:1 .

4!*

ci, atum)

Ni craccan Arabic

163

Unit 9

M oT'occan krabic

163

IX.lO Drill 6

A nswer in the negative.

1. ws kayizn 1ba l'a aby a ?

2. was kayeds ibab dyal c au ?

3. eri kat s: i ;:bic f$:bad b)k'i ?

4~. ws kat b zu bad lbnt ?

5. ws katd. i 1lq4 ls~uq ?

6. ws kayi ndku m dim ?

7. wi kayf:q w ld u bk i ?

8. vas katil : iy I:uibil dy alk Oda l1j'a?

IX1ii Text

rai yktbbaL

radi yei33.Mdz'sa.

yfadi yxl; i t:umlbil dyalu baa.

wi s fadi tst"'ul bad s: ?

yadya tai yd.a .

radyin yiniiw ifas .

Tadyt y iw 1f as .

vas Y'di tktb lba lyon?

la , uryadi nktb lba lyyz.

'radi (u), rya ('s)

'radyin (mp), rYat (fp)

He wil.l write

He will go to

He will.1leave

Are you goin

She will come

They (m) will

They (f ) will7

a letter to Ahmed.

school.

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his car here.

to use this thing?

tomorrow.

go to Fez.

go to Fez.

Are you going to writea the letter'

today?

No, I am not going to write the

letter today.

auxliry used before imperfect form

without prefix /ka-/, "going, will

Unit 9

Moroccan Arabic

164

n- i- t 9

I1X12 Gramatical Notes

Notice the expression of the future tense is achieved by the use

of radi (is), radya ('s), lradyin (msp), adyat (fp), plus imperfect

form without the prefix /ka-./. N otice that only /yadii/ is negated.

IX-13 Drill 7

Answer in the affirmtive, then the negative.

1. was "radi tktb 4:'s cdcalk ?

2.

asi ' adyin yhdiw a mallbnt ?

3. Vas

rdat ys1t;ta tia lfqi h

Ii.. was fadya tbi t ~,mbi1 dyalba ?

5. wsiNadi yazad t~fs a a d:ri ?

6. was radi ykini 1ga n dyalu ?

7. Ras a"ya tads bab cdyal

8. ws 3yayird: iw lqi IBsUq ?

9. wsA radi T

m I51ba lltarabyza9

10. wskaacfu m 1km dyhm ?

ix.2.4 -T6mt

uitktbi lba dabs %

mtglmsisi baa

utfiqi bkzi 3

natk1:smu I

amtktbihai 3

Dont rite a letter now! (to mos.)

Don't sit here! (to f.s. )

Don't go today! (to p)

Don't wake up early! (to mono)

Don't talk to him! (to n..s..)

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Don't arte it (f )H (to t. s. )

M Croce= A rabic

165

1. it 9

IXl5 Gra tical Notes

1. The negative imperative is formed from the second person

(m . ~s. , p) imperfect (without /kaM-/) with the help of

the negative morpheme /ma ... $/, e.g.

ktb

Itto write'

katktb

ktb ! 'write!'t(nts.)

' you are writing't

mtktbi ! 'don't write!' (m. s. )

2. Notice the pronominal suffixes in the last two eagples in

IX.34 above .

IX.16 Drill 8

Give the Moroccan Arabic for:

1. Don't drink too

zch coffee ! (?us*)

2. Don't smoke1! (f .ms.)

3. Don't fix the car now!

(p)

I}.. Don't bring the newspaper ! (86..)

5. Don't wake uip early! (f.m.)

6. Don't give the book to the boy!

(f.ms.)

7. Don't trmsslate the letter into B nglishl (p)

8. Don't came ! (lug-)

9. Don't be afraid!

(f .8.)

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10. Don't wake him zp ! (m. s .)

Morcccsa Arabic

166

unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

166

UNIT TEN

X.JI Review - Drill 1

1.

2.

3.

'..

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14-.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

Form similar sentences using the

(New vocabulary is listed at the

ktb bra. Ibarh.

qra l sarabv -a flo ahi r

kla l~kskstif -.as

m =ibulis.

sat unto fs:uq

hi : lhanut bkri

d: a r: adyulbarh

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bdd wayzu fs:bah

zaub r: isala

tfaq m'a si bm

tlrq lbarh

'tar'f 'l1a si b3

b r bs:ms

st~inl l aza :dida

l$ ba Ibarh .

subjects in parentheses.

end of Drill1 5. )

He wrote a letter yesterday. (aa)

HeA studied

A Cir.(zta)

He went to Morocco last year. (hiya)

He ate couscous in Fee. (bn)

He was afraid of the police. (hu)

He put the comb in his pocket. (nti)

He saw the woman in the mnarket. (ftuma)

He opened the shop early. (hiya)

He came last nighit. (hum)

He took the radio yesterday. (rita )

He changed his clothes in the

morning. (riti )

He showed the letter to the teacher.

He answered the letter. (rita)

He talked with the girl. (hum)

He left Mr. Abmed. (bri)

It (m) was burned yesterday. (1ktab)

He got acquai.nted with Mr. A9med)

He turned red from the sun. (ibut)

He used the new watch. (d:ssi )

He translated the letter yesterda

(Eta

Unit 10

McTcccaa Arabic

167

Unit 10

X.2 Drill 2

Form sentences using the imperative f'orms of' the verbs in IDrill I

(ktb, ktbi, ktbu).

e.g., ktb bra 1 }j !

ktbi d :rs dyalk I ktbu 1rwI

0 0

X. 3 Review Drill 3

Form similar sentences using the subjects in prentheses.

1. yad~i yhdr mea Si bd yd: a

2. radi ybda daba

3. radi yeti lktab 11mn 1 im

Ij.yadi yaatid d: wa..

6. 'radi yrisi bna .

7. 'radi 3yib lktab dtya

8. 'radA ybz : lbaky: a i fuq t:bla

9. Yom.i yzi dabs .

10. radi yd: i bad s:

11. 'radi yfy: q lwld.

14. radi tt1: m ltaraby a

15. yradi ytfahm mea si hin

He will talk to Abmed tomorrow. (nts)

Be will begin now. (bna)

He will give the book to the teacher.

He

(ana)

Hewill take the medicine. (ntum)

He will be scared of' the dog . (hiya )

Be is going to live here. (ama)

He will bring the book quickly. C1m)

He will take the package off the

table . (lbnt )

He will come now. (1'tyalat)

He will take that thing. (d: rari )

He will wake the boy up. (lma)

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He will take the girl for a walks.

(ana)

He will puni~sh the maid. (ati)

He will learn Arabic. (nta)

He will reach an agreement with Ahmed.

(ntum)

It (in) will be written tomorrow. (lb'a)

Moroccan Arabic

163

Unit 10

Moroccaxk Arabic

16S

Unit 10

17. yadi ynta4? lbnt ba

18 . yadi yqra' = dabs si c a yn

19.o 'adi ystxbr nn Ibulis

(> m:bulis)

20. yadi yff ft: bla

Be will wait for the girl here. (enta)

He will be bald in about two years.

(ita,)

He will inuire at the police

station. (bhy)

He will move the table. (ntm )

X-4 Review Drill 4

fr sentences sus.g the a f ir~tive and negative ieratives of' the

verbs in i i 1 3 above; e.* g. hh -V ~

mathu', mth4is,

inathdsIi - hu m"'a Si and , mts 'a sitbn ... etc.

X. 5 Review Drill 5

Form s'm lr sentences using the subjects in parentheses.

1. ft ,a sbe ti t : umbil dyalk 2

3. nad domya wna l3lmdasa .

Li. f ayn iriti hh24laids?

~. Britta m cd m l haza'id , badak

l: i frt= Bari v mbind 1 s

6. fayzizl: iti sumbi1 dyak ?

8. 34went ka1:hum ayisdu fs: t:a .

When did you sell your car? (intums)

I sold my car the day before

yesterday. (nb

Be got up quickly and vent to

school. (hiya)

Where did youby this paper? (atum)

I bought it at the nevstand at the

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corner of~ Avenue )tbhaied V. (]Ina)

Where did you leave your car? (hu)

I left it behind the courthouse.

All shops close at 6:00. (law)

Moroccan Arabic

169

unit I0

Moroccan Arabic

169

s; y; da aqbat lmt '1:ma

11ltoaraby a .

srin a atay Ws : uk: ar Wfl: s

hads : bad,

dima keyxdmi fs~bah b1k!i

kayqra liarida IWtl: sba i

kaytm :a ikar.

kayd: i lhwayz ls : b: area

katbic d: Wa.

New Vocabulary for Review Drills 1 -

lqabhira

lksksu

lbulis

lib (in) / iyb

m (f) / e'yalat

bat (mn) / wet

radyru (in) / ,ay wt

The maid returned (gave back) the

medicine to the druggist. (ana)

The lady punished the maid. (;:a l)

I translated the letter from

French into Arabic. (nti)

We bought tea, sugar and mint

this morning. (hm)

I went to school, not to the market.

Chtiya )

They always work early in the morning.

He reads the paper every mornin.

He is waiting for the bus.(zt)

He is using the bicycle. (inti)

He takes the clothes to the

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washerwoman. (1ma)

She sells medicine. (If 3 y2)

Caro

couscous

police

comb

pocket

woman

to open

shop

radio

clothes, tkhngs

teacher

hayz (in)

=v3.l .:iin(mn) / -'ii

Unit 10

170

Moroccan Arabic

I-hl- t io

170

mat io

=mlia;i (f} / -t

ri sala (f ) / -t

tfaro

sms (f

baqb

mtcl:m (in) / -in

mt'3:m (f) / -t

tfabin

si

teacher

letter

to be separated

to get acquainted (with)

the sun

to live

qickly,

to eary, pick up

to mke walk, take for a walk

to punish

tiouseboy

maid

to reach a mutual agreement

Mr.

to wait for

qrat

strbr

aa

ras (~

sari

to become bald

fst~xborJ

to inquire

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when?

Cin) /I alin

owgner

occurs before the definite article

*g. , m I1 2bhanut

zlana (Mn)

shopowner

God. Dair Lord

who, which, that (relative )

L)

head

(in) / ~ w rtavenue

(before definite article) behind

(elsewhere)

behind

to give back, to return

Moroccan Arabic

UrLit 10

171

Moroccan Arabic

171

araasyan C(b)

l fransy: a (f) 1 aransy: a

sra (i3)

ka r (in) / ki ran2

sb: an (mn) /-in

sb :amaCf)/t

dwa / dwayat

tsn:a

drugstore, druggist

French language

to buy

every, each

bus

washerman

wa sherma

medicati m

to wait

* **

X. 6 Text

dims kanbri nsrb si kas datay

~ba6.

iat dims, arb stay fs:bah

'yadi nbqa nsrb atay dims

s:bah

byit ninsi nktb si bra

radi nmsi nktb si bra

fl1

an isi fgr:u

kal Xs;zlj nmsi nuf b d barh

Zx:k t~sb:r takssi t1awd: a~

dik Iblasa biida

I always like to drink a cup of' tea

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in the morning.

I always drank tea in the morning.

I1ll always drink tea in the

morning (from now on).

I want to go write a letter.

I am going to go wite a letter.

I have to go and buy cigarettes.

I had to go and see Abmed yesterday.

You have to take a cab because

that place is far.

dii

bqa (a)

taki(m) / yt

always

to remain

it'l anecessary

to grab, to take

cab

Unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

172

tit 10

Moroccan Arabic

172

Unit 10

r1awd:as

blasa (f) /J*-t

b'id (im)

because

place

far

X. 7 Grammatical N~otes

1. Forms of kAn (u) t to bet in the perfect may be used before

other verbs in the imperfect to mean "used to" or in the

perfect to denote the past perfect.

kmn kaybyi yrb atay fs :bah

ken kay'arb bz :&a d3ib

ken bya ymsi If as

lc=ttb qi ndkqbLmez

He used to like to drink tea early

in the morning.

He used to drink a lot of milk.

He vented to go to Fez.

I had met him before he came to

your place.

2. Notice the use of arc. + verb (imperf.) + verb (imperf. )

'radi nmsi nktb si bra

I'll1 go write a letter.

3. AnxlarSy 1! tit's Ilecessazrt + pronouinal wffiz

(It's necessary for nme, you, ... etc.)

XS:fli

1 af S:fl1

xs~ni Bu d1' asabit bas

n2gl 2IxdA dyali

I have to

I bad to

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it's necessary

I need two weeks to finish my work.

*j * '

Moroccan Arabic

173

Unit 10

x. 8 Drill 6

Substitute as shod in brackets.

1.v dim ktbyi ti'b ii kas datay fc:bad . (ania , hawa)

2. kan dim yi 'b atay f :ba . (hum , na)

3., 'adi nbqa ns;b dim atay fq: bad . (ritum , hiya )

6. ken X~;u ymai ysuf 1imd . (ania , nita)

7. ~ s tb~ jk~ .(hms*, a

X.9 Text

SIT ku r d

sir tszxf .id

asi x

aai dm

flud hi : Ibab .

rind thyi: Ibab .

m~tqul S had 53:1

ri ham"'iw zm.;

yak: ah 'iwui

7a3: Sh niw nzm

yw: sir nf as Kayn.

Go see Ahmed !

Go see Ahmed !

Come and work!

Come and work!

Get up and open the door !

Get up and open the door !

D= I't go to sleep !

Don't say that !

Let's go !

Let's all go!

Let'Is go and work!

Go see what the matter is !

exhortative particle, t let' s'

***

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yal~ah

Moroccan Arabic

174

Unit t 10

1~roccan Arabic

174

Unit 10

X. 10 Grammatical Notes

Expressing the imperative :

a)} Im ev

sir

b mprtvEe Ipeive

sir Bur

Co!

SeelZ

Go see!

c)

Imperative + Imperfect without /ka-/

sir tsuf

Go see!

d) 1y4:ah

yal :ah

Imprtve

sir

Go

e)

y4l:ah + Imperf'ect without Aka-/

yal :ah nm.iw?

Let' s go:

fb y4:ah

yal:ali

...

+ 3Imerfect

nmn iw nzdmi

writhout /ka-/ + Im perfect without fka-/

let's go and work!I

Hortatory - ortative

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***

Moroccan Arabic

175

Unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

175

X.11 Drill 7

Translate

1. sir zuf )md3

2. sin tsufi and !

3. sire t ttzfu b1d3

14.. azi ndux 3

5. uu4i txdini 3

6. yak:eh nmasiw nibu ii kas datay!3

7. utmusii tae s

8. Go talk to the teacher! (m.s. )

9. Get up and open the door! (f.s. )

10. Letts go see the teacher? (p)

X.12 Text

*bra ymi yra .

m ba yra

n:; y .

rai y=si yqa

rad . ymsi yftr

zm'radis yinsi yleb lkza .

ltb

He irants (wasted) to go and study.

He does not (did not) want to go

and study.

He went to study.

He will go Study .

He will go bhave brescast.

He did not go play ball.

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to play

Unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

176

Unit 10

Moroccn Arabc 176

nit 1

x.1.3 Gr-matical Notes

d~ressing English infinitive with "to ' in Moroccan Arabic is

achieved by :

Perfect + Ilmerfect without /ka-/

m.~a yqra.

b'ra ygra

He went to study.

He wants to study.

OR

Perfect + Imperfect without /ka-/ + Iperfect without /ka-/

b'a ymsi y]s b

He wants to go (to) play.

OR.

fraI 41 feet wthout Afmmf + I werfect without fka.'

'radi y ii yleb

Heo will go (to) play.

x.31. Text

vas 'rdi ymsi yltb lka lyum ?

ras b'ra. ymsi yqra?

w a sbri 1

yqtb lq~wmtana

wa~ matla a rdi ymi n :ya ?

Is he going to play ball today?

Does he want to go and study?

? Doesn't he want to come and have

coffee with us?

Ian tt he going to study anymore?

nat1a

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~tla~ to no longer be or do or beccie

Unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

177

X.15 Drill 8

Siubstitut~e as trawl in -brackets.

2. mabyinas nmsiw daba

3. Hasayn s

(hams , rita )

(hiya , hu3m)

ii.. radyat ymuiw yaqaw (ania , )jna)

6. vas bri ti torsi tq'ay 1um?

(huwa , hum)

7. was uab'ras yi y ib stay m ara ? (hiya , hum)

x. 16 Text

msa bas yqra .

b's 7=3. dabs bas ysri si

ktab .

1x~ yam lawd: asgmid

ws clabqg,:a$ t;Wflibi2. ya2u

mradis ysafr slaqibal ma ndi

f-lus

m'radis ysri tuimbil hit

mentdu. flus

He went to Cin order to) study.

Be wants to go now in order to

buy a book."

He did not work today because he

is sick.

He did not come because his car is

broken (does not work).

He is not going to travel because

he has no money.

He i's not going to btiy a car since

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be does not have money.

Moroccan Arabic

178

t 10

Moroccan Arabic

178

ml.: i. ysU raadi y' tiba

Ibra dy aha

lmainaa awl ;a Ikar

had lirtab m yan wlakin yali

qal yadi 7i Ualay : i mas

was by'a atay awl: a lqhwa ?

bas

calawd.:

clahq; ~

rlahq:as

Xdsa, / -t

When he sees her, he will give

her the letter.

In order to go to Meknes, take

either the train or the bus.

phi s book is good, but it is

expensive.

He said he was going to come but

he did not .

Does he want tea or coffee?

If~ ne comes now, we '11 all leave

together.

so that, in order to

because

because

because

because

working (f.s.)

la ibal.

hit

ml: i

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aw

Im~ ..awisa

walekin

wai.ayn3 i

awl:a

vi ~a

because

since= because (on account of)

when (conjunmction)

or

either ... or

but

but

or

or

if~ (possible, probable action +

perfect)

* * *

ila

Unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

179

unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

179

Unit 10

X. 17 Drill 9

Translate

1.

2.

3.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

24.0

15.

msiat bas tnt s

bryit nmi idaba bas nfri wayz zdad .

s dt~lyum "Iawd: as y:an si s'py":a

ma.ats ela1q: as kart m i~a bz:f .

sa d~nsaf; lyu tv1aqiba1 t uibi1 dyali iXd: aa.

-m 'yadii ym i ibaris it wndu flue

ml : i nsfu ,rdi netih lktub dyaian

bas tmsiy If as is a t5b :;i lmiina aw : a lka .

bad lktab yan wa kin Pali bz : of

gait yradya t~i walaynsti msZS. mats

was byiti atay wi sa lqhwa ?

brit Dmi baaszsi si g;:u .

gaa radyin yziw walakin inazawI.

mgmas yq'a cb1ag :as afaS ibkri f s ba.

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***

Moroccan Arabic

180

Unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

180

Unit 10

X. 16 Text: Asking Directions

(1) Questions

sm li asidi , qul:i , fayn

~at Ixizana ltam a ?

qa2. (u)

z.a (i)

zat

'an m ) / 'am:aC(f )

Please tell me where the public

library is, Sir.

to forgive

to tell

to come

it (f) came, i.e. is located

general, public

qul : i mfd1k , fayn at Imk ? Please tell me, where is the court?

mfd1k

please (to s )

mfadlszm

please (to p)

].~li asidi midk , f ayn

la s:Uq lkbir ?

suq(m) /aswq owswaq

smli asidi , as katrrf

fayn laamiea?

IamiL'a (f) / -'t

Please, here is the big

market?

market, maket place

Please, do you know uhere the

University is?

to know

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University

Moroccan Arabic

181

Unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

181

wa~ kat~r1'

s zi midkswa

ttz

f'aynsais mbm. 1xamis?

Please, do you know where

Mohamed V. Ave. is?

(2) Answers

IiiZama It am: a

b d dur "l1ya i

qud-a.

fiat hda

Ixizanam .at

The public library is by the

University. Go straight and then

turn right. It will be right in

front 0of you.

zad (i)

dar (u)

ly71

to continue, to add

straight

turn

right

to the right.

linhikai bi'ida

t~b: r taksi

~Wyaynrl

The court is a

You can take a

little far.

cab.

s:uq lkbfr bt id bZ: of

lawd: as

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labd: m tb:r*aki,

s~uq btid tbasl kiluinitr ma:a

far (mn)

it Is possible

it is possible for you, iLe. you can

to grab (to take )

The big market is very far. You

ust take a cab because it is 12

kilometers from here.

Unit l0~

Moroccan Arabic

182

unit 10

Moroccan Arabic Unit 10 182

labd:

v lad: as

m: a ( m bna)

l3.amiq a tm: a qud: ak .

dik 1'rimara lkira

ta: a

'imra / -t

(3)} Qestions and Answers

smli *fayn iat a: ifaa

1'aiiky: a ?

dutr 1 ]., WZid i WY: a

f ari l bd: at , qm Za vst -in i a ( ) / t

'aiirikit

Si S3:a

bd: at

rqmm) rqm

much

must, it is necessary

that

because

from here, from us

The Uivursjtv is over there, in

front of you, that big building.

there

building

please, where is the American

Emibassy?

TuzT left and go on a little more

on the same aven ue. it is No. 65.

Embassy

U.S.A.

left

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American (Nisba)

to the left

a little

precisely, the sam e

azmber

Moroccan Arabic

183

Unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

183

!arasyan ,rib '?

famsyni{Cm) / -at

,rib C m)

la

asidi, aayi frad Lm.

tbbt 1: mdia

rakaynw

hum. (i) / -t

rxs:k

hb t bbet )

mdina (f)j / =dte

m:a ?

lagate , ttsa nb s; 1?=n..

kifas

ErC a)

#t: a

WS). EwsalJ

ofg

Please, do you know of a nearby

drugstore?

druggist, drugstore, pharmacy

nearby

No, there is not one here.

You have to go to the city

(downtown) .

it (mn) does not exist.

section of a city

to be necessary

you have to (it is necessary for

You )

to descend

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city

Please, how can I get to Meknes

(from here) ?

Go up this avenue until you reach

the railway station and take the

train.

how?

go up

with

until

to reach, arrive

Unit 10

Moroccan Arabic

184

Uni t 10

Moroccan Arabic

184

Sagas

2masina

railroad station

the train

zid frad d:rb 1w:1, s b'd

cuzr tflym tmsa 8:atyam H1

drb (in) / driuba

sz ilii asidi, wi kayn Ii m'am

9uvm! : aii q ib 9

s 21 iasidi

9ab;n

4tsan () / ua# aeia

vutsmp:a ai ) bi

bbr:ui (in)

Keep going up this first street

and then turn right and there you

find the C.T.M. (Coipaiie de

Transports M aro caine) behind the

court*

street

the first (m.s. )

Please, is there a &iropean

restaurant nearby?

Eacuze mee. I am a stranger.

restaurant

European (Nisba)

stranger (Nisba)

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Unit 10

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PART THREE

CON VERSATI ONS

UNITS 11J - 20

Moroccan Arabic

186

Unit 3.1

Moroccan Arabic

186

~iit 11

UNIT ELEVEN

XI.I Greetings - s:la

aban.

2b3

Hello.

faml y

Hello.

RL. - Hello.

easy

abln

abl-n

wasabln

ma sabin

sabi

aban wa sabin.

abn wa s-an . a~ xba~k ?

labas"

xb (mn) /zxbar

bas

Hello.

HL. - Hello.

Hello. How are you? (What is your

news?) [ Forms in parentheses are

literal translations.]

Fine (no harm) .

,uhat

news

harm

Some ieans of Classical Arabic case endings are found in Moroccan

Arabic as well as all other Arabic dialects. Here : e. g. /-nn/.

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z R. - means response to.

Moroccan Arabic

187

Unit U

Moroccan Arabic

187

Unit 11

ahin wa sebln . as xbrk?

labs I bman lii :2ah

ain

lmd

1: ah

abin we saban , as

xbar om asji?

labs s lbdu lii: aft

xba3rim

si di

shIn we sabi s:~ i d.

abin we sa.ln s;j i in :d

Hello, how are you?

Fine, thanks. (no harm, praise be

to God)

to praise , glorif'y God

praise (notice Classical Arabic

ending -/U/

God

Hello, how are you, sir?

Fine, thank.

your (p) news (polite form for (9))

vocative particle

my sir, Mr.

Hello, Mr. Ahmned.

Hello, Mr. 1sthammed.

S: i p si

mister (before a name )

s: i bind nta bizizr'?How are you, Mr. Abimed (Are you fine) ?

neam asidi bizl1i lil:8b. Yes, thanks.

good

n'am

yes

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air (mn)

Moroccan Arabic

188

Unit 3.1

Moroccan Arabic

188

Unit 11

lal: a fatima as xba~k ? gas

nti bizxir ?

labas asid~i , :ah yz l ftik

ibaak..

la1: a / 1a1: y:at

Ibaraka (f') / -t

abin ma sahin , fatm, as

xbark ? nti b ixiz' ?

How are you, Madam Patina? Are

you fine?

Fine. May God bless you, sir.

madam , lady

to do, to make

blessing

Hello, Patma. How are you?

bizir lbu lii:ah . uiti atisa . I am fine. How are you, Aisha?

h~t :ina'ea bixir , 2bindu lil : h . I am fine, thanks.

4t:a

also , even, until

as Xbar sha ?

kif 9:bha ?

s:h: abixir lbidu 3i3: ah

kif

lf.-bas li du lil: ah

Now are you?

(How is health ?)t Said only if onie

has not seen the other for a long

time.]J

Pie, thanks.

how?

health

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How are you?

Pine, thanks.

Moroccan Arabic

189

unit 11

Moroccan Arabic

189

w lc'a~ila ?

lta'ila lba

hmdu 1i2;ah

as zbar lm'ila?

lvoa'ila labas Thm.u lil: ah

1: a y"1 f ik 2baraka asidi.

as Xbar d: rani ?

d: rani bixir , bark

1: aimfik

dxl i (m)/drari

bk

as zbar ml1 i : ar' ?

amoalin d:ar bixir lbmdu lil:ah .

. .

" .

21l (in) / wraain Salin.

sba~h 2xir

sbah 2xfr.

msl ir .

Mislr.0

How about the family?

They are fine, tbankss.

family

How is the family?

Fine, thanks. (The family is fine,

thank God. May God bless you Sir.)

How are the kids ?

They are fine. May God blesa you.

boy, kid

to bless

How is the faiy

They are fine.

head, owner

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Good morning.

R. - Good maorng.

Good evening.

L. - Good evening.

Unit U

Moroccan Arabic

190

Unit 11

Moroccan Arabic

190

lila sarid&

liltk 8a'ida

l li1 as (id)

s + 1 t m)

S ? . L a a na l m i = a a

-leum

as xbazr3oa?

isbas baaa. l: ahufik

Good night.

R.. - Good night (to you (s)).

R. - Good night (to you (p) or polite

night

happy

Your (s) night

Hello, hi .

R.. - to Hello, hi.

peace, greetings

on you (p)

polite form)

Hello-.

R.. - Hello.

How are you?

Fine,- thanks.

We haven t seen you for a long time.

Uiere have you been?2

Here I am.. I went to America

and then to G en .

to see

absence

well

ihal hasdi ma inak.

iw 'rir bma , kant fi 'amirika

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umzb'd mit l'alm ya.

saf (U)

ciba (f) /'rI

iva

Unit 11

Moroccan Arabic

191

Unit 11

Moroccan Arabic

191

*yir

umnb r d wibs d

'a? miya

mssnaha .

l: a ysah lina wlik .

si bas ma 3

insaa(f) / -t

tbli aaid~i

s~ilui asyadi.

sali alaa:y~ati

only, just

after

and later, and after that, and then

Germany

Excuse me. (said to (m)).

Don't mention it.

Don't mention it.

Don't mention it.

to forgive

forgiveness

Excuse me, Sir.

Excuse me, Mdam.-

Excuse me, gentlemen.

Excuse me, ]ladies.

Don't mention it.

mister

God

vnig

R.Good evening.

here are you going?

I am going home.

Greet the family f~or me.

Sid

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si bas a me

Sy: d (in) / syad

ml~mir.

fayn ai ?

mxi 3d: Sr

s1l mli 'la malin d:a.

Unit I).

Moroccan Arabic

192

T t Ii

Moroccan Arabic

192

bi :T 1: ah siamk

51 :m

bi:Y

sbah :zir asidi

zbrk ? labas ?

I will. (God will wake your greetings

reach them.)

to greet

to cause to reach, deliver

Good morning, sir. How are you?

O.K.?

labas 3 du 1il: ah

was knot2: i bixir ?

nc'am a sidi 3.1;: i bizfr

ah y~1 f ik 1bar'aka

52.

lull Si

abl n Ta sa2n .

thin wa sain .

as xbark ? kif day ?

2abors .* ta ? woalin d: ar ?

maliai d r kays:m 'uk

iwa 51:31. "clihun.

bl:yr l:ah slauk.

Fine, thanks.

Is everything all right ?

Yes everything is all right,

thanks,

every

thing, some

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everything-391, everybody

Hello.

R. - Hello.

How are you.

Fine, How about yr ? and the

ie famiygreets youi.

Byhello to them.

I will.

RGoooobyee

that 11

Moroccan Arabic

193

TIM-Out 22

Moroccan Arabic

193

dar Ci)

dayr

to do

you are doing (participle)

to give peace

bl;8S

+!a ybn ik

bs;l5

Ma aS :al9

Goodbye

Goodbye

Goodbye

(and R.)

(and R.)

(and R.)

y~5i

la

1:a

yes

no

no

tfd:12

tfd~1 zmid si ka s datay .

tfd.:1

ad

xda (*-.u)

kas (in) / kis i

atay

qhwa

tf d: l xu~d si g=- u

gar:u (Mn) / -yrat ' -vat

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please!t

Please have a cup of tea.

please (be preferred)

take:~

to take.

at an. some

glass

of [ d+nounm, /datay/t'ottea'lj

tea

Please have a cup of coffee.

coffee

Have a cigarette.

cigarette

tkiit 11

Moroccan Arabic

194

unit 11

Moroccan Arabic

194

gis

haaa / hway

zid asidi , n'hba

tfd:1 gs bna .*was b'iti.

51 mribat ?

y: ih brit si ]sas datay,:

ba~ l: ahu fik .

zad (i)

~bba

bra (i)

~tba Cf) / -.t

t'd:l Zeld gaX:U.

Please sit down and have something

to eat.

to sit

eat!~

something (plural means 'clothes'

also)

Come in. Welcome [ said by a host].

Please sit down here. D)o you

want someth ing to drink?

Yes, a cup of tea please.

to come in, to add

welcome

to want

drink

Save a cigarette.

Thanks.9 o.k.

thanks , no, thank you

tf'd:l gis bna.

W : 3, bazmakI : a] fik asidi

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Sit here.

All right, thankes.

all right, o. k.

T:a

Unit 11

Moroccan Arabic

19$

Unit 3

Moroccan Arabic

195

Unit II

la, safL basa 1 : shafib

sa.

was b~ tmsi m ay ld.ar

daba ?

y: ih nm i mr ak .

Safi.

Would you like another cup of tea?

No, thanks .

it ts enoug s, that is it, it is settle;

Would you like to go home with me

fow ?

Yes.

It's agreed upon. (It's o. k. )

safia~ah

Yes, let us ,go.

w ay

dab&

mak

Safi

with me

now

with you (s )

it is all agreed upon

* * *

XI .2 Proverbs

(1- 5) mortal (m) / mtal.

zb:i

God

u: a ( f) / sus

tooth

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In most cases, people get thtings Bhch are of no use to them.

Moroccan Arabic

196

Unit 3.1

(2) r: bib may302 hbib WS:a tsi':bu kisa Thlib

rbib Cm) / rbayb

rbiba (f) / -t

step-son

step-daughter

b bib Cm) / hbab

max: a

friend, very close friend

although, even if

A step-son will never come to love his step-parent, no matter what

the parent may do for him.

t ib (in)

hit (mn)

/ yb

vuyub

/ 37L1t

are easily seen.

shameful act, defect

wall

q~ir

Shameful deeds

short

VMS (in)

"

it is better to have one eye than

(5) d y: f d; if wIr gis stwa usif

one-eyed, half-blind, afflicted

with poor eyesight

blind

to be blind.

dif' (o) /4yaf "'' 7tuf

itwa(f) / et

Be hospitable to your gVest,

to extend hospitality

guest

even if

winter

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regardless of how lc=g he y stay.

Moroccan Arabic

197

Unit 12

Moroccan Arabic

197

UNIT TWELVE

XILIi Phone Call - ft: ilifum

(H) - Ahmed, /hmid/

(R)-

Hotel Receptionist

(B) - Ibrahim, /brahim/

(R) - y: ih asid~i ha da util

m!aba .

as bya lza

(H) -byit nt3l : m mca si braei

1 msri, bit min wtlatin

-R .bl:ati asidi , waxz:a

wradi nfw: t k si brahim.

(H) - alu, si brashin 3hada ?

v;;ti lhnia ?

(B) lyazm fs:bah

(H) -a a trinldaba ?

Hello, is this the Merhaba. Hotel?

Yes, Sir, this is the Merhaba

Hotel. Wbat can I do for you?

I want to talk to Mri. Ibrahim,

the Egyptian, in Room 32.

Just a minute. O.K., I11ll connect

you with it,. Ibrahim.

Hello, is this Ibrahim?

Yes, How are you, Arced?

I am fine, tell me when did you

arrive here?

This morning.

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What are you doing now?

Unit 12

Moroccan Arabic

198

ti 3 2

Moroccan Arabic

198

(B) - fThadr makanvm1 w alu

(H) - iwa , bt a tm: a, ana yadi

nwsl clik

da sisar'a

wmbr d nmsiw i1&a?.=zmi'

(B) WX:a si ind., banla flbit

(H)-; :ay3bn: ik

Vocabulary

util (mn) / -at

=tr

bl:ati

i'w: t

fuqas

wsl

r'ml

bqa (a)

ms (i)

ht; a

la (i)

waau

RLght now I'm not doing anything.

Well, stay there, 111.1 come to your

place in about an hour. Then we'll

both go to my house.

All right, Ahmed. I1'll stay in my

room umtil you come.

Goodbye.

Goodbye.

hotel

desire, wish

to talk (with)

wait: (invariable), slowly

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to pass

when?

to arrive

to do

now, at the present time

to wait, to remain

to go

all of us, together

until

to cC e

nothing

Unit 12

Moroccan Arabic

199

Unit 12

Moroccan Arabic

199

Unit 12

XII. 2 Questions - 'as'ila

1. ?amin Za brahim ?

2. fin gls ? (gis t'to stay' )

ljas qalbid lbaim

S.fin 'radyin ytlagaw ? (la ' to meet')

XI I.3 Proverbs (6 - 10) - lintaa

(6)} m y 3 ra s lu .r 3.b l.

n~sr

to deny

asi / 'usul

origin, lineage

br1 Cm) / b 'al.

mule

Ckly a mule de ies hi-s origin.

(7) mter' hbibk l: i yduin.,ht: a tmrd wtqlm .

dam (u)

mv

to last

to become ill

One ]mows one't a true friends in time of need.

(8) l: i fat mat.

fat (u)

mat (u)

to pass

to die

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Jbrget the past.

Moroccan Arabic

200

Unit 12

(9) }bin d: fr W:bm nyd. a1 rir 1 s

bin

between, among

dfr (in) / 3fa '

w (m) / wsax

fingernail1

ir

Don't interfere between relatives.

(10) 1:ji aslu tf .ah mfih ii ytla t.

t1s

to be thrown away

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People of~ good origin will always be respected.

Moroccan Arabic

201

Tilt 13

Moroccan Arabic

flnit 13

XI II With Ahmed Is Family - mta 1'a'ila d3 ad

( )(A) -

(L) -

Ahmed

Ibrahim

Driss, Ahmed' s brother, /dris/

Abdelsa~am, Abmed' s father, /ebdsla/

Zohra, Aped ts mother, /zbra/

Hal ima, Abed' s sister, thli.na/

(H) -tf d:I a s: ib behim ba

bik 'ndna . Si brahim nqd: mlk

lIvalid si v bdslam wiwali da

la1: a zbra W175Za: dri s W1?UXt

bli . bada si bz'ahi m lmsz'i

"

"0"

ml: qahira.

(D -aw3n wasab.in si b'hi

n~ba bik . bna mt':fin

b s i ya da t k ha w tmiairw

zyartk flmtrib tim savida

(B) -=a kankuzrkum ktir QIS

bad imaaba .

Comne in. Welcome. Ibrahim, I

Would 3lk to introduce

my father, Mr. Abdelsalam, my

mother, Zo6bra, my brother, Driss,

and my sister, Ham. This is

Mr. Ibrahim, from Cairo.

Welcome, Mr. Ibrahilm, This is an

honor for us and we hope that

your visit in Morocco is a happy

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one.

Thank you very teach for this

occasion.

Moroccan Arabic

202

Unit 13

Moroccan Arabic

202

(A)- si brahim was yad~i tbca

si md :a twila bna ?

(B) - :ah wtelm . yml ti ata

wJ: a rb'a d1"asabic-

(A) - was yadi tbqa bna 'r; bat

awl : a i5di tzur mud=ui zin ?

bas nazi 'endhu=

(A)- iwa asi di, azia frhan bZ : o

bzy rndna bna flm'rrib .

faa mdin a i3Xiy: a qdimea

yadi tezbk bz zaf . kayn tm a

Xas 2.bali wfas Z: did . a&

ilay dzis wbulud .

(B)- iwa label: asidi

(Z)- iwa =nbed m tzur mr: ak3

0 0wfas rt tn4na qbl ma twl: i

? iqahira.

(B) - niaaga.: ah alal: a

(IL) -tfd:lu asidi il a maa ud.

Ibrahim, are you going to stay

here for a long time?

(God knows.) Maybe tbree or' four

weeks.

Are you going to stay here in

Rabat, or visit other cities?

I must visit Marrakech and I have

friends ;in Fez ihob I have promised

to visit.

I am very happy that you are visiting

Morocco. Fez is a historical old

city. You' 11 like it very much.

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There is Old Fez and New Fez . You

muist visit Al Kaz'aoizte rnivasity,

the tomb of f~lay Driss and the

leather craft shops.

sure.

After your visit to Marrakech and

Fez, come and visit us before you

go back to Cairo.

Sure. (If God will]s.)

Dinner is ready.

Unit 13

Moroccan Arabic

203

Unit 13

Moroccan Arabic

203

Vocabulary

Sd.:=

iwalid

iwa ida

iwalidin3

lax: / X:ut

izwan

'ut / xwat a

tsr:f

siyadatk

Zaa (f) - t

qdim "(in)

nmasaba (f) / -t

=1d:a (f)/

twit. (m)

tim

1: ah wlm J4: ah ytlm

za (a)

a iva (f) / m dun

imdia

ra / :at

labd3

tar

(mn)

sa bid (mn) / suiaaa

satida (f) / -z

to present , offer

father

mother

parents

brother

sister

to honor

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to be honored

you (honorary term)

to wish

a visit

old

occasion

period of time

to thank

long, tall

to know of

heaven knows

to visit

city

dowtow!n

other (f)

other (mn)

it is necessary

historical (Nisba)

happ y

Morocco

Unit 13

Moroccan Arabic

204

Unit 13

ezb

to please

rz

to return

qbl

before

wl: a

to return, to become

WZ:

to make ready

mid (m)

ready

***

XIII.2 Grammatical Notes

1. labd: ma 'it is necessary that...' . Notice this ma is not

the negative ma; this the correlative ma 'that' . It is followed

by the imperfect without /ka-/:

labd: ma tai endna .

You must come to our place.

Also gabl ma, 'before' , and bed ma, 'after'.

2. bas here means "that" in the sentence "qawlthum bag nmli endhum .

'I promised that I'll visit them.'

3.

: 'being' is the active participle (AP) of the verb kan

'to be'.

The participles of Form I:

Verb

hl:

Active Participle

arb

hal:

having drunk

having opened

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srb

3 craccan Arabic

205

Unit 13

Verb

Active Participle

ken

kayn

being

zad

zayd

having added or

continued

msa

magi

tra

Bari

having gone

having bought

The Passive Participle (PP) of Form I , if it occurs, is formed

on the pattern MC1C2uC3, e. g. ktb (C1C2C3) 'to write' and

motb 'written' for sound trilateral verbs or 1C2i, e.g.

sra ' tobu~y , mri ' bought t for final weak verbs , or MC yuC

13

e ,g. bat tIto sell' , mbyuiit sold' for medial weak verbs .

Verb Stem

Passive Participle

ktb

miktub

sd:

msdud

ba '~

hda

mbytau

mhdi

written

closed

sold

presented

Forma I transitive verbs have passive participles. Intransitive

verbs have cnly an active participle. Derived verb Forms have

cone participle that my function both as active and passive if the

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verb is transitive, or only as active if the verb is intransitive.

Moroccan Arabic

206

unit 13

Moroccan Arabic

206

T~iit 13

Verb

Form I

kf

Thm

ftr

fbsl

(intr)

(tr)

(intr)

(tr)

AP

kafr

'ahm

atr

fas1

PP

mffhum

to get irritated

to understand

Form II

Frm F III

Frm SV

Form VII

Form X

bd :1

sawb

t1:m

htarm

st m1

to change-

to ix

to learn

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to reams, mntu~al

Liderstanding

to respect

to use

qw

iL UrLJLras,

mf sul to separate

Partici~e

inbd:1 hav'ng changed

msawb having or being

fixed

mt "1 :m having learned

mtf'ahm bah40'co eto

understanding

inhtarm having or being

00

respected

inst'ml having or being

used

der and number but not for

Participles are inflected for geni

person or tense, e.g.

katb (n), katba (f),, katbin (mp) katbat (fp)

writing

ktiab (m), uktuba (), inktubin (~), inktubat (fp) writtent

41. .ams~ at limp r :ice 'the 1(araouine tiversity' is a construct porse

1 of N2j], werN

has the en-ine ending /-a#/ nai a 'university'

Notice /-t#/ is added in such constructs as the above or in

ccinectioma with possessive proitomina1 sufixs.

nimna

mdiut fas

dti

city

the city of Fez

a' city

1es :

Moroccan Arabic

unit 13

207

Moroc~c~an Arabic Unit 2~3 207

mra

mrat hind

mratk

sy :ara

sy :art hind

hala

halt lwld

ha~tu

lila

il~tk sa" ida

liltbain sa ida

lilt lc id

This wll be referred to as Constr nct

Woman., wife

the wife of Ahmned

your wife

car

the car of Ahmed

thing

the thing belonging to the

boy

his thing

night

good night (to (s))

good ngt (to (P))

the eve of the feast

State of the Noun (CS.).

5- Verbal Noun yaa 'visit'- is the verbal noun of the verb a

'to visit '. It can also man 'visiting'

A verbal noun (VN) is a nu derived from a corresponding verb,.

e.g. /Y811l#'to wash's frsil/ 'washing' . Most-verbs have a

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correspon~ding verbal nouin. The mening of the verbal noun could

be the resuit of the related verb. The verbal noun /aa

'a visit' that occurred in this lesson is an e ae of the result

of the verb

I to visit't. ya'a can also mean 'visiting'

mhich is sn"acti on' .

Form I Verbal Nouns are of different patterns. (See Appendix A

Tables 1, 12 -19.)

%ro ccan tic

208

Unit 13

Itrocean ~abic

208

Unit 13

Examples

ktb

1;sb

dx1

sraf(i )

tfa (i)

bat' (i)

zaf (u)

to write

to hit

to count

to enter

to buy

to extinguiish

to sell

to be afraid

ktaba

4T dib

4sib 1 sab

tfyan

bi'

writing

bhitting

Counting

entering

buying

extinguiishing

selling

fear

Form II Verbal ?1izns have~ the pattern tC1C 2iC3 , e.g. /bd~l/

'to change',1 /tbdil / ' changing'. A variant form also exists

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tC1 C2aC3 /tbdal/ ' chan gin g' .

Form III Verbal Noun has the pattern MClaC2C?a MuC3aCC3a, e .g.

/Vam4 'to forgive' /tmZ?/ /fms e~/ ' forgiving, f orgiveness't.

Form V has no verbal nova of its o * Verbal nouns of correspond-'

ing Form II are used instead, e.g. /tlzm/ 'to teach' II , /ttl:m/

'to learn' V. both have tclim 'teaching, learing'. S imla9

Form VI used the corresponding VN of Form III and VII used the

corresponding VN of Form I.

Ezales

eSq 'to hug' III and t'anq 'to hug one another't VI

mesna 'bugging' VN of III and IV .

4b 'to bit' I and t'b 'to be beaten' VII

4b 'bitting, beating' VN of I and VII ..

Examples of Form VIII and X verbal nouns

Vasm VIII 'to respect'

st'ml X 'to use't

are

*respectI

'use, using, usage'

stiml

tius~

Moroccan Arabic

209

Unit 13

The VN of the quadriliteral verbs is formed on the pattern

tCC C iC

1 234

or CC CaC a, e.g.

212 3 4

f;g ' to axplode

tf'gi'~eplosion

I 'm to translate

t;z am translation

zizi to shake

z lzala shaking

XI II.3 Quaastions - 'as 'ila

1. skuin huma dris ?

2. skutn hiy a zba ?

3. a sn Iwal id dya l bind ?

1..as ktzi 1blim 2bd? (za here means 1to be related?)

5. la1 M uld end si tbdslam ?

6. as gal tbdslam 1b'shi ml :i w~pl lc :a ?

7. seal yadi ygls brahim f3lm yrib ?

8. vas 'adi ygls rir f3baa ?

9. as 'tadi ysnf brhim f :as ?

XI II.4 proverbs (11 - 15) - lmta2.

(U.) 13i "ndu Smidu

aid f anide

"id (mn) / cyad

k1021: y sidu

sein lima

feast

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It is advisable to save for the fuzture.

Moroccan Arabic

210

Unit 13

(]oroccan'SAr ;abic

ft :s

210

Unit4:13

to look for, search

Ear (mn) / z ire

neighbor

It' ,-m better to snow who your neighbor is before renting a house.

(13) 1: i ytk:1l vla Kara~ , ybat bla sa

tk:12 (c1a)

to rely on

bat (a)

bla

to spend the night

ihu

Don't depend on people all the time.

ksa i)

nkrsi

to clothe

clothed

('ryen (m) / -ins

nakedl

Itt's better to be yourself with whatever you have than to borrow

great things from others.

(15) Lf : fiqb11iq

rfiq (in) / 2fqen

triq (f) /qn-'trqn

comrade, friend

road

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The travelling companion is more important than the trip itself .

Moroccan Arabic

211

.t 14

Moroccan Arabic

211

Unit 1'~

UNIT FOURTEE

XIV.1 At the Dinner Table o e -1a

(F) - Fa.tma, the maid. The word for maid in Moroccan Arabic

is /mtc l:ma/, ' /mtsx: ra/) ; /f~atma ' ftir..' fati ,/.

(A)- si brahim tfd:3 gis bna 4daya *. Zbrahim, sit here by me.

(L) - fatma zibi t ;as .

Fatma, bring the washing basin.

(F)

(3)

(Z)

(F)

(Z)

(3)

(L)

(F)

t- td.:1 as id~i ha : abtf

-barak 1: ahu fik .

- bla z1~ asidi

- ibila lhrira fl.:w:2.

- WSX:a alai:a .

tfd;1 asi brahim .

b ism 1: ah , baras 1: ahu

figs ala: a .

- aa: a alai; a , ha huwa

alal: a0

Here is the soap, sir.

Thanks.

tDon't mention it.

Bring the soup first.

All right, madam.

Mr. Ibrahim, please help yourself.

Thanks. (In the name of God. May

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God bless you madam.,)

Fatma, bring the stew.

All3 right, madam, here it is,

madam.

Moroccan Arabic

212

unit 14

Moroccan Arabic

212

(A) -boism 1:ah tf d: I asi brahim

(B) - su~ asi v-bdslam

(Z) - si brahiim z id wmy: a , k'il,

makiti waau

(B) - wax: a , zidini si spy: a

dibrira c'lawd; as mzya ia bz : af

(Z) - fat=

zid~i lsi brahim si

say: a f bira.

(F) - w~:a alai: a.

ibarake alai: a

(Z)- iwa tf d:; asi brtabimxtd

t:azinf

(B) -inn f dlk 'ir si spry: a 3.za

yz v1 Tzik lbarak: a

(Z) -izibi lkrsksiaf atima

(F) - wax:a a l5:a .

(Z) -tf dl zxad ksksui asi brabi~m.

(B) - ?fii sue:a 1: a yztl fik

lbar'ak a .

Mr. Ibrahim, please help yourself.

Tianks, Mr. Abdelsal.am.

Mr. Ibrahim, please eat more,

you haven' t eaten anything.

All right, please give me some mOre

soup because it is very, good.

Patina, give Mr. Ibrahim some

more soup.

All right, madam.

Eniough, thanks, madam.

Mr. Ibrahim, please take some

stew.

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Please, very little.

Patia, bring the couscous.

All right, madam .

Mr. Ibrahim, please take some

couscous .

Please give me some .

Unit 14

Moroccan Arabic

213

Unit i4

Moroccan Arabic

213

(Z)- a f atim. zibil.na lfakya

WSWY: a d~linmas rah zya

(B) -bara]sa2: ah fik

(F) - n tam asidi . ba 1ma wha

s. abun , tf d: asidi

(B) -baake)1: ahu fik

(D) - i brabim, ,

btis 1sur

dyalk.

(B)- keflfd:1 n~rb l.msr fs:bah

bkri . daba srbt 1~ bard .

(A) - fa am ibi~na liqam w~ibilna

lbr :ad dlfc : a wduk 1~sa m

dlb.: ar Ws:lfly:3a c:uqa

Patna, please bring the fruit.

All right, madam..

Mr. Ibrahim, please take an orange

and some apricots, they are good.

EF.tma, bring water for us to

wash our hands.

All right, sir, here is the water

and the soap. G o ahead, sir.

Don't mention it.

Mfr. Ibraim, you did not drink

your juice .

I prefer to drink juice in the

morning. Now I drank cold water

and that's enough.

Fam, bring the milt and the silver

teapot and those crystal glasses

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and the silver tray.

Unit lI~

Moroccan Arabic

214

Unit 14

Moroccan Arabic

214

Unit 14

(F) - ha hima kzl: Si mi ud asidi.

(A) - si brabim sr: fna qim atay

(B) - sbl i asi vbdslam =fdlk,

0kanefs nqim atay ma.'ibi

(L) - fatima Eibi~na n:wa

(A)- tfd.:1 xoad atay asi brahim

(B) had atay ni~u Ward . rfi s

bad a.:tay . vibni bz:aof

kabriatay n 'nac bz;Sf

(Z)- mrbba bik asidi . =hba bik

vndua * nhar kbir

(B) _W3 hi ena m endi bas

x1 ainm. ?a l: ah biawa 3.:i

y azini 'la had 1naqaba1A

(H) - si brabi m =td n :wa rah

Mere is everything, sir.

Mfr. Ibrahim, honor us by preparing

the tea .

Excuse me, Mr. Abdelsalama. I do

not know how to prepare Moroccan tea.

I t is all right . I am going "tO

prepare the tea.

Fatma, bring the nuts.

Al]. right, madam.

Mr. Ibrahim, have some tea.

This is excellent tea. I like

it very muach. I like mint tea

very match.

You are welcome. (You are welcome

in our bouse.)

This is a great day.

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I don t know how to thawk you.

I~y God reward you for receiving ma

so well.

Mr. Ibrahim, k e some nuts; tbey

are good.

Moroccan Arabic

215

u-n-i-t i4

Moroccan Arabic

21$

Unit 1~

(B) - safi . klit bz : of 3:ayzcl fik

ibaraka . si hnd. qul :i 1:

yxl : ik ,uil at ela xalk, kifas

iwalida gawbat had ll ?

(H) i:Sh y~wd-.i , Mti adi 1:a

yXl: ik . si brahim bya m: k

kifas SW:bti had 1gl

vbu

bz:af .

(Z) wax~a , bktil: faaa~ awlidi

iwa , cndna hna fd: ar lhrira

tbx =q'ib i ka w: buh2a bl :bm

l1y~lm. , vii m~u, wimiba

Wlibzar , Paz: ,fr8fl ,WZ : bda

Wt:azin kasw~buhbd ad

wibid msluq wn:wa . wlksksu

kim tcrf , bx mibi m~h

fitalam . "ndxia fry:as

kaa Lw: buth bib sia wz :bib wI mus

(B) kazi kr zm asidi "Ia had

immasaba .

(A) si brahim, mtssas bastwl :i

'ndri a nbvd yartk ifas

(B) - 3:Sah yard: i , label: * 'us

(A) mta sa lam

Thanks, that is enough. I ate a

lot. Mr. Ahmed, please, if' you

don't mind, tell me how your mother

prepared th is food?

Sure. Mother, please come here . Mr.

Ibrahim wants you to tell him how

you prepared this food because he

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liked it very much.

All right, with great pleasure,

my son. Here in our family, the

soup is a Moroccan dish we prepare

with muztton, chickpeas, salt, black

pepper, saffron and butter. The

stew we make with chickens, boiled

eggs and nuts. The couscous, as you

know, is a Moroccan dish, internat-

ionally knlown. Here we prepare, it

with onions, raisins and chickpeas.

Thank you very much for this nice

occasion.

Mr. Ibrahim, don "t forget to come

here after you visit Fez.

Certainly I will. Goodbye .

Goodbye.

Moroccan Arabic

216

u-mat 14

Moroccan Arabic

216

Vocabulary

Zak. {i )

t: as

Ibrira

)i:1 (mn)

kia (+u)

3'a. : a'

Ysl

Erb

fd:l

liqan

br: a.1 ( ) / braz'd

2I'd:a

lbn: 3r

Slfly: a (f') / ~-t swamii

nuqra

qin atay

rfi" (mn)

zaza

gab!

to b ring

washing dish or basin

favor

Moroccan soup

the first

to eat

because

to ladle

it is (here: it's) (see Gramm. iotes)

to wash

to drink

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to prefer

green mint (used in making tea)

tearpot

silvery metal

crystal

tray

silver

to Prepare tea

to ]miow

nuts

excellent (lit. number one, Al)

excellent

to reward

to meet

Unit 11.

Moroccan Arabic

217

un-it i4

Moroccan Arabic

217

mzabaia ; f) / -t

qal .(u)

ila

sawb

wb

1: ah yawd; i

'ui 4* ;

ima

kifa

bas

;meeting, reception

to say

if (possible)

please (lit: if that meets with

your desire)

to fix, to do

to fix, to do

certainly, sure, of course

my mother

how?

how?

that, that with w~hich, to= in order

to. Here "to" before English infini-

tive.

'aka. (m) !inkmaa

bkal: farah

wldi

Wflid

wlidi

tbz

m ribi awmrrib i (m)

81q

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ls'alam Cm)

nsa (a)

'ila 1: iqa

good

with great pleasure

my soon

diminutive of son

swny (Dima.)

cooking

Moroccan

saffron

boiled

to boil something

famous

the world

to forget

goodbye (until we meet again)

* * x

Unit 2A

Moroccan Arabic

218

TIM t 14

XIV .2 Grammatical Notes

1. Ordinal Nunierals:

The ordinal numeral 'first' has the function of an adjective

inflected for gender and number. The ordinal numerals 'second'

to teth

are only inflected for gender. Those above tern

show no infl.ection. Examples of definite ordinal numerals:

1w:l (mn) / -in

1w:la (f) / -t

t:aiin ) I/t:&ia (

t :alt (..a)

lhdas

the first

41%

the

the

s s c ond

third

eleventh

Orial Numerals (Indefinite)

aw:l (mn) /-in

av:la (f) / -t

taxi (n) /tanya (f)

talt ("a)

ats (-a)

ems (-a)

cads (-a)

saw (-a)

tamn (-a)

tasP (-a)

ca~r (-a)

hda

tsais

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frt

second

third

fourth

fifth

Si xth

seventh

eigh-th

ninth

tenth

eleventh

twelfth

Moroccan Arabic

219

'Unit i4

M~roecan Arabic

219

Unit 2~14

ti.t :as

rbtas

xLstas

st :as

sbetas

taital

ts'ctas

le rin

wahd w sri n

rb%* in

sbc a iwin

thirteenth

fourteenth

fifteenth

sixteenth

seventeenth

eighteenth

nineteenth

twentieth

twentyfirst

fortieth

fifty-seventh

2. walu t:nothing

maqal ia3.u

kit~ w&1u badiL

Se dlid not say ayhn.

This is nothcing.

Notice the use of negative particle /a&/ before verbs in /walu/

coistruicts.

3. Object Prcciom1nal Suffixes Associated with Verbs and Prepositions :

S'give met

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/-nii/ 'e' here is a direct object pronominal sfi.

Study the fol:1lovingpad8

Paradigm A - with transitive verbs

Paradip B - with prep osition fi! 'of, f rom'

Moroccan Arabic

220

U- n-- t 14

Paradigm C - with prepositions fbi! "with' , final 'on'

and /mta/ 'with (accompanying)'

Paradigm DI) with verbs ending in Towels and /;a/

Also coopare VIIL.22.

A.

Transitive verbs

zar

zar

zar

zar

zar

zar

zar

*00

ni

ha

na

hum

to visit

he visited

he visited

he visited

he visited

he visited

he v .sited

he visited

me

you (s)

him

her

us

them

B.

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you (P)i

ma'of* from'

zaf jn: i

xaf mnk

xaf I em

to be afraid (of )

he was afraid of me

he was afraid of you (s)

he was afraid of him

he was afraid of her

he was afraid of us

he was afraid of you (p)

he was afraid of them

xaf

xaf

zaf

xaf

mnna

Moroccan Arabic

221

tit 14

Moroccan Arabic

C.

222.

Unit 1~4*

/bi-/I 'ith,

fem~

ffaq (bi-)

ffaq by:a

ffaq bik

ffaq bib

ffaq biha

ffaq bina

ffaq bikum

ffaq bihum

oft' (also /f'i-/ 'in' and /li-/ 'to']3

to wake up

to become aware off

he became aware off me

he became aware off you (s)

he became aware off him

he

he

he

he

became

became

became

became

aware

aware

aware

aware

off her

off us

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off you (p)

off them

kdb ( la)t

e (o

kdb vly:a

kdb i lik

kdb a lb

he lied to me

he lied to you (s)

he lied to him

kdb tubia

kdb tlna

he lied to her

he lied to us

kdb flikum

kdb '2.-ihum

he lied to you (p )

he lied to them

mtraith' (likewise &/ /'near,. at one's ilace!'

/W-/wf th'.fwaf'behind')

tkl:m

tkl.m (mta)

tkl. m mraya

tklm = msak

tkl.:m meh

tkl :m meaha

to talk

to talk (to)

he talked to me

he talked to you (s)

he talked to him

he talked to her

Moroccan Arabic

222

Unit 14

Moroccan Arabic

222

tkl :m

tk. :m

tki :m

mvahum

he

he

he

talked to us

talked to you (p)

talked to them

D . Xerbs ending in vowels and /a/

ctaj

cta

'ta

ta

'*ta

tta

0t

ni

ha

na

hkm

t~give

he gave

he gave

he gave

he gave

he gave

he gave

me

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he gave

you (s)

him

her

us

you(P)

them

ra , presentational particle

'here is, here are't

ra

ra

ra

ra

ii

ki

(here) I am

(here) you (mns) are

(here) youi (f's) are

(here) he is

(here) she is

(here) we are

(here) you (P) are

(here) they are

=a

ha

na

kum

Unit 14

Moroccan Arabic

223

Unit i4

4. rah 'there he i s'

fayn had ?

rah tm:a .

Where is Ahmed?

There he is.

Also :

at rak tqul ?

What are you saying?

~which is equivalent to :

ag 1katqu1. ?

What are you saying?

XIV.3 Questions - 'as'ila

1. Cs kaydi!'i 1mrSsba qbl m yaklu ?

2. am 1mt'lsm dyal lta'ila d ad?

3. bas bdaw It $a

4.. =a dsmt fatsim b ahi mamb'd I

?ra

5. sl1ea'ila cd d bxat 71kaka iw1:a la ?

6. kifal iaatu lkl3iib2

bi1

7. aian kiaw m bed 1esa ?

8. as kayzidu 1wa iba fatay ?

11. kifalkayabit1uraziba M ;rm

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** *

wicfal kayyabu Iaenw:ai.

Moroccan Arabic

224

.t 14

Moroccan Arabic

224

Unit 11k

XIV. 4 Proverbs (16 - 20) -lutal

(16) rma sftk sb;htk

sb :h

Guilt by association.

to compare, to take or mistake (tor)

sbh

Everything has an end.

(18) yd; whda nmkatkf; fs0

to bee zne morning

yd : (f) / yd:in

kf

is necessary.

hand

to clap

Cooperation

(19) 1f ar 11l:q ~i se d lqt:

far (mn) / firan

qi :q

mql :q (in)

se d

rat, mouse

to worry, irk, irritate

worried, restless

happiness

qt: (i)/qtult

tomcat

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A look of suspicion or worry often leads to being trapped.

Moroccan Arabic

225

unit 14

(20) drbni wbka , wsbqni wska

bka (i)

sbq

ska (i)

to cry, weep

to precede, go before

to complain

Sometimes people who complain the most are themselves the ones

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responsible f'or the problem.

'Moroccan Arabic

JVJ^d

226

Unit 15

~4oroccan Arabic

226

Unit 15

xv. 1 Ahmed and George Meet in a Detroit Coffee Shop -

md w1urV i1ohwa

(H) - Aimed, /bmd/

(2 ) - George, fzur/

($H) - s h3i z T~1k , mayn s iyadatk

(Z)- ana i wilayat miS: ig "

(H) - di.it fibali beryl-.a ta

aarida "arabiy:a .

(Z} - la asidi ana amiriksi

ualak i drat 1:Uya

1varaby: a fi Zaxic'at mLs: igai.

wsidatk nta , mayn?

(H)- ana m'wribi mr:bat .

() - sai? 2iu mmnasaba zyaa

hzadi " ana yadi magi 1",-bat

f s:if nsa'a.: ah

(H) - um h:t~a a kadalik 'radi

"]a= fr:bat bad S~if nsa'a1.:ah .

Tell me please, where you are from?

I am froze the state of Michigan.

I thought that you were an Arab

because I saw you reading an

Arabic newspaper.

No, I am an American, but I studied

Arabic at the University of Michigan.

Where are you from?

I am a Moroccan from Rabat.

Is that so? Thiis is a nice occasion.

I am going to Rabat this suminr.

I am also going' to be in Raat this

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sn-Is.

Moroccan Arabic

227

T. ilt 15

Moroccan Arabic

227

(Z) - iwas a tslam f: bat ?

(H) - 1:2h yaWd: i xlqt fr:bat

wrml.t d: rasa dyali fr:bat

w1 '2'ila dyali kul:ha fr :bat

(H- ana sibhmd. wnta ?

(Z) si zurz

(H) - mtsar~fin asi zuz . * ali

asi zurz , kattkl :minbd: ariia

lmy riby: a si r'ie . fy

Iv am lmdi , wakadal ik drst

(H) _ was drsti 1rir l:ura ?

(Z) } _t: ariaz W:W&!fiy: a

wl'adab , wifisafa , wrilm

d: wly: a bin s : q l &Wt:

waml 1friqy: a wlyrb

tm~i tcml f - ~b daba ?

Do you live in Rabat?

Certainly. I was born in Rabat and

went to school there and all my

family is in Rabat.

What is your name, please?

My name is Ahmed. And you?

My name is George.

I am happy to meet you. You speak

very good Moroccan Arabic. Where

did you learn it?

I learned it at the Ulniversity of

Michigan last yrear. I also studied

Classical Arabic for three years.

What else did you stuldy besides the

Arabic lnugel?

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(I studied) history, geography,

literature, philosophy, sociology,

and economics and international

relations between the Middle

Bast, North Africa and the West .

Please, if I my ask, what do you

plan to do in Morocco?

tkiit 15

Moroccan Arabic

228

Unit 15

Moroccan Arabic

228

Unit 15

T~Laasar a ik~tm: bZ: o

bhai kifas kayris s tb lmribi

mnnaha lqawae id lmrriby: a

m huwa firaq bin s: b

(H) -.kaizm: awlk n :a~ah.

(L)- baraa 1: ahu fik . smhli,

Was asbi tariq bas ym~ili

n saf r bna 1r:bat ?

(H) - fdk u hwayz , 1:W:la

tsb:r Ipanam mniyurk lr.-bat

walakin miz bt i ahmi t sb :r

t:7: a~a mditrwa l'up~a

I would like to do sociological

research because I am interested in

sociological matters such as how

the Moroccan people live, i. e.Moroccan

customs and habits and the sociolog-

ical differences between the Westerners

and Moroccans.

I wish you success.

Thanks. Please tell me what is the

easiest way to go from here to

Rabat?

You have two ways, First of all, you

can take a plane from Detroit to N.Y.

then take Panm from 1New York to

Rabat, but I think it is better for

you to take a plane from Detroit to

Europe, either to Lndon or Paris,

im a l:mid' wI: a bazriz , wmb'd then take Royal Air Maroc to Pabat.

tg-b: r 2X!4U lalaky: a l'riby: a

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wbl :u'ra ifran s7: a hiya zrwayal air mrek .

( Z) anqv2.:i , kif a had ;:twaya3l

air wark ? mzyani ?

(H) aahyavdi, S i y ninTu

wadM.

f :atat ba, adi

tors. ass: ma Task.

Say, how are the Royal Air Maroc

flights? Are they good?

CertinlThey are excellent.

They are big jets. You'll1 be very

comfortable.

Moroccan Arabic

229

Unit 15

Moroccan Arabic

229

bariz I"&: bat ?

(H -z lmatar bid fr b at

f s,.2. b cid ma; :bat si tmaa

Wl: a sra kiluitr.

(Z )

-kifas ymknhi nI~i IL:; tS'

l~dza.

(H) -l;i tws2. Isla tm:a kayo

taksi, awi; a b: r akar ri

btlata dd : raa.

How long is the flight from Paris

to Rabat?

I think it is two and a half hours .

Is the airport far from Rabat?

The airport is not in Rabat. It is

in sale. It is about 8 or 10 1ilo-

meters from ]Rabat,,

How can I go from the airport to the

city?

In sale there are cabs or you can

take the bus, which is inexpensive

and will take you downtown for

three dirbams.

I am very happy that I met you today.

1+ wfe also likes the Middle East

very much and is interested in North

Africa. 'What do you have to do

tomorrow?

I'll have to talk to my wife this

evening. Give me your address and

phone number.

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(z)

w1 wlahi usla a afrbaastir

ht: a hiya katb'ri ktir :rq

l'?aw wthtm: kadalik

bscal friy: a. ovas vndk

si ha~a mhim: a'yda?

(H) - radi a:3: ak r a ra ti 1ym

fl2.y a nsa a: ate . tini

Unit 15

Moroccan Arabic

230

Unit 15

Moroccan Arabic

230

Unit 15

CZ*)- tfd:2 Xald ha lakat dy ali

uiabd nta w'att. aziw zur ma

(H)} - Baz;a labd; . I; ayh~nik"

(Z) -bs;1am

Vocabulary

wilaya (f') I -t

bal

fibali

;d= Ibal

caabi (a) / arab

taraby: a (1)/ .mt

lu'ra (f) / --t

sshih

kasik

daiia(f I/-t

.0

;uT!rfiy: a

Here is my -card. Phone me

tomorrow and bring your ife and

visit with us.

Sure. Goodbye.

Goodbye.

state

to think

idea, mind (used only in certain

epre ssimiss)

to (with) myself

pay attention 1

Arab

Arab

language

that

also

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trie, rift

to dwell

to be born

dialect, colloquial

to teach

to learn

Classical Arabic

besides, except, other than

history

geography

ZAd uftroccan Arabic

231

Unit 15

Moroccan Arabic

231

I1"adab

ifisafa

lqtisad

bn

i'> 1awt

sama fiqy : a

Wyrb

s'al

bit (in) / abha$t

Zti Ti (in)

htin

ins'a3a (f) / masa'il

bhal

was (i)

s: sb

inrnaha

q& ida ( f) / qawa' id

fi aq (Cm)

shl C)

aah

im asb .b

tariqa (f )

aw: al r: a

oaf: ata (f) / -t

literature

philosophy

sociology

economics

international relations

between

Middle East

North Africa

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the West

to ask

research

social (Nisba)

to pay attention, to be concerned

matter, question

like

to live

people (of a country)

that is to say

custom, habit

dif'ference

to wish

success

easy

easier, easiest

may, mner

first of all.

Unit 15

Moroccan Arabic

232

Uit 15

Moroccan Arabic

232

Unit 15

t7 (ECI) / -t

z zihti

Mih (I' / -t

i a ... awl sa

wass m)

mw mr osk

mWtar (in) / -at

rxis C m)

vs:

"zimC m)

d:2 (m) (

k> :

qs () ar2

Eiti

airplane

from my (own) point of~ view

side

best, better

either... .or

wide

comfortable (f'or you)

to appeor, seem

airport

cheap

to mke reach

to get acquainted with, stow (of )

important

he talked (to converse)

number

to visit and stay up late

together

4,*

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XV.2 Grammtical Notes

1. bayl :a :tthat =:

dn :it bayl :a nta starabi . I thought that yon were an Arab.

s rtt bayl:a had y'adi yzi hk I knew that Abmed will come here

Ind:a .

tomorrow.

Moroccan Arabic

233

Unit 15

2. Comparative and superlative forms of~ adjcectives:

ashi 'easier, easiest" and ahn better, best' occurred in the

conversation. In Moroccan Arabic, comparative and superlative

forms are alike, e. g.

Ammdi.

kbir

syir

nqi

Comv. /hizer.

ak~br

asyr

anqa

big

si

clean

The distinction between the comparative and the superlative

is made bythe use of' the preposition i 'of', from'. This

preposition is used only with the comparative.

bad d:r:i kbir .

This boy is big.

had d:r:i akbr am wldk .

Tis boy is bigger than your

son.

bada akbr dr :i .

This is the biggest boy.

bts tmi fas y1 ktsb :r

i:a lImailna awl :a 2Jk

In order to go to Fez , you

can take either the train or

the bus.

tini ima qhwa wi. :a atay IM:

yal:ik.

4. mss:ara ask

The word

Give me either coffee or

tea, please.

comortable';

a head' is used very often to express ' sell" as in

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?mself "

Moroccan Arabic

234

Unit 15

Moroccan Arabic

234

Unit 15

quit mi a ra si.

sawbba brasu.

siri qdi ha a

r; askc(< Trask )}

rasa hum bra=t

=ia.brasi

VMSymik tqum bhpd 2x ma

nitesbrask?

I said to myself.

He fixed it (f)} for himself .

He fixed it (f ) himseJlf.

Go do somethn for yourself:Z

He himself went .

I myself

Can you do this work~ all by yourself?

***

XV. 3 Questions " as,9ila

1.

2.

3.

5I.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

fsyn tiaqa Z 3qv

id

uszurzkay ''f aa biy:a ?

fayn qaha ?

was zu$frlan ml: i tlaga m'a bnd?

t 1as (why?)

as Tadi ydir zuri flmrrib ?

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srtu qa zub f 1z ai?

irni qal bI nd 24%! tis=V41 i alakysa 1m iby~a ?

was 1ma

***

btid m;:a?

Moroccan Arabic

235

Unit 15

XV. 4 Proverbs (21 25)

lmtal

(21) daona wdar bursa, wzaw ikiab ytr~duna

kib (in) / kiab

trd

dog

to dismiss

This proverb is said about people who are oppressed and shows how

"slaves sometimes become masters".,

(22) ibab 1: i Iayd i1 :U r: ih , sd:u trta .

rib (n) /ryah

rtah

wind

to rest, get better

Always try to avoid problems.

(23) bas turf lkd.; ab , wsl :u ht: a 1bab4: sr.

rS :1

to take (to ), to make reach

kd~ab

1her

If you check up on things, you 'wil discover the truth.

(24~) qal.:u as xs:k altryax , qal:u lxwatm amlay .

xa (in) / xawatm

miB1y

ring

title given to a descendant of~ the

Prophet MKohammaed, here: S ir, Mr.

Pbr those wsho have nothing, l'ires are more important than

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necessities.

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M OTCCcan Arabic

236

Unit 15

(25) tir f:L-Ya:

tir (in) / tyuir

sma (f) / smaiwat

A bird in hand is worth two

bird

sky

in the bush.

Moroccan Arabic

237

Unit 16

Moroccan Arabic

237

Unit i6

UNhTIT SlTE1

XVil1 Ahmed and Lila Visit George and Mary

ziyart and lIuTr

(14) - Mry, /mari/, Georget s wife

(L) - Lila, /lila/, Abmed ts wife

(Z) si 1hmd bhb= asidi tfd:lu .

n.ri ariy , hada ci bn

m ribi Ws: y: da

Hello, Ahmed. Come in. Mary

come and meet Ahmed and his wife

from Morocco .

matou.

(H)} abin bik alai: g nqd: mlk

mrati lila.

(14 } x rhba bik ala: a .

mrhba bik '"ud , . tf q,:lu

br0m

1lice meeting you. I would like to

introduce my wife, ila .

Welcome madam. Welcome.

Please sit here.

(H qv1k!

(Li) m a3 yan aa.

ld9asaf 9 oW:a

(H) -dbrli ma strir vain

This is a nice place.

Yes, but imfortunately, it is a

little bit too small.

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It doesn't look too small.

Moroccan Arabic

238

Unit i6

Moroccan Arabic

238

Unit i6

(ZL)- si bind as b'4tu tsrbu

asii .

yr IiiSki

wkay ilb ir: a wkayn

mirbat 9rin .

(H) - Gila as bfiti tsrbi

1: a yil:ik

(Z) - nta asi hm!?

(H) - iwafht: a =a atini si

kuika kadalik0

Abmed, what do you want to drink?

We have whiskey, beer and other

drinks.

Lila, what do you want to drink?

Give me some ice cold Coke please.

How about you, Abmed?

Me too. A Coke, please .

How about you, Mary?

I would like some juice.

All right .

(Z)-

4wni ari ?

(Z)- - a

(Z)

-tf:li alal: a , xd~i , ba iUkka Please, madam, take the Coke.

tf d:21 asi bnd , srid, , ha nita . Ahmed, here you are.o Mary, here is

t!&d: li ai , zadi , ba lm c .your juice.

(H) baraka 1: ahu iik

Zianks.

(L) -had lIdka mtl: za mzyz

kaa mea bad s:hd .

(M} _qulili ,wan lndlz 2 'rb

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s:hd bbal bad s: W1:a

aktr?

This Coke is ral

cold. It

helps with the heat.

Sad, is it as hot or even hotter

than here in Mrocco2

Moroccan ,Arabic

239

Unit 16

Moroccan Arabic

239

Unit i6

(L)- Ia, Ia, t; q s flmrib dims

=y

S:jif wf s:tya

(H) -i ziht lh: baza sahia

t:qs Tlmy'zib dims =yan

fr: as fs: if 3ayrza si

sary: a dbaafyust

(L) - fr;bat)izw: m'taba , walay :i

kayr i i wy: a dr: tuba

vndkozm flmrrib ?

(H) sndna fr:bat za icat to 'i

Izxamis hiya lianita Ikbira

.0''ibIi~

, valayni kayn

furaz"shad Jiamita fd: ar

Ibida , wfas , wtitwan , winaas.

wkim t~rf aqdm Zami'a fT1. ib

waIfriqy: a W q l'awst

hiya zaitiat Iqarawy in f: a.

tbnat foam tmuw;a wtya

vyinki bays.:a lqaawy :in

fimyrib , wI'azba fm's

aqdm ~amitat fl'alam ,

loo, the weather is Morocco is always

excellent, summer and winter.

As mar as the weather is concerned

there is nothing to worry about.

The weather in Morocco is always

good. In Ma.rrakech it is a little

bit hot in August.

How about the weather in Rabat?

It is excellent. However, it is a

little bit humid.

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Eow many universities do you have

in Morocco?

In Rabat, we have the University of

Moham~ed 7, mwhich is the largest

university in Morocco, and it has

branches in Casablanca, PFez, Tetuan

and Meknes.. As you kniow, the oldest

university in Morocco and in all of

North Africa and the M.ddle East

is the K aracuine 'University in F ez,

iich was built in 808 A.D.. We

my say that K araaR~dne in Morocco and

Al Azhar in Egypt are the two oldest

universities in the world. Al Azhar

Moroccan Arabic

unit 16

240

Moroccan Arabic

240

Unit i6

jc1aved: as Iazhr tbnat f ia

vit bas nqu. : k bayl :a

kayn ' " a t bnyulSf mr : aks.

i wa asi d= had s:i an

( } - vas 2.asatj da k11:bh2m ma ariba?

(H)} - la kayn 'asatida '.oTUP: acv: in

lwmSr:fnwkayn ht- a

1 'amiriky;in

(L)} - ana qrit w a 'vs tada 'amiziky: a

vest~aWvst: in fr:bat. -sb1i asi

furl rail i ns3a maqgal : k bayl:a

endxza fr: bat lmdrasa 1 qu1ya

Ilasatida . wfmlaias kayns

k31.:y: at I filaba . f a

Wd: ar Ibi da kayn ki: y: atiqz.

wfrhtaIm Ia i a Ida5c nadrasat g

lbndaza

(Z ) - iWas ndkcIumkul~y:at t: ib;

()1:at yawd: i 12: y: at t: 3b:

kayna fr : bat

was built in 970 A.Dl. I forgot

to tell you that in Marrakech we have

the University of Ben Yusef. And

that is all we have .

Are all the professors Moroccan?

No, there are European and Egyptian

and even American professors.

I studied with an American professor

from Colorado in 1.966 in Rabat.

And my husband forgot to tell you

that we have the T-eacher' s T rainn

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College in Rabat, the College of

Agriculture in M~eknes, the Faculty

of Law in Mekes and Fez, and the

School of Bagineering in Rabat.

Do you have a medical S baoo?

Certainly, that is in Rabat.

Moroccan Arabic

241

Unit 16

1&oroccan Arabic

241

(M) -wslkil : y: at 'ndkum f lmrib

'ndhum zizanat zyanin

(H) - suf asidi , 10.1: l1i .: y: a

S i h a m kt ab a w ~i bed kayn izana

lern a z izana kbira , kayn Tiha

1011: lktub I: i tts : , wkayn f iha

~ulat eaaby: a rnakaymklhias

twzd fl"'alam

(M) -tf +1u asi hmd iL sa miwzud

(H) - Seaii alal: a fayn bit Ira ?

(M)- tfd:1 ha hiya -ud: amk' . tfd:3i

giSi h3a hday alila.

(L) -baadka ?:ahu 'ik .quli li

'arabi

Do the Moroccan colleges have

good libraries?

First of~ all, each college has a

library. We also have the Public

Library which is a l.arge library

that has all sorts ofrbooks. It

also has Arabic manuscripts which

are really u~nique,

Dinner is ready.

There is the bathroomL, please?2

it's over there. Lila, please sit

byrne.

Thanks . Did you ever have Arabic

food?

I've eaten Lebanese food. We have

a restaurant here named Al Sheikh

Restaurant with Eastern food.

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All Arabic cooking is simla. In

Morocco we have special dishes such

as stow, soup , and couscous.

I would like you both to come and

have dinner with us this coming

(M)

-klit t'bz lubnani "* ana wanid

lmatsam smi mt* am s:ix , fih 'aka

s"q

(L) 1b laabi k:ulmu yan.

wkaytabh . flmfrib kayo si

wrira . nsa'al, ah itmaw nti

wr&alk txiw 'ndxla nbar" M~

Unit iG

Moroccan Arabic

242

tit 16

Moroccan Arabic

242

*~it i6

lzya. +l'1 y: a 3 tt s : aw lai

(H) b ad l", '1'airiki f fWmy:1

(L) - t: ..na zbni bad 1tsa bz :a!

sad

I: azl ibaraka

bna mtsr; fin bzyatkIzm .

(H) -Si gurl ana ntkl elik nosr

; wa nta wzui atkc fl a n a'alah.

(H) -bs;laa..

(Z) - 'a s:alm.

Friday evening,

Sure, it will be a pleasure.

This American food is nice and light.

I like it. Everything was good.

I liked this dinner very much.

Thank you.

D=n't mention it. We are honored

by your visit.

George, we are looking forward to

seei.ng you Friday for dinner.

Sure, we will come.

Goodbye.

Vocabulary

S:d / sadat

S7: da / -t

b.a. Cma) / -t

mat 1'asaf

mtayl3i

fister

Madam (term of reference)

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place

imtort~matelyi (with regret)

to appear, to seem

ice cold

please

Moroccan Arabic

243

Unit 16

~oroccan Arabic

243

Unit i6

Sri

k sir

ktr

: to

haZa sa

abad a

(3L'() / :furu2'

ki

bn.,a ( i)

~'am (mn) / -:t. (aso in)

bad s: i ma kaa

'stall (m) / 'asatida

'us to a (f) / riuztadat

c'ali (i

"ac3la (mn) ; ciaya C(f) (szperlztive)

]al :y: at 1f i2aha

.a~;:

kuzl:y:at 2~uquq

llm daza lbnhdasa

to be useful

heat

cold

much, many, a lot

more

the weather

the weather

rain

as far as, from the point of' view

something easy

never

heat, warmth

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humidity

branch

as

to build

year

that's all there is

professor

higher, highest

Faculty of Agriculture

college

Faculty of Law

ezngneering, geometry

Moroccan Arabic

244

Unit 16

Moroccaa Arabic

244

t: ib:

tbib (in) / 'atib: a

-a (f) I "t

sn~a (f) / snap

mktaba (f) / -t

1:i

katzs:

tut (Mn) / -at

bit im

tbx

lubnaui (as)

sbh

kaytsabh

Xfif (mn)

tqil (in)

bZ:aiof 'ad

t. (tia)

zu a / -t

medicine

medical doctor

tooth

bookshop

iwich, that, who

(is) are necessary (f )

mnuscript

to be ready (here: found )

rest room

cookin g

Lebanese (Nisba)

to look like

is (are) alike

light

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special

heavy

very much, too much

to depend (on)

Wife

***

Unit i6

Moroccan Arabic

245

un--it 16

Moroccan Arabic

245

XVI.2 Grammatical Notes (on tape)

1. ma ... walu

ma syir walu

ma mss walu

ma klit w&'A1:ym.

ma qalI :i walu

ma trnd3.i au

2. b

mayes bhal bad s: i

t:qs Ima bhal t~qs flm'yrib

0 .

. 0.9

'at all'

It's not small at all .

He did not go at all..

I did not eat at all today; I

haven't eaten anything today.

He did not tell me anything.

I have nothing at all.

'like'

There is nothing like this.

The weather here is like that of~

Morocco.

b as a ?

like what?

kaylbs mgr: x bhal ila

mas'ndu fltis

3. 'yir siiwy: a

C t'iYi r 53. 5WY:a

kla yir si SWy: a ds:lada

~.bad s: j ma kan

qal i bayl :a radi 3y z

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Yrd: a,vhad s :i ma kan

He wears dirty clothes as 2 he

has no money.,

' just a little bitt

Give me just a little- bi t.

He only ate a little salad.

'that is it!

He said he'll. come tomorrow and

that is all (that he said)

Unit iE

Moroccan Arabic

246

uritt 16

Moroccan Arabic

246

5. 7;w

was nta .adi tbga Ima ?

was qal ;k bayl; a y'adi

6. 1id kays;

1:i YZS;

1:2. ] ts:

1; i3kasZ:U

l: i yZS;U

'rad nwz ; 3k dak s:i

1: ikayxs: (oh.1:id y=.-)e

7mayuala

also m.ayr. Ius

bhad s: ink lk1us yd

Isi blasa Xa 1mryi bna..

myziznas nmsiw 1maas

1y3za

is, are, do, does, will ... ?

Are you going to stay here?

Did he tell you that he is going

to leave2

which is necessary (mns)

which is necessary (Ifs)

which are necessary (p)

113.1 prepare that (tb insi which is

necessary.

it (f~) can'tt, she cma nt

it (in) can't, he can't

She can It work today.

This thing cans't be found anywhere

else (except here).

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We can't go to Menes today.

Unit iG

Moroccan Arable

247

.t 16

8. ~

age (life )

cmriziall my .i~e

rmrk

cmru

all your(s) life

all his Life

1i ma mac~

r~ni m it lmr: ak .

I have never,. I tL1 never

I have never been to Marrakech.

mat kt'tawd

Don't ever do that again!

m'vni an 'awd asi lbulisi I I1ll never do it again, Officer.

ms'ai n'awd .

I t 1 never do it again.

XVI. 3 Questions - as'?ila

1. amumtb d wasm t ur ?

3. aiim 1'bbnd wtu uaiuu

bat m1 ?

1.. kifa s ~q$flm'rrib ?

5. ki f8as ZW: f':sass ? vf ban ?

6. e 1 at inea flmdrrib ?

ikwi hum ?

7. Was kayna kuil: y: at : ib flm'rrib ?

8. wal 1'aaatida fiaitat fi: d 2zamis .1.s:li mribs ?

9. way' l lkul:y~at fl'rri b Pn~Aktmizsmat kba ?

10. ki1 dayza lzizanta iam f: ba%?

11. * tmna i iviy:&aet: bcxlma'ribi

12. fuqal rdi luri y S bnd

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* fir

Moroccan Arabic

248

Unit 16.

Moroccan Arabic

248

Unit i6.

xvI.ii Proverbs (26 - 30) - Intal

(26) as kayo rf Ibmar f s : bir

hr (in) / h.inir

s;1a bir

Always ask someone who knows,

donkey

ginger

(27) 1: i fatk blila , fatk bhila

hila (f) /-t

trick

Old people usually are more experienced than younger ones.

(28) ht:a gab, vad 'i.~q lbzab

tab (i)

'ad

hns at the proper time .

(29) za ybu s wldu Zw:rlu ciniu

to get old, to get grey hair

to hang up, wear (for necklace)

then

amulet, charm, veil

bas (u)

to kiss

ZW~r

to poke, to unclog

sirs (f) / 'y~

eye; also a spring of water

This proverb is said about well-intentioned, though clumsy

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people who, by their awkward deeds, cause more harm than good.

Moroccan Arabic

249

UInit 16

(30) 2.:3 ca:u i s , kay f

1 n:ba

r'd:U(-u-)

bn s (m) / Mnusa bnas

qn:ba (f) / -t gnzab

After' beinig bitten by a snake,

of its resemblance to a snake;

to bite, to sting

snake

cord, spring

one normally fears a rop e, because

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once bitten, twice shy.

i+ roccan Arabic

2 50

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

250

Unit 17

UNIT SEV MM

XVI I.1= George and Mary Visit Abmed and Lila

ziyart

(H) v tn

mhba

zur :3lamdi hzr

Srb

f4:1

f:I

(- sukrr asi

su

(L)} abl^wa sabin ma, ms'sxbar'k?

::ti bixir ?

(H)- tf :lzuasii . gsu.

(L,) . aiy awn. i gl si b .

(M) -.had I1bit

i. bni had

lfras wrribi

"rdi tkfu, kayn nwat ktira

bz:afsIal: fT sat . kl:wd

kayf23 s d;Srdyalu bd: uq l:i

ybi .

Who is it? Come in. Ah, is that

you, George? Welcome, come in.

Thanks. Abmed.

Hello, Mary. How are you?

I am fine. How are you?

I am fine.-

Sit dogn, please .

Sit be re, Mary.

hiis is a nice room. I like this

Moroccan funiture.

When you go to 3+rocco, you'l~l find

different varieties of furniture.

everybody furnishes his house

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according to his crn taste.

Moroccan Arabic

251

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

251

(M)- zrby; a jzala hadi , vibtni

bz : of .1:i-fl !iha ba'il

(L) -Nadi zrby: a qdims . badi

v r siin whiya s'ndxna . ila

msitu ifas , kayn tin a bz of

dz :zrabi , alin mn hadi

(H) - zurz , labd.: ma nf ibu waa

52. zrby: a wl: a m: fib

(H) - s~iuli.,w~;t:lki i i rba

m'iby: a.

(Z) -y: ih sau hiyabad

lmzba?

(H)- had 2msruba magriby: a

(-: 'm mi smrt had

5:]."

(H)- tf d; li a i , xad~i dmai

tfd.:l a iurz , zczd, qul :i

kif ~ak.

This is an excellent rug. I like

it very much. It has excellent

colors.

It isan old rug. Webhave had it

for ten years. if you go to Fez

there are a lot of rugs far better

than this.

George, we must bring one or two of

these rugs back with us from

Mrocco.

Excuse me, I prepared a Moroccan

drink for you.

Is that 'so? 'What is it ?

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We call it almond juice.

I've never heard of it.

Here, Ma.ry, taste it. Here, George.

Tel l me how you like it.

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

252

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

252

Unit 17

rfiv had i" . Nad~i aw:2.

M=faibayst dyali , 1 i k= srb

1:i z wsu?

(M) -Mndlaom bz~af dyal l.:UZ

fl1 rib ?

lsuiz flma'rrib . m'rib blad

f iabiy: a . ndna bz :af dlfakiya.

f~rib b al lwilaya dlkaifuni

fimayrib

(L) - iwa kayn 1: izm b]3w ktfr ,

1V32Ud bz:af , rxs bz : f ,

wrkayn Tham. kadal ik . iwa wkayn

d:l: ab , wlbt: iz,dak s: 1

kasd:qUh 'l2rd:as kayo =:u

bz: a! . wkayn t- .z biw w~yan

w~s , wkayn l km=s ,V

W3w3.nb

wlbrqq . iwa

Ah excellent.-ftVery good. This

is the first time I ever drank it .

Do you have. a lot of almonds in

mrocco ?

Certainly there are a lot of al.monds

in Morocco . Morocco is an agricul-

tural country. We have a lot of

fruit like California and even more.

Tell her what we have there.

Well, we have oranges that are very

sweet, plentiful and cheap. We export

a lot of them.

We have lemons also.

And a lot of watermelons and melons

which we give away free because we

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la ye too many of them. We have dates

that are sweet and cheap. We also

have figs, peaches, apricots, grapes

and plums. Well, we have all sorts

tndnma lakiya Iazba uiuaflmi"ft of fruits.

(N _ V3-=z a ?

(H) .wlzdraEowabout vegetables?

Moroccan Arabic

253

unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

253

(L)- wlxiidra haz a sahia f lmib

3C3: l;Si zza

(M) -vas lztidra yalya ?

(L) -.lIa, abadan *. z isa bz:af

masi bhal ha fi amirika

t's'Zfi shad. kaysw-a kilu d ' ati sa

Qfldna fr~bat ? rbea dr:yal

alsnaha rbta ds~ns.

(M) .W2.s bs:ah rxs bad si ?

(L) -kayn mazal arcs: fT2'aswaq 'la

b=: a . had t:8nan hada tm

lmdia

(Z)_ was "ndkum bz :af dlwrd?

(L) ..jWa kay a 1w wn:w:ar bz~af .

(Z) kayr'bni 1wrd lm bz of

fras (in) / -at

nlut.(mn) / maay aaw5c

fr:

ZDr:3 (in)

duq

As far as vegetables

there is no problem,.

everything is there.

are concerned,

As in America,

Are vegetables expensive?

Ngo, not at all. Th1ey are very cheap .

It is not like the U.S.A. Do you

know how much a kilo or tomatoes costs

in Rabat'? Fur rials, I. e. four

pennies .

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Really, is it that cheap?

You can get it still cheaper in

small towns and villages. This price

I quoted you is for the city.

Do you have a lot of roses?

Iots and lots of roses and flowers .

I like red roses very much.

who is it?

furiture

kind, sort variety

to furnish

furnished

taste

Unit 2.7

Moroccan Arabic

254

unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

254

wa.~ ( U)

Vzala ( f) /

'12 t Laa

+uz ;m)

sm'

kiI f ak..

l azt C(f)

blad t f) / ,at bidan=

biw (in) / b1w:in

ir: (in) / -i

Sd:r

Stuwrd

1xarij

sadaqa (f') / -t

spa (a)

bs; ah

~za1

l1a br: a

w rda (f') / wrd

fW ar / flW:Sa

to taste

that, which, who (relative)

gazelle

a pretty girl (gazelle-like girl)

I prepared

almnds

to hear, listen

how does it strike you

3ife

country

agriculture

sweet

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agricultural C4 isba)

bitter (taste)

to export

to import

outside, exterior, abroad

to give alms

charity

to be worth, to cost

is that truie? , true, correct

not yet, still

rural areas, vlaes

rose

flower

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

255

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

255

Unit 17

XVI I,.2 Grammatical Notes

1. skL~

slam hada?

sku huwa. l: i gaa:k had

si?

ymsi Iberiz ?

2. nu

who is (are)?

Who is it?

Who is it that told you this thing?

Who (among you) is going to go

to Paris ?

what ?, which;

snu byiti ?

What do you want?

sriu qulti ?

What did you say?

soiu had s; i?

What is this thin?

snu byiti ? lxdr w? : a lbmr ? Which one do you want - the green

or the red?

3. za (i) t'to come : has the imperative a~i (is) , aziy (fa) , aziw (P)

and also has the following manings:

kif Zak lm stlr ?

fayn a~t lzizana ?

ha b3nd a.

za ii bbal ila blw bz :f .

kayyi m'ak had 1:=

za kbir vly: a

How do you like the juice? hr stelbay

Here comes Amed.

It seems to me as if it were very sweet.

This color suits you.

Why did you take sides Frith bam?

r7

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It was big for me.

Moroccan Arabic

256

U nit 17

Moroccan Arabic

256

Unit 17

XVII. 3 Questions- 'as'ila

2. kif za lf'as 1m'rribi 1aw-i ?

3. kifa s kayf :iii lm 'arba 4.:7u dyalhzm ?

4.. kifas dayrin ;: abi f1m'rib ?

,0 mnu hiya leit ba 1: i qd ea bind 1zurz ?

6. was mzud bz of d1:iiz f1m'y'rib ?

7. arku hu if awkih 1:1i kaynin flmyib ?

8. was ay bz : af d3x=xUa f13maTb ?

9. qui na si w1din (I soma t) m:huin?

10. was lfakya v~zta a 'alyin flma 'ib ?

XVII. 14 Diner at Ahmed and Lil.a's - tia end bu d wlila

(H) -ila , was 14l a mud?

1!gi si bna )dsya .

(H) -ariy nbdaw bl nia, ubed

Zibilna t: dzin , Wkzsii , wdik

is dinner ready, Lia

Yes, please let us go in. Sit here,

) r9, next to me.

Itt's begin with the soup, then the

stew and the couscous, and the

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M~roccaz1 salad that I prepared.

Moroccan Arabic

257

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

257

(L) - w=:a ty: b

(Mv) rib' a nic tabara hadi .ea

nti l:1 sawbti had.ixubz ?

(L iY2h sa~wbtu l yu s..bah .

aw dihawlt ana era. 1i ktir bas

n'strmlu had 1xu bz 1 "aniriki

w lakin m a l'asa7 rtb

bhal ltn

(M) - had lmbz 1:1i sawbti itabar.

(L) - 'imyrib lca'ilat l1Tibiy: a

kaywbu di.a 1xibz fd: ar .

qlijIbas kansr iw 2xibz ml:meant .

w ndn lXb : a za

'myni

kada2lik, aysawbu xtxbz

m vtabar

(8) s iu~ kz* kutl *zid si

Wy: a dt: Szin . ranimyan .

(M) - sali asi bind , W : Shim fya

(H) - Lila , libilna liqam W:Wa ,

bas byit fwr:i i u E ki~fas

lasawbu atay ma'ibi.

All right.

It smells good. Did you bake this

bread?

Yes, this morning. We tried to

eat American bread, but we couldn't.

It is as wet and as spongy as cotton.

The bread you baked is excellent .

Moroccan families usually bake

their owgn bread at home. In very

few instances do we buy bread from

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the stores. However, bakeries there

have excellent bread.

George, eat. Take some stew; it

is good.

Excuse me, I can It eat ayhn else.

I am full to the brim. aks

ila, bring the tea, the mint and

the nuts. I would like to show

George how to preaeMoroccan tea.

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

258

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

238

(12)

- :S ya~wd: i sm. t ktir c1a

had atay mayibi .bnrt ansafk

kifas katsawbu .

(M)- as had r: bit 3lX# bBd ?

(H) - mark ma.fti had s:i ?

(14) -Ia .ha a ' aw:1l = w a. fih

r :i1 a mzyana

(H) hada huwa n : naq

(L)- tfd:li Ruth atay a an

({M) - si surl , kat'i stay biw

awl :a ms:us ?

{ ) -1I:a yxl: ik b'i t 'r2.r s5e

mlq:a d5:uk:&r

(H) - bna lm 'rba kalb'riw atay

biw bz;aof

(14) -bad atay fi" . Iw: i eZbni

1"t=i:a si n ha Y3 et43

kifas tb~ti had . .

(L)- 'a1: at Yd: i * bkl: Farah

. 4i bit

Sure, I have heard a lot about this

Moroccan tea. I would like to see

you prepare it.

What is this green grass here?

You mean you haven 't seen it beffore?

No, this is the first time. It

smells good.

This is mint.

Here , Ma.ry, take some tea.

George, do you like your tea with

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lots of sugar, or do you like it

not so sweet?

One spoon of~ sugar, please.

Moroccans like their tea very sweet.

This is excellent tea. I liked

everything and would like you to give

me the recipes when you have time.

Cerainyit would be a pleasure.

Anytim you like.

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

259

Uni

Moroccan Arabic

259

(M) - i wa y~adi nvm1 k tiliun .

(z)

liw asidi k=n ak'1cm ktir

c ala had lnsnasaba

(H) - bla 7-mi13 asi di. Nadi darkum .

( )- liltkum sac ida

(L)- ila 1:iqa'

nsa'al:ahi . -

(H) - m~a s5: a1E

I T 11 phone you.

Thank~s for this nice occasion.

Don't mention it . Come anytimeo.

Good night.

Goodbye.

Goodbye.

Vocabulary

"y:b

rihas (f) / rway~i

hawl

rtb (in)

qil

1!2.f: a myzid

rbi' (in)

ms;US (mn)

m lqa / (f) / iealq

m~'umet

all right

scent, smell

to try

wet, humid

cotton

few, little

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I can't eat anything else (can't add)

to be filled up with food

grass

lacking a nou t salt or gar'

spoon

knowledge, information

to cook

Unit 17

Moroccan Arabic

260

Unit 17

M OOCC~ A r'abic

260

Unit 17

xvi I.5 Gatica1 Notes

1.qlil -bat

qlil bas psnmi

Ils -. i2im

2. inafy: a m .

1aY: a xdm !

m~af mya+ .il1ht:a 3i hala

Wafy: a ma3msi

$a Ina maymsi

very rarely

Very rarely do I go to the movies.

movies.

I can't (lit, there is not in me

that which)

I can't work:

I can't eat antbi-ng.

I can't go.

We can't go.

***

XVII. 6 Questions -'a'ils.

1.

2.

3.

5~.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

basi bdaw lea1 a hu? itukiaw minbed ?

s~kvm I s iawb 8 4a4a ?

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kif dar 2xabz 1 aiii?

was lila ktiri 2l bz ans:uiq awl :a katqawbu f ?

was ur wmsi kiaw Wzya9

kau 'i% f nbded tlesw?

was em =am iaft n: enae anqbl"?

Wa" esbh s tay m'iribi ?

s m flbat mai nlila ?

kiT jabatba Lila ?

*r

Moroccan Arabic

X61

unit 17

XII .7 Proverbs (31. - 35)

tat (i)

to obey

Tbn

to pawn

It is better to obey azd s boss and to sell rather than to pawn.

(32) J.:i yxal t lhd: ad , ybrq hwayzu"

zal.t

to associate with

Id: ad Cm) / -a

hrq.

blacksmith

to burn

Ckie is botmd to be hurt by bad company.

(33) rata amir , wawa aai r ,wsk tm radi ytsg3Ibm r

astir (in) / tma

sag Cu)

prince

to drive, operate

If~ all men were kings, no work would be done.

(3)4) zrdina bihin: , m ya bia

rda (a)

to accept

bm (mn) / bmsm s huuin

trouble, worry

In some instances, those who make 'allowances for others

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hear their complaints.

Moroccani Arabic

262

Unit 17

(35) 1: i tkrh Wzhu fZ : , y4; r ;ik c_;iah Tms~

wzh (at) / w '

znqcya (1') / "t ' ' 23

One is always bound to ran into

to bate

face

street

back of the neck

p nblic bath

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people he doen't like.

Moroccan Arabic

263

unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

263

UITi. EIGHT

Mary and Lila

mary wlila

XVIILI A Phone Call - ft:ilifTun

(Kv)

(L)

(N)

(L)

(M)

au

- kunibNadi Sla a?

N adi ni

- 3h ari . f'annti dabs.?

=ia ff'fmsya hda dark .

Hello.

Who is it, madam?

This is Mary.

Where are you now?

I am at the drugstore near your

house.

What are you going to do when you

are through there?

Nothing.

Then come and let us have a cup of'

tea together If you have nothing to

do.

(L) - 2S m251 terali b? I . td 1 ?

(H)

(L)

0wlu

4D

w wa 8aiiy7nibu atay ZMi"

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ila mar'nd~k ma d; ian.

Unit i8

Moroccan Arabic

2 64

Unit 18

264

Unit ~8

(M) -Wsx:a a& 'radya nxlt vlik

ld: ar mdaba si q yn w: a tiata .

(L) iwa. hei kitsn :ak ba

Vocabulary

mant tmli

Nradi tiemli

xitL (pia)

All right. I'll come to your

place in ten or fifteen minutes.

113.1 wait for you at home.

you (Ps) are going to do

you (fs) Will do

to arrive (at)

* y X

XVI II.2 Gramtical Notes

1. mss= t1m

yadi trinl

you'll3wdo

you'll do...

The participle of the verb ma 'to go' can substituate for

di 'gong' to express the fugture:

psi nktb si bra .

rainktb si bra.

y a i a s m'a di t e l ha d 1 sy : a ?

a. Thi s is a co=, usefu .

examles:

Itll write a letter.

I'll3. write a letter.

'What are you going to do this

eveni ng?

Wht areyo going to do this

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We wll go to the movies.

if you have nothing to do

st ZaituZ'C. other

doroccan Arabic

265

Unit 18

ma enddi maq'ri: .

I have nothn to say.

mskin , ma t'ndu aan

Poor fellow, he has nothing to eat.

b.,INotice dar (i and tdir -3 d : it. This assimilation

occurs when inflection /t-/ of second person (s. and p.)

and third person (fs) precedes a verb whose first radical

is /d/ or /a/0

dar (i) tdiru >d:inz

dab (u) , kad:ub

you (p) do

it (f) dissolves or melts

It also occurs in derived verb forms V, VI, VII.

dar b III

dw x II

tda2

tdw:

dq : I (biradical)

dgdg. I (qtadrilit.)

rb > d:arb VI

:x > d:w:x V

tdq: >d:Q:VI

tdgdg)d:gdgVI

f'rom now., within

to fight

to be made

dizzy

to be knocked

to be smashed

3. ui daba

'fadi nmvi m daba si sata .

b2ad s3. i adiyW: i yanm

daba i'amy

m daba if uq rardiE nsrb

atay f;:ba

I'll leave after (about) an hour.

er&

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This thing will be good in two

From now on I w t t drink tea in

the morning.

* 3'e

Moroccan Arabic

266

7 nit 18

~oroccan AI'abiC

266

Unit 18

xv113 Questions - 's s'ila

3.

2.

3.

!.

fin kan t mai ?

snu qaltiha lila ?

fi as draya maxi tclj "la lila ?

-'Cr

XVI 11.4 Ma~ry Visits Il a -ziya.'t mzi Ilila

(L) - iwa s ba, ya :ab a.ziy.

gisi bnta hdaya . has by~iti atay

W1:a 1lq wa 7

(M4) - kazifd:1 atay rlawd:as

stay bn: Wnekey bni

(L) tfd:li.

ha stay mzud .

xs di Ihlwa . had Thwa

sawbtba byd: i

(24) - had 8:i rf iv * blwa fi~a

q u1.li as= had Ibiwa ?

()-badi blwa Zmf'iby "a

s ba ksb 5Yzal0

Welcome, come, sit here by me.

tat would you like, tea or coffee?

I prefer tea because I like mint

tea.

Here, the tea is ready.

uske some cookies. I made them

myself.

Excellent. What do you call this?

This is a ibroccan dessert that

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we call gazelle bor.

Moroccan Arabic

267

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

267

Unit i8

(M4) - had lkswa dyalk rzbtni bz : f

(L)- hada huwa lqf'lan lam'ribi

aziy mvaya Ilbit dn:'as . adi

flWT: ik hwayz fin 1: i v"ndi

(14) - byit ncrf' ki'as l~bas

1m rribi.

(L,) - Sufi hadi thty: a katkUrl

t i~t lq ftan . whad~i df'ina ad ak -a w da ay

wadi xl: aba , whada sz'bi1

(1)- had 1:bas ha'il

was had

t;12b 3a.tsawbuh flma'rrib ?

(L) - y:Tih , Qfldna =vend 1

flma'rib dyal t ub kim

ws~uf , W s :abra . bYi ti nwr: ik

l:Uqra wdfhb dyali?

(14) -y: ih , ulaat 'la zatrk .

(L,) - had 2xatm bdabli md fid

d , h a 2 : al d a a J.wh ad d~ m al z h a d u sz'ith u nm

tanza 1"am I: i fat .* nd

I like your dress.

This is the Moroccan kaf tani. Come

with me to the bedroom. It ll show

you some other clothes I have.

I would like to know what

Moroccan clothes look like.

This is a transparent dress which we

wear under the kaf tan,: and this is a

long ata. This is a belt and this

is a shawl, and this is a djellaba,

and this is a pair of' shoes.

These are lovely clothes. Do you

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make this kind of' material in

Morocco?

We have textile factories which

produce silk, cotton, linen, wool

and synthetic internals. Would you

like to see nysilver and gold.

(jewelry) ?

If' you don't mind.

This ring was given to me by Ahmed

on my birthday, and this necklace

is my mother's , and I bought those

bracelets in 2ngiers last year.

Moroccan Arabic

268

unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

268

hz a .: u chb Zl: Stu 'ls.Y'ib

ma rn:2wb~a

(M) -had S: 'rAli bz :af

(L) ~ l - m w'riby: a dims. ndbha

~i ktir ml :bas wlf.: a wd:hb

xwata ti l1:i f:.3mrrib vndhum tia ta

wl: a ;b~a d2 : at akt mffi

flWSlu lr: bat =m pus b'itkux

nti mbmad tmsiw mana. Si h

..S :U~ bas naxdu Si hway kims3"

had S:i dyak.

(L) - ~ili $ had s:3

mwi4

fs:uq . XS~fs. nm~iW 22 ina

-vime fr: bat Ws; a f as . Wadi

gm: i "lti kaysloinu f:as . wlad

cmi kayrrfu fay msy Si. humsa

ymsiw maana umbv'& tfriw

l: i b'ritu.

(M4)_ badi fk aaa

(L) - d i mZdU bnt kbfr dz :rbi

f&: er lbida

(14)- quliiM aya kayin 1 wt

I have a gold belt which I left

in Morocco at my parents' house.

That is very expensive.

The Moroccan woman always has a

lot of gold and clothes., Mr sisters

who live in Morocco have three or four

times as much as 1 do.

1 hope that when we go to Rabat,

if possible, you and Ahmed can help

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us buy some clothes like yours in

the market.

Sorry, but you can' t buy them at the

market. You have to go to the

medi na either in Rabat or in Fez .

I have myr (paternal) uncle and tr

(maternal) aunt in Fez. My (paternal)

cousins know Fez very well and can

help us bur what you want.

That is an excellent idea.

M(y grandfather has a big carpet shop

in Casablanca.

Tell me, where are good leather

workshops?

Unit i8

Moroccan Arabic

269

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

269

(L)- bitl ?s

Like what, for example?

(1)-bhai had S.21: irnd~k

fd~xla

(Li) had 5:1ra k X:ha zxuda

fi fas

(H) -was 2 yIm c~i nr

m1: myrib 2

(L) - yinzlk tsr .1:i b'iti.,3]Il:

n:UqZ'3aawl: a d~hb 3 yn m~zud .

wkyls:Wi dn:bas sfr wb

maus ' a iba bZ: Iw~mnk

tsri bz :of dh yz m.. U'in

= -,has nl-bas 5 f'&1i.rxi s

at fl r.2 rib . wmttb ed 3ayn2

dlM.da ruin bl.yd: , wksayn

l..i kay'eisu flmayrib kayb'riwhum

b * of '2um kayn mud z:rabi

bil: l y'rib . wkimea qultlk ka~yo

mnus at zld kadalik bhal lbz am

ws kara 9 w: rbil , wlbl'ra

Like that piece you have in the

living room.

You can find afl that in Fez.

What else can I buy in Morocco?

You can buy whbatever you want.

everything is available. You can

buy silver or gold or copper or

brass trays with designs, and you can

buy a lot of things made of brass

iehich are really cheap. We also

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have Moroccan blankets, cushions

and table covers, band-made and

embroidered and Moroccan couches.

Westerners whio live in Morocco like

them very anch. And of course we

have rugs everywhere in Morocco.

And, as I told you before, we have

leather work, like walets, hand bags,

and ladies' and men;'s slippers and

pocketbooks. All this is hade

and beautifully decorated by hand,

too.

Unit i8

Moroccan Arabic

270

'Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

270

Ws: ak &1ryalat . 1021 : had

s:i sU'b blvd: fih nqs

()kan~skrk ktir '1a had mlmmt .

L) bla zmi1 amm. *a.iy naxdu

si kas datay ate.,

t l - : a ila at ?la zatric

(L) - t:li xdi atay

(H) -baraka 1:ahu ik .

Thank you very much for this

You're welcome, Mary, let's have

another cup of~ tea.

All right , if yowu wul 1

Here is the tea.

Thank you.

v ocabulary

yal "ab

km (T C) Iks/

qftan (a) / qf~ti

bit fl: as

Ibas solbs

tty:a (f) / -t

drina (f) / dfayn

aa (f) I -t

nm

Zl:aba (f) / ileib

srbil (m) / srabl

lei us go, let's

dres

kaftan

bedroom

clothn

transparent nylon dress won ider

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the kaftan

a kaftan type of~ dress

belt (cloth)

heavy shawl

d jellaba

ladies shoes

Unit i8

Moroccan Arabic

271

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

271

ha~il (m)

tub (in) / twab

mana. (mn) / maai l

brir

fa

sabra

c id milad

boa

d i

)dbli (m) / dba1Z

xbin i

xalti

zd; i

fkra (f) / afka?

nhas sfr

nh as bw

bt:any: a (f) / -t

md:a (f) / ocad

Ihifa /lh2ay

in~0luf

excellent

material

factory

silk

linen

wool

artificial silk

birthday

my mother

my father

bracelet

bracelet

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my paternal uncle

my maternal uncle

my maternal aunt

my grandfather

idea

manufacturing, production, trade

to engrave

brass

copper

blanket

cushion

cover

it is possible for me

long narrow mattress shaped like a couch

certil, of course

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

272

Uni t 18

Moroccan Arabic

272

Unit i8

m~iuV~as

nq s (in) / n2qu~

bztam (m) / bzatm

..

"

Sk a a (f~) / Skate'

bly'a (f) / bla~yi

srb il (i) / srabl

products

decoration

wallet

bag (with shoulder strap, used by men)

North African slippers

we ma s emroider ed si.:ers

* * w

XVI I I . 5Grauatical Notes

1. Notice the f'ollowing variants :

mrribi m3.ribi l 1rribi

2.* lbit dn:sas

bit n :tas

lbit dyal n as

3. l:i

I W I d 1 : 1 za s n a g b mhd s : i s i n d a i

- - isip terms

aid

'ab: / ~b'

walia

'U n/ vonahaat

iwalid dyali

Morocco

Moroccan

.bedroom

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bedroom

bedroom

who, which, that (m,f,p)

The boy who came is called ,Ahmed.

That thing yout bought is excellent.

The ladies who bad lunch with us

left.

father

father

mother

mother

my father

my father

Moroccan Arabic

273

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

273

1alida dyali

_~ OI m2.

:"wa~idin

z d: / Z~did

zd:i

~d: ti

023 / wlad

wld / wlad

wi di / wiadi

bnt / at

bnti / bnati

~3: /IX:zit

xay xya /i:ti

quxt / .ta~t

'uzti / zwtati

hbibi

'am / t

em: a / -t

gymti / 'a;nati

u.l / iwal

Ma.i/zwl

Scala / -t

~.lti / malati

my mother

my mother

parents

grandfather

grandmother

my grandfather

my grandmother

son

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son

my son

daughter

my daughter

brother

my brother

sister

my sister

my uncle

paternal uncle

my paternal uncle

paternal aunt

my paternal aunt

maternal uncle

my maternal uncle

maternal aunt

my maternal aunt

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

274

Unit l8

Moroccan Arabic

274

In em.i / wlad em:i

wid em.i / wlad vmi

bnt e

ri / bnat em:i

wid em:ti / wlad em:ti

bnt em:ti / bnat im:ti

wld wld vm:i

ont wid em i

wid ent am.i

wld wid em:4ti

bnt but em:ti

wid but em-ti

wid wid ali

bnt wld mali

bnt wid zalti

bnat but zalti

bnt emn: b: a

my cousin (fa br so)

my cousin (fa br so)

my cousin (fa br da)

my cousin (fa si so)

my cousin (fa si da)

second cousin (son of my paternal

uncle's son)

second cousin (daughter of my

paternal uncle's son)

second cousin (son of my paternal

uncle?'s daughter)

second cousin (son of my paternal

aunt's son)

second cousin (daughter of my paternal

aunt's daughter)

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second cousin (son of my paternal

aunt's daughter)

second cousin (son of my maternal

uncle's son)

second cousin (daughter of my

maternal uncle's son)

second cousin (daughter of my maternal

aunt's son)

second cousins (daughters of my

maternal aunt's daughter)

second cousin (daughter of my

father's paternal uncle)

Unit i8

Moroccan Arabic

275

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

275

wid em: ?>:a

wld zalna

wid 3al b': a

bnt zalb >:a

wld zalt :i

ranl

ra.li

raha

mati

mgatuIr

second cousin (son of my father'ts

paternal uncle)

second cousin (son of my father's

maternal uncle)

second cousin (daughter of my father' s

maternal uncle)

second cousin (son of my mother' s

maternal aunt)

man (husband)

my husband

her husband

woman (wife)

my wife

his wife

in-law

in-law

my in-law

my in-law

in-laws

my in-laws

my in-laws

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brother-in-law (wife's brother)

son of my wife's paternal uncle

(my wife's cousin)

sister-in-law (my husband's sister)

father-in-'law (my wife's father)

nsib (m)

nsiba (f )

nsibi (a)

usibti (f)

nsab (p) / -at

nsabi (up)

nsabati (fp)

zn rati

wld rya: mati

'art raili

lwalid dlara dyali

Unit i8

Moroccan Arabic

276

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

276

Unit 18

iwal ida dl.r~a dya li

qrib C m) / grab

qriba (f) / grabat

lahi 'ab2.

'ah l lc'a

"ah I.r:azl

ra'i a (f) / -f

my mother-in-law (my wife ' s mother)

relative

family (of )

the family (of)

in-laws (the wie =s family)

in-laws (the husband's family)

family

***

XVI II. 6 Questions - 'as'ila

1. wgnu b'rat Mri t ib ? stay wl :a 1qha ? 'la s

2e asmi t llva1id sawbatha lila ?

3. qua. ma ik m hum be $ 'some't ksawi d1eyalat 1i fiiudin flw rib ?

40. was kayna wamm1 dt:ub flwrrib ?

5. 1kuns1i hda luata Ilila? fuqai?

6. wai lma lm 'riby sa kay n mud , bz sf ddhb ? bbal s ?

7.

in kayerci n :as d sbb f lm ib9

8. kit asi ray Lila t'auziMasi wiuribasi yiiw Ili bw m:i 7ykun

flwrcrib ?

9. Vag kayn m uast du sbas tlm rib ? b al as ?

3.0. asi kysswbu at z:1d flmlrrib ?

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7c w

Moroccan Arabic

277

unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

277

Unit 18

XVI II. 7 Mary visits L ila (P art 2) - yat mars Ilila

(M) ra 1i g8l~i sm~ bays,:a

s'ndhum lmte1l mat

lmyiby: at kulhum kayrfu

ytbL , mond: fu d: ar. , wkadaaik

kayqablu d:rari s:?ar Wkaytsw:qu

wkaycmlu kim: had

d7: a .

(M) _ itiq

(Lmda fy iwk 'n ia dalii

yzdmz ma a ailat 1'guip :aMwy:at

wmzbtd radi ttlaqay me aba

*wtkriha wtemli' mcaha

tam.

(M) - vas had latl : t izs-hula

zoa nds:i1n. a s:. 'awl: a

kayskim ea'a iladysihum ?

Do you have any other questions?

M~y husband told me that most

of the Moroccan families have

housekeepers .

0f course, you can look for a young

girl to help you. All Moroccan

housekeepers know how to cook and

c lean the house and take care of the

kids and do all sorts of things.

Is t~hat so ?

In Rabat you can go to the police

station and they have addresses of~

housekeepers wiho work with

iaropean families. And you meet

some of them and choose one and

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discus the salary.

Do the housekeepers sleep in or

do they live with their families?

278

Moroccan Arabic

Unit iS

Moroccan Arabic

278

kaymlcmhum ys3~iu mm a ain d.: ar.

(M) - iwa ShSlI, x ni brt 1: i tbga

mayf: ar , 'elawd: as t ndi u

diwlad s~ar , whad 3=d: a 1:i

yadi nbq fit

ib ,'radi

asu tir . wsa =ra b'it

(L)- ila kant fldk mttl: m , nti

lf'fur fq:bad

lmaTiby: a 3ayftra zyan .

kayty:bu fs~bah r; ayf

a w l:a s: rxz , wibid watery

awl; a 1q wa . iwa wbed

1: iymlb tsawb biba l'd

* wta vbt&d katu : i ld.:ar,

ktbd: f d:ar kal:ha . fl,-,wl

ksatsawb bytta: vas , wwtbtd bit

d:y78 , wmb bit 3 m , wlhm:am ,

wl ks3 mna , wmbmd katvm1 s: ab

If' they are not from Rabat, they

live in.

I would like one that lives in because

I have two little children and

I would like to get out during our

stay in Morocco. Also, I want

to learn how to cook Moroccan food.

If you have a housekeeper, you are

not going to have to do wnting. She

prepares breakfast. Moroccans eat

very good breakfasts.

,Tey eat pancakes or doghus

and eggs, and drink tea or coffee.

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Then the housekeeper shops for lunch

and dinner, and comes home to

clean the house. First she cleans

the bedrooms, then the living room,

the toilet, the bathroom, and the

kitchen. Then she washes the clothes.

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

279

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

279

lma'ribi, awl : a l'urizp: awi

kadalik ?

(L) - m1um bju .um , myribi.

w7Uru1P:aw1 .walyndxs:k

wflt S2 302l1: yn .

(L ) - hadi r:b'a wns: daba ..

(M) -iwa l:ay

: ik . nthafa ~bd .

(L) - iwa m'ra s: 5lSma

D o housakeepers know how to cook

W asternl food as well as 1Mbroccan

food?

Yes, both Moroccan and Western

cooking. However, you have to tell

her what you want her to cook for

lumch and dinner every day.

What time is it, please?

It is 4:30 now.

Goodbye, I'll see you later.

Goodbye.

V o cabnlary

ql~b

nd4f

bulls

bulisi (1'a) / bulls

Iqa (a)

t o look for, turn over, check, en

to clean

Is that so?

police

police

policeman

las

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to meet

tlaqa ( na)

xz (kay}

to meet

to meet (with)

to go out

Unit i8

Moroccan Arabic

280

Unit 18

Moroccan Arabic

280

Unit i8

SW~q

sfnYza (f) / -t sn

bit d:yaf

m am (m) / -at

ass: ina ()/-t

mizina (f) / -t

sabtm

~in2 S abim

sb:fl

tsawT

to shop

doughnut

shopping, errand

salon, living room

bathroom

k.itchen

kitchen

soap

to wash clothes

to wash clothes

to see one another, meet

***

xVI II. 8 Questions - 'a'ils

1.

2.

3.

6.

7.

was lmt"1:met lm ?riby:at kay fu fyybti?

s kaydirx 1mt1smt m 'rrt :yab (t cookizig') ?

vas brat marl1mt'c1:m tgls m'aba f j:s wl: a tskcm m a 1"a'ila

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dysib ? eas

as kayaklu 1~a'ba flf

as ksaydfri lmt'1 :mt mU bed iinyz iv 1s :tiq

Ua 31t('1: t kyfy tbti rl'ak2. 3.myTibi vafi ?

'C**

Moroccan Arabic

281

Unit 18

|oocnArbc21|nt~

XVIII. 9 Proverbs (36 40)

(36) 2:n bed lrka

erk

b , shba

to fight, to treat roughly

ra () / -t

a fight

saba snaba

friendship

Friendships are often strengthened after a misunderstanding.

(37) huta nza , katzn:Z

maz

Wa ri .

to stink

Panz

smelly (bad )

=;z

ri (m) / -yat

to cause to stink

a large saddle bag used on beasts

of burden for hauling

one rotten fish spoils the whole basket.

(38) sam ht;a rya , wftr ela Erada .

sam (u)

Orada (f) / Erad

to fast

grasshopper

This proverb is said about people who refrain from a particular

activity for a period of time and then, upon resumtion of the

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activity, show poor choice or taste in what they do.

282

Moroccan Arabic

t 18

282

Unit i8

(3 ) e g t i A a me t 0 i

to fall

ass : tto rob

mks: t (mn)

a&miless

This proverb is said about a person who seeks the help of' another

helpless person.

(40) sbQ sways' , W: Zq daye

sta (f') / snayr'

dat' (i)

rzc (m)/rzaq

day" (i)

He is a jack of' all trades but

of' them.

craft, job

to grant (by God)

to be lost

earned compensations bounty

lost

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gets no real profit from an~y

Moroccan Arabic

283

UnIt 19

Moroccan Arabic

283

Unit 19

George and Mary Arrive in Morocco

XIX. 1 At the Airport in Sale "finaaala

(H) - abln wasbln zurz . kif

kaf s: afar ?

(i). S: of r kmn hail . t:yara

wslat fliqt

(H) - : ah yawd: i * had V:Wa78,1

air maruk dims kaywslu

IlwcitWdie kayqi: cu

fluqgt kadalik.

(L) -mxi, fayn uftu ?

fbariz

awl1:a fim dr ?

(H) -wfna fbariz. , bqina

tm a yuuyn3

(L) - kiT .atk bariz 9

(14) - bariz mdina ha'ila,waakin

ku1:ii 'yali Thariz.

Hello, George. How was your trip?

Excellent. The plane arrived

on time.

Sure. Royal Air Maroc always lands

on time and takes off on time.

Mary, where did you stop? In Paris

or in London?

We stopped in Paris for two days.

How did you like Paris?

Well, Paris is an excellent city,

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but everything is expensive theme.

Moroccan Am bic

284

Unit 19

Moroccan Ambic

284

(L) - m'ak Lhq: . aa wra1i

fbariz hadi t a yn

zbrna taksyat ' alin, WI: 'aki

yali 7 WS : ua 1: =7b a

fwahd Ibit syir' , fih

rirweaif ih ma smm

WTIf: a k522 : U aif Wm:a

msa w' sri.n frank fs hr.

iwa ezia camayn bhai had.

walayn: i tkz'fsmna bz ; f

(M) atafqa m'ak . ]bayat

fbrzsX:ha fins ktirza .

m'hat, tzbri ma a: a1 y=a,

walakizi 'adi ytqam elik

yali bz: af

(K) -yal:ah ., tfd~lu . ha

s.-: arm dya2.i ta a.

t ) -.fin 'radin ninsiw daba?

(H) - 'ndi 1d:ar bas ntvs: w

dyalna , wmbQ 'dyi

You are right. When my husband

and I lived in Paris two years

ago, we found that taxicabs and

food were expensive., We found it

ipossible to rent a decent place at

a reasonable price. We used to live

in a small room with one small

window and no hot water. We paid

1125 francs a month. We lived like

that for two years. Paris is a

great city, but we had a real hard

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time.o

I agree with you. Life in Paris

requires a lot of money. It is

possible to find a nice place to

live but it will cost you a lot.

Come, my car is over there.

Wihere are we headiung now?

To my Place. We'll eat and I=ll

introduce you to our families, and

then I'll take you to see the house

flnit 19

Moroccan Arabic

285

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

285

Yir baa qribs. flagdal.

( Z) - as bad d: ar be 'ida

that I rented for you in Agdal.

It is not far from here.

Is this house far from the

University?

No, the house is in the ca=ixs area.

(H) - la , d: a; Ada

fy: 1z a i ! i

(Z) - bati flk'a =yaa

Vocabulary

safar

q1~

wqif

=a k ibq:

su~ra

spa (m)

tkrf s

ial

tqam fila)

sy:m a(f) / -t

That is a good idea.

travellin, trip

to take off

to stand up, stop

you are right

dwelling

impossible

hot

to pay

to botch up, to maltreat

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to be messed up

I doubt it, I don't think so

(expresses doubt as to some action)

to cost

car

quarter, section of towln

*' x *

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

286

tit 19

Moroccan Arabic

286

Unit 19

XIX.2 Gra tical Notes

kunt kds fwahd z2kbira

k~zx kay i lhadim fs: bah

b3k'i

2. miha1

we used to live, we lived

I used to live in a big house.

He used to come here early every

morning.

I doubt it, I don'It think so

imossible

Are theretextl

ac:

__re L

Mrocco?

wlrribky j ?ft I'M

I: ah ySWd:1 ,= y- h kayn asidli. Certainly, yes si.r, there are.

was ~yn m~anir d~1kiran

flarib ?

m1b&m tbl. sm

dyal s; pmt s:f1'

f1z rib, alakin ul~mthal

hal had s

ml:muhal .

Are there bus factories in

Morocco?

It is possible, aybe.

I dou~bt it, I don't think so.

Impossible.

Maybe it is possible to find auto-

mobile factories that produce

small cars in Morocco, but it is

impossible to find bus factories

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there.

You're kidding.

That is impossible.

Moroccan Arabic

287

unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

287

Unit 19

3. T

Tir bus qrib

drstsTir d: ari~a 1i'~iby: a

m dst yir d: ari~a laf iby :a

w s d:arcdalhind by ids

la , 'rir lhna qriba i l i 3 'P ;P

1:a yXl:ik .

"ntdi 'rir ;bcba dd:riabm .

ma tni Tir rbsa dd: 'abin.

ma ai'r hbad

except , but , only., just t'isolating

not far from here

'azti cl e

I studied only M oroccan A z'abic .

I studied only M oroccan A rabic.

Is Ahmed' s house far from here?

No, not far from here .

(ladle) Give me just a i ttle bit

I have just (only) fm=Dur nizhams .

I have just (only) four Di rhains.

He only gave me this thing

** *

XIX. 3 Questions - 'as'ila

1.

2.

3.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

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sla li tsnsa 22 Wv ma f 8 a; s aaq

Was :ya w91at flwqgt ?

as

alek f; wayal air iaak ?

fayn wqgf zuz wai ?

kif zbua bariz ?

kife avasind wlila fbat'iz ?

fiyt d: ahuin bnn btd =Inu m :y: aa?

fayni]myna ;I: n : i kraba azr! ?

fayn kayn 3Im: laRmisif;:f bat

r *r

Moroccan Arabic

288

Unit 19

~oroccan Arabic

288

Unit 19

XIX. L . With Abmed and Lia;s Family in Rabat

zM~a 1eaila dimd wijia f:bal

(Z) - Zubida, Lila' s mother, /zubida/

(B) - Bel Arbi , Lila' s father, /bl varabi/

(A) - Aisbha, Lila's sister, /risa/

(Z) - mrhba bi~i "ndia . Lila

tkl :mtli bZ:&f! elik nti

Welcome. Lila talk~ed quite a bit

about you and George to me.

(B) - iwa , =hba bik]izm asidi

"ndrna. tf d: lu l c a

mnzud .

fayn kats]kiu fi amcirika?

(M) - aa a ait f sikag ,

wl' aiila dya Li k iilha

katak r fiagi. walak n

s .t d.: irasa dyali k l:ha

fm: igan . tmL:a tiaqit m a

Bari . ~adzrkaziskixu fditra

(A)- q it flrt afy~a r

l.'amiriky: a bayl:a diut

ditrwa miina kbira , ufiba

bZ:aof dlms z ie ds~y arat

Welcome. Come in. Dinner is

ready.

excuse me, Mary, where do you live

in America?

I was born in Chicago, and my

famly lives in QCcago. But I

went to school in 16.chigan where I

met George. At the present tie

we live in Detroit.

I studied in American geography

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that Detroit is a big city and that

it has many automobile factories.

Moroccan Arabic

289

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

289

(M)- y; i . mcak 1hiq

(A)- kat : a flmustqbal tkun

end w S.41. bas nmsi

!10Zra f'aaam.r2.ky: a.

(z)

-kayn 'nd a f 'anarbr

(A) bfit !drs 1: u t ki ma

+?iglizy:a Wl =sany: a

W ?lmaY: a kadalik .

(Z) - 1:ah yaWd: i , 'fadi tksani

satda w a rask tma

kaYd12 l2i bayl : aa amivat m : igen

ah1S a n ait a fl'alai kla31:u

ftdz'is l;uyat

(B) had *50i ha'i . nti

a3i sakattrfi i isy

dX: gliza

(A) - y: ih . l1t aanf'l: isi.

(H) h ad Zimda 1: i a bna

fr: bat, aria kayxs:

You are right.

I hope in the future to have a

f'ellowship to study in an American

university.

In Ann Arbor, Michigan, we have an

excellent University.

What do you want to study, A i sha?

I would like to study lnuge s such

as English, Spanish and German.

Well, in that case, you will be very

happy. I think that the University

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of Michigan is the best university

in the world in the field of~ teaching

(forein) languages.

That is excellent . A.sha, you know

some E&glish.

I studied Tiglish for two years at

the 1ycee (high school).

During my stay here in Rabat I

would li ke to improve ny colloquial

Moroccan. I have an idea; I'll.

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

290

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

290

mzyen . wfna ari , n

n 'tik dxus bini'gliziya , ivnti

~aw!21ni bd. axrza 1m'riby a,

wi2.a kn 2ndk 1w~t , r

.if as nqi a wnktb l t araby :a

lfu a , '1awd :as"drst rir

dam: ari~a lme'yriby: a .

(Z) .iwa , hadi. fka =nyana a 'isa .

Thad 1vutla

(A) - wax a , bkil faa4 , ama

mStatdc:a.

(M)- bqay tti rndi cd: ar 3al : nha

" .

mbt d lWda wxm~

(A) -

It

-.;a alal~a .

help you with iglish and you help

me with M4oroccan Arabic, and if' you

have time, teach me to read and write

Classical Arabic, because I only

studied colloquial Moroccan.

That is an excellent idea, A{ sha..

NOW that i t i s

r rcati Oil you

have nothing to do.

Well, l am ready.

Come to my place everyday after

lunch and we'll work together.

41.1 right.

You'll. learn kglish very well

in these three months because Ma.ry

was an 3aglish teacher four years

ago.

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Last year' Aisba taught Moroccan

Arabic to the wife of the American

ambassador who now speaks very

(z)

- frad t: it br ds: if

dhrli'radya tt"1;m.

igliza ~ya n mdak 5:i

bati rbt aim.

(Z) - iisa kadalik itam Imadi

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

291

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

291

Unit 19

wlbad~r hla kathdr bd: arizfa

1mariby: a asyan i dak s: i

rfir, bh:al lmfarba.

..

zawbthaba bS ft: ilium

nudha bhlq kif si !aTiby:a .

(L) .mat s:ofit 11'amiriki had~i

ti.t sin whiya katris hna

Limayrib . katb'yi lmyrib

bz; o~f hla wralha . l'usbuv

lme.zi nsa'al : ah yadym t mu

strabtu inca askwnfdarkm,

'radi nrti isi bfla wmbrd 'rdi

nqd: i~nllons: of it l'atiriki

uimtu; nas ty:bsin bz :of .

uibsd wadi ttlaqa inca

3 aZirky:in xrin., wknt: S w

had lmd a dyalk= ui za flzr 'ib ,

tkm sac ida ktfr

n~a'al: ah .

good Moroccan Arabic, exactly like

a Moroccan.

You're right, mother. When I talked

to her over the phone yesterday, she

sounded exactly like a Moroccan.

The ambassador's wife has been living

here for three years.

Both she and

her husband like Morocco very muich.

Next week iwhen you've settled doiwn,

I'll1 give a party and introduce the

Ambassador and his wife to you.

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They are excellent people.

You will also meet some Moroccans,

Europeans and other Americans. We

hope you will have a nice time here

in Morocco.

Vocabulary

zlq

s ~lQ(m) / ma nzit'

to create, to be born

to be born

factor?

Moroccan Arabic

292

unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

292

Unit 19

i a (f)l/ -t

scd

sac d (in)

bqay ttiy

Zawb

b 3q

stms

hfla (f) / -t "bfar i

ty~b (in)

schotarship

to be happy

happy

to help

vacation

keep coming (f )

to answer

voice, throat

to repose, relax

party

nice, gentle, good (f'or people), ok

r*

XIX. 5 Grautc alNotes

3. Conjugation of the verbs x

='to be born' and 22j ' tto be born't

a2S Ito be born

(to create)'

xlqt

xlqti

xlq

xlqat

a_ ,' to be born '

xlaqit

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xlaqiti

xlaq

xlaqat

S was born

You (s) were born

he was born

she was born

we were born

you (p) were born

they were born

xqna

zcqtu

xlqu

xlqa

xlaqitu

zlaq Z

Moroccan Arabic

293

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

293

2. rfi"

Si Z'i1

n imiru wehd

m dak s: 1 T:fi'

lkzwa dyalba rfi.ca

srat k s

i jt

had 1'a.kl nimir wsahd

had d:ar hadi bha'i2.a.

sra vwalid ksva lmatu

mdak s:

r~fit

3 . hadi e'amayn

~uto badi t'aayn

hadi pamyn asftu

curt bariz bad. ema

hadi eamayn bs zurt

bariz

d3.saraby: a hadi 'bt si n

li la ham, zb anin whiya

katqr: i lraraby: a

lila hadi =be sain uhiya

excellent

excellent

excellent (Al)

excellent

excellent

Her dress is excellent.

She bought an excellent dress.

This is excellent food.

This house is excellent.

He bought an excellent dress for

his wile.

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ro years ago, for two years

I saw him, two years ago

I haven't seen him for two years .

I visited Paris two years ago.

It was two years ago that I

visited Paris.

Lila was a teacher of Arabic four

years ago.

LAIla has been a teacher of Arabic

for four years.

Lila has been a teacher of Arabic

for four years.

r *r

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

294

Unit 19

Morocc~i Arabic

294

Unit 19

XIX.6 Questions - 'as'ila

1. fayn zadt (>zatt) m$ri ? 'zad' to be born

2. fayn katskum 1 ea'i1a dya2.ha ?

3. fayn q'at maz'i?

1j. i ayn tiaqat max incra urz ?

5. sou q'Tat visafz:u tafy:a v la idint ditwa ?

7. as kat'~f cia zami tat mi s :i gn 1-i kayna f'anabr ?

9. as qta; at Main elca visa ? (ta4 "to suggest't)

10. a 4=;Mari q;:at" n: giiza ?

11. kifas t1: ma~t at c: air 1'amiriki d: ariza 1mayTiby: a ?

12. vas at J#;afir 1a Erik kathd; d: ariia z

23. as yadi d: it lila ai: i zuri uni ystar1 u fc abnm i: dida ?

XIX.7 After Dinner - nbcd icia

() qU:i asi b mc}, vas ndm

bna i isa'id varaby: a ?

(H) - w: ala Mr akaputiana'id

myiby: a bh:a2al laainm,1:i

huwa shut isrida WVriby:a ,

irkayn kadalik zana'id mry:a

bal 3ha4w 1:ibhiya isnida

f a f: rq l'awsat.

Abimed, do you have Arabic newspapers

here in Morocco?

Yes, first. there are Moroccan papers

like the A1.'Alam which is the

best Mroccan paper and there are

also Egyptian papers suach as Al-

Abram which is a well-known paper

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in the Middle East.

Moroccan Arabic

295

.Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

295

( ) -m=a ni sm' t b1t'aam . bad..

'aw; ala Z=-0a ,walakin qri t

I 'abram ktir f'mirika

qu.1:i a bsn arida Iralam

awl: a 1'ahram ?

(H) - kif kiT . fnadari I9abX'ai

Zarida. qdima wkat'I:q

'la 1'a=bar z.,ariz . lealam

zarida daxci2y: a muhiia .

(Z) -vws kaynin si Zara'i d

7~p.:5wY;1fi?

(H)- y:ih , kayn liumd zaz'ida

fransawy3 a , arida duwaly: a

wkayn nl : yLyUZk taymz

wayn sdalik Zara'id

RB'Triby: a bl:U (a lfralSY: a

kima 1ptimrukan wiupiyun

(Z) y: ih , a ahen 1ptimeua

awl,a Iunyym ?

(H)- bhal bhaa

I have never heard of Al-Alan. I

read Al-Ahram in the U. s.A . Which

is better, Al.-Alain, or Al-Abram?

Same thing. I think Al-Abram is a

well established newspaper and deals

with international news whereas AAl -ate

is an unimportant local newspaper.

Are there any European papers?

Yes, you can find the French paper

"La M nde " which is an international

paper. We also have the "New York

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Times" . We have Moroccan papers

published in French such as "LE

Petit Marocain" and "Lt Opinion".~

Which is better, "L Petit ) rocai n"

or "L' opinion"?

Same thing .

Are there any bookstores here in Iabat

that sefll iglish and Arabic books?2

(Z)

-R wa kyn i makatib 1: i

sndbnm katub bn; gliza

wlearaby: a bna fr:bat ?

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

296

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

296

Unit 19

(H) -l1] tub 3i il: ha m1'uda bna

bn: gliza , wl~aaby:a,

Tlf'Sflsy; a , W19al7a: a

w1 'acpany :a ,.wt :a : xsy: a

wlgriky:a , wlbtizy: a.

iwa kul: Si = Ltud . hads: i

300 :u yad~i t2gah fisari" inzbm: d

2xamj s.

(M) - brina nsriw si 5Y: r

gyp: awy : a sy'ira

(B)- iwa

sad : y: arat bnz

bz :of . 27~n tfdna mmu1dysal

fyat , sy ara syira , wzy a .

bz :aof dlm'a iba kayst'mlu

had Ifyat ha

(H ) -h t: a sim ka yan a W = s an r u b a f m yr i sa

fd: aribida

. .

(B) kaml lmtinsiw si nbar

msa hd Id: ar bida huwa

endu bz :af dl'apdiqa tma

l: i yznmlzm ye'awnuku, ila

byita triw si ay: ara zdida,

awl: a balya .

You'll find all sorts of book~s in

English, German, Spanish and even in

Russian, Greek and ?ortuguese. You'll

find all this in bookstores on

Mhaaed V Avenue.

We would like to buy a small

European car.

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Cars are available here. We have

a Fiat Motor Factory. Fiat is a

nice small car. A lot of Moroccans

have Fiats.

Sim ca is also good. It is made

here in Morocco, 3zu Casablanca.

You can go to Casablanca one of these

days with Abmed. He has a lot of

friends there who would help you if

you decide to buy a new or used car.

Moroccan Arabic

297

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

297

Unit 19

(Z) -b~alak 1: a 2 .gqik asi b3; '3abj

kan ruk vela bad 1I lsaesda

pia 5 X 1w :na nsifu bad

d:ar Z: dida . vas had. d:ar

tefr: sal~: a is?

(H) -.a d:as hiya idida , walakin

Thank you very Mach f'or all this

help. Ahmed, could you please

give us a ride to that new house?

By the way, is it 'arnished or

un'urnished?

It is a new, wurnishe house.

Here we don't rent f'urnished

5ky ~ iWs d: ycj~' fr : sizi houses, because everyone ftiznishes

VlIawd: a~s k i: wahd kayfr: s his5 ownplace as he likes. You

~.: 5z dyau fd:uq 1: a

*u

will stay here with us tis week

Y" din tbqaw m aa b a f'aw:1 and then well3 go together to the

'ibu 9wmbedd

.w mit medina (downtown market) and you

lla ina wtxtaau lhwayy l: i

can choose whatever you want so that

britu , wtf;T: iu kumt kim b'itu. you can fin'nish the house.

( ) - v:2a asi di. ad n :a dar maya

yal: ah xxsz1ftl d:ar dab..

(H) a 3Xa.ea radi ni ia1

S-.Y; ac-6, vtaqalgm qud: am

d: ar nta wmri

(M) - Lila niti wa-tk aziw maa

nsufu d: ar

(L) - : a bli1; f arab

All right. That is a good idea.

Let's go and see the house now.

All right. I:1l go get the car

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and meet you and M ary in front of'

the hoes e.

Lila, you and your' sister come

with us to see the houise.

All right.

(Z} 7S1:ahLesgo

Let" s go.

Moroccan Arabic

29 8

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

298

Vocabulary

kif kif~

b b2.hal

nr

-aril i (mn)

dax i (mn)

tiwl i (in)

luy'a (j)/ -t

Th a () / -t

dari~a (f') / -t

d: aria lmayriby: a

l carc by: a

lfrssy: a

ngliza

1ar3Ziy: a

1igzya

1l any: a

1Iaspny:a

s: blyuny: a

r~usy:a

3.b rt qizy: a

lgriky; a

sadiq (in) / 'asdiqa

msatada (f) / -t

sra (i)

xtar

the same, alike

the same, alike

to see, to think, to look~ at

idea

inside, interior, local

outside

inside

international

dialect

dialect

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language

Moroccan Arabic

Arabic langusae3

French lnuge

B&30 ish glanguage

German language

Spanish language

Ruissian lngae

Portuaguese lngae

Greek lamiguage

to manufa cture

to be manufactured

friend

to allow, permit

facilities (help)

to rent

to choose

to cause to go out, extract, graduate

Unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

299

unit 19

Moroccan Arabic

299

Unit 19

XIX.8 Grammtical Notes

kif kif

the same

the same

was t:qs fr:bat asi

d: ar Ibida 2

la, ki'kif.

la , bhai bhal

1.zara'id 3 a:hum baa

bhal bbal.

bad 2kswa dyalk bhalha

ba2.dli.

t:umbil z: dida dyalk

wdlIwaid dya li , kiT i

Is the weather in Rabat better

that that of Casabl.anca?

loo, it is the same.

No, it is the same.

All newspapers here are alike.

Your suit is exactly like mine .

Your car and my father: s are alie.

**

XIX. 9 Qestioas - 'a'ils

2.

3.

6.

7.

8.

Vas kayn 'ii im'tid ta~abys a fim'vrib ?

a~s kat fu 'la zaridat lealam ? vl'bam ?

alp 1:1 a149M aridat 1'ab amW1is a I'im ?

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Vas kaynizi ii .az'&id ' uauydisfn fltib

b1aIas ?

ws kayonSi iaa&"id m'rribys a bifantsy a ? asmithum ?

wa uidi ktub bl su at lgainaby: a fimrrib ? a minwrayt?

Vas iuz ibra yi sy: axa kbira?

am huwa flsU' d:y:arat 1 si nmiudin f1m'rzib ?

Moroccan Arabic

300

unit 19

9. fayn kaytpn'u S:y: aat ?

10. fayn b'raw ym iw mu bed ?

11. was 4:2aT dyal u m

?: sa as ?

12. fayn 'radi ygls ur wwzai s:inaa la:w; 2.a?

XIX. 10 Proverbs (41- 45)

(41.) wr: inahum s: Gaya , sbqima ld: yur lkbar .

Wr: a

to show

se'a (a)

to beg

sc aya (f)

begging

sati(in)/ ~beggar

I taught him my trade and now he competes with me.

(42) kaysrc mea s:lr: q , Wybki mn~a mwa1in d: 5r

This proverb is said about one who pretends to be ignorant of the

wrong deed he comitted.

(43) hbl trbh , wskr tim r:&a'y

hbl

to lose ones mind

hbil Cm) I/libal

rbh

fool

to profit, gain

ski

to drink (wine), get drumk

Im~r

to collect, gather

rag'y (m) /I7 ara

idea

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Pretend to be crazy and you will profit, pretend to be drnk

Moroccan Arabic

301

unit 19

8z.-ar (in) / _a

butcher

Dentist' s children's teeth are often rotten.

hira (ft) / hir

stone, rock

One normal disregards misdeeds of~ one's dear friends.

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*1* ~YE YE

Moroccan Arabic

302

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

302

Unit 20

UNIT TWENTY

XX .1 George' s New Hose- .: : dida dyal EWE'

(H)l , N adi hb.a; 3-l-i

wqul:L kifas nark .

C~ - had lby~t ryanW bas

Wbdd:-X15 aa btni bz: ai

qu: i asi bnd , skim huwa u

had d: ar , Was huwa ma ibi

aalI:a ump.-awi9

(H) - l~a , m=labz = ribi , si

bl;: S: h ,?821 ta r."bad

1h2 k i1:ha dyalu . had

lbrpnusi, 'ustad t:aria l'islami

9.

.0

hamaid~ustad isri, m za.cat

lqiabira, wdaba hu wa hua fr:bat

This the house that I rented for

you. Look at it and tell me what

you think.

The rooms are big and nice. And

the foyer is very nice.* Who is

the landlord? Is he Moroccan or

&iropean?

No, he is a Moroccan. His name is

Mr. 3ellmeddah. He is a merchat.

He owns all this sectiom'. Your

neighbor to the right is Professor

Sarnausi, Professor of Islamic

History at the University, in Rabat,

To the left, your neighbor is

Dr. Eamid, an Egyptian professor from

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biro University who has been here for

Moroccan Arabic

303

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

303

hadi tam . wkayd :sfikxl: yat

lhuu

(H) - was had d:ar badi fiha laa

s fl?

(L) - a , walay: i ym Ml m

bas ysawbllan butagaz

kayn uahalat ktir hna fr: bat

l: i kaysawbu dak s:

(H) - etbed . Xl: ina nfd-.iw had

lqady~a bsda . dasaya: ah

flzsiW end Si bl: md;Sah ,bas

txl; su l1ra wmab~d d: akI

mwah 's1a Iisa'il dyal dar

(L) Il: i tf&d:iw had 1'asal, adi

radi yyiw ysawbuli bad l.'sb %

Ibitagaz baza sabla.,'radyin

nmsiw mw'a bnd f s:y: ara m.Zib12ha

(Z) -w :a . yal: ah nazi.end

sibl:ad:ah

a year. He teaches at the Law

School.

Is there hot water in this house?

No, but you can call someone who

can install a gas heater for you.

There are a lot of places here in

Rabat that specialize in that.

Wait. let us settle this tt'

first . Let us go to Mr. Bel lme ddah

and pay the rent and discuss all the

arnement s with him.

When you are through with all this,

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we can call the telephone company and

they will install a phone for you

this week. The problem of butane

gas is an easy one. We will go with

Ahmned and take the coutainer in the

car with us.

O.K. Let' s go and see Mr. Bellmedda.

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

304

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

304

Vocabulary

nadar

taz.r (in) / tu : ar

butagaz (ft) / -at

1y

5; ra1

lysr

fd:a (i)

bsda

d :akr (<c tdakr)

suy1 (mn) I asya1

9idara (f) / -t

XX. 2 Grammatical Notes

view, idea

rich man, merchant

to call

butane gas, butane gas ray ge

the right (side)

the left (side)

the left (side)

to finish

rent

first, 1now

to discuss

business, work

administration

1. id

hadi hiya

dar 1:i kri tlkum .

who , which, that (relative)

his is the house which I rented

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~or you (p).

This is the boy who sells newspapers.

his is the girl who sells newspapers.

hada huwa Iwid

lZa'id.

hadi hiya lnt

lara -id .

1: i kaybie

1: i katbitb

hadu hums Iwlad 1: i kaybitou

1 ara'id

These are the boys who sell

newspapers.

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

305

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

305

1 adu hunma lbnat 1: i kaybicu

1zasa'id .

bada buwa lktab 1: i

hadu bhums lhwyz 1: i

vtai

Nadu hum ktub 1: j

'sndi .

2. Vl~y 1

dur el: ymi

car '1s :mat

B:5X 1:i. "1:yln huwa

l'ustad b d

aid fhad s: ari" bd: at, yadi

tiqa lanka el s:Bal

3. bgda

ali btda

qulli btda

These are the girls who sell

newspapers.

This is the house which I rented

~'or' you (p)"

This is the book which I talked

to you about.

These are the clothes that

they gave me.

These are the books that I have.

to (on) the right

to (on) the left

ernTrights

Turn left:

The neighbor who lives on the right

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(side) is Professor Abined.

Continue on this street and you'll

find the bank on the left side of

the street.

first, now

come (here) now!

say! hey say!

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

306

tit 20

Moroccan Arabic

306

Unit 20

XX.3 Qestions 'as'ila

1. Was c:3 z 1: i Ik'a ad lzurZ m zya aW1:s.la ?

2. s~kun hmsf: ir an dyal zurz ?.

3, W

4 :5T fibs i3m sm ?

1i.. kifas ~ai zurz ydir bas ykun rndu 1m . sm=?

XX. 4 George and the landlord zu= Uni1 : S

(3M) - Mr. Bellmeddah, the landlord, /bl :md :ah/

(H) - i b3: md: a mslziz asidi.

as zbaskum, ? si bi : id: ah,hada

Si urzws: Y: da ratu

bu

fl:as l i 3k'itlhum d: ar dylk .

Si b1;~.: ah tJQ.:;m inahum bd: ariza

lmy'ribY: a2, 8Z.m y ~d: arik

(3M) shinh? s: fin asi

zur mu'hba bikim endna . it

t~srbu si ha~a ?

()-la, bas a3hi fik manda

luwqt daba . nhb a r

. "

na l9: ah.

Good a'ternoou, Mr. 3ellmeddah.

This is George and his wife ,

the new tenants. Talk to them in

Moroccan Arabic . They speak it

very well.

Is that so? Welcome, George.

1what would you like to drink?

7banks, we do not have time now.

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Some other time.

Moroccan Arabic

307

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

307

(3M) - labd: na tsrbu si ha~a

(H) - : a . boina Si atay

ila mud.

kid' iatk d: ar asi izuri ?

(~) da mzanwalakin m'ti

aay

t di

baa(3M) -usia qriba hadi as a

lunm byat '?

(M)- byit bynt 11: 'as yukuziu

r : s ,wby~it lks3 mna wd: Xla

wit .m *2bm am si sba'ra tm i

vls in . bkiil farad

(Z) -sam iasi b1: m: ah ,a

byiti n3:sk dabs ? flVI1:k s:k: ?

..

(3M) -ia, Ia, zayd naqs . innbed .

(1 W Z~

:8ybnk: asidi(3) -b la . .

You muzst drink something.

We'll drink tea if you have it

ready.

It's ready. Have a seat. How do

you like the house, George?

It's very nice, but my wife doesn't

like the colors.

That is an easy matter. What

colors does she want?

I want the bedrooms to be grey and

the kitchen, the foyer, the toilet

and the bathroom painted white..

All right, Madam, with great

pleasure.

Would you like me to pay now?

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shall I write you a check?

No, it doesn't matter. Do it later.

Goodbye.

Goodbye.

***

(Z) -.bad 5;Y: d 'a ty:b bZ: af

tad

This is a very nice man.

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

308

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

308

(H) - ai#q kbir .k ~'rzuh hadi

m d twitla . huva wiwalid

inakaytf a. qus

He is an old friend. We have knxown

him for a long time., A very good

friend of' my father. They are alw'ays

together.

Vocabulary

sbamya

lun / aiwan

rmai (in)

b..a r : asw1 v in

Bk.- ' ik (m) / -at

zayd ncs

twi2. m)

tfa~q

paint

color

grey (here: 'off Chite't)

withgreat pleasure

check

it does not matter mach

tall

to seareTate, be separated

xx. 5 G !'amtical N Otes

Parts of the % man Bock

ram (i) / ys

asr (M)

vin (f) / (iruin

barb (a) / hwdb

sfr (a) / afar

head

hair

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ifn (a) / ifan

brain

eyebrow

eyelash

eyelid

foreheadl

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

309

Unit 20

~roccan Arabic

309

niIf (m) / nyuf

wdn (f~) / wdniin

Barb Cm) / ~ab

fm: (in) / fwi

lsai (mn) / 1stm

sla'rm (Mp)

S: a (f') / saa

'rsa (f') / ars

nose

nose

ear

lip

mouth

tongue

moustache

tooth

backtooth (molar)

biab (m) / nyab

drst 1'ql C(f)

xd: (m) /zdud

hnk Cm) /ba

i'k: (m) / fkak

wih (m) / vuh

dqn (m) /dqm

lq Cmn) / bluq

tild Cm)

q:rzuta C(f)

"nq Cm) / 'nuq

qi'a Cm) / mvat

qgba (f) / -t rq ab

ktf Cm) ktai

(Cm) / dx"'an

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dr" ^-drat

bat (m) / bitsn

m'fq (f') /Irai'q

teta(m) /m Warm

canne tooth

wisdom tooth

cheek

jaw

lower jaw

face

chin

throat (internal )

skin

lrnAria t s apple

neck

back of~ the neck, nape

back of the neck, nape

shoulder

arm

armpit

elbow

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic31

310

Unit 20

yd: mo d: (f) / yd: in id: in

Ib lyd: Cm)

kI~a (f') / -t

sbe Cm) / sb'an

df'r (in) / dfaz,

sd~r (in) / sur

bz :ula Cf) / bzazl

3934a (f) / 4uQs

00nzb Cm) / inab

dbr(m) /dcbnr

str: a (f) / -t

qlb Cm) I qiub

riy: a (f) / -t

furad (mp)

kbda C?) / -t wkbad

i Ca m) / ma

kiwa (f) / kiawi

sra ayAda (f?)

'dmn Cm) / tdam

dm.-Cm)

trq Cm) / "riaq

=1l (f)/ *r

fxd (in) /w

rtka(f) / rIabi

gba (f) / --t

sag (m) / sign

hand

the back of the hand

palm

finger, toe

fingernail

chest

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breast (for females)

stomach

rib

side

back

umbilical cord, navel

heart

lungs

viscera

liver (also a term of affection)

intestine

kidney

appendix

boe

blood

vein

leg or foot

tbig

lsiee

shin

calf of the leg

calf of the leg

Kx

Moroccan Arabic

unit 20

311

MooeC~ Arabic U~t 20 311

Learn the f ollowing:

di':

to give pain

kMardAinjkrs

kmysir:ni 'asj

I have a stomach ache.

I have a head ache.

* * *

XX. 6 Questions- 'as'ila

I.

2.

3.

I;.

5.

6.

7.

bas hdaml 4: SrtealUZl '

as kbui tndaimzi Wzu ilnd ?

si uq a l z u r l a r ba 'a d a ?

sit k Z3S~Wb dyal =1 4 : a;"?

kites d1~ ad si bl :ad: a ?

IX

George and Many Buy Now F uz&itte - iutzkaysri fs a t j

(C) - Caddour the shopouner, /qd :rn

(C) - in pai daba?

(H) - aJ' dyin nlu Ilinua

bas zisiw lfrasat .

Where are we going now?

We are going to the mddina to

bythe furnitur'e

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0., let's go.

Moroccan Arabic

312

T-Inl t 20

Moroccan Arabic

312

Unit 20

(H) -hanta ,Lt fha lfrasat xa

(M) -ml, azi kfIi bad 1;baf 1

drli ila zyan

(M) y :ih ayan *. iwa , xs :na

flcdu had l:ba f whadf s:lyat

brbv'a , e1lad: as kay4:atiw 1:haf

(2) -a~i ti fi had lfras . 'kif

Zak ?

(H) -hbad 1fr'a ha'il , zy

(Z)- si bnd , fin mul Izaal ?

(H) - a ndc 'las txn:m Vaia .

uibt d nl: bu elih

(Z) - as: na had l1.da hadi ld: yaf

bs;2yat dyalha

(14) h adi fa myata .

(Z).si bndwBaas kayn cndu Arabi

baa ?

(H) - kmicrf mhal 8hS!n bz~af 'ndhum

z abi si ktir . radi tti

Itma mbtd.

(Z)- iwa , fibad? ad s;j 1:i b'rina

bsaa . '7:tflS tia m1 Ianzt

Here is the furniture. Choose what

you want.

Mary, come and see this sofa.

It looks nice.

It 's nice. Let 's take it along with

these four matching chairs,

Come and look at this bed. How

do you like it?

It :s excellent.

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Where is the ownier of the shop ?

Do't worry. First of all, choose

iuhat you want and then we.ll find

him.

We ouit to bazy this dining table

and the chairs.

That ts a good idea.

Does he have rugs here?

I miaow a better place, that basaa

whole lot of rags. We'll go the!re

later.

Mfat's all I need now. all the

owner of the shopt please.

Moroccan Arabic

313

U nit 20

Moroccan Arabic

313

(H) - aii asi qd:ur . o~ut

I-bad s~yd hat hsbti %,lih

Thad s :i

(C) -had s:3 k1:u asid~i 1aytrcam

1tlh bsbem: a wsin drhm .

( L) -..ak tf d: asidi . has:k

dyal. s; bd: a sin drhm .

(C) -baraka 1;ahu 'ik

(H) - Was ]atvrT si wahd l: i

v=ndu si ka yes Y a abas

flrh: .u bad ~?

(C) sbzrsbr . ha wahd s: y:d

bna hdazia .*m "nd-laxm las tbqaw

bna . vtiwini 1Lnwan dyalkam

..

Id:2r

(H) ha l'rnwan sasidi tf d:l

(L) -bs~laa

(C) -bs: aa

Vocabulary

uzi

brb'sa

grata

Mr. Caddoizc , come here, please.

Tel). him how much this is.

All this will cost 750 dirhams.

Here is a check for 750 dirhams.

Thanks.

Do you know someone who has a

tralck to help us move those things?

Wat, my neighbor is a mover. You

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can go. Just give me the address

and he will take everything to your

place.

Here is the address.

Goodbye.

Goodbye.

to descend

the four of~ ... (them)

to match, suit

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

314

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

314

Unit 20

ql:b

mida (f=) / "'t nadi

dif (in) / y7afw *yf ;chi.?a (f) /

"

~ifat

hsb

ka~tm (n

at

rh:l

sbr

to think

you have nothing to worry about

place

to look for, eiainine

dining table

guest

to count, calculate

truick

to move

to wait, to be patient

** *

XX. 8 Gzamtical Notes

1. hanta ha inta

ha ana .

ha ta .

ha iti

ha huwa .

ha hiya .

ha bna .

ha iat.

ba hum

here you (uis) are

Here I am.

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Here you (ms) are.

Here you (fs) are.

Here he is.

Here she is.

Here we are.

Here you (P) are.

Here they are.

(Presetational in rticle ha

ha ama yadi

neadn

esa

rom.

l3: a Baba .

ha aa Tdi n~i ;a dba. (here) I am going to go home now.

Moroccan Arabic

315

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

315

hanta zid!

ha hus. aw 't

habna kml:na k ml-. S1

2. brbva

msina Irna btl.ata 1in]kas

lbarh .

Zaw i'ndi bZLu

'radi nm vi buhd~i

,di yzd=i bsbia

3. maudk...

and1aum slas tbqaw a.

mtnd~k qs tx-m .

watndu slas 711 lba .daba .

I!.. hak

hak .

hami.

bakum hake .

bak if lus aside.

(here you are) faie

Here they come!~

Here we are through with this

thing.

the four of them

We went, the three of us, to

Meknes yesterday.

They came to my place, the two

of them.

I am going to go all by myself .

Th~ey are going to work, all seven

of them.

you need not..

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You (p) need not stay here.

I have no reason to go to Fez .

You (as) have nothing to worry

about.

He need not come here now,

here you (as) are.

Here youa (ma) are.

Here you (s) are.

Here you (p) are.

Here is the money, sir.

Unit 20

Noroccan Arabic

316

unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

316

Unit 20

bakc ,hanta u fs

haki , ha lflus .

hakai ha lius.

haku ha ntmsa , =adu iflus

Here you (ins) are, take the money.

Here you (es) are, here's the money.

Here you (p) are, here is the money.

Here you (p) are, take the money.

w' * ^

1X.9 Questions- &9l

1.fanmsaw bas yiriw lf seat ..=r ?

2. a

sx afu , wa u tbb12m, wag =law?

3. was aw; :'abi ma end si qd; ? els?

5. kif as T s I Z= 1f'amat dyau 3.4z a?

xw*

X. 10 Torist Attractions In Rabat -aiskaybriw S:W :S) ~u f :ba

{Z) -flbadz mnda a u n1u.

(H) -yal: ah iW sal: a , t

Wbat would you like to do now, George?

Nothing in par'ticular ri g t now.

Well then, let's go to Qiella, a

lhal tarixi .w'adi 7T- b- bZ: af * historic place. You'll like it very

had lmbal bada 1: i y~adi nsifai, mch.*This place wihich we till

a a1 gdim . kaziu ba wh ;:m9Y: in .visit is an old place, built by the

fi bm: am ruai , wfih va~d Itin, Romans. Thiere is a Doman bath and

mibed kayn ta: a waihd 1ksnm

dyal T:

, wkayn f ia byut

a spring. There is also a Emn

Court of Law and other ancient rooms.

zriu qdem bz:Sf .* n1: 1'denaib All foreigners like to visit this place

$yiw yuru bad 1U\~S1. dims

It is always crowded. Tomorrow we'll3.

go to the QidaiasS' asbab; you'll

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Omar n: s . Yr:a nsa'l: ah

Moroccan Arabic

317

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

317

Unit 20

nmsiw ll3ud aya yyadi t mibk

bz :of iha atarat tarixy: a ,

kayhdu bz : f m1:;Zdma dyalThum

Thad Zz: Wya.

(~ waz: a hadi fkra zyan a

(It - abmd = sbr x1: ifla ht: a

lflbSZ s: bt nsacl: ah ? dak

lwqt hums ykumu salaw had s:

10 usiVbe d lmsiw itur hs:1n

'Yadi y qvbk bz :aof a mzri *s umcat

bas :an b inaya qdima , talya

bZ: aof Tha si zmsin mitt itly?

wThyu dyall mbnyd n b l

wIf1rrd dyalha tiata dlmtr , wfiba

1?uq 'yadi tbalk ala I' :ha

': bat

(M) - S: a " daba yal: ah nmsiw

(H)

= exa . y3a

like it very Honch. It has

hirstoric remains and all Moroccan

artists donate many of their works

to it.

T~at' s a good idea.

Ahmed, let 's go to Ha ssan' s Tower

on Saturday w'hen they are all

settled. You'll like it, Mary.

It is an old building about 50

meters high. It's built of~ stones

and the walls are about three meters

wide. From the top of~ the tower,

there is an excellent view. You

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will see all of~ Sale and Rabat.

All right. Let' s go to Qiella first.

All right.

Vocabulary

"m

tbmn

to give a bathl

to take a bath

bath

Moroccan Arabic

318

U-nlt 20

Moroccan Arabic

318

sin (mn) / y

amnabi (mn) / aziib

atar (m) / -t

fn: an (in) / -a fn: ain

zawya (f) / -t

saea (i)

~uin'a /

binaya (f) / -t

2it (mn) / hyait

srid (mn)

mnd (mn) / nad

menadir

bn (a)

spring

foreigner

ruins, historical monument, trace

artist

smiln mosque, religious center

to finish, end

tower

building

width

height

wall

wide

view, sight

to appear

***

XX.1 1.Gramtioa2. Notes

1. SratCses with Nueas

~les:

ahe t+8(s) def.

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N (ms) indef. + cie (mn

H(fs) indef. + One(t)

ani (an) + Modifier

~e() + Modifier

Two + 1(p) Lndef.

wahd lwld

wahd lbnt

wid wahd.

but ubda

wahd syir

. " .

wuhda sira

0 *

one girl, a girl

one boy

one girl

a small one (m)

a small one (t)

two boys (girls)

zQZ lad (binat)

Unit 20

Moroccan Arabic

319

Unit 20

Note: In the following examples whenever /d/ is used, it mist be

followed by' a definite aorta.

Two + /d-./ + N(p) def'.

Two + Moifier (indef.)

Tbree

u diwlad (dlbniat)

bar

*Ten

+ /d-/ + N (p )de .

tiata dl.wlad

v fra dlbnat

two boys (girls)

two big ones

three boys

ten girls

11 ... ..19/

-#

flull2 form

+ N(s) indef.

hdas1lpaid

eleven boys

rbK' ta~r bat

fourteen girls

11 ..f... 19

apocopated + /d/ + N (p) def.

h;Jai dlirlad

eleven boys

;b'ia's dlbnat

fourteen girls

20 .....* 99

+ IN (s) index.

r Srin wid

rbtawls t:in bt

twenty boys

Sizty-four girls

20 000*00 99

+ /d/ + N(p )def.

tenin dlbnt

twety boys

eighty girls

100 (Constrnct) + li(s) indef.0

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my:at wid

my~a widone hundred boys

Moroccan Arabic

320

Unit 20

100 + /d-/! + N (p) def . a :a dlwlad

1000 + N (s) indef.

all wid

one hundred boys

one thousand boys

1000 + /d./! + N (p) def . alif diwlad

one thousand boys

2. Conditional Sentences

Conditional sentences with lila/ t'if (possible, probably) and /kimf,

/ua/ , and /w n/ ' if (imossible, contrary to fact)'.

1. ila rtani 22as , 'radi nmsi nsri 13uuibil

If he gives me money, I1'11 buy the car.

If it rains, I will not go to the movies.

If you want to go, just tall me.

If you have a sick child, you should call a doctor.

5. ila kn

cndi iflus , w : ahi manbqa bna q yndim gana .

If I had money, f would not stay here for more than ten minutes.

6. wa

a , 1= ani mlit.

Had he come, I would have left.

7. wa

kan tml: i t~ilifun , kant mit tndu.

Had ha phoned me, I would have gone to his place.

8.* wkarz knn:a umina bkri , kuna tlaqgina Utah tor:a

Had we left early, we would have met him there.

9. lukim kcan Ia bb i , k had sI:i gas =m .a

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Had he come early, this would not have happened.

Moroccan Arabic

321

Ujt 20

10. ku n kant mat lbu.i s , kanu "awnu ha bz:aof

Had she gone to the polioces they would have helped her a lot.

22. lukan kkumt sftu , ken t itu lbw.a

If I had seen him, I Would have given him the letter.

:c

XX.12 Questions- 'as 'ila

2. fin kayna ludaya ? akin. fiba '

3. w~fl1naymat I~B: an

XX.13 Proverbs (46 - 50)

(46) l.fluka bla rays t' rq

.Mq

to sink, to drown

rays w' aais t(m/ray: as . wu'a sa chief., boss

Every job needs a responsible person in charge.

(7)

kil: zr kayyib ky al .

Sr

to sow

hard wheat

ky:lI

ky: al.(mn) / .a

to measur'e (wheat)

one who measures out grains

Everythlxig, no matter what its quality is, will find someone who

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needsw it.

Moroccan Arabic

322

Unit 20

(8) 1: i ytbt kiam n : as may~br fayn yr'm1 dyalu

tbe

to follow

klam

Vznl

what is said

to make, to do

Don't be affected by other's$ opinioins . Form your own and follow

them. (Stick to your gum .)

flus

money

Moey talks.

(50) lmca bla bya , bba.1 t: tan bla. miba .

bya

modesty, shness, decency

ta (i)

food

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The mw t inportant tb,,ing about a to is modesty.

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PART FOUR

APPENDIX A

VERB TABLES

324

APPENDIX A

VERB TABLES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

Table

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

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Introduction

Form I Sound

Form II Sound

Form III Sound

Form V Sound

Form VI Sound

Form VII Sound

Form VIII Sound

Form X Sound

Quadriliteral

Form I Medial Wt

Form I Medial W

Form I Medial W

Form I Final We4

Form I Final We:

Form I Final We

,'

,'

325

APPENDIX A

Introduction

Appendix A consists of twenty-four Verb Tables representing all verb

forms and structures (Sound, Weak, Doubled, etc.). Forms IV and IX are

not included since they are rare in occurrence and regular in conjugation,

i.e. like any other Sound Form (III or X for example). The Perfect (or

past) tense forms are listed first, followed by Imperfect forms with the

Frequentative Particle /ka-/ (for some speakers: ta- - da-). The

Imperative forms follow the Imperfect forms. The forms used in this

Appendix are the same forms used throughout the book.

The participles are inflected for gender and number. Transitive (tr.)

Form I Verbs have an Active (AP) and a Passive (PP) participle.

Intransitive Form I verbs have AP's only. Forms II - X have one participle

that may function both as AP and as PP if the verb is transitive, and as

AP if the verb is intransitive. The AP can be translated as "one who..."

thus serving as an "actor", e.g. /ktb/ 'to write' , /katb/ 'writer, one

who writes' . The PP is the same as in English, e.g. /ktb/ 'to write' ,

/mktub/ 'written'.

The Verbal Noun has the same translation as the English gerund, e.g.

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/ktb/ 'to write' /ktaba/ 'writing' ; /sam/ 'to fast' /syam/ 'fasting'.

326

Table 1

Form I Sound

ktb 'to write' (tr.)

ana

nt a

nt i

h uwa

hiya

as5550

nt uma

h uma

Perfect

kt bt

ktbti

ktbt I

kt b

ktbat

ktbt u

kt b u

Imperfect

ka nkt b

katktb

katktbi

kayktb

kat kt b

kanktbi

katktbu

kayktbu

fs

kat be

mkt uba

Imperative

kt b

ktb i

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ktb u

Participles

Active :

ms

katb

Passive;

mktub

Verbal Noun* k itaba

*Other Verbal Nouns

patterns :

mp

kat b in

miktubin

fp

kat bat-

naktutbat

of Form I Sound are formed on the following

Ys I

dxl

Ihsb

'to.

' to

' to

' to

hit'I

Wash'

enter'

.count'

dr b

rsi I

cixul

hsab

'hitting'

'washing'

=entering T

'counting.,, arithmetic T

*** *** ***

327

Table 2

Form II Sound

bd:I 'to change' (tr.)

ana

nt a

nt

h uwa

h iya

hna

n t umia

h umna

Perfect

bd: lIt

bd:Iti

bd: tt

bd: I

bd :l at

bd lna

bd: itu

bd: Iu

Imperfect

kanbd: I

kat bd : I

katbd: I

kaybd: 1

katbd: I

kanbd :I u

katbd:I u

kaybd: I u

fs

mnbd : I a

Imperative

bd:1

bd:I I

MP

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bd:l u

mbd: I in

Participles

as

mnbd: I

fp

mbd: Iat

Verbal Noun

* ** ** * ***

t b d il ..t b dal

328

Table 3

Form III Sound

samt2 'to forgive someone' (tr.)

ana

nt a

nt i

huwa

hiya

nt uma

huma

Perfect

samnht

samht i

sarnht

samIh

sarnIhat

samht U

samIhu

Imperfect

kansamh

katsamh

kat samh

ka ysanI

katsamh~

katsamntu

kaysamIhu

fs

pnsamla

Imperative

samh

sanhi

samhu

Participles

ms

msamil

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mp

msamh i n

fp

msamhat

Verbal Noun* msamtha_ musamalha

*Other Verbal Noun patterns for

Form III Sound are here listed:

ca nq

sa f

said

crd

'to

'to

' to

' to

hug'

travel '

help'

compete with'

mn anqa

safar

rnusacada

ti naci

Tnad

' huggingt

'helping'

'competing'

*** *** ***

329

Table 4

Form V Sound

tSI :m 'to learn' (tr.)

a na

nt a

at

puma

hiya

hna

nt umna

h uma

Perfect

tSi :rt

t'rI :rnt

tci :mti

"TI:m

t~I :mat

t~! :mna

tci :ntu

t~i :mu

Imperfect

kantci :mn

kat tt1 :m

katt S l :m i

kayt 'ii:m

kattci :r

kayt c'Il:mu

fs

Imperative

t'ii:m

tci :mi

tci :mu

MP

Participles

ms

fp

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rnttI:m

mtSi :ma

mtTI :min

mtcl :mat

Verbal Noun

Form V Sound has no

the corresponding Form

/ S I: m/ 'to teach'

/ti fl /

Verbal

II are

II and

(VN of

Noun of its own. Verbal Nouns of

used instead, e. g.

/ftfI :m/ 'to learn' V

II and V)

*** *** ***

330

Table 5

Form VI Sound

tfahm 'to understand each other' (intr.)

ana

nta

nt I

huva

hiya

nt uma

huma

Perfect

tfahmt

tfahmti

tfahmt i

tfahm

t fahmat

t fahnna

tfahmtu

tfahmu

Imperfect

kant fahm

kat tfa hm

katt fahm i

katfahmn

katt fahm

ka n1 f4a!rn

katt fahmu

kayt fahmu

Imperative

tfahmn

tfahmni

t fa hmu

Participles

ms

mut fahm

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Verb al Noun

Form VI Sound has

of the corresponding

/canq/ 'to hug'

Np

fp

mntfahwua

mtfahni n

mtfahmat

no Verbal Noun of its own. The Verbal Noun

Form III is used instead, e. g.

III and /t canq/ 'to hug one another' VI

/m ~anqa/ 'hugging' (VN of III and VI)

*** *** ***

331

Table 6

Form VII Sound

tdrb 'to be beatenh= (tr.)

ana

nta

nt I

h uwa

hiya

hna

nt urna

huma

Perfect

tdrbt

t dbt

t drbt

t db

t dr-bat

tdrbna

tdrbtu

tdrbu

Imperfect

kant drb

kattdrbi

kattdrbi

kaytdrb

kattdrb

kant drbu

kattdrbu

kaytdrbu

Imperat ive**

( .katdrbi)

(>ktdrbi)

(>kat :drb)

( kat : drb u)

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Participles

No Participles for

Form VII Verbs. Since Form VII is the

passive of Form I ; the passive participles of Form I are used

instead, e.g.

ms

mdrub

fs

mndruba

mp

mrub in

fp

fndrubat

Verbal Noun

Form VII has no Verbal Noun of its own. The Verbal Noun of the

corresponding Form I is used instead,e.g.

/drb/ 'to beat I /tdrb/ 'to be beaten' VII

/drb/ 'beating, hitting' (VN of I and VII)

*Notice the variant forms /t:drbf/ and / nd b / for some speakers.

**Does not exist for this verb. Theoretically / t db , t b i

tdrbu/

*** *** ***

332

Table 7

From VIII Sound

hta rm 'to respect' (tr.)

ana

nt a

nt

huwa

h iya

h na

ntuma

huma

Perfect

htarmnt

htarmt i

htarmt

ht a rm

ht a rmat

2t a rmna

Itarmtu

ht a rmu

Imperfect

kanhtarm

kat t a rm

kathtarmi

kayih tarm

katlhtarm

ka n h a rmu

kat Itarmu

kayhtarmu

Imperative

h t arm

h tarmi

tht a rmu

Participles ms

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mhtarm

Verbal Noun

fs

ht iram

mhtarma

mp

fp

mhtarm i n

*** *** ***

rhtarmat

333

Table 8

Form X Sound

stcrnI 'to use' (tr.)

ana

nt a

nt

huwa

hiya

nt urna

h uma

Perfect

stS~mit

st"&rnI t i

st~'mlti

st cm I

st cm Iat

stcmnI na

sticmttu

stcmlIu

Imerect

kanst rnI

katst~ml

katstcmlnl

kat st cm l

katst~rnI

kanstimI u

kat st cm lu

ka ys tcm l u

Imperative

st smn

st~m i

st cmI u

Participles

ms

ms t rmI

lap

fp

st i maIl

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Verbal Noun

mnst Vm la

rst cm Iin

*** *** ***

mst rm lat

Table 9

Quadriliteral Verb

trimn 'to translate' (tr.)

ana

.n t a

nt i

huwa

h lye

hn

nt uma

h urna

Perfect

t rmt

t rzmt i

trzmnt i

t zm

t rimat

t rmna

t rmt u

r zmu

Imperfect

ka nt rim

ka tt rzr

katt -ri

kayt zm

katt rzrn

ka nt rimu

katt rmu

kayt rimu

fs

mt rma

Imertive

trim!

t rimu

mt rzm 1n

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Participles ias

mtrzm

fp

mt rimnat

Verbal Noun t rama

N.B. Reduplicatives (e. g. /z *z 'to drag') are conjugated same

as quadriliterals .

pattern as those of

Their participles are also formed on the same

the quadriliterals, e. g.

fS

nip

mrzr

fp

mnrzra

mzrzri n

mat

Verbal Noun mostly on the pattern It zrzi r/ (%dz r i r)

*** *** ***

335

Table 10

Form I Medial Weak

x af (a) 'to be afraid' (intr.)

a na

nt a

nt

h uwa

hiya

h na

nt umna

h uma

Perfect

xft

xft i

xft

xaf

xa ft

xf na

xftu

xafu

Imperfect

ka nxa f

katxaf

katxaf i

kayxaf

katxaf

kanxafu

katxafu

kayxaf u

fs

xayfa

Imperative

xa f

xaf

zap

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xafu

xayf in

Participles

Active:

ms

xayf

Verbal-Noun

fp

xay fat

*** *** ***

x uf

336

Table 11

Form I Medial Weak

baT (i) 'to sell' (tr.)

ana

nt a

h uwa

h iya

nt uma

puma

Perfect

b 'Vt i

ba V~

ba t

b~tu

ba V~u

Imperfect

kanb i

kat b i c

katbi~i

kayb i c

kat b i S

kanb iu

katbi cu

kayb i u

fs

Imperative

bic

bi~i

bicu

mp

bayfin

mbyu~i n

Participles ms

Active:

bays

mbyu'S

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Passive:

Verbal Noun

bay Ta

mbyuca

fp

bay ~at

mbyuScat

*** *** ***

biS

337

Table 12

Form I Medial Weak

sam 'to fast' (intr.)

ana

nt a

nt i

huwa

hiya

lhna

nt umna

h uma

Perfect

s urt

sumti

sumt

sam

saint

sumna

sumt u

samu

Imperfect

kansurn

kat sum

katsuii

kaysurn

kat sum

ka ns umu

katsumu

ka ysumu

fs

sayma

Imperative

sum

sumi

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suinu

Participles

Active:

MiP

sayin

fp

ms

saym

saymat

Verbal Noun

*** *** ***

syam -su

338

Table 13

Form I Final Weak

bda (a) 'to begin' (tr~.)

a na

nt a

nt I

h uwa

hiya

n t urna

h uma

Perfect

bd it

bditi

b d 1t i

b da

bdat

h r4 T

bditu

bd aw

Impez'fect

kanbda

katbda

katb day

kaybda

katbda

6 -%1 v a8i:

katbdaw

kaybdaw

fs

badya

mbdy:a

Imperative

bda

bday

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bdaw

Participles ms

Active:

Passive:

badi

mbd i

Verbal Noun

MP

bady in

mbdy: it

fp

ba ytmbdy :at

*** *** ***

b idaya

339

Table 14

Form I Final Weak

Tta (i) 'to give' (tr.)

ana

nt a

nt i

huwa

hiya

nt ura

hurna

Perfect

St* i t

Stit i

Sii

Si a

'ii at

Tt ina

ti t u

t aw

Imperfect

kancti

katcti

kat st ?y

kaycti

katSti

kan~t iw

ka t 't iw

kayc'ti w

fs

Imperat ive

TSi

Si* l y

Ti w

nip

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catyin

rnit y: i n

Participles

Active:

Passive:

ms

Kati

m't i

Verbal Noun

Satya

mcity a

fp

Satyat

m~t y at

*** *** ***

Sti

34 0

Table 15

Form I Final Weak

xda ( -u) 'to take' (tr.)

ana

nt a

nt i

huwa

hiya

h na

nt ura

h u ma

Perfect

xdit

xdit i

xditi

xda

xdat

xdina

xditu

xdaw

Imperfect

ka naxu d

kataxud

kataxdi

kayaxud

kat axud

ka naxd u

kataxdu

kayaxdu

fs

xayda

waxdia

ruxuda

Imperative

xud

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xud

xudu

mp

xayd i n

waxd i In

muxu d i n

Participles m~s

fp

Active:

xa yd

-waxdi

xaydat

waxciat

muxudat

Passive:

muxud

Verbal Noun

*** *** ***

?axd - wx id (rare)

341

Table 16

Doubled Verbs

1b: 'to like, love' (tr.)

anaL

nta

h uwa

h iya

I na

nt uma

huma

Perfect

Wa:it

1b: i t i

1b:it I

12b:

thb:at

1b: i na

1b: i tou

thb:u

Imperfect

kanhb :

katlhb:

kat 2b :

kaynhb:

kathb :

kanhl~2b : u

kat2b :u

kay 12b U

Imperative

hb:

hb:i

12b u

Participles* fms

Passive:

rn1bub

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Verbal Noumn1tub:

*Not commonly used AP

40ab:

MP

1p

rn1bubat

m12buba

m12bub i n

12ab : a

hab:i n

hab :at

*** *** ***

34 2

Table 17

Doubled Verbs

dg: (-u-.) 'to knock' (tr. and intr.)

ana

it a

nt

huwa

hiya

Ihna

nt ura

huma

Perfect

diq: i t

dq: it i

dq: it i

dq:

dq:at

dq: ma

dq: itu

dq:u

Imperfect

kanduq:

katduq:

( >kad:uq:)

katduq: i

(>kad:uq: i)

kayduq:

katduq:

(>kad:uq:)

kanduq u

katduq:u

(>kad:uq:u)

kayduq: u

fs

duq:

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Imperative

duq :

duq:u

mp

daq: in

mdquqin

Participles

Active:

ms

daq:

Passive:

mdquq*

daq:a

rdquqa

fp

daq :at

mndquqat

Verbal Noun

d q: .d uq: d q:a n

*cruhed, grounded

*** *** ***

343

Table 18

Biradical Weak Verb

za 'to come' (intr.)

ania

nta

nt

Perfect

zit

ziti

ZI Li

h uwa

hiya

h na

nt umna

Imperfect

kanz

kat i

(>kadz.1)

katzi y

(,>kadziy)

kayz i

katzi

(>kad i )

kan i w

katziw

C(3ka d ziw)

kay i w

fs

mazya

zay:a

Imperative

aziy

mnazyin

ray: in

zitu

huma

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z na

Participles

Active

iy:

ms

mazi

Verbal Noun

fp

mazyat

zay:at

*** ** * ***

mz i

344

Table 19

Biradical Weak Verb

d:a 'to take along' (tr.)

ana

nt a

nti

huwa

hiya

h na

nt uma

h uma

Perfect

d: it

d: iti

d: iti

d :a

d :at

d: i na

d: itu

d aw

Imperfect

kand :

katd: i

katd: ly

kayd:

katd: i

kand: 1w

katd: 1w

kayd: 1w

fEs

Imperative

d:i

d: iy

d: 1w

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lap

md:y: in

Patciples

Active:

ms

md:i

md :y:at

and "y "

Verbal Noun

It was not possible to elicit Verbal Noun for

did it occur on the field taped materials .

this verb, nor

*** *** ***

345

Table 20

Form II Final Weak

Sn : a 'to sing' (tr. and intr.)

a na

nt a

ntit

h uwa

hiya

hna

nt urna

h uma

Perfect

sri: it

sri: it i

Yri: iti

Yri:a

xnriat

xnr: ia

fri: itu

T riaw

Imvoerfect

kanrni

kat rn: i

katrri y

kayrn: i

kat rn :

karn: iw

kat rn: iw

kayrn: iw

fs

Imperative

Ynri

Yi: i y

~rniW

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MP

Participles ms

mni

Verbal Noun Yria

fp

mriri:y :a

m~n:y: ini

*** *** ***

rrn:y:at

346

Table 21

Form II Medial Weak

mw: d 'to cause to get up or wake up' (tr. and intr.)

Perfect

ana

Imperfect

nw : t

imperative

knw :

(,nw~t

nta

nwlt i

ktnw:4

nw:4

C~nw:t :i)

(_nw:t :il

huwa

nw :

kaynw: d

hiya

nw~dat

katnw:4

hna

nw:dna

kannw:Ou

(,kn:w c u)

ntuma

mw:4tu

katnw:qu

nw:Ou

(>nw:t u)

huma

nw~du

Participles ms

mnw:

mnw:da

kaynw:4u

fs

nip

mnw: i n

fp

tnw:gat

Verbal Noun t nw i t nwa4

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*** *** ***

347

Table 22

Form II Medial Weak

xw:f 'to frighten' (tr.)

[Corresponding Form I xef (a) 'to be afraid' (intr.)]

ana

nt a

nt i

h uwa

hiya

h na

n urna

h umna

Perfect

xw ft

xw:ft i

xw:ft

xw f

xw :f at

xw :fna

xw:ftu

xw f u

Imperfect

kanxw f

ka t xw : f

ka t xw: f i

kayxw:f

katxw:f

kanxw f u

katxw:fu

kayxw f u

fs

mxw fa

Imperative

xw: f

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xw :f i

xw f u

Patciples

ms

mxw :f

Verbal Noun

MP

mxwf fi1n

fp

mxw fat

*** *** ***

t xwa f

348

Table 23

Form II Medial Weak

fy :q 'to wake someone up' (tr.)

[Corresponding Form I

faq (i) 'to wake up' (tr. and intr.)]

ana

nta

nt

h uwa

h 1ya

h~ na

nt uma

h uma

Perfect

fy :qt

fy:qti

fy:qt i

fy:q

fy:qat

fy:qna

fy:qtu

fy:qu

Imperfect

kanfy:q

katfy:q

katty:qi

ka yfy :q u

kat fy q

kanfy qu

katfy:qu

kay fy :qu

fs

mfy :qa

Imperative

fy:qi

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fy:q

fy :qu

mp

mfy:qin

Participles ms

mfy:q

Verbal Noun tfyaq

fp

mfy :qat

*** *** ***

349

Table 24

Form VIII Final Weak

t cs: a to eat dinner' (intr.)

Perfect

Imperfect

anlt~g:iti

huwa

Imperative

kantts:a

t akaytts:a

h iya

tT~s:at

kattS :a

hna

t Tsi na

kant Ts: aw

huma

t s: aw

kayt Si: aw

Participles ms

fs

MP

fp

Verbal Noun* Ts

*Other Verbal Noun patterns :

tf l:a 'to joke, jest' tflya Verbal Noun

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*** *** ***

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PART FIVE

APPENDIX B

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL

AND

GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY

351

APPENDIX B

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL AND GRAMMATICAL TERMINOLOGY

Adjective - A word which limits, qualifies or describes a noun or a pronoun.

In the majority of cases, Moroccan Arabic adjectives are basic (c.f.

basic noun) words. Most Moroccan Arabic adjectives have the structure

CCiC, e.g. /kbir/ 'big' , /srir/ 'small', /zwin/ 'nice', /mrid/ 'sick'.

Also see Adjectives of Color and Defect, Diminutive and Modifier.

Adjectives of Color and Defect - This is a class of adjectives that refers

to color and physical defect. They have the pattern CCC (ias), CCCa (fs)

CuCC (p), e.g.

xdr (ms), xdra (fs), xudr (p) green

Tri (ms), cria (fs), Turz (p) lame

Adverb - A word or phrase used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another

adverb. Examples of Moroccan Arabic adverbs are /hna/ 'here', /tm:a/

'there', /bz:rba/ 'immediately, quickly', /bz:af/ 'much, very',

/bs:wy:a/ 'slowly, softly'.

Affix - A term used to refer to prefixes, e.g. /#ka-/ in /kayktb/'he is

writing', infixes, e.g. /-a-/ in /ktab/ 'a book' and suffixes, e.g.

/-u#/ in /kI :mu/ 'talk to him!'.

Afro-Asiatic - A language stock consisting of five families of languages:

Semitic (e.g. Arabic and Hebrew), Egyptian (e.g. Ancient Egyptian and

Coptic), Berber (q.v.), Cushitic (e.g. Somali and Galla) and Chaddic

(e.g. West Africa: Hausa).

Allomorph - A positional variant of a morpheme (q.v.) occurring in a

specific environment. English has a noun plural morpheme // that

has the phonologically conditioned allomorphs /s - z - Iz/ as in

"cats", "dogs", "kisses". In Moroccan Arabic the connector /W/ "and"

has the allomorphs /w/ after a vowel and /u/ between two consonants,

e.g. is wmia 'he came and left'

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saf twid uibnt 'He saw the boy and the girl.

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Allophone - A positional variant of a phoneme (q.v.), occurring in

specific environments and not causing semantic differentiation, e.g.

English initial [k")in "kay" and [k] following /s/ in "ski" are both

members of one and the same phoneme /k/. The only difference between

them is that the first is aspirated whereas the second is unaspirated

(see Aspiration). In Moroccan Arabic /a/ has the allophones [a]

as in English 'fat' and [a] as in English 'father' in the environments

of non-emphatic (q.v.) and emphatic consonants respectively, e.g.

/tab/ = [tab] 'to repent' and /tab/ = [tab] 'to be cooked'.

Arabic - The most important Semitic (q.v.) language now spoken.

It is the

official language of Algeria, Bohrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait,

Lebanon, Lybia, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sharja, the Sudan

Syria, Tunis, Yemen, Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Muscat and Oman. Arabic is

spoken by 100 million people. It is the religious language of 650

million Moslems.

Arabic is both a modern language and an ancient one, going back

over 2,000 years. Classical Arabic was the language of the Koran

and the vehicle of Arabic literature. It is still universally

acknowledge as the Standard Form of the language and is used in

writing and speeches. Modern Standard Arabic is standardized all

over the Arab World and is the language of education, the press,

radio and TV as well as public lectures. In addition, an Arabic

dialect is spoken in each of the Arab countries and varies to some

extent from one Arab country to another. Arabists recognize two

major dialect groups "Western" and "Eastern"; the Western includes

the Arab countries of North Africa through Libya and the Eastern

includes Egypt and all the Arab countries of the East.

Aspectual - Temporal Forms - The categories of tense and aspect are so

closely interconnected in Arabic that, in many cases, it is not

possible to separate the aspectual meaning of the verb, i.e. whether

the action is completed or not, from its temporal reference. See

Imperfect and Perfect for more information on these two categories.

Aspiration - The puff of breath after a consonant, e.g. /t/ in English

"top",is aspirated where that of English "stop" is unaspirated; e.g.

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Moroccan Arabic /Tt a/ 'a cover' and /rt:a/ 'to cover' where /t/ of

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the second example is aspirated.

Assimilation - A phonetic process whereby two adjacent phonemes acquire

common characteristics or become identical. One important instance

of assimilation in Moroccan Arabic is with the phonemes /t t d d r

sszzI

n 1/ after the definite article /1-/; e.g. /razl/

'man', / 1-rail/ ---- /r:azI / 'the man'. Another instance is with

verbs, e.g. /wi:d/ 'to prepare, /wi:d-t/

/wi:t:/ 'I prepared';

/duq:/ 'knock!', /ka-t-duq:/ --+ /kad:uq:/ 'you are knocking'.

Auxiliaries - An auxiliary is a verb used before another verb to elaborate

the temperal or aspectual meaning of the main verb; e.g. English

"will" in "he will write a letter" or Moroccan Arabic /radi/ in /huwa

radi yktb bra/ 'he will write a letter'. Examples of Moroccan Arabic

Auxiliary Verbs:

1. /Tadi/ 'will...' + imperfect

xadi nmi dabs

I am going to go now.

2. /kan/ 'be' + perfect, imperfect, frequentative, and active

participle (q.v.)

kan mia

He had gone.

kunt kanigb atay fs:bah

kant xaria fdak Iwqt

I used to drink tea, in the morning.

She was leaving at that time.

3. /xs:/ 'it's necessary' + pronominal endings

xs: ni nera had lIsy:a

I have to study this evening.

4. -/bra/ 'to want' + imperfect

brit nm i daba

I want to leave now.

S. /bda/ 'to begin' + imperfect or frequentative

bdat thdr hdra xawya

She began talking nonsense.

6. /bqa/ 'to remain, keep on' + imperfect or active participle

bqina kanaklu ht:a fd:ina kul:si

We kept eating until we

finished everything.

bqa gals bwhdu

He remained sitting all by himself.

Base Form - The simple or basic form of a word to which inflections (q.v.),

and affixes (q. v.) are added to derive other forms (See Derivation);

e.g. Moroccan Arabic /cml/ 'to do' is Simple Form I and /stml/ (Form

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X) 'to use' is derived from it by prefix 1st-/.

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Basic and Derived Verb Stems - (also Forms) Forms II - X of the verb

(q.v.) are referred to as Derived Verb Forms, or Stems. Thus, /ws[/

Basic Form or Form I? 'to arrive' and /ws:I/ (Derived Form II) 'to

cause to reach'; /'mI/ (Basic Form or Form I) 'to do' and /st Trml/

(Derived Form X) 'to use' ; /baT/ (Basic - I) 'to sell' and /tba/

(Derived - VIII) 'to be sold'; /mia/ (Basic - I) 'to go, walk' and

/trmi:a/ (Derived - VIII) 'to take a walk'.

Basic Noun - A noun that has no relation to any verb or verb stem (q.v.)

from which it could be derived (see Derivation); e.g. /ktb/ 'to

wirte' has /ktab/ 'book' as a derived noun. However, in the case of

/hdid/ 'iron' and /hd:ad/ 'blacksmith', /hdid/ is a basic noun and

jLL.adj is deriVed from it.

Berber - A closely related family of languages spoken by approximately

10,000,000 people in North Africa and in the countries of the open

Sahara. The Berber Dialects spoken in Morocco are (a) Tamazight

(Middle Atlas) , (b) Tashelhit or Shilha (High and Anti Atlas and

the Sous Valley in Southern Morocco), (c) Rifian Zenatya (in the

Rif - Northern and NOrtheastern Morocco) .

Biradical Stem - A verb stem (q.v.) consisting of two radicals (q.v.),

e.g. /ia/ 'to come', /d:a/ 'to take along', / hb:/ 'to love'

(c.f. doubled).

Broken Plural (Noun) - A plural formed from the singular by internal

change. Broken plurals are not predictable. Examples:

ktab (s)

bri (s)

sn:a (s)

dr:i (s)

ktub (p)

bral (p)

snan (p)

drari (p)

book

mule

tooth

boy

Collective Noun - In Moroccan Arabic this is a class of nouns that

designates a group of things or a general category, e.g. 'onions are

good for you.' The singular or Noun of Unit is formed by adding

the femine ending suffix /-a/ to the Collective Noun which itself is

masculine singular. In Moroccan Arabic, e.g.

onions

bsia

an onion

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bsi

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ibsi mzyan

0:

bsla kbira

bid

eggs

nml

ants

The regular plural is

morpheme (q.v.) /-t/,

bsl

onions

tata dibslat

anions are goo

big onion

b i da

nmla

formed form

e.g.

bsla

three onion

d.

an egg

an a-t

the singular by adding the plural

an onion

Comparative - This is the adjectival form that corresponds to English

"bigger" derived from the adjective "big". In Moroccan Arabic:

/kbi r/ 'big' , /akbr/ - /kb/ 'bigger'. There are several patterns

for the Comparative in Moroccan Arabic of which /akbr/../kbr/

is the most common. Other examples are:

Adjective

qwi

Comparative

strong

Tal i

high

byd

white

hmq

crazy

xf if

light

aqwa - qwa

aria .._ ila

stronger

higher

abyd - byd

whiter

ahmq - hmq

axf: - xf:

crazier

lighter

Notice the following structures:

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1. w i d i akbr rnn w l dk My son is bigger than your son.

2. wi d i akbr w id

My son is the biggest boy.

Note that /akbr/ is the same form used for Comparative 'bigger' and

Superlative 'biggest'. This is true of all Comparatives and

Superlatives.

Conjunction - A particle (q.v.) having the function of joining sentences,

clauses, phrases or words. Some Moroccan Arabic conjunctions are

here listed:

i ma

im: a

aw

wi:a

aw I : a

imn:e--aw --

im:a- - w I:a- - -

either

either

or

or

or

either...or.. .

either...or.. .

i m:a - - -aw I:a*-*"-

W .. u

l akin

Iakn:

biIq:

walakin

wa Iayn:i

either...or. ..

and

but

but

but

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Tia wd~as

cla hq:as

hit

Tia qibal

ml:i

mni n

ht:a

bai

mahd:.-w...

1:i

xir

Fia hq:

Via xatr

Tia wd:

Vla msb:a

Via sabab

because

because

because, since

because

since, when, as

since, when

until

so that,

in order to

the more...the

more

who, which, that

as soon as,

no sooner than

because

because

because

because of

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because of,

on account of

wax: a

lukan

kun

skun ma

faynm : a

I aynnm :a

mni nm:a

kul :ma

kif ma

kima

shalm:a

qd: ma

qbl ma

bid ma

bla ma

asm:a

aw:I ma

even if, although

if (contrary to

fact

if (contrary to

fact)

whoever

wherever

to wherever

from wherever,

whenever

whenever

however

however

whenever

however much

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definite article assimilates to this consonant, i.e. it becomes like

it; e.g.

r azI

dr:i

a man

a boy

r:azI

d:r:i

the man

the boy

Demonstratives - The following demonstratives occur in Moroccan Arabic

and. must be followed by an indefinite noun:

Proximity

hada (m)

hadi (f)

hada (p)

Remoteness

this

hadak (m)

this

hadik (f)

these

that

that

haduk (p)

those

Examples:

hada wid mzyan

This is a nice boy.

hadak wid mzyan

That is a nice boy.

In addition, we have the invariable proximity demonstrative /had/

'this, these' as well as the remoteness demonstrative /dak, dik ,

duk/ 'that (m), that (f)', and 'those' respectivelly, all of which

must be followed by a definite noun.

had Iwid mzyan

This boy is nice.

had Ibnt mzyana

had n:as mzyanin

This girl is nice.

These people are nice.

dik Ibnt mzyana

That girl is nice.

Derivation - The formation of a word from another word or base by the

means of affixes (q.v.), i.e. a prefix (e.g. English 'un' in

"unemployed") or a suffix (e.g. English '-er' in "teacher") or an

infix (e.g. Moroccan Arabic -a- in /ktab/ 'book' derived from /ktb/

'to write'). Examples from Moroccan Arabic:

prefix: /m I/ 'to do' - Form I Verb (q.v.)

/st ml/ 'to use' - Form X Verb (q.v.)

suffix: /limun/ 'lemons' - Collective Noun (q.v.)

/Iimuna/ 'a lemon' - Noun of Unit (q.v.)

infix:

/nts/ 'to sleep'

/ntas/ '(act of) sleeping' - Verbal Noun (q.v.)

Derived Nouns and Modifiers - In Moroccan Arabic, the verbal noun (q.v.),

the nisba (q.v.), the noun of character and profession (q.v.) and the

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diminutive of nouns (q.v.) are among the most common derived nouns.

358

Examples:

Ys l

xbz

mazst

wid

The active

diminutive

modifiers.

Examples:

nTs

bhd

sktc

to wash

Tsil1

to bake

washing

xb:az

Egypt

masri

boy

wiid

Verbal Noun

baker

Noun of Profession

Egyptian, (ms) Nisba

little boy

Diminutive

participle (q.v.), the passive participle (q.v.) and the

of adjectives (q.v.) are among the most common derived

to sleep

to amaze

small

na Fs

mhbud

sT iWr

sleeping

amazed

tiny

Active Participle

Passive Participle

Diminutive

Diminutive - A noun of

The pattern is not

Base

girl

bra

letter

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bnt

wid

boy

sTir

small

kib

dog

modifier derived from another noun or modifier.

predictable.

Diminutive

bnita

bry:a

wild

kil ib

sY iwr

klib

Discontinuous Morpheme - See Morpheme.

Doubled Verb - A verb form (q.v.), the second radical of which is tense,

e.g. /Id:/ 'to close', /hb:/ 'to love'. (Notice that /b/ is lax and

that /b:/ is its tense counterpart; tense /b:/ has double the duration

of lax /b/ and is produced with stronger articulation and greater

tension on the muscles of the articulator.)

Dual - Certain nouns in Moroccan

a I f one thousand

yum

sata

Tam

one day

one hour

one year

nuba

once

Durative - See Frequentative.

have forms

alfayn

yumayn

sattayn

Samayn

nubtayn

denoting the dual, e.g.

two thousand

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Emphatic - An emphatic consonant (also Flat or Velarized) is one which

is produced by pressing the blade of the tongue against the palate

so that the articulation is velarized or alveolarized rather than

just dental. /t/ is the emphatic counterpart of plain /t/, e.g.

/tab/ 'to be cooked' and /tab/ 'to repent'.

Emphatic consonants color plain consonants, i.e. the occurrence

of an emphatic consonant will cause a plain consonant in the same

syllable (sometimes in the preceding and/or the following syllable)

to become emphatic, e.g. /t Iq/ ---+ /tjq/ 'to release' and /tbt/ -

/tbl/ 'drum' The influence of emphatic consonants on vowels is

very noticeable, e.g. /tab/ = [tab] 'to repent' where [a] is as in

English "fat" and /tab/ = [ab] where [a] is as in English "father".

Moroccan Arabic has the following primary emphatic consonants:

/t d s Z fi/ -

Exhortative Particle - The exhortative particle /yaL:ah/ 'let's' is used

in constructions before imperfect forms (without /ka-/) to denote a

first person encouraging structure of the type 'let's (do such and

such)'.

yal:ah nm iw

Let's go.

yal:ah nimsiw nicbu kas atay imi S

Let's go drink a cup of

tea together.

Final Weak A verb (q.v.) which has a vowel as its final radical (q.v.),

e.g. /hda/ (i) 'to present', is called weak because of the change

that occurs in that ovwel in the imperfect, /yh d i / 'he presents',

and in the imperative, /hdii/ 'present (ms)!',for certain members of

this sub-class of verbs. Compare:

mha (i)

mha

kaymhi

mh i

to erase

he erased

xda (-u) to take

xda

he erases

erase!

he took

bqa (a) to remain, seem

bqa

kayaxud he takes

xud

take!

Flat - See Emphatic.

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Fortes - See Tenseness.

he remained

kaybqa he remains

bqa

remain!

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Frequentative Form - Consists of the imperfect (q.v.) form plus the

frequentative prefix /ka-/. It expresses a habitual repeated action,

e.g. /kanmi ls:uq kul: sba/ 'I Lo to the market every morning.'

/kunt kanmi ls:uq kul1: sbah/ 'I used to go -to the market every

morning . '

or an action which is simultaneous with regard to the time of speech

(progressive) or another definite moment,

e.g. /kayakul daba/ 'He is eating now.'

/kan kayakul mi: i zit/ 'When I came in, he was eating.'

With certain verbs of motion, e.g. /masa/ 'to go' the Frequentative

never has a progressive meaning,

e.g./kaymi i mn daru i itidasa kul: sbat/ 'He walks from his home to

The Frequentative is also referred to as the Durative.

Frequentative Particle - /ka-/, the frequentative particle, is prefixed

to the imperfect (q.v.) to derive the frequentative form (q.v.).

This particle has the following variant forms: /ka-/~ /t a-/ - /da-/

/la-/-

Graphete - The smallest meaningful unit of the writing system of a

language that distinguishes one lexeme (q.v.) or word from another,

e.g. English b and t in "boy" and "toy"; Moroccan Arabic ..

and ~ /t/ in 4.JU /bab/ 'door' and

/b/

..t /tab/ 'to repent'.

Also referred to as Letter.

Imperfect - The imperfect is formed by prefixes and suffixes.

/kt b/ 'to write', /n kt b/ 'I write' , /n kt bu/ 'we write' , /y kt b /

'he writes', /yktbu/ 'they write'

Notice that the prefix denotes person and gender and the suffix

denotes number. The temporal and aspectual ranges of meaning

expressed by the Imperfect form are here listed in terms of

corresponding English equivalents.

1. The prefixation of /ka-/ to the imperfect structures gives the

frequentative form (q.v.), e.g.

katm i Is:uq: kul: sba She goes to the market every morning.

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2. Structures with /radi/ or /masi/ plus imperfect are future

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structures.

Yadi nmsi Ibariz Yd:a I'll go to Paris tomorrow.

3. Negative Imperative Structures are formed from second person

imperfect with the use of the negative morpheme /ma. ../

matmsis Don't go! (ms)

4. Exhortative (q.v.) Structures

yal:ah nmsiw Let's go.

5. Optative (q.v.) Structures

[:ah ybark fik God bless you.

6. Future (unspecified)

mI:i tsufu qulhalih When you see him, say it to him.

7. Present (unspecified)

ana nTrf nhdr I araby:a I know how to speak Arabic.

Indefinite Article - This is the equivalent of English "a", "an".

In

Moroccan Arabic we have /9i/ '-some, a' /wahd/ 'one, a, an'. Note

in particular the structures

/wahd Zui/ 'a couple'

/wahd i :ma ta dn:as/ 'a group of people'

Unlike English, it is perfectly acceptable to use nothing at all,

e.g. /bida/ 'an egg' as in /kJit bida had s:bah/ 'I ate an egg this

morning.' Also note the construction/si wahd/ 'someone'.

Indefinite Pronoun - Moroccan Arabic has the following indefinite pronouns:

/sI/ 'some' which occurs in /li bnadm/ 'somebody'

/Iw wahd/ 'someone'

/si haza/ 'something'

/si nhar/ 'someday'

/ii nas/ 'some people'

/kul: i/ 'everything, everybody'.

Inflection - The affixation of certain morphemes to the base of a word

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to denote person, number, gender, tense/aspect and/or mood of a verb;

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e.g. Moroccan Arabic /kt b/ 'to write' can give us the following

inflected forms: /ktbna/ 'we wrote'

/y kt bu/ 'they wrote'.

Interrogative Particles - A word or a phrase used in asking questions.

The most common interrogative adverbs in Moroccan Arabic are:

what?

as

what?

fayn

where?

)a I

layn

to where?

sl a i mn k i 1 umt r how long (distance) ?

mnin

from where?

ias

when?

Sias

why?

skun

inu

dmn:

sha1i mn saSa

why, what for?

imt a

kif

k i f as

f uqas

who? which?

what? which?

whose?

how long (time)?

how?

how?

when?

wqtas

nharas

was

dyal imn: whose?

how much, how many?

when?

what (when) day?

Did, will ? type

question particle

Isolating Particle - /xir/ 'only, except, but'

zidni rir si Ewy:a

Give me just a little bit.

Labialization - Moroccan Arabic has a set of labialized consonants tran-

scribed / b mf'f 1q i 'I?/ . Labialization is manifested as

simultaneous lip-rounding when producing any of the above consonants.

Thus, /b/ is pronounced as [bw] or {bw].

Lax - (Also Lenis) See Tenseness.

Lexeme - Also referred to as Lexical Item or Lexical Form or Word or

Vocabulary Item.

Lexicon - A list of (all or certain) words in a language.

Masdar - A term used by Arab grammarians to refer to the Verbal Noun (q.v.) .

Medial Weak - A verb stem (q.v.) which has a vowel as its middle radical

(q.v.), e.g. /baS/ (i) 'to sell'. It is called weak because of the

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change that occurs to that vowel in the imperfect lb 1 F/ and in the

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imperative /biT/ for certain members of this sub-class of verbs.

Compare:

bat (i) to sell

baT

he sold

qal (u) to say

qal

kaybiV he sells

bit

sell!

qul

he said

xaf (a) to be afraid

xaf

kayqui he says

say!

xaf

he was afraid

kayxaf

he is afraid

have fear!

Minimal Pair - See Phoneme.

Modifier - A word used to modify, describe, limit or qualify the meaning

of a noun or a pronoun. In Moroccan Arabic this class of modifiers

consists of (a) adjectives and (b) participles.

Examples:

(a) wid kbir

bint kbira

wiad kbat

a big boy

a big girl

big boys

Notice number/gender agreement.

(b) d rmhlula

an open house

Note that participles (q.v.) are derived from verbs whereas in

the majority of cases, adjectives are not. More important, adjectives

have the form CCiC, e.g.

kbir

s it

big

small

zwin

nice

m iid sick

Morpheme - The minimal meaningful unit of speech in any language; it

may be a word or part of a word, e.g. Moroccan Arabic /ktb/ 'to

write' has one morpheme, /ktb-t/ 'I wrote' has two and /ma-ktb-t-s/

"I did not write" has three. Notice that /ma...s/, the negative

morpheme,is a Discontinuous Morpheme. Also note that /-/ is

referred to as a Morpheme Boundary.

Morphophoneme - A class of phonemes (q.v.) belonging to one and the same

morpheme (q.v.), e. g. English Is z.. iz/ as in "cats", "dogs","kisses"

which are all morphophonemic allomorphs (q.v.) of the noun plural

morpheme (q.v.) whose form is governed by the phonetic environment.

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In Moroccan Arabic /w/ and /u/ are morphophonemic allomorphs of the

364

connector "and" conditioned by the occurrence of the first before

or after a vowel and the second following a consonant, e.g.

za wmsa He came and left.

Vaf lwid u lbnt He saw the boy and the girl.

Negative Particles - In Moroccan Arabic we get the following negative

particles:

/ma... g/ and /ma...iay/ used mainly with verbs

maktbs He did not write.

/masi/ + adjective, participle, adverb, particles

mali kbir He is not big.

mali frhan He is not happy.

/ma_=waIu/ 'not at all'

ma siri walu It is not small at all.

/ma... m r./ 'never, ever'

matmrn i smrt bhad s:i I never heard of this thing.

Nisba - A noun ending in 1-if in its (ms) form. The term Nisba means

'pertaining to', e.g.

dhb

gold

dhbi golden

f as Fez

fasi native to Fez

zitun olives

zituni olive green color

Noun of Character - A word (derived in most cases from a verb (q.v.))

that refers to a characteristic of a person or his profession. They

are formed on the pattern (q.v.) CC:aC, e.g.

kdb to tell lies

nsa to forget

kd:ab liar

ns :ay forgetful

Noun of Profession - A derived noun (derived in most cases from a verb)

that denotes a profession, e.g.

xbz

bna

to bake

to build

xt : hand writing

hdid iron

xb:az

bn:ay mason

xt :at calligrapher

h d:ad blacksmith

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Noun of Unit - See Collective Noun.

baker

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Nouns and Adjectives - In Moroccan Arabic, nouns and adjectives show two

genders, masculine and feminine, and two numbers, singular and plural.

Very few forms show a dual (q.v.), e.g.

wid boy

bnt

wiad boys

girl

bnat girls

kbir (ins), kbira (fs), kbar (mp), kbarat (fp) big

Optative Structures - Moroccan Arabic has a number of optative structures

expressing a wish or a desire, e.g. "May God bless you." These

structures all refer to the present and future whether they have

perfect or imperfect forms, e.g.

Imalik muhm:d Ixamis arahimahu I:ah King Mohamed, May God have

tini ktabk I:a yrhm lwalidin

1:a ybark fik May God bless

1 :a yxl: i k May God keep you

mercy on his soul.

Give me your book please (=May

God have mercy on your parents.)

you.=Please

(preserve you).=Please

Participles - Adjectives derived from verbs and inflected for gender and

number. Transitive Form I verbs have active (AP) and passive (PP)

participles. Intransitive Form I Verbs (q.v.) have AP's only.

Forms II - X (q.v.) have one participle that functions both as AP

and as PP if the verb is transitive, and as AP if the verb is

intransitive.

Examples:

Form I

AP

kfi (intr)

kafr

PP

--

to

i t

fs! (tr)

Form II *bd:1

III sawb

tfl :m

VI

tfahm

VIII htarm

stimI

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fasi

Participle

mbd:I

msawb

ttI :m

mtfahm

mhtarm

mstSml

mfsu1

to separate

to

to

to

to

to

to

change

fix

learn

reach mutual understanding

respect

use

Particle - A word, usually uninflected and invariable, used to indicate

syntactical relationships. In Moroccan Arabic, particles are

adverbs (q.v.), conjunctions (q.v.), the correlative (q.v.),. the

366

isolating particle (q.v.), presentational particles (q.v.), pronouns

(q.v.) the reinforcing particle (q.v.) and the vocative particle

(q.v.). One thing to remember is that no Moroccan Arabic particle

is exactly the equivalent of any given gloss in English.

Pattern - Vowels and/or consonants added to the root (q.v.) to form a

stem (q.v.). Examples:

Root: ktb (denotes writing)

Pattern -a- infix between C2 and C3: ktab

Pattern m- prefix: mktb

'book'

'office'

Pattern #m- prefix and -a# suffix: mktba

'desk'

Also see Word Structure.

Perfect - The Perfect Form in Moroccan Arabic is formed by suffixation;

e.g. /ktb/ 'to write' /ktbt/ 'I wrote' . The perfect expresses the

following aspectual-temporal ranges of meanings in terms of

corresponding English equivalents:

1. Past

a ilbari He came yesterday.

msina Is:inima zmiT wxt:ina d:rari fd:ar

We went to the movies

together and left the kids at home.

2. Present Reference

fhmt

I understand.

ila a , qu1iih ygls hna

If he comes, tell him to stay here.

ha huma law Here they come; here,they have come. (Present

Perfect)

3. Optative (g.v.) with Present and/or Future Reference

Imalik muhm:d Ixamix ralhimahu 1.:ah King Mohamed V, may God

have mercy on his soul (now and forever).

4. Future Reference

ila taht :ta , maradis nmii

If it rains, I will not go.

5. No Specific Time - mainly in proverbs

qal:u as xs:k altryan , qal:u Jxwatm amulay

For those who have nothing, luxuries are more important than

necessities. (an idiomatic translation)

Phoneme - The minimal unit of distinctive sound in a spoken language; e.g.

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English "till" and "dill" differ in only one phoneme. Likewise

Moroccan Arabic /tab/ 'he repented' and /dab/ 'it melted' differ in

367

one phoneme. Such words are referred to as a Minimal Pair. A phoneme

may have positionally conditioned allophones (q.v.).

Plural (Sound/Broken) - Nouns and adjectives have plurals. Plurals can

be either Sound (q.v.), e.g. /frhan/ (ms), /frhanin/ (mp) 'happy'

or Broken (q.v.), e.g. /ktab/ (ms), /ktub/ (mp) 'book'. Many nouns

have both sound and broken plurals which occur as variant forms, e.g.

/msd:a/ 'pillow' (s), /mxd:at/ sound plural and /msad: / /mxdyd/

broken plurals.

Preposition - A word used with a noun or a pronoun to show the relation

of the noun or pronoun to some other word or words in the sentence.

Some Moroccan Arabic prepositions and prepositional phrases are here

listed:

b- ~,bi with, by (instr.)

TI- - Lia

I- I- i to, for

from, of ('than' in

mn

on

comparative structures

d--

of (belonging)

fuq

tot

under, below

ntac - mtac of (belonging)

qud:am

in front of

dyal

mur

after, behind

m:ur

from behind

mura

after, behind

after, behind

h da

near, at one's

place

bin

qbl

btd

except for (telling tix

except for (telling tii

htt:a

binb

wy:a

until (up to)

along

with

between

before

after

of (belonging)

q 1:

rir

wra

above, over

binat

Tnd

between

at (Fr. 'chez'), in th

me

,me

mia

with

possession of

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Presentational Particle - Moroccan Arabic has two presentational

particles (q.v.), /ha/ and /Ca-/ 'here is, here are'.

Pronoun - A word used to replace a proper name or a noun, or to refer

to the person, object, idea, etc. designated by a noun. The following

are sets of pronouns and pronominal suffixes occurring in Moroccan

Arabic:

368

a) Independent

ana

nt a

you

nt i

you

huwa

hiya

he

she

Subject Pronouns

hna

we

(Ms)

(fs)

nt uma you (p)

huma

they

b) Pronominal Suffixes associated with nouns,

prepositions ending in consonants:

ktab - i

my book

ktab - k

dyal -i

your (s) book

ktab - u

his book

ktab - ha

her book

Ktab - na

dyal -k

dyal -u

dyal -ha

our book

cyai -na

ktab - kum your (p) book

ktab - hum

their book

dyal -kum

dyal -hum

c) Direct Object pronominal endings suffixed1

and the preposition /mn/ 'of, from'

zar -ni

he visited me

zar -k

mn : i

he visited you (s)

mn:k

zar -u

he visited him

mn:u

zar -ha

he visited her

mn:ha

particles, verbs and

mine

yours

his

her

ours

theirs

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yours

to transitive verbs

from

from

from

from

from

from

from

me

you (s)

him

her

us

you (p)

them

zar -na

zar -kum

zar -hum

d) Pronominal

/fi/ 'in',

Iy:a

Ilik

Iu - Iih

I iha

he

he

he

visited us

visited you (p)

visited them

mn:na

mn: kum

369

wr:a -ni .he showed me

wr:a -k

ra -ni

he showed you (s)

here I am

ra -k

ra -h

here you (s) are

wr:a -h

he showed him

wr:a -ha

he showed her

ra -ha

here she is

wr:a -na

he showed us

ra -na

here we are

wr:a -kum he showed you (p)

wr:a -hum he showed them

here he is

ra -kum

here you (p) are

ra -hum here they are

f) Pronominal Suffixes added to the preposition /mta/ 'with' are

the same as in e) above except for first person (s) /mtaya/

'with me'.

Quadriradical Verb - (also Quadriliteral) A verb (q.v.) having four

radicals (q.v.) or constituent elements, e.g. /trim/ 'to translate',

/sgsa/ 'to ask, inquire', /ftf'/ 'to shake' (reduplicative - q.v.).

Radical - One of a set of elements that constitutes a verb stem. It can

be either a vowel or a consonant.

/ktb/ 'to write' has three

constituent consonants or radicals; /ba/ 'to sell' has a medial

(middle) vocalic radical (i.e. vowel) and /msa/ 'to go' has a final

vocalic radical.

Reduplicative Verb - A quadriliteral verb (q.v.) in which the last two

radicals (consonants) are a repetition of the first two, e.g.

/fifT/ 'to shake'.

Reinforcing Particle - /iwa/ 'well' is the reinforcing particle in

Moroccan Arabic. Its occurrence is as frequent as English "well"

in the corresponding translations below.

iwa ml:i suftu kan kayakul Well, when I saw him, he was eating.

iwa , had s:i ma kan Well, that is it.

Root - A term used for the core of a word in Arabic and in other Afro-

Asiatic languages (q.v.). Most Moroccan words consist of a tri-

consonantal (c.f. also triradical and triliteral (q.v.)) root.

Biradical (also biliteral) roots are less frequent and consist of

two consonants. Roots with four consonants (quadriliteral or

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quadriradical) occur in Moroccan Arabic but rarely. A root usually

370

occurs in patterns (q.v.). A pattern can be either vocalic and/or

consonantal. The root normally has a certain meaning attached to it.

The basic meaning of the root is modified by the pattern.

Examples:

1. (the root/s tq/has the concept of 'theft, stealing, robbing')

srq

to steal

srqa

theft

srqat thefts

sarq

stealing

msruq stolen (notice the/m-/here is a non-root consonant;

it belongs to the pattern)

sr:aq thief, robber

2. (the root/1hb:/has the concept of 'love, friendship')

hb:

hub:

to love

love (romantic)

mht: a affection, close friendship

3. (the root/ttirm/has the concept of 'translation')

tizmna we translated

trz ama translation

Semitic - A family of languages constituting a branch of the Afro-Asiatic

(q.v.) language stock. It includes Akkadian, Arabic, Hebrew, Ethiopic,

Aramaic and Ugaritic sharing certain common characteristics; e.g.

a root (q.v.) and pattern (q.v.) structure, a set of derived verb

forms, a set of back consonants /q x x T/, a set of emphatic (q.v.)

consonants (e.g. /t < s/) , a tense formed by prefixation and another

by suffixation, grammatical gender, feminine formative It / ,two-way

plural noun formation: Sound plural (q.v.) and Broken plural (q.v.).

The adjective "Semitic" was brought into use by A. L. Schlozer

in 1781 on the basis of Genesis X and XI. Before Schlozer, the

Semitic languages were referred to as "Oriental languages".

Sound Plural - A plural formed from the singular by the addition of a

suffix without any changes, i.e. singular + /-in/ (mp), singular +

/-at/ (fp)

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mzyan (is), mzyan in (mp), mzyana (fs), mzyanat (fp) good, nice

371

Stem - A stem is a root (q.v.) in combination with a pattern (q.v.), to

which inflections (q.v.) are added.

Strong Stem - A verb stem whose radicals (q.v.) are all consonants, e.g.

/ktb/ 'to write', /trim/ 'to translate', /hb:/ 'to love'.

Superlative - See Comparative.

Tenseness - A tense (also fortis) consonant in general is produced with

more force than its lax (also lenis) counterpart. Tense here refers

to two identical consonants with no intervening vowel pronounced

with stronger articulation and greater tension on the muscles of

the articulator and, usually, aspiration. Lax refers to a single

consonant pronounced with lesser muscle tension and weaker, laxer

articulation.

A tense consonant has precisely twice the duration of a single

consonant.

The intensity and aspiration (q.v.) which are characteristic of

the tense consonants give them a syllabic quality (i.e. maximum

degree of sonority in the syllable) so that tense /b:/ is heard as

/bb/ or /ebb,.

Triradical Stem - (also triliteral) A stem (q.v.) having three consti-

tuent radicals (q.v.), e.g. /ktb/ 'to write', /bac/ 'to sell',

/rnsa/ 'to go', /wr:a/ 'to show'.

Velarized - See Emphatic.

Verb - In Moroccan Arabic, verbs are classified and discussed in terms

of ten forms, of which Form I is referred to as basic Form (q.v.)

and Forms II - X are referred to as "Derived Forms" (q.v.).

Another major dimension involved in the discussion of verbs in

Moroccan Arabic is Sound (q.v.) vs. Weak (q.v.). The third major

dimension is triradical (q.v.), quadriradical (q.v.) or biradical

(q.v.) and doubled.

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Following are examples of verbs in Moroccan Arabic:

372

a) Sound Triradical

of derivations)

Form

Form

Basic

Derived II

III

IV

VI

VII

VIII

Ix

(this is the richest group of verbs in terms

kt b

cI :m

sawb

ars I

t TI : m

tsawb

t ir q

t :Irq

nh q

htarmn

hma r

5tcmI

to write

to teach

to fix

to send (RARE)

to learn

to be fixed

to be burned

cIc2c3

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C1C2 :C3

C1aC2C3

aC1C2C3

tC1C2:C3

tC1aC2C3

tc1c2c3

t : C1C2C3

nC1C2C3

Cat aC2C3

C1C2aC3

st C1C2c3

to

to

to

respect

become red

use

b) Medial Weak

Form

Basic

bar (1)

qalt (u)

. xaf (a)

Derived (Examples)

by:'

xw : f

t ky: I

txw:d

VII

to sell

to

to

to

to

to

tba '

373

c) Final Weak

Form

Basic

mia (i)

xda (ou)

bqa (a)

to

to

to

go

take

remain

Derived (Examples)

II

mi:a

III

to

laqa

tmns:a to

stcfa

to

to

give a walk

meet

meet (reciprocal)

resign

d) Doubled and Biradical

Form I

hb:

to love (doubled)

d q: (-u-) to knock (doubled)

((-u-) refers to the vowel of the imperfect and the

imperative, e.g. /dq:/ 'he knocked', /kayduq:/ 'he

knocks', /duq:/ 'knock!'.

Derived

VII thb:

to be loved

d :q: (< t d q:) to be pounded

Biradical

d:a

za

to come

to take along

e) Quadriliteral

Sound

Basic

f rfm

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and Reduplicative

f 'm i

Weak

sqsa

sift

Derived VIII t : rim < t t rim

tf if

to translate

to shake (reduplicative)

to send

to ask

to be translated

to be shaken

374

Verbal Noun - A noun derived from a verb, e.g. /rsl/ 'to wash' /xsil/

'washing'. It denotes the activity, state, or result indicated by

the verb. The Verbal Noun (VN) /zya a/ 'a visit' is an example of

the result of the verb /zar/ 'to visit'; it can also mean 'visiting'

which denotes an action. It is not possible to predict verbal

nouns of Form I verbs (q.v.). In the case of the other verb forms

II - X (q.v.), i.e. derived verb stems, it is possible to predict

the form of the verbal noun.

Examples:

Form I

rs1

bir

to wash

bka

rs i 1

to cry

bka

bra

to recover

bna

to build

ktb

washing

to reach puberty blur

bryan

bni

to write

h sb

to count

drb

to hit

puberty

crying

recovery

building

ktaba

h sab

db

writing

counting

hitting

Forms II X

zd:d

II

sawb

til:m

tsawb

t db

to renew

III

to learn

VI

msawba

fixing

db

beating

to be beaten

to respect

to colonize

fixing

learning, education

to be fixed

VII

renewal

msawba

trIim

h taem VIII

stnmr

tidid

to fix

ht i ram

respect

st imar- colonization

Notice how Forms V, VI and VII have no VN's of their own and the

VN's of corresponding Forms II, III and I are respectively used instead.

Quadriliterals

frgT

to explode

trim

to translate

tfrgiT

trima

explosion

translation

Vocative Particle - A particle introducing a noun of the person addressed.

There is one such particle in Moroccan Arabic: /a-/ - /ya-/ 'hey you...

amulim:d

Hey Mohammed!

Dear!

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awd:i

asi - asidi Mr.!

375

Weak Verb - A verb (q.v.) which has a vowel as one of its radicals (q.v.),

e.g.

bat

to sell

za

to come

sqsa

to ask, inquire

mia

to go

wr:a

to show

(c. f.) Final Weak and .Medial Weak)

Word Structure - The Arab grammarians use the root /fril/

'to do'

to describe the various noun or verb patterns (q.v.). This designa-

tion and symbolization of word structure is followed in every grammar

o+ Classical or Modern Standard Arabic. In applying this to Moroccan

Arabic it is seen that the Active Participle (see Participles) of

Form I (q.v.) verb /ktb/ 'to write' which is /katb/ 'writer, writing'

is said to be of the/fai/pattern. Likewise the Verbal Noun (q.v.)

of Form II (q.v.) verb /bd:I/ 'to change' is /tbd i I/ 'changing'

which is said to be of the /tfTi I/ pattern.

Writing System - Classical Arabic is written and read from right to left.

There are twenty-eight letters (or twenty-nine if we count the /hamzah/

A or the glottal stop) in the alphabet,of which three are used

for the vowels, /a, u, i/. The unconnected letters differ in form

from the connected ones which, in turn, may vary in form, depending

upon whether they are initial, medial or final. Arabic dialects

(whether Eastern, e.g. Egyptian and Lebanese, or Western, e.g.

Moroccan) may be written in this alphabet. It should be noted that

the written script differs to some extent from the printed. There

is a substantial difference between the Western and Eastern handwriting

which makes it somewhat difficult for some Eastern Arabs to read

Western manuscripts. There used to be slight differences between

the Eastern and Western printed forms, e.g. the place and number of

the dots in the letters that represent /f/ and /q/, e.g.

Written and printed Eastern Arabic have:

Written and printed Moroccan Arabic:

LO /ff ,

/ q/;

/f/ , j3/q/ -.,9 /ff ,

09 /q/-

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Now, however, both Eastern and Western Arabic printing shops use the

same letter type for the printing of Modern Standard Arabic. Also,

376

Western handwriting is trending towards a greater conformity with

the Eastern style. Following is a sample of Moroccan Arabic script

written by a Moroccan college graduate. The text is transcribed

and translated for the convenience of the user.

iha wtm :u

hada waIyd s:y:d la cnd flha qal:u "ana m:i Tndu tmnya wtsiin Tam "

qal:u iha "kif walu tmnya wtsTin Tam . ana Tm:i lukan rah cad

says kan rah indu my:a wts in Tam",

Vocabulary

kif walu

1lukan rah Sad ay

Semi-Literal Translation

it is nothing (i.e., not very impressive)

if he were alive

Jeha and His Uncle

This is one man, he came to Jeha and said to him, "My uncle is 89

years old". Jeha told him, "89 years is nothing; if my uncle were

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alive, he would have been 190 years old".

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PART SIX

LEXICA

APRABIC - ENGLISH LEXICON

AND

ENGLISH - ARABIC LEXICON

378

LEXICONS

The alphabetical order in which the Arabic words appear in the

Arabic-English Lexicon is the following:

? a b b: b b: d d:

h h: h h: i k k: k

m: n n: q q: q q: r

t: tt:

w w: x x:

k: 1

r: r

x x:

f f: f f:

t:

+1: m

r: s s: s

y y: z z:

9 g:

m: m

s: s

z z:

m:

s:"

h:

z:

With few exceptions, nouns appear with the singular form given first,

the gender marked in parentheses, and a slash, (/), followed by the

plural form. It should be noted that, while most nouns appear without

the definite article /1-/, the article has been retained in the case of

nouns that are always used with the definite article, e.g. /Imxzn/

'the authorities', / marrib/ 'Morocco', /Iqahi a/ 'Cairo'.

The following abbreviations are used in the lexicons:

B.P.

Coll

C.S.

comp

da

def

dim

fa

fp

Fr

fs

indef

intr.

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br

broken plural

brother

collective noun

construct state of the noun

comparative

daughter

definite

diminutive

feminine

father

feminine plural

French

feminine singular

indefinite

intransitive verb

379

masculine

mo

mother

mp

masculine plural

ms

masculine singular

n.u

recip

noun

noun of unit

reciprocal

si

sister

so

son

s.o

someone

s.p

sound plural

s.th

something

super

tr.

superlative

transitive verb

verb

precedes a variant form

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precedes an equivalent or additional form

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LEXI CA

ARABIC ENGLISH

ENGLISH - ARABIC

381

LEXICON

Arabic - English

a interrogative particle "what?"

a vocative particle

abadan never

abadn never

abril April

ab: / aba? father

adab (m) politeness, manners,

literature

adabi literary

adur:u (m) plant used for face

make-up

agadir Agadir

agwal (m) / -at kind of long drum

open at one end

aham: more, most important

ahl (m) family (extended)

ahl lmra in-laws (the wife's

family)

ahil r:afl in-laws (the husband's

family)

ahln hello

ahin wa sahln hello

ahsn best, better

akl (m) - makla (f) food

akt; more

alf one thousand

alfayn two thousand

aman safety

amir (m) / umara price

amir lmu?minin Prince of the

believers

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amirika America

amiriki (m) / amiriky:in American

amlak (p) property

aan to believe

amr to order

am:a as for, but

ana I

anglatig': a England

aqaly:a (f) minority

aqwa most powerful

ars1 (IV - rare) to send

ara give ! (ms)

aran:a . aralna when, as for,

suppose that

at. (f) land

asfi Safi

ashi easier, easiest

asiya (f) Asia

as:s: to establish

asili (m) real, original

as1 (m) origin

a. what?

aim:a whatever

atar (m) /-at ruins (historical)

atay fm) tea (no def. art.)

avril April

aw or

awl:a or

aw:ala nr:a first of all

aw:l (m) / -in first (indef)

aw:1 ma as, when

aw:la (f) / -t first (indef)

axlaq (f) manners, morals, ethics

ax: / x:ut .. ixwan brother

382

bab (m) / biban door

babur (m) / -at samovar,ship, boat

bakalurya (f) high school

certificate

baky:a (f) / -t package

bal (m) attention, idea, mind

bali (m) / balyin old

ban (a) to appear

banana (n.u-f) / -t ; banan (coil)

banana

banka (always pronounced /1anka/

bank

baqi remaining

bariz Paris

baraka (f) / -t blessing

ba'ai- (m) /-at -'bridge

bas (u) to kiss

bas so that, in order to, that,

that with which, to (before

infinitive)

bat (a) to spend the night

bat (m) / bitan armpit

basal (m) / abtal hero

bayl: a that

bat (i) to sell

bda (a) to begin

bdiT baked clay

bdniala (n.u-f) ; bdnial (coll)

eggplant

bd:at precisely

bd:1 to change

bd:l (1-) to change clothes for

s.o; to change s.th for s-.o

bgri (m) beef

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bhd to amaze, astonish

bhal like, such as

bfal bhal the same, alike

bf; (m) / bouT sea

bht (m) / abbat - bubut research,

investigation

bidaya / -t beginning

bida (n.u-f) / -t ; bid (coll) egg

bin between, among

binat between

binaya (f) / -t building

bir (m) / byur well (of water)

bir:a (f) beer

biru (m) / biruyat - biruwat

office

bit (m) / byut room

bit d:yaf salon, living room

bit lma restroom

bit n:Tas bedroom

bitrul (m) kerosene

bka (i) to cry, weep

bkri early

bkul: farah with great pleasure

bla without

bla (b-) without (b- must be

followed by personal pron.

ending)

bla ma without (conjunction)

blad (f) / -at ~ bladn country

bl?aql: at least

bla3 gratis, don't worry

bl?axs: specially

blb1r by sea

bldi (m) native, home grown

383

but Tm: ti / bnat fm: ti my cousin

(fa si da)

but Yzala a pretty girl (gazelle-

like girl)

bnti / bnati my daughter

bn:ar (m) crystal

bn:fs precisely

bn:Vman poppy seeds

bqa (a) to remain

bqa (f-) to affect, impress

bgai (m) / bgari kettle

brd cold

brdata (f) / -t

brads saddle

pack

brniz (m) varnish

br:ad (m) / brard teapot _

br:a (m) / br:aia town crier

br: h to announce

bra (f) / brawat - bry:at letter

brbari (m) Berber

brbi a the four of us, them

bril April

big to glitter

briwa (n.u-f) / -t ; briwat (coll)

a pastry made with almonds and

dipped in honey

brka (f) / brkat duck

brquqa (n.u-f) / -t ; brquq (coil)

plum

bt:a outside

br :ani (m) stranger

bs:lama goodbye

bsit blind

bsla (n.u-f) / -t ; bs. (coil)

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onions

bstila (f) / -t - bsatl a pie made

with chicken or pigeon giblets

and almonds

bs:ah is that true?, true, correct

btidai (m) elementary (Nisba)

btida?y:a (f) elementary (Nisba)

bt:ixa (n.u-f) / -t ; bt:ix (coil)

melon (not including watermelon)

btana (f) / -t

btayn sheepskin

biaa (n.u-f) / -t'; btata

batapa (coll) potatoes

bt:any:a (f) / -t blanket

bt:n to skin (a sheep)

bu- (m) of, having

bulis (m) police

bulisi (m) / bulis policeman

bula (f) / -t light bulb

butagaz / -at butane gase , butane

gas range

buTwida (f) (s & coil) pear

bwzh in a manner

bx:r to burn incense

bye -.bid (m) white

byrut Beirut

by:t to keep overnight

bz: mn in spite of, unwillingly

bz:af much

bz:af cad very much, too much

bz:rba hurriedly, quickly

bz:ula (f) / bzazl breast (for

females)

b;ar (m) black pepper

bztam (m) I bzatm wallet

384

dfn to bury

dfi to pay

dgdg to pound, grind

dg: to grind

dhb (m) gold

dhbi (m) golden (Nisba)

dik (f) that (demonstrative)

dima always

dimanq Damascus

din (m) / dyun debt

din (m) / adyan religion

diwana (f) custom

diyana (f) / -t religion

diw (m) / -at bucket

dl:aha (n.u-f) / -t ; dl:ah (coil)

watermelon

dmli (m) / dmall bracelet

dmn whose?

dm : (m) blood

dnb (m) / dnub - dunub sin

dniala (n.u-f) ; dnial (coil)

eggplant

dqiqa (f) / -t minute

dqn (m) / dqun - dquna chin

dq: (u-) to knock

drb (m) / druba street (alley)

dr:ala (f) / -t a wheel pushed by

kids

dr:i (m) / drari boy (also means

kids)

drhm (m) / drahm

dirham

drS (m) / drat arm

dria Draa

dstur (m) constitution

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dik those

dula (f) / duwal nation

duq (m) taste

duwali (m) international

dulambir - disambr December

dwa (m) / -yat - ?adwiya medicine

dw:z to cause to pass

dxl (kaydxul) to enter

dyal belonging to, of, (belonging)

dyal un whose?

dy:ani (m) pious (Nisba)

dial (in) chicken

dial mhm:r (m) roasted chicken

dial mili'(m) fried chicken

djya quickly

d:a to take along

d:arita lmarriby:a Moroccan Arabic

d:arila r:aqiya elevated dialect

d:axil inside, interior, local

d:axr (c tdaxr) to save

d:l:ah watermelon

d:nya the world

d:risy:in the Idrisis

d:uwal Ia -aby:a the Arab world

damir (m) conscience

dar (u) to turn, turn around

dar (f) / dyur house

days (m) lost

dac (i) to be lost

db:r to manage

dd: against

dfr (m) / dfar fingernail

dhi to appear, seem

dhr (m) / dhur back

385

farmasyan (m) drugstore,

pharmacist

fas Fez

fag in which

fat (u) to pass

fayn ~ fin where?

faynm: a wherever

fayq awake

fbrayr February

fdb to reveal (shameful secrets)

fdi1a (f) / fdayh scandal

fdl (m) merit

fd:a to finish

fd:a (f) white alloy (like silver)

f?:l to prefer

'

fg:iTa (n.u-f) / -t ; fg:aS (coil)

mushroom

fg:usa (n.u-f / -t ; fg:us (coil)

cucumber

fhm to understand

fh:m to cause to understand

fi sac immediately

fibali to myself

filaha (f) agriculture

filaIi (m) agricultural

fin - fayn where?

firaq (m) difference

fkra (f) / afkar idea

fk: (m) / fkak lower jaw

fk:r to think

flfla (n.u-f) / -t ; flfl (coil)

red pepper

fifla xdra (f) green pepper

flhadr now, at the present time

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fThin immediately

flimadi in the past

fl.y:a percent

flq to split

fluka (f) / flayk boat

flus money

fn: (m) / funun art

fn:an (m) / -a - fn:anin artist

fqih (m) / fuqaha - fuqaha?

religious teacher, Koranic

teacher

frh to be happy

frhan -frhan (m) happy

fransa France

frah (m) / -at furniture

frgc to explode, to blast

frh - frh to be happy

fi. (m) joy, happiness

friqi (m) African (Nisba)

fiigy:a Africa

frq (m) / furuq difference

figita (f) /'-t - fra.t table fork

fiumaf rumi (m) imported cheese

frc (m) / furut branch

fr:g to distribute, split

fz:s to furnish

f;:ui (in) / frari cock, rooster

fsad (m) corruption, rottenness

fs:r to explain

fsl to separate (tr)

f.:1. to cut and trim

ft:ali finally

ft:s to look for, search

ftira (f) light breakfast

386

grga walnuts

griwia (n.u-f) I -t ; griws (coil)

small round cookie

grn (m) / grun horn (of animal)

gria (n.u-f) / -t ; gri (coll)

squash

gud:am in front of

gulsa (f) / -t - glasi public

bath dressing room

gwd to direct, guide, lead

gz:ar (m) / -a butcher

ha here is, here are, here

(presentational particle)

had :i makan that's all there is

hada (ms) this

hadak (m) that (demonstrative)

hadi (f) this

hadik (f) that (demonstrative)

hadu these

haduk those

ha?il (m) excellent

hakdk thus

hazima (f) defeat

hbil (m) hbal fool

hbl to lose one's mind

hbt to descend

hda (i) to give a present, guide

(to the right way)

hdy:a (f) / -t gift

hd:awi (m) member of a religious

group known as Heddawa

hd:d to threaten

hdr to talk

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hidura / -t - hyadr tinted sheep-

skin used as a rug

hiya she, it (f)

hiya hadi , hiya hadik that is it

(fs)

bm: (m) / bum- humum trouble,

worry

hndasa -hndaza () engineering

hn:a to give peace

hr:s to smash, break

hrb (mn) to escape (from), run

away, flee

hr:b to smuggle, help to escape,

cause to run away

htm: to pay attention, be

concerned

huma they (m,f)

huma hadu , huma haduk that is

they, it (p)

huwa he, it

huwa hada , huwa hadak that is it

(m)

hw:d to dismount, descend, go down

hzm to defeat

hz: to carry, pick up

hz: (f) to affect, shock

hiry:a of the Hijra

hi:ala (f) / -t widow

hadiga (f) / -t -.hadayiq garden

badit Moslem Tradition

had? (m) -da a eleventh (indef)

hala madany:a civil state

(registration)

hakm (m) / huk:am governor

387

hda (m) ~pads eleventh (indef)

lfla (f) / -t - hfali party

(celebration)

hila (f) / -t trick

limaya (f) / -t Protectorate

hit since, because

hit (m) / hyut wall

hizb (m) / ahzab party (political)

hka (i) to narrate

hkaya (f) / -t story

hlawi (mp) cookies, pastries

hlb to milk (a cow)

hlib (m) milk

ilm to dream

hima (f) / ahlam dream

klq (m) / hluq throat (internal)

hlga (f) / 1laqi circle or ring

of people

h1w sweet

hlwa (fs & p) sweets (candy)

hlwa (f) / -t ..hlawi pastry

hi: to open, solve

hi: solution

hma (i) to protect

bmar to become red

hmar (m) / hir donkey

Ihmd to praise, glorify (God)

hml to carry, become pregnant,

flood, rise (as a river)

hula (f) flood

hmq (m) / humq foolish

har red

hm:al (m) / / m:ala porter, carrier

(=porter)

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bm:am (m) / -at bathroom

km:m to give a bath

lm:sa (f) ; hum:us (coil) chick

-pea

hm:si pink

hna we

hua (i) to bend

hnk Cm) / enuk jaw

hni (m) / nusa . _hnal snake

rir silk

irira (f) Moroccan soup

]ram forbidden by religion

]rbi military (Nisba)

hirm to prevent, forbid, deprive

1rq to burn

hr:m to cause to be forbidden

(religious)

hsab (m) / -at account,

mathematics

hsb to count, calculate

hs:n to shave

Iasia (f) / h ayr mat

hsl to get trapped, get stuck, be

caught up

4s:1 to catch, capture, trap

sisa (f) marijuana

]im to be ashamed

as : to mow

1tafl to celebrate

ltl: to occupy

]t:a until, even, also

at:a 1- until (up to)

Jam

to respect

ht : (-u-) put

388

islam Islam

italya Italy

iwa well,... (then,...)

izar (m) / izur bedsheet

izaza (f) / -t diploma

kabus (m) / kwabs pistol

kadalik also, likewise

kamania (f) / -t violin

kamun (m) cumin

kamuni brownish- green

kamyun (m) / -at truck

kan (u) to be

karim holy (as in Holy Bible,

Holy Koran)

kar (m) / kiran bus

karta (f) / -t card

kas (m) / kisan glass

kawkaw peanuts

kaxit (m) / kwart a piece of paper

kbda (f) / -t . kbad liver (also

refers to affection)

kbir (ms) / kbar big

kb: (-u-) to pour (liquids)

kdb (la) to lie

kd:ab (m) / -in liar

kfr to get irritated

kfta (f) kebab (made of ground

meat)

kf:a (f) / -t palm

kf:f to clap

khka (n.u-f) / -t ; kbk (coll) a

ring-shaped pastry stuffed with

nuts

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khl (m) black

kh:1 to put mascara on

ki (shortened form of /kima/ or

/kif/ like

kif how?

kif kif the same, alike

kif walu it's nothing

kif Ia...? how is it?

kif a how?

kima as, however

kla (u) to eat

klam (m) what is said

klb (m) / kiab dog

klma (f) / kiam word

klwa (f) / kiawi kidney

kly:b (m) little dog, puppy (Dim)

kaa (i) to smoke

km:l to finish, complete

km:s to wrap

knz to treasure

knz (m) / knuz treasure

kra (i) to rent

kra (m) rent

krh to hate

krE (f) / krui stomach

kria (f) / -t tripe

kri (m) / kwart - kratan foot or

lower part of a hoofed animal's

leg

kraf (m) celery

krfs to botch up, maltreat

kTm to honor

kcmu*a (n.u-f) / -t ; krmus (coll)

fig

389

kbar (mp) big

knanE (mp) notebooks

Tnfitur.. icunfitur (m) jam

krasa (m) chairs

krnita (f) / -t bugle

Tc:ina (f) / -t

kitchen

1- . li to, for

la no

labas fine (greeting)

labd: it is necessary (must)

labd:a it is necessary

labd:ma it is necessary that...

1?adab literature

lagar train station (Fr)

laglas (m) ice cream

lahi the family (of)

l?ahl the family (of)

lah (u) to throw away

lakin but

1?akl (m) food (generic)

lakn: but

lalmany:a German language

lal:a (f) lal:y:at madam, lady

1?aman trust, safety, peacefulness

1?an now

l?andalus Andalusia

lantrit retirement (Fr)

laqa to meet

lard (f) the earth

I7aspany:a Spanish language

lad why, for what, what for

latrak the Turks

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layn to where?, where to?

laynm:a to wherever

lazm it is necessary

lbalady:a (f) municipality

lbarid post office

lbarh yesterday

lbas - lbs clothing

lbn (m) buttermilk

ibnani (m) Lebanese

lbrtgizy: Portuguese language

lbs to wear, put on

lburanli French bread (Fr)

lbu.ta post office (Fr)

lbzar black pepper

lfaransy:a French language

lfatha - lfatiha first Koranic Sura

lfiniqy: in Phbenicians

ifisafa philosophy

lfransy:a (f) French language

lfsad (m) corruption, rottenness

ifta (n.u-f) ; ift (coil) turnip

1ftra alms given at the end of

Ramadan

lfusha (f) classical Arabic

lfir - ifzt (m) dawn

lgara (f) the moon

lgriky:a Greek language

lhndaza - lhndasa (f) engineering,

geometry

lhia (f) / -t dialect

leaf (m) / l1ayf long, narrow

mattress shaped like a couch

leal the weather, situation, state

l1ala lmadany:a civil state or

390

lmarrib lmtrib Morocco

lmdina downtown

lmnfya (f) the exile

lmriny:in the Merinides

lmwi grilled lamb

imurabitin Almoravides

lmustaqbal the future

lmuwh:idin Almohades

lmxzn authorities , government,

administration

lmrtun (m) kif paste

1mxrib -,1mvrib Morocco

lmrtb sunset prayer, Morocco

lmsrib Morocco

1m: to wrap up

ingliza English language

lnglizy:a English language

lqa (a) to meet, find

lqahira Cairo

lqmz gambling

lqnitra Kenitra

lq4aya studying, reading

lqu;?an the Koran

lqu ?an lkarim Holy Koran

Ird the earth

isan (m) / 1sun tongue

1tsina (n.u-f) / -t ; ltiin (coll)

orange

lubnan Lebanon

lubya (f) green beans

lukan if (contrary to fact)

lun (m) / ?alwan - lwan - alwan

color

lundr London

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l?urdun Jordan

lus (m) / iwas ..lways brother-in-

law (husband's brother) .

lusa / -t ~ lways sister-in-law

(husband's sister)

1?usbut imadi last week

1?usbut lmai next week

1?usbutc lmustaqbl next week

luz (n) almonds

luxa (f) / -t language

lwa1d one (=a person)

iwalid father

iwalid dyali my father

iwalida mother

lwalida dlm a dyali my mother-in-

law (my wife's mother)

lwalida dyali my mother

lwalidin parents

lwilayat lmut:a ida AmericaU.S.A.

lw:l (m) / -in first (def)

lw:la (f) / -at first (def)

lxariz outside, exterior, abroad

1xatium Khartoum

1xa t (m) desire, wish

lxla (f) wilderness

1xlas placenta

lxiif autumn

lymn right, the right (side)

lysr the left (side)

lyum today

lyum fl tiy:a tonight

l1az? ir Algeria, Algiers

lln:a (f) paradise

lw: (m) the weather

391

mad:a (f) / mawad subject (of

study)

magana (f) / maganat ~ mwagn watch

mahal (m) / -at place

mahd:...w... the more...the more

makan (m) / -at place

makaynE it (m) does not exist

makla (f) food

mal (m) money, wealth

malaqa Malaga

maly:a money, finances

mandarin (m) tangerines

maqabr graves, cemetery

magarun (m) spaghetti, pasta

mars March

maslid (m) masalid mosque

mass Egypt

magi - ma... 3i negative morpheme

mat (u) to die

matal (m) - mtla (f) / mtal - mtlat

proverb

matila (fs & coll)(no definite art)

tomato

mattm (m) - m m / mtatm ~ matatim

restaurant

matlas to no longer be, do, become

matar (m) / -at airport

maymkn it is impossible

may:u May

mazal not yet, still

mat lasaf unfortunately (with

regret)

matlhE don' t worry

matndk Slas txm:m you have nothing

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to worry about

marariba Moroccans

martibi - marribi (m) ; mar iby:a -

ma-riby:a (f) / mar;iby:in -

marriby:in (mp), mar;iby:at

marriby:at (fp) Moroccan (adj)

marrum (m) completely in love

mbhid (m) amazed, astonished

ubruk ho.Ly

mdfi to sing, praise

mdina (f) / mudun city

mdr:ba (f) mattress

mdium oppressed, not guilty

mdm:a (f) / -t - mdam belt (cloth)

idrasa (f) / madaris school

marasa btida?y:i 'primary school

mfi:s (m) stupid, bad

afr: I(m) furnished

agium (m) satiated with food

mha to erase

mikama (f) court of law

mik:a (f) / -t sponge for bath

malul open

mhn:la (f) / -t spiral shaped

pastry

mida (f) / -t - myadi table

(dinner)

midlt Midelt

milady:a A.D.

milyun one million

minu menu (Fr)

misra Egypt

mitayn two hundred

muknas Meknes

392

mqsura (f) / -t preparation

chamber for the religious

leader (Imam)

mra (f) / yalat woman, wife

mrah (m) / mruha courtyard

mrati my wife

mrd to become ill

mmfq (m) / m'afq elbow

mrhba welcome

mrid (m) / mrad sick

mrqa sauce

mr: (m) / -in bitter(taste)

mr :ak Marrakech

ms?ala (f) / masa?il matter,

question

msali (m) finished

msdud (m) closed, locked

mskin (m) / msakin -.msakn

musakn poor

mslm (m) / inslmin Moslem

msluq (m) boiled (e.g. egg)

mslxir good evening (greeting)

mstifa (f) / mstifyat hospital

mslid (m) / msaid - masalid

mosque

ms:us lacking enough salt or

sugar

ms1:a (f) open air place where

Moslems gather for prayer

msnutat products

msn (m) / masani T factory

msran (m) / msarn intestine

marana zayda (f) appendix

ms: (-u-) to suck

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mia (i) to go, walk

midud closed, locked

mihur (m) famous

mimaa (n.u-t) / -t ; mimal

(coll) apricot

mar:g (m) torn

m ruba (f) / -t drink

m.ta (f) / m.ati comb

miwi (m) grilled

ms rul (m) busy

ms:a to make walk

atihan (m) / -at examination

mtk:i (m) leaning

itl - itla / atal - -t proverb

mtl: (m) ice cold

mtsx:ra (f) / -t maid

mtwg :t (m) middle

mtV1:m / -in houseboy, servant(m)

mtt1:ma / -t maid

mtaun (m) ground

mttm (m) / matatim - atarm

restaurant

mtw:t (m) smart

mu?ad:n (m) announcer of the hour

of prayer (in a mosque) , caller

to prayer

mubara (f) / -t game, contest

mud:a (f) / -t period of time

mucuS (m) I mawadi

subject

muhimi: (m) important

muI al I doubt it, I don't think

so, (expresses doubt as to some

action)

mu1 it (m) / -at ocean

393

mwd:n (m)/-in announcer of the

hour of prayer (in a mosque)

mwq (m) / mawaqi position

mws:c mac a rask comfortable (for

you ins)

mxazni (m) / mxazny:a a government

employee, usually dressed in a

special uniform, with messenger

duties

mxd:a (f) /-t.mxad:~ mxayd cushion

mxs to churn (milk)

mxr:qa (f) a kind of Moroccan

fried pastry dipped in honey

mxtalf (m) different

mxtub (m) engaged

mxtut (m) / -at manuscript

my:a one hundred

mzyan (m) nice, good

mzhud (m) / -at effort

mir (m) / m'zamr coal or charcoal

burner for cooking

mt with

mia with

mo a s:alama goodbye

me ak lhq you are right (to ms)

me dnus (m) parsley

m gaz (m) lazy

me k:s (m) one who always does the

reverse of what is normal

(backward person)

malqa (f) / -t .. me alq spoon

mS lum certainly, of course, known

mf lumat knowledge, information

mimal (m) / mac amil factory

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menaha that is to say, which means

me uf (m) known

aT nm (m) / measm wrist

mT ur (m) juice

me za (f) / miz goat

mi'un (m) Kif paste

mr arba - minarba - ma Yariba

Moroccans

mrib -_urrib ..marrib . marrib

(always with the definite

article 1-) Morocco

maribi - marribi . marribi (m) ;

mxriby: a .. ma rriby:a . marriby:a

(f) / mrriby:in marriby:in

marriby:in (mp) ; myriby:at

marriby:at -,marriby:at (fp)

Moroccan (n and adj) person from

Morocco)

in

mur after, behind (before the

definiterarticle).. mura

(elsewhere)

iws: x (m) dirty

m:(alinheads,owners

m:i my mother

nab (m) / nyab canine tooth

nabi (m) / anbiya prophet

nad (u) to get up

nadar (m) view, idea

naga'(f) / -t female camel

nas (mp) people

naft (m) happy

394

nsabati (fp) my in-laws

nsabi (mp) my in-laws

nsib (m) in-law

nsiba (f) in-law

nsibi (m) my in-law

nsibti (f) my in-law

nsx to copy down

nsxa (f) / -t - nsaxi a copy

nsl to weave

nsh to advise

nsr to give victory

nsr (m) victory

nsrani (m) / nsara Christian

(European, mainly French)

ns: one half

ns:r to crown, make kind

nta you(ms)

ntaqm (mn) to take revenge on

ntaya you (ms)

ntar of, belonging to...

ntha to come to an end

nti you (fs)

ntuma you (mp)

ntadr to wait for, look forward to

nuba (f) / -t turn, support,

alimony

nuba (f) / -t once, one time, time

nubtayn twice

nukta (f) / -t joke

nuga silver

nuwanbir nuvambr November

nuS (m) / nwat - anwat kind, sort,

variety

nwa (m) nuts (food)

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nw:ara (f) / nw:ar flower

nxla (f) / nxl palm tree

nzl to descend, dismount

nth to succeed, pass an examina-

tion

nZ:m to be able to

nSnat (m) mint

nTs to sleep

nt t (m) / ns ut direction,

description, modifier, adjective

aT :t to give directions, describe

n: abi Mohammed the Prophet

qabl to meet, take care of

qabla (f) / -t midwife

qa|i (m) / qulat judge

qady:a (f) / -t problem, matter,

case (law)

qa?id (m) I quy:ad leader,

commander

qal (u) to tell, say

qam (i) to prepare (e.g. tea),

to furnish, supply

qam (u) to get up, stand up

gamis (m) / qmays shirt

gamiza (f) / qmayl shirt

qanun (m) / qawanin law

gaTida (f) / qawavid custom, habit

qbd to hold

qbila (f) / qbayl tribe

qbl before

qbl to accept, agree

qbl lailad B.C.

qblma before

395

graya studying, reading

grat to become bald

qrfa (f) cinnamon

qrfi (m) cinnamon colored

grib (m) nearby, near

glib (m) / grab ; qiba (f) /

:rabat relative

qrn (m) / qurun century, horn

grunfla (n.u-f) / grunfl clove

qqa (f) / -t village

gzuta (f) larynx, Adam's

apple

qr? (m) / qurT bald headed, bald

gTa (f) / grafi battle

q:a to teach

qs:m to divide

qslau; (m) corriander

qgba (f) / -t shin

qgba (f) / qsb reed

q it (m) short

qsm (m) / qsam section, class

(also: five minutes)

qgmayn ten minutes (dual form)

qsr (m) / qusu; palace

q:r to visit and stay up late,

to shorten

qila (f) / qsali fort, fortress

gra (f) / -t - gur rind,

crust, bark

qtarh to suggest

qtisad (m) economics

qtl to kill

qt:al (m) / -a - -in killer,

murderer

shish kebab

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qtban -tban (mp)

qtifa (f) / qtayf - qtifat

blanket

qtn cotton

qt: (m) / qtut tomcat

qt :S to tear, cut into pieces

qub: (m) / qbub hood of a

dj ellaba

qud:aa in front of

quqa (n.u-f) / -t ; quq (coll)

artichoke

quT?an Koran (occurring mainly

with the definite article)

qurtuba C ordova

qus (m) / qwas arch

qwi strong, powerful

qw:a (f) power

qnt (f) / qnut corner

grab (irp) , qrabat (fp)

qtban shish kebab

(place)

relatives

rbara (f) / -t group, gang

rbh to profit, gain, win

rbita (f) / rbayc a small

container for tea or sugar

rdm to demolish

rfd to pick up, carry

rih (m) / ryah wind

riha (f) / -t - rway scent, smell

risala (f) / -t letter

riy:a (f) I -t lungs

rswa (f) / rawi bribe

396

rda (a) to accept

rdt to suckle

rd:aTa (f) / -t baby bottle

rd: c to nurse

rfiq (m) / rfqan comrade, friend

rfit excellent

Thn to pawn

r]:b (b-) to welcome

rh:l to move something

rkb to mount

;kV to kneel

rkSa (f) / -at - rkai a bending

of the torso from an upright

position

rma (i) to throw

rmadi (m) grey

rmla sand

rm:ana (n.u=f) / -t ; rm:an (coll)

pomegranate

rqba (f) -t -. qab back of the

neck, nape

rqm (m) / rqam - arqam number

rqs dance

rq:d to can pickles

rsmi (m) formal,- official

rtab to get or become soft, tender

rtb (m) wet, soft, humid

rtuba (f) humidity

rub - rb - rub one fourth

rukba (f) / rkabi knee

iukna (f) / rkani corner

ruxsa (f) vacation

ruz (m) rice

rxam (a) marble

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rxis cheap

ryad (a) / -at a (domestic) flower

garden

ryada (f) sports

ry: h to rest, take a rest

rzq to grant (by God)

rzq (m) / rzaq fortune, compensa-

tion, heavenly grant

rim to throw stones at

rT to return, come back

1l:T to give back, return, vomit

r: ifa (f) / rn ayf Moroccan pancake

r:bat Rabat

r:umany:in Romans

r:usy:a Russian language

r:y adRiyadh

r:yaly:at mathematics

sads (m) sixth (indef)

safar (m)

sfr trip, travelling

safr to travel

sahl (m) - shi easy

sahih true, is that so?

sa?ih (m) / sw:a tourist

sakn (m) / suk:an inhabitant

s?al to ask

sala (i) to finish, end

salan (m) peace, greeting

sana (f) sanawat - snin year

sayh (m) / sw:ah tourist

sata ir... the moment (he)...,

as soon as

said (m) happy

said help

397

skt to become silent, quiet

sk:t to make silent

sla Sale

slam (m) greeting

slq to boil something

six to skin

sl:f (1-) to loan, lend

sl:m (Sla) to greet, shake hands

sm (m) - smy:a (f) / sma? - smy:at

name

smawi sky blue

smo to forgive

smid semolina

smida semolina

smr brown (complexion)

smy:a (f) / -t name

sm to hear, listen

sm:a to name, give a name

snbula (f) / snabl spike of grain,

stalk of wheat

snduq (m) / snadq box

snin years

sh:a (f) / asnan tooth

srt to pasture, tend sheep

srha tending sheep

sqsa to ask, inquire

srwal (m) / srawl pair of trousers

sr: (m) / asrar secret

sr:I to permit

srq to steal

srqa (f) theft

s;:aq (m) / sr:aqa thief

sttab to repose, relax

stwtd to import

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stxb; to inquire

st iml to use

st:a six

st:in sixty

s;:as 16th (indef)

su?al (m) / ?as?ila question

sukna (f) dwelling

suk:an inhabitantA

suk:ar - suk:; - sk:t (m) sugar

suq (m) / swaq market, marketplace

sus Suss

swa (a) to be worth, cost

sw:k to clean the teeth

sw:q to shop

sxun (a) / sxan hot (weather)

sx:n to warm, heat

sy:ara (f) / -t car

sy:d / syad

sadat mister

s :da / -t madam

szn (m) / suzun prison

sira (f) / siz tree

sta (a) to beg

staya begging

sTd to be happy

sTd (m) happiness

s:alamu alikum hello

s:buT party of the 7th day after

the birth of a child

s:ms (f) the sun

s :ms (f) the sun

s:udan the Sudan

s:rdy:in the Saadiens

gab (i) to find

398

slra (f) / sari desert

shut the last meal of the day,

shortly before daybreak during.

the month of Ramadan

*I:a (f) health

gif (m) summer

sift to send

iny:a (f) / -t .. swani tray

glgut (m) / slag; delinquent,

hoodlum, bum

gltan (m) / slatn sultan, king

gle to be good for

sl1 (m) / /ult bald headed

si:a (i) to pray

smta (f) / swami ~ sawamiT tower

*m:m to decide, persist

sm:t to dress up a baby

gnduq (m) / snudq box

snT to manufacture

stia (f) / gnayi craft, job

*qt to make fall off or out of

s;a to happen, occur

srg to steal

g;f to spend money

sr:aq (m) / sr:aqa thief

strny:a (f) / -t hassock

stl (m) / stula bucket

stmy:a (f) /

atam hassock

stwan (m) / -at hallway

sub:a (f) soup

suf Cm) wool

guaba (f) friendship

sultan (m) I slatn sultan, king

suara (f) / -t tower

cord

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sur:a (f) / -t navel, umbilical

sw:b to fix, do

sy:d to hunt

sy:h to cry, howl (dog), crow

sy:; to conduct

s Tb to become difficult

s rib (m) difficult

s rar - s rar little, small (mp)

srit (m) / sYar s ~za; small,

little

Siw (m) diminutive form of srit

'little, small'

s :blyuny :a Spanish language

gab Ci) to get old, get grey hair

lab: (m) / sub:an youth

sab:a (f) / -t youth

saf (u) to see

sahada (f) / -t certificate

samal friqy:a North Africa

saqur (m) / swaqr axe

garb (m) / Swarb lip

sarf (m) old

Earika (f) / -t company

saris (m) I /awarit avenue

sari Sa Islamic law

saraf honor

saiy:a (f) / -t - swagi cap

gawn Chechaouen

sayb (in) old (grey-haired)

sazi T (m) / EuiTan brave

gbh to look like

ibS to be filled up with food

sb:aky:a (f) / -t ; ib:aky:a (coil)

399

9k: (m) doubt

9k: (m) / -at check

Elala rinsing

slarm (mp) moustache

ilh (m) / 1uh Berber, the Berbers

flha (f) / -t Berber, the Berbers

Eluh Berbers

lya (f) / -t chair

1:1 to rinse

Elada (f) salad

ial left

Ems a (f) / EmT candle

snu what (is, are)?, which?

sqf (m) - Eqfa (f) / Equfa a piece

(of), a small pipe for smoking

kif

sq (m) blond

sra (i) to buy

srbil (m) / rabl ladies' shoes

vsrf to get old

s-rif (m) noble (descendant of

Mohammed the Prophet)

sr:g to tear

Vsab (with the article) (m) wine

srb to drink

srq to rise (sun)

sr. (m) I /urut condition .(stipu-

lation)

trim (m) / Eratm window

sr:f to honor

srq east

sta rain

stwa winter

sta to dance

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Ith .. tih dance

Unkrn-'ikran thanks

surba (f) soup

suruq sunrise

iutambir September

uzaS (m) / suztan

brave

furl (m) / asral business, work

swari (m) / -yat a large saddle

bag used on beasts of burden

for hauling

swy:a little (bit)

sw:ai (m) / swawl tail (of animal)

Exd to get high (by excitement)

Sira (f) / LIT tree

sib (m) people of a country

s ban the Moslem month of Shaban

sTbana a period in the middle of

the Moslem month of Shaban

s bi (m) popular, native, ordinary

(Nisba)

IsTira (f) / stir barley

sS1 to light, start a fire

istF (m) hair

rgy:a (f)

vermicelli, thin

spaghetti

:aria (f) Islamic Law

:i the thing, matter

:1ha (f) the Berber language

:luh the Berbers

S:mal the left (side)

:ms (f) the sun

:mi (f) the sun

S:rab wine

9:rab lbyd (m) white wine

400

ths:n to improve

t5i:9 to use hashish

tht under, below

thty: a (f) / -t transparent nylon

dress worn under the kaftan

thy:r to get puzzled, be troubled

titwan Tetouan

tilara (f) trade, commerce

tkl ( la) to depend (on)

tkl:m (msa) to talk (with)

tkrfs to be messed up

tk:a (a) to lean against

tk:l ( la) to rely (on)

tla (a) to become

tlah to be thrown away

tlaqa (mta) to meet (with)

tlata three

tlatin thirty

tlf to be lost

timid (m) / tland - talamid pupil

tlmida (f) / -t pupil

tlmit / tlamt cover (for bed or

sofa)

tit alaf three thousand

tlt my:a three hundred

tlt:al thirteen, 13th (indef)

tli (m) ice, snow

tlb to ask

tmanin eighty

tmati to live, live on

tmntal eighteen, eighteenth

tmnya eight

tmn:a to wish

tera (n.u-f) / tir (p & coil) date

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(fruit)

tur: to wallow

tmi fkjalk go! (home, your own

way)

tm:a to walk, take a walk

tmtm to stutter

tm: to go on doing something

tm:a there

tns:T to be crowned (made king)

tnz:h to go on excursion

tqam ( la) to cost

tqb to pierce, perforate

tqb:h to be rude, impolite

tqil (m) heavy

tql:q to become impatient

tqriban tqvibn almost, nearly,

about, approximately

tqtira drops (from a filter or a

dropper)

tqba (f) / tqabi hole

try:a (f) / -t chandelier

t;afik traffic, smuggling (Fr)

tibya / trabi baby, infant, new-

born child

tsalm to greet one another

tsara to take a walk

tsbib (m) / tsabh rosary

tslaf / tsalf a'loan

tsl:f to borrow

tsn:a to wait for, wait

tsr:h to settle down, relax

tsTa nine

ts Tin ninety

ts tal nineteen, 19th (indef)

401

tagy:a (f) I -t - twagi woolen hat

tah (i) to fall

taksi (m) / taksy:at cab

tania Tangier

tantra (f) / -t . tnalr metal

cooking pot

tat (i) to fly

tard to chase

tariq (m) / turgan way (road)

tariqa (f) / -t way (manner,

means)

tarix (m) history

tarixi (m) historical

tas (m) / tisan washing dish,

metal basin with handles used

for washing hands before or

after a meal

Casa (f) / -t cup, glass

talin (m) stew

tar (i) to obey

tbib (m) / ?atib:a medical doctor

tbiba (f) / -t medical doctor

tbi (m) I tbula drum

tbla (f) / -t -thali table

tbsil (m) / tbasl dish, platter,

plate

tbx to cook

ibx (m) cooking

tb: al (m) / -a (no fem) drummer

tb:1 to beat the drum

tb:q to apply, implement

tfa (i) to extinguish

tfl (m) / atfal .. tfula kid, child

tfya ashes (of a cigarette)

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thara circumcision

thii flour

thn to grind

tir (m) / tyur bird

laq divorce

t1q to release, let go

;l:q to divorce

I1 to climb, mount, go up

tl:ab (m) / tlaba beggar

;i:aba (f) / -t beggar

tna twelve, 12th (indef)

iqs weather

tra to happen, occur

trabls Tripoli

;rbu (m) / trabs hat

trbu amr (m) a fez

trd to dismiss

I f (m) / traf piece

tre to spread, throw on the floor

trif at pieces

tTiq (f) / trqan .. u'qan road

dry: f (m) / prifat small piece

(dim)

trz to embroider

trim to translate

tir (m) / tur village

jumubil (f) /'-at car

turkya - turkya Turkey

gur (m) / atwar stage

twil (m) long, tall

tyab (m) cooking

ty:aia (f) / -t airplane

ty:b (m) nice, gentle, good (for

people)

402

walid mrati father-in-law (my

wife's father)

walida mother

walidin parents

walihada (for this reason) thus

walili Volubilis

walu nothing

waqil maybe, perhaps

was ila (f) / wasa?il means

was F (m) wide .

wasifa (f) / -t maid (of a queen)

was interrogative particle of the

do, will type

wata to match, suit

watiqa (f) / wata?iq document

waxd taking

wax:a all right, o.k., even if...

wafb (m) / wazibat duty

watalih all right

watalikum s:alam response to

/s:alamu likum/

wdn (f) / wdnin ear

wdca (f) / wdT small shell

wd:n to announce prayers (in a

mosque)

whE (m) / whus wild animal

wilaya (f) 7 -t state

wiski (m) whiskey

wkun if (contrary to fact)

wld to give birth

wid (m) / wiad boy

wld bnt m:i

second cousin (son

of my paternal uncle's daughter)

wld bnt cm:ti second cousin (son

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of my paternal aunt's daughter)

wid wid xali second cousin (son

of my maternal uncle's son)

wld wld cm:i second cousin (son

of iy paternal uncle's son)

wld wld cm:ti second cousin (son

of mypaternal aunt's son)

wid xal b:a second cousin (son

of my father's maternal uncle)

wid xalt m:i second cousin (son

of my mother's maternal aunt)

wld im: 'b:a second cousin (son

of my father's paternal uncle)

wld Fm: crati son of my wife's

paternal uncle (my wife's

cousin)

wld m:i / wiad cm:i my cousin

(fa br so)

wld cm:ti / wiad im: ti my cousin

(fa si so)

wldi / wiadi my son

wlid little boy

wlidi sonny

wl:a or

wl:a to return, become

wl:barh the day before yesterday

wl :ahi by God

wqf to stand up, stop

wqid (m) matches

wqt time (telling time)

wqtal when?

wqtm:a whenever

wqi happen

wr:a to show

403

xasara that is too bad

xas: (m) special

xatm (m) / xwatm ring

xatar (m) danger

xatir (m) dangerous

xatr (m) desire, wish

xawi (m) empty

xay / x:uti my brother

xayb (m) ugly

xayd (m) taking

xbr (m) / xbar - axbar news

xbz to bake (bread)

xb:a to save, hide

x da (u) to take

xdm to work

xdma (f) / -t . xdami work

xd: (m) / xdud cheek

xdr green

xdr mrluq dark green

xfif (m) light (not heavy)

xima (f) / xyam tent

xir (m) / xirat good

xiry:a (f) charitable (Nisba)

xit (m) / xyut string

xizana / -t library

xiz:uya (n.u-f) / -t ; xiz:u (coil)

carrot

xla (f) / xlawat wilderness

xlaq to be born

xlfa (f) / -t step

xlq to create

xl:a to let, leave

xl: to can meat

xlt (cla) to arrive (at)

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x1:s to pay

xl:t (b-) (mnFa) to mix

xmr to drink (liquor)

xmsa five

xmsa wsb rin seventy-five

xmsin fifty

xmstas 15th (indef)

xm:m to think

xna (f) / xnali

sack

xnz to stink

In:z to cause to stink

xrif (m) autumn

xra (f) feces

x;afa (f) / xtayf story, tale

xga (f) / xxaqi rag

xtuf (m) / xtfan little lamb

xti (kayxtui) to go out

xrtz cla to let someone down, break

one's word, go off (e.g. car

goes off the road)

xt:z (kayx;:z) to cause to go out,

extract, graduate

xsr to lose, fail, become

inoperable

xs: to be necessary

xs:a (n.u-f) ; xs: (coil) lettuce

xs:k you have to (it is necessary

that you)

xtana (f) circumcision

xtilaf (m) / -at difference

xta; to choose

xta.; to abbreviate

xtb to ask a girl for marriage

xtf to grab

404

yd: (f) / -in hand

yhudi (m) / yhud Jew

ymkl:i it is possible for me

ymkn it is possible

ymknli it is possible for me

ymknik.- ymkl:k it is possible

for you, i.e. you can

yarn right (side)

yn:ayr January

yq:n to be sure

ysr left (side)

ytim (m) orphan

yulyuz July

yum (m) / y:am day

yumayn two days

yunyu June

ys ni means, that is to say

y:am days

y:ih yes

zad (i) to add, continue, come

in, go on, give more, be born

zaman long ago, in the past, time

zawal (m) marriage

zawya (f) / -t small mosque,

religious center

zayd naqs it does not matter much

zbda (f) butter

zbiba (f) / zbib (coil) raisin

zbibi (m) purplish red

zft pitch (implies "bad state":)

zhT (m) orange blossom

zif (m) / zyuf

zyufa napkin,

handkerchief, scarf

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zin (m) / zwinin nice, good

looking

zit (f) oil

zit lbldiy:a any vegetable oil

(other than olive oil).

zit lud (f) olive oil

ziti (m) frost green

zituna (n.u-f) ; zitun (coil)

olive

zituni (m) olive green

zk:a to give alms

zlafa Cf() / zlayf bowl

zIzi to shake

zl:ii (m) mosaic

zman long ago, in the past, time

zm:ur the Zemmour tribes

znqa (f) / -t ~ znaqi street

zrb to hurry

zrda (f) / -t - zradi good meal,

feast, party with good meal

zrq (m) blue

zrT to sow

zt (p) hard wheat, grain

zuz two

zuza / -t wife

zwaq (m) / -at designs, ornamenta-

tion

zwaz (m) marriage

zwin (m) / -in pretty, nice

zw:1 to eliminate, erase, take

away

zw:q to make designs

zyada (f) birth

z'bula (n.u-f) ; zcbul (coil)

405

Ebha (f) / -t .. bahi forehead

ibl (m) / /bal moutain

zb1 tariq Gilbraltar

ibn (m) cheese

ibn dlmtaz goat cheese

1br to find

idb a special dance

idid (m) new

id: / idud grandfather

id:a / -t grandmother

id:ati my grandmother

d:i my grandfather

ifn (m) I ifan eyelid

zhi (m) I /husa ass

zib (m) / iyub pocket

ziha (f) / -t side, part

zii (m) / uyul Army

z.i c an hungry

ilbana peas

Zld (m) skin

/l:aba (f) / lalb

djellaba

imil (m) , imila (f) pretty,

beautiful, nice looking

imil (m) favor

imit all, together

iml (m) / zmal camel

inah (m) / wane wing

inan (m) / -at orchard

inb (m) / inab side

In: (m) / inun devil, jinn

in:a (f) paradise, heaven

fra (Cla) to kick out

rada (f) / zrad

grasshopper

Ir: (-u-) to drag

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fr:b to try

itamt to gather, meet (with)

itimati (m) social

zuc (m) / alwaq orchestra

zuz two

Ius dlasabi T two weeks

Iui dlmlayn 2,000,000

IuT (m) hunger

.wayh approximately

zw: (m) weather

I 1 to make

1:ur'afiy:a (f) geography

Tad then, very (intensifier)

iada (f) / -t habit

S adi (m) ordinary

c adl (m) / c dul jury

Sadim (m) great, magnificent

Tafak please

Safya (f) fire

a?ila (f) / -t family

Salam (m) world

Saawd: because

Tali (m) high

salim (m) / Sulama scholar,

learned

Tam (m) / -at year

Samal (m) / aTmal work

camayn two years

camr (m) full

Sam: (m), am:a (f) general

aq (b-) to be aware of

Saqb to punish

aql (m) intelligent

Sarabi (m) / Sarab Arab

406

Tid milad (m) birthday

Vilm (m) / ulumin science, knowledge

Vilm litimaV (m) sociology

Vimara (f) / -t building

Sin (f) / inin eye

Vin (m) / yun spring, well

Vinb (coil) grape

visa (f) living

Vks opposite, contrary

Vk:r to put lipstick on, to trouble

T1- ~Vcia on

Vla bal attentive, on the alert

Via bt:a rural areas, villages

Vla hq: because

Via hq:a3 because

cla kul: hal anyway

Via msb:a because of

Vla gibal because

cla r:a wlcin

with great pleasure

Vla sabab on account of, because

Vla wd: because

V1a wd:a3 because

Vla xatT because

clay why?

VI imyn to the right

Vim to know, let know, notify,

inform

Vim (a) / Vulum science

ilmi (m) scientific, educational

V1w (m) height

i:ama (m) / Vulama scholar

V1:m to teach

l:q (cla) to hang, hang up,

comment on, wear (necklace)

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Vma blind

Tal to do, make

Vul s:abun to wash clothes

Vma age

Vm: / Fmam paternal uncle

Vm:a / -t paternal aunt

Vm:an Amman

Vm:i / Vmami my paternal uncle

Va:ti / Vm:ati my paternal aunt

Vnba (n.u-f) / -t ; Vinb -V nb

(coil) grape

Vnd particle of possession (have) ;

at (Fr. 'chez' "in the possession

of")

Vnq (a) / V nuq neck

Vnwan - S1wan -V dunwan (m) /

T anawin address

V qd (m) / Vqud contract, agreement

sql (m) / Vqul mind

Vris (m) / Trsan bridegroom

crs (a) / trasat wedding

Vryan (m) / -in uncovered, naked

tzada (f) / -t invitation

Srd (Via) to invitei

Vrd (m) width

Srf to know, know of , learn about

trid (m) wide

VTk to fight

Vtka (f) / -t a fight

Vrq (m) I Vruq vein

Vrgb to celebrate the engagement

officially

Trubi (m) peasant (Nisba), one

who lives in the country

407

Yadi (ms) , radya (fs) , radyin

(mp) , radyat (fp) auxiliary

used before imperfect form

without prefix /ka-/ "going",

"swill"

rar (m) / ;iran cave

rar (i) (mn) to be jealous

rarq drowned

rasul (m) shampoo

rda (m) / -wat lunch

rdr to betray

rd:a tomorrow

rf; to forgive sins

ri (shortened form of / rir/)

only, just

riba (f) / ryub absence

Yir as soon as, no sooner than,

except for

Yir daba daba a little while ago

nita (f) / -t oboe

nla (i) to boil

xlb to beat, conquer

rlmi (m) lamb, mutton

rna (m) sheep

=n:a (i) to sing

rr:d sing (for birds), chirp

nrb west

nrbi (m) western

rif to ladle

rrnata Granada

rrq to sink, drown

rny:ba (n.u-f) / -t ; rsy:ba

rayb (coil) a Moroccan tea

cake

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rsl to wash

ra (f) / -wat

cover

ntar (m) / rut;an plate, platter,

-dish

rt (m) / r ura plate

rt:a to cover

rutub sunset

rur:af -r i:af (m) / tra;f - IZat

pitcher

rust August

ry:at (m) / ry:ata (no fem) oboe

player

'1af (f) / -at envelope

aia singing

stb to set (sun)

Yuf to ladle

l y:ba (f) / -t ; :ayb - ry:ba

(coil) a Moroccan tea cake

Sr:af (m) / irarf

pitcher

?sl to wash

Yta /rtawat cover

Yjar (m) / -at plate, platter

?;:a (f) / -t flesh under the chin

(second chin)

?zala (f) / -t gazelle

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LEXICON

ENGLISH - ARABIC

409

LEXICON

English - Arabic

Abbasids,-the l Sb:asy:in

abbreviate (v) xtasr

able, be (v) ni:m ; qdr - qd:

about

tqriban - tqribn

above

fuq

abroad lxari

absence xiba (f) / /yub

absent, be (v) Tab (i)

accept (v) rda (a) ; qbl

account- hsab (m) / -at

accuse (v) thin

accustomed, be (v) waif

A.D. milady:a

Adam's apple gr~uta (f)

add (v)

zad (i)

addition (in addition)

awd tani

address cnwan - lwan

Tunwan /

c anawin

adjective nit (m) / ntut

administration idara (f) / -t

admire (v)

tri:b (b-)

advanced raqi (m)

advise (v) ngh ; ws : a (Ula)

affect (v) bqa (f-); hz: (f-)

afraid, be (of) (v) xaf (a) (un)

African

Africa

friqi - ifrigi (m)

friqy:a

after bid - mn bSd

after (=behind) mur (before

definite article) - mura

(elsewhere)

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after (=behind) w'a

after (conj) bd ma -

n bd ma

after tomorrow bT d d:a

again T awd tani

against dd:

age m

agree (v) qbl

agreement

t:lfaq (m) / -at

agreement (written) cqd (m) /

c qud

agricultural filahi (im)

agriculture filaha (f)

Agriculture, Faculty of

lfilaha

kul:y:at

airplane ty:ara (f) / -t

airport mataT (m) / -at

Alawites, the l alawy:in

alert, on the Tla bal

Algeria lazair

Algiers laza?ir

alike bhal bhal ; kif kif

alimony nuba (f) / -t

all 1amiT an -. miT

all (=at all)

gac

all right ty:b ; wax:a ; watalih

alloy, white, like silver

fd:a (f)

Almohades lmuwh:idin

almonds luz (m)

Almoravides

1murabitin

almost tqriban.- tgribn

alms, give (v)

sd:q ; zk:a

almsgiving at the end of Ramadan

ftra

along (in addition)

binb

410

announce (v) br: $

announce prayers (in a mosque) (v)

wd:n

announcer of the hour of prayer in

a mosque mu?ad:n ~ mwd:n (m) /

-in

answer (v) lawb

any (followed by indef. noun) si

anybody hd: (m)

anyway Sla kul: hal

appear (v) ban (a) ; dhr

appendix ms rana zayda

apple tf:ala (f) / -t ; tf:ah

(coil)

apply (v) tb:q

apricot msiaasa (f) / -t ; msmas

(coil)

April avril - bril -ibril

approximately (about) tqriban -

tqribn

approximately (amount) mqdar

approximately (telling time)

wayh

Arab carabi (m) I /arab ,

carabif :a (f) / -t

Arab World, the d:uwal lzaraby:a

Arabic, classical lfusha (1)

Arabic language, the itaraby:a

Arabicized (educational system)

muir:b

Arafat' araf at (name of a

mountain'east of Mecca where the

Mecca pilgrims spend the ninth

day of the Moslem month

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zuahi jja)

arch qus (m) / qwas

arithmetic (mathematics) hsab (m)

/ -at

arm dr (m) / dra c

armpit bat (m) 1 bitan

Army fig (m) / fuyu

arrive (v) wsl

arrive (at) (v) xlt (cla)

art fn: (m) / funun

artichoke quqa (f) / -t , quq

(coll)

artificial silk (material)

sabra (f)

artist fn:an (m) / -a - fn:anin

as (=as soon) aw:1 ma

as (=like) kima

as (when) ml:i

as far as mn Eiht

as for am:a

as soon as rir

ashamed (v) h9m

ashes (cigarette) tfya

Asia asiya

ask (v) sqsa ; s?al ; tlb

ass (=donkey) ih (m) / lhula

associate with (v)

xalt

astonish (v) bhd

astonished mbhu4 (m)

astound (v) bhd

at (Fr ' chez')

nd

at all (in negative constructions)

gac

at least bl?aql:

411

basin (washing hands)

a (m) /

tigan

bath, give a (v) hm:m

bath, take a (v) thm:m

bathroom hm:am (m) / -at

battle qr'Va (f) / grayi

B.C. qbl imilad

be (v)

kan (u)

be, no longer (v) matlal

beans, green lubya (f)

beard

liya (f) / -t -l. i 1iiy

beat (=hit) (v) <rb

beat (-win) (v) rx1b

beat drum (v) tb:i

because li?an:a . li?n:a ;

cla aq: - Fla ]aq:as ; V1a msb:a;

Via gibal- ; V1a sabab ; Via wd:

Via wd:al ; Via xapr0

because (=since)

it

become (v) sbh ; tia (a) ; wl:a

bedroom bit n:Vas

bedsheet izar (m) / izur

beef bgri.. lam dlbgri

beer bir:a (f)

before qbl -qblma

beg (v) s Va (a)

begin (v) bda (a)

beginning bidaya (f) / -t

beggar saVi (m) / suryan .

tl:ab (m) / tlaba ; tl:aba (f) /

-t

begging sVaya

behavior tasar:uf (m) / at

behind (after) mur (before

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definite article) . mura

(elsewhere)

Beirut byrut

Belgium bliika

belt (cloth) mdm:a (f) / -t ..

bend (v) hdr ; ana (i)

bend, cause to (v) hd:r

Berber brbari (m)

Berber, the Berbers . 1h (m) /

31uh ; Elga (f) / -t

Berbers, the I:lub

Berber language, the :lha

believe (v) aan ; ty:q

belonging to (=of) dyal - ntaV

below tht

besides mn rir

best alsn

betray (v) xdT

better absn

between bin - binat

Bible 1?intil .

big kbir (ms) / Ibar

billion mlyar

billy goat

bird

birth

trus (m) / Vtars

tir (m) / tyur

zyada (f)

birth, give (v)

birthday

wld

s:d milad (m)

birthday feast of the prophet

Vid laulud (m)

bite (v)

Td: (u)

bitter (taste)

black

mr: (m) / -in

khl (m)

blacksmith

hd:ad (m) / -a

412

breakfast (v)

breakfast (n)

ftr

ftur (m)

breakfast, light ftira (f)

breast (female) bz :ula (f) /

bzazl

breeding animals (cattle, sheep)

ksiba

bribe r~wa (f) / r~awi

bride Trusa (f) / Frays

bridegroom

iris (m)/ I/rsan

bridge barat (m) / -t ; qntra (f)

/ ganatir

qnats

bring (v) 'ab (i)

broken xasr (m)

brother ax: / 2:ut . ixwan

brother, my xay / 2:uti .. xuya /

2:uti

brother, our (our friend)

xy:na

brother-in-law (husband's brother)

lus (m) I iwas ..iways

brother-in-law (wife's. brother)

u mrati

brown (complexion)

brownish green

smr

kamuni

bucket diw (m) / -at ; st1 (m) /

stula'

bugle krnita (f) / -.t

build (v)

building

bna (i)

binaya (f) / -t

cimara (f) / -t

bum sigut (m) / slagt

burn (i)

hrq

burn incense (v)

bx:r

burnt, be (v)

thrq '

dfn

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bury (v)

bus kar (m) / kiran

business'

url (m) / aural

busy mn ul (m)

but

in:ama ; lakinl... akn: .

walakin ..walayn:i

butcher

butter

gz:ar (m) / -a

zbda (f)

buttermilk

buy (v)

by air

lbn (m)

Era (i)

bllw:

By God

wl:ahi

by sea

bibhr

cake (Moroccan tea cake ) Yry:ba

(f) I -t , ry:ba .. rrayb

(coll) - ?ry:ba (f) / -t

Trayb . ry:ba (coll)

cake (Moroccan) made with honey

gb:aky:a (f) / -t ; Eb:aky:a

(coil)

calamity musiba (f) / masa?ib

calculate (v) hsb

calf Tl (m) I /iul

calf (of the leg) huta dr: 11;

sag (m) / sigan

call (v) ty:t

caller to prayer (=announcer)

mu?ad:n (m) - mwd:n / -in

camel naga (f) / -t ; Em]l (m) /

Imal

can meat (v) xl: c

can pickles (v)

candle ae snta (f)1/

q:d

413

century qn (m) / quuun

certainly (of course) J:ah

yawd:i ; milum

certificate Eahada (f) / -t

certificate (high school)

bakalutya (f)

chair kursi (m) / krasa .. lya

(f) / -t

chairs Tirasa (mp)

chamber (for preparation for the

religious leader [Imam])

mesura (f) / -t

chandelier

try:a (f) / -t

change (v) bd:l

charcoal burner (for cooking)

mimr (m) / mlamr

charitable (Nisba) xiry:a (f)

charity sadaqa (f) / -t

charm (=amiulet) h ab (m) / -at

chase (v)

tard

cheap rxis (m)

check (v) ql:b

check, a (n) gik (m) / -at

9k: (m) / -at

cheek xd: (m) / xdud

cheese Tbn (m)

cheese, goat

Ebn dlmSaz

cheese, imported frumai rumi (m)

cherries hb: lmluk'(m)

chest (body'part) sdr (a) / saur

chick pea hm:sa (f) , hum:us

(coil)

chicken dial (m)

chicken, fried dial mqli (m)

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chicken, roasted dial mhm:r (m)

chief ra?is . rays (m) / ruy:as

. ru?asa

chief'(of a village) mqd:m (m) /

-in

child tfl (m) / atfal . tfula

child, new-born trbya / trabi

chin dqn Cm) / dqun . dquna

chin (double chin) ?t:a (f) / -t

chirp (v)

rr:d

choose (v) xtar

Christian nsrani (m) / nsara

church Iaat an:sara

churn (milk) (v) * mxd

cigarette

gar:u (m)'/ -yat

cinema sinima (f) / -t

cinnamon qrfa (f)

circle or ring (of people) hlqa

(f) / hMaqi

circumcision

thara (f) . xtana (f)

city mdina (f) / mudun

civil state bala madany:a

clap (v) kf:ff

class qsm (m) / qs am

clay (baked) bdit

clean (v) nl:f

clean (adj) nqi (m)

clean the teeth (v) sw:k

clever muitahd (m)

clever person, very Sfrit (m) /

Tfart

climb (v) tiT

close (v) sd: .d:

closed msdud (m) - midud (m)

414

consider (v)

tabr

constitution dstur (m)

consult (v) tiaw

contest (=game) mubara (f) / -t

continue (v) zad (i)

continue doing something

tm:

contract cqd (m) / cqud

contrary

ks

converse with (v) 4:akt mia

cook (v) Vbx (m)

cookie, small round. griwia (f) /

-t ; griwi (coll)

cookie (like a gazelle horn filled

with dates, almonds and honey)

k Sb 'zal

cookies Ilawi (mp)

cooking tabx - $bx

cool (v) tbr:d

copper nhas hmT (m)

copy down (v) nsx

copy, a nsxa (f) / -t -.nsaxi

cord qn:ba (f) / -t - qnanb

cordova qurtuba

corn 4;a (f)

corner rukna (f) / r kani -ukna

(f) / Tkani

corner (place) 'ant (f) / gnut

correct bs:ah

correspondence mutasalat

corriander

qs1ur (m)

corruption

fsad (m)

cost (v)

cotton

swa (a) tqam (cla)

gnt

cover Yia (f) / -wat ; 'ta /

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reawat

cover (for bed or sofa)

tlamt

couch (mattress)

tlmit /

l Iaf (m) - l4ifa

/ lbayf

count (v)

sb

country blad (f) / -at - bldan

country (in contrast to city)

truby:a (f)

court (law) mhkama (f)

courtyard mal. (m) / ubuIa

couscous

ksksu (m) sksu (m)

cousin, my (fa br da)

but cm:i

cousin, my (fa br so) bn tSm:i

cousin, my (fa br so) wld m:i /

wlad 4m:i

cousin, my (fa si so) wid m:ti /

wiad cm:ti

cousin, my wife's (son of my wife's

paternal uncle) wld Sm: arati

cousin, second (son of my father's

maternal uncle) wid xal T : a

cousin, second (son of my father's

paternal uncle) wid Em: '&:a

cousin, second (son of my maternal

uncle's son) wid wld xali

cousin, second (son of my mother's

maternal aunt) wld xalt 2:i

cousin, second (son of my paternal

uncle's daughter) wid bnt

Sm:ti

cousin, second (son of my paternal

uncle's son) wld wld m:i

craft snia (f) / snay

415

decency hya (f)

decide (v) sm:m

decoration nq (m) I nqu

defeat (v) hzm

defeat (n) hazima (f)

degree (temperature) darala (f) /

-t

delinquent slgut (m) / slagt

deliver (v) bl: r

demolish (v) rdm

demonstration idrab (m) / -at

deny (v) nkr

depend (on) (v) tkl (cla)

deprive (v) Ihrm

descend (v) hbt ; hw:d ; hdr ;

nzl

describe (v) nT:t ; wsf

description n t (m) / nTut

wsf (m) / wsaf

desert shra (f) I Shari

designs, make (v) zw:q

designs zwaq (m) / -at

desire (=whim) xatr (m)

devil In: (m) / Enun ; Vfrit (m)

/ Sfart

dialect darila (f) / -t ..T1hIa

(f) / -t

dialect, elevated d:arila :aqiya

diaper a baby (v) gm: t

die (v) mat (u)

difference firaq - frq (m) /

furuq ; xtilaf (m) / -at

different mxtalf (m)

difficult, become (v) s b

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difficult (adj) s ib (m)

diligent muitahd (m)

diminish (v) qial

dine (v) tts:a

dinner, have (v) tr:a

dinner

Sa (m)

dinner time lvsa

diploma ilaza (f) / -t

direct (v) gw:d

direct (go in the direction of)

(v) wl:h (1-)

direct (=directly) nilan

direction nct (m) / nut

directions, give (v) nt:t

dirham drhm (m) / drahm

dirt wsx (m) / wsax

dirty isws :x (m)

discuss d:akr (4tdakr)

dish tbsil (m) / tbasl

dismiss (v) trd

dismount (v) hw: d ; nzl

distribute (v) fr:q

divide (v) qs:m

divorce (n) ilaq

djellaba

il:aba (f) / Elalb

do (v) dar (i) ; sawb ; 'ml

do (something) (v)

doctor (MD)

sw:b

tbib (m) / ?atib:a

tbiba (f) / -t

document

watiqa (f) / wata?iq

dog kib (m) / klab

dog, little

doing

kly:b (m) (Dim)

dayr

donkey hmar (m) / hmir

416

ear wdn (f) / wdnin

earth and (f)

earth, the lard - 1rd (f)

early bkri

earring xursa (f) / -t

east

xrasi

rgq

East, the

:rq

easy, make (v)

sh:1

easy sahl (m) ; ash1 (comparative

- superlative)

easy thing 1ala sahla

eat (v) kia (u)

eat! kul

economics qtigad (m)

educational

U1mi (m)

effort mihud (in) / -at

egg biSla (f) / -t ; bid (coil)

eggplant bdniala ; bdnial (coil)

- dniala (f) ; dnIal (coll)

Egypt magT - migra

eight tmnya

eighteen tnta.

eighth (indef)

tamn (a) , -a (f)

eighty tmanin

either ima - im: a

either...or...

im:a....aw...

in:a ...awl:a... - im:a...wl:a

elbow mrfq (m) / mrafq

elementary btidai (a)

blida?y:a

eleventh (indef)

eliminate (v)

had ~ dal (m)

zw:1

embassy sifara (f) / -t

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embroider (v) tr

employee, government (usually

dressed in a special uniform,

with messenger duties)

mxazni (m) / mxazny:a

empty (v) xwa (i)

empty xawi (m)

end (v) sala (i)

end, come to (v)

enemy

ntha

Sdu (m) / sdyan - acda?

engaged mxtub (m)

engagement

xutba (f)

engineering hndasa -bhndaza (f)

England

anglati~r:a

English language lngliza -

lnglizy:a - l?inglizy:a

Englishman nglizi (m)

engrave (v) nqE

enter (v)

dxl (kaydxul)

envelope V1af (f) / -at

erase (v) maa - zw:1

errand mq4y:a (f) / -t

escape (from) (v) hrb (mn)

establish (v) as:s:

Europe urup:a .. urub:a

European urup:awi (m) /

urup:awy: in

European (=Christian) nsrani (m)

/ nsara

even ht:a

even if... (=all right) wax:a

evening

25iy:a (f)

every kul:

everybody kul:i

417

famine

qht

famous

mihur (m)

far

brid (m)

fast (v)

father

sam (u)

ab: j aba? ; walid

father, my

b:a - iwalid dyali

father, the

iwalid

father-in-law (my wife's father)

walid mrati

fava bean

fula (f) / -t ; ful

(coll)

favor

.mil (m)

fear (v)

xaf (a)

fear God (v)

t:aqa

feast (banquet)

zrda (f) / -t -

zradi

feast (=religious celebration) (n)

Tid (m) / Vyad

February

feces

fbray

xra (f)

few glii (m)

fez trbus 1m (m)

Fez (city of)

fas

fifteenth xmsta

fifth (indef)

xams (m)

fifty xmsin

fig kmusa (f) / -t ; kmug

(coil)

fight (v)

Sk

fight (recip) (v)

4:arb (mTa)

(< tdarb)

fight (n)

Vrka (f) / -t

fill up (=satiate) (v)

fill up with food, cause to

ghm

Eb: c

filter (v)

final

EbST

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filled up with food, be (v)

sf:a

niha?i (m)

finally

ft:ali

finances maly: a

find (v) iqa (a) ; lab (i) ; Ib;

fine (greeting)

finger

labas

bc (m) / gb can

finger (index)

finish (v)

sb:aba (f) / -t

f4:a ; km:l ; sala (i)

finished asali (m)

fire

tafya (f)

first

aw:l (m) / -in ; aw:la (f)

/ -t - w:1 (m) / -in ; w:la (f)

/ -at

first of all

aw:ala au:a

fish huta (f) / -t ;hut (coll)

five xmsa

fix (v) sawb ; sw:b

flee (from) (v) hrb (in)

flood (v) bml

flood

imla'(f)

flooded ' haul

flour

thin

flower nw:ara (f)~ / nw:ar

flower garden ryad (m) /'-at

fly (v) tar (i

'

follow (v)' 'tb ; tb:c

food akl (m) ; imakla (f) ; tram (m)

fool hbil (m) / hbal

foolish hmq (m) / humq

foot r1l(f) / rin

foot (or lower part of hoofed

animal's leg) kr (m) / kwart

418

fruit (also dried fruit)

fakiya

(f) / -t . fawakih

fry (v) qla (i)

full camr (m)

fun, make (of) (v)

furnish (v)

tfl:a la

fr:5s

furnish (also make, e.g. tea) (v)

qam (i)

furnished

nfr:9 (m)

furniture fral (m) / at

future mus taqbal.

furture, the

lmustaqbal

gain (v) rbh

gamble (v)

qm:r

gambler qm: ar (m) / qm:ara

gambling qin (m)

game (=contest) mubara (f) / -t

gang rbata (f) / -t

garden hadiqa (f) / -t ..hadayiq

garden, flowers ryad (m) / -at

garlic tuma (f) ; tum (coll)

gas range (butane)

gather (v)

buagaz / -at

itamSt

gazelle ?Yzala (f) / -t

gee ! wahli

general s am: (m)

geography

i:urrafiy:a (f)

geometry lhndaza (f) .. hndasa

German language

1?almany:a

get drunk (v)

skr

get high by excitement (v)

get in touch (with) (v)

Exd

t:as1 (b-)

get up (v) nad (u) ; qam Cu)

Ebl tariq

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Gibraltar

gift hdy:a (f) / -t

ginger sknibir

girl, daughter (of)

bnt I bnat

give (v) ta (i)

give! (ms)

ara

give back (v) rd: (-u-) ; ri :

give more (v)

zad (i)

gladly (with great pleasure)

bkul: fara

glass kas (m) / kisan

glitter (v)

brg

glorify (God) (v) band

gluttonous

mukra. Cm)

go (v) m a (i)

go down (v)

hw:d

go off (e. g. car goes off the road)

(v) x;i l a

go on (v) zad (i)

go out (v) xTI (kayxru )

go out, cause to (v) xr:

(kayx :1)

go your own way ! tmo i fhalk

goat mtza (f) I miz

goat cheese Ibn dlmaz

God 1:ah

God knows 1:ah ytlm ..l:ah wlm

God, by wl:ahi

going (auxiliary used before

imperfect form without prefix

/ka-/)

radi (m) / radyin

radya (f) / -t

gold dhb (m)

golden dhbi (m)

419

grey rinad~i (in)

grey hair, get (v)

Sab (i)

grilled lamb n.wi

grind (v)

dgdg . dg : ; hn

ground mnhun (mn)

group rbai~a (f) / -t ; Zamaca (f)

/ -t

guest

.if (m) / 4yaf - dyuf

difa (f) I -t

guide (v)

gw :d

guide (to the right way) (v)

hda Ci)

gypsum gbs (in)

habit qac ida (f) / qawacid ;

iada (f) / -t

hair TT(i)

half ns:-

hallway 0 swan (mn) I -at

hand

id:_ yd : (f) / -in

handkerchief

zif (m) / zyuf

zyuzf a

hang (up)

cl:q (cla)

happen (v)

tra ; wqSt

happen (it happened) (v)

happiness

happy, be (v)

happy

tsab

fr (in) ; s Td (m)

f - frIh ; s cd

frhan frhan (in) ; a

(mn) ; sacid (m) / su cada;

saScd (in)

hardworking rutahd (in)

hashish, use (v)

hassock

th3%:

strny:a _ strny:a (f) /

stry :at . tr

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hat trbul (in) I trab

hat, woolen

twagi

hate (v)

tagy: a (f) / -t

krh

have (particle of possession)

have to, you

cad

xs :k

he huwa

head (=owner) inul (mn) / inalin

S:alin

head ra (in) / ryas

heads

m: alin

health sh : a (f)

hiear (v) smT

heart

qib Ca) I qiub

heat Cv)

sx:n

heat harara (f) ; shd (in)

heaven In: a Cf).

heavy tqil (in)

height

lw (in)

hello ahin ; ahin wa sahln

s :alanu calikun

help Cv) said ; sawn

help mnusa~ada (f) / -t

help to escape Cv)

h;t:b

here, from inn:a

here is, are

Za- ; ha

hero basal (mn) I abtal

hide (v) xb :a

high Tali Cm)

high, to get, by excitement (v)

sxd

higher, highest 5culya (f)

highest

adla

Hijra, of the

hzy:a

420

hundred (one hundred)

my:a

hunger zu c (m)

hungry, be (v) Iac (u)

hungry Ii can (m)

human being ins an

humid rtb (m)

humidity ;tuba (f)

hunt (v) sy: d

hurry (v) zrb

husband rail

I ana

ice tl (m)

ice cold mtl: (m)

ice cream laglas (m)

idea bal (m) ; fkra (f) / afkara

nadar (m) ; ra?y (m) / ?ara?

if (possible, probably)

ila ;

kun ... (contrary to fact) ;

lukan (contrary to fact) ;

wkun (contrary to fact)

ill, become (v) acrd

immediately

fi sac ; flhin

impatient, become

implement (v)

tql:q

tb:q

impolite, be (v)

tbs:l (Cla)

tqb :h

impolite glil ladab (m)

import (v) stwrd

important muhim: (m) ; aham:

(comparative - superlative)

impossible, it is

maymknl ;

ml:muhal

impress (v)

bqa (f)

improve (v) tas:n

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in f- - fi

in-laws (the wife's family)

ahli

lmta ; (the husband's family)

ahi r:ail

in-law nsib (m) ; ns iba (f) /

nsab (p) / -at

in a manner bw1ih

in front of

gud:am - qud:aa

in labor nfisa (f) / -t

in love marrum (cm)

in order to

bas

in spite of

bz: mn

in which fai

incense (benzoin)

iawi

income murabaIa (f)

indeed fFlan - finl

independent

nustaqil: (m)

indicate (v)

ty:n

infant trbya / trabi

inform (v) '1m

information nflumat

inhabitant sakn (m) / suk:an

injection ybra - ibra (f) /

ybari ibari

inoperable, become (v)

xsr

inquire (v) sqsa ; stxbr

inside daxili (m) (Nisba)' ; daxl

(m) ; d:axil

intelligence

daka - daka?

intelligent daki (m)

interior d:axil

international

duwali (m)

international relations

lTilaqat d:wly:a

421

kaf tan qftan (m) / qfatn

kaftan (type of dress)

dfina (f)

/ dfayn

kebab (made from ground meat)

kfta

keep overnight (v)

Kenitra

by:t

1quitra

kerosene

kettle

bitrul (m) ~gaz (m)

bqraz (m) / bqari - mqral

(m) / mqar l

Khartoum lxartum

kick out (v) 'ira ( la)

kid

tfl (m) I atfal. tfula-

kid someone (v)

kidney

dhk (mca)

kiwa (f) / kiawi

kill (v) - qtl

killer

qt:al (m) / -a. -in

kif paste

mr~un (m)

kind (sort, type)

nu (m) /

nwac - anwus ; kl (m) / alkal

king

sltan / slatn -_sultan /

slatn ; malik / muluk

king, be made (v)

king, make (v)

kingdom

tns:r .

ns:r

mealaka (f)'/ -t

kiss (v) bas (u)

kitchen

li:ina (f) / -t ku :ina

(f) / -t ; kuzina (f) / -t

knead (v)

knee

in

rukba (f) / rkabi . rukba

(f) I rkabi

kneel (v)

rkt

knife mus (m) / mwas

dq: (-u-)

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knock (v)

know (v)

T1ml

know, let (v)

know (of)

slm (b-)

trf

knowledge

film (m) / Sulum ;

inlumat

known nt ruf (m)

known malum

Koran

qur?an (mainly occurring

with the definite article)

Koran, the

lqur?an

Koran, the Holy

lqur?an lkarim

lacking enough salt or sugar

ms :us

ladle (v)

rrf -rf

lady lal:a (f) / ial:y:at

lamb (meat)

lamb, grilled

lamb, little

land

1hm dlrllmi -xdmi (m)

lm.wi

xruf (m) / xrfan

ard (f)

language

lura (f) / -t

Larache

lirayl

larynx quta (f)

last (v)

dam (u)

last week

1?usbut Imadi

late, be (v)

tit:l

late, cause to be (v)

laugh (v)

t:1

dhk

laugh (recip) (v)

d:ahk (4 tdahk)

laugh at (v) dhk tia

law

qanun (m)~/ qawanin

Law, Faculty of

kul:y:at lhquq

lazy kslan (m) ; ms gaz (m)

422

like ki (shortened form of /kima/

or /kif/)

like bhal

likewise kadalik

limit hd: (m) / hdud

linen fIt:an (m)

lining, coat tbtin (m) / tbatn

lip 9arb (m) / 9warb

lipstick, put on (v) k:r

Lisbon lizbon

listen (v) smi

literary adabi (m)

literature adab (m)

literature, the 1?adab (m)

little qlil (m)

little (also small)

r ar - s$YaT

(mp)

little (bit) swy:a

little, a si swy:a

little or small, diminutive form

of/stir/ swr iw (m)

live (v) Tas (Ci)

live (on) (v) tmati

liver (also refers to affection)

kbda (f) / -t

living Tisa (f)

living room bit d:yaf

loan (v) sl: f (1-)

loan (n) tslaf / tsalf

local d:axil

located, be (v) za (i)

locked msdud (m) ~-nsdud

London lun@T

long twil (m)

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long ago zaman - zman

look at (v) nT

look for (v) ft:- ql:b

look forward to (v) ntadr -

look like (v) Ebh

loom tns (m) / tnasi

lose (v) 4y: T ; xsr

lose one's mind (v) hbl

losing xasr (m)

loss xasara (f) / -t

lost days (m)

lost, be (v) ?aS (i) ; tlf

lot, a (=much, many) ktir

love (v) aib:

love, one who is completely in

MiurTam (m) / -in

lunch Tda (m) / -wat_

lungs riy:a (f) / -t

lute (musical instrument) Stud (m)

/ tidan

macaroni magarun

mad, get (v) z f

Madagaskar madakaskar

madam

lal:y:at

sy:da / -t ; lal:a (f) /

Madrid madrid

magnificent

adim (m)

maid mtU1:ma / -t

maid (of a queen) wasifa / -t

majority

raliby:a (f)

majority, the 1raliba

make (v) I1 ; 4l

make fun of (v) 4k la

Malaga malaqa

423

meat (ground) lhm mthun

medicine (medication) dwa (in) /

-yat ?adwiya

medicine (science) t:ib: (m)

(def)

meet (v) laqa ; iqa (a) ; gabl

meet (recip) (v) t~awf

meet (with) (v) tiaga (mSa)

Etam

meeting muqabala (f) / -t

Meknes mknas

melon bt:ixa (f) / -t ; bt:ix

(coll)

mention (don't mention) musamaha

menu minu

merchant taIr (m) / tu :ar

mercy, have (v) 3fq

merit (n) fdl (m)

messed up, be (v) tkrfs

messenger, government (see employee,

government) mxazni (m) /

mxazny: a

metal (alloy) white - like silver

fd:a (f)

middle mtws:t ~mutawas:t (m)

middle (e.g. ii the) wt'

Middle East, the 9:rq 1?awst

midwife qabla (f) / -t

military

skari (m)

military (pertaining to war)

hrbi (m)

milk (a cow) (v) hlb

milk hib (m)

million milyun

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millions mlayn

million, two Eu dimlayn

mind bal (m) ; ql (m) I /qul

minority aqaly: a (f)

mint ntnat (m)

mint, green iqama- ligama (f)

minute daqiqa (f) / -t .. dqayq

mistake for (v) b:h

mister sy:d / syad - sadat

mix (v) xl:t (b-) (mta)

modern

modesty

sri'(m)

ya

modifier nct (m) / ncut

Mohammed the Prophet n:abi

molasses

isl lhmra (f)

Monday nhar ltnin

money flus (f) ; mal (m) ;

maly:a (f)

monkey qrd (m) / qrud

monkey, little zctut (m) / zTatt

month Thr (m) /Sfur .. Ehura

month of Sliaban (Moslem month)

9 Sban

moon gmra (f)

morals axlaq (f)

more aktr

more, the ... the more

w ...

mahd: ...

morning, become (v)

sbh

morning sbah (m) / -at

Moroccan marribi ~ marribi

marriby:a marriby:a

Moroccans mrarba - mzarba

mar ariba

424

nail (fingernail) dfr (m) / dfar

naked tryan (m) / -in

name (v) sm:a

name sin (m) smy:a (f) / asma?

smy:at

name, give a (v) sm:a

nape rqba (f) / -t ; qfa (m) /

-wat

napkin mndil (m) / mnadl ; zif

(m) / zyuf - zyufa

narrate (v) hka (i)

nation dula (f) / duwal

native. (homegrown) bldi (m)_ /

bldy:in

natural science t:abi 'y:at (f)

naturally f Sl1n

navel sur:a (f) / -t

near grib (m)

near (=at, by) hda

nearby q'ib (m)

nearly tqriban - tqibn

necessary, be (v) xs:

necessary, it is labd:

labd:a

lazim

necessary, it is necessary that you

xs :k

necessary that, it is

labd:ma

necessary (measures), the

1:azm

neck (n) Enq (m) / inuq

needle ybra - ibra (f) / ybari -

ibari

neighbor

ar (m) / /ian ; -a (f)

/ -t

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never abadan abadn

new fdid (m)

news xbr (m) / xba - axbar

newspaper zarida () I /ara?id

next day, the lid:

next to hda

next week 1?usbut aamdi - lusbu S

lmustaqbl

nice (good) mzyan (a) / -in ;

zin (m) / zwinin

-in

zwin (m) /

nice looking fmil (m) , Emila (f)

nice person ty:b (m)

night lil (m) / lyali

nine

tsta -ts ud

nineteen, nineteenth (indef)

ts tatn

ninety tsTin

ninth (indef) tas S (m) , -a (f)

no la -1:a

no longer be, do, become (v)

matlas

noble descendant of Mohammed the

Prophet irif (m)

noontime d:hur

North Africa samal frigy:a

nose mnxr (m) / mnaxr ; nif (m) /

nyuf

not bad mabiha (f)

not yet mazal

notebook kun:a3 (m) / knans

notebooks knans (mp)

nothing walu

nothing, it's kif walu

425

onion bsla (f) / -t ; bgl (coil)

only ri (shortened form of rir)

open (v) b1:

open mhlul (m)

opinion ra?y (m) / ?ara?

opium Tfyun (m)

opium user ifayni (n) / /Sfayny:a

opposite (contrary, reverse)

oppress (v)

cks

41m

oppressed mc.lum

or aw ; awla ; wl:a

orange (fruit)

limuna (f) / -t

limun (coil) ; ltiina (f) / -t

ltsin (coil)

orange blossom

orange juice

zhr (m)

limun mTgu;

orchard inan (m) / -at

orchestra

guq (m) / alwaq

order (v) amr

ordinary Sadi (m)

origin asi

ornamentation

zwaq (m) / -at

orphan ytim (m)

other a2 (m) / Trin ; Tra (f) /

-t

outside br:a

outside (exterior)

xarizi (m)

outside (also abroad)

lxariz

Oujda usda

owner mul (m) / mwalin -m:alin

owners m:alin

package baky:a (f) / -t

pain, give (v)

c4 : ; w T

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pain wiS (m)

paint sbara (f)

palace qsr (m) / qugur

palm kf:a (f) / -t

palm tree nxla (f) / nx1

pancake brrira (f) / -t -prifa

(f) / rayf

paper, a piece of

kait (m) /

kwart ; w-qa (f) / wraq

paradise zn:a (f)

parents (relatives)

Ibab

parents .walidin

parents, the lwalidin

Paris bariz

part ziha (f) / -t

party (celebration)

-. fali

afla (f) / -t

party (political, group) . bizb (m)

/ abzab

parsley imdnus (m)

pass (v) daz (u) ; fat (u)

pass (examination) (v) nzi

pass , cause to (v) dw: z ; fw:t

passer-by xt:ar / xut:a;

past, in the fimadi

pastry alwa (f) / -t - hl awi

pastries Ilawi (mp)

pastry, fried and dipped in honey

mxr:qa (f)

pastry, made with almonds briwa

(f) / -t ; briwat (coil)

pastry, shaped like a ring and

stuffed with nuts klka (f) /

-t - khk (coil)

426

pierce tqb

pilgrim kai: (m) / hu :al

haz:a (f) / -t

pilgrimmage h: (m)

pink hm:si (m)

pious dy:ani (m)

pipe sbsi (m) / sbasa

pipe, small - for smoking kif

sqf (m) / squfa

pistol kabus (m) / kwabs

pitch zft

pitcher rur:af - Yr:af (m) /

rrarf -rarf

pity ifqa (f)

place blasa (f) / -t - blays ;

makan (m) / -at ; mahal (m) /

-at

placenta las

plant nbat (m) / -at

plate

bsil (m) / ta1bal ;?ar

(m) / -at - rutrgn ; v;T (m) /

rTura

platter tbsil (m) / tbagl

Ttar (m) / rutran - rar (m) /

-at

play (v) lTb

play (a game) 1b

playing (a game) l b

playing cards (deck of) kart a

plaything mltuba (f) / -t

please (make happy) (v) Tzb

please (to s) J:a yxl:ik ;

un fdlk ; tafak

please (if you would like) ila

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iat c la xatrk

please (top) mn fdlkum

please! (take it, go ahead ...)

tfd:l

pleasure, with great cla ;:as

wlS in

plum brquqa (f) / -t ; brquq

(coll)

pocket lib (a) / zyub

poke (v) xw:r

police bulis (m)

police, the s:urta

policeman bulisi (m) / bulis

policy siyasa (f) / -t

politeness adab (a)

politics siyasa (f) / -t

pomegranate

m:ana (f) / -t ;

rm:an (coll)

poor askin (m) / isakin - msakn

- musakn

poppy seeds bn: Iman

popular s bi (m)

porter

am:al (a) / 1m:ala

Portuguese language lb tqizy:a

position mwqS (m) / mawaqiT

possible, it is ymkn

post office lbarid ; lbusta (Fr)

pot, clay gdra (f) / gdur

qdra

(f) / qdur

pot, metal, cooking tantra (f) /

-t tnatr

potatoes' btata (f) / -t ; btata

batata (c11)

pound"(v) dgdg

427

public bath attendant or manager

(male) gl:as (m) / -a

public bath attendant or manager

(female) gl:asa (f) / -t

public bath dressing room

glsa

gulsa (f) / -t glasi

pull up (v) ibd

pulpit mnbr (m) / manabir

punish (v) Saqb

pupil timid (m) / tlamd ~ talamid,

tlmida (f) / -t

puppy kly:b (m) (Dim)

purplish red zbibi (m)

put 4t: C-u-)

put on (clothes) (v) lbs

puzzle (v) hy:r

puzzled, become (v) thy:r

quarter (section of a town or city)

huma (f) / -t

question su?al (m) / ?as?ila

question (matter, problem)

ms?ala (f) I masa?il

quickly bz:rba ; drya

quiet, become (v) skt

recognize (v) ctarf (b-)

reconcile, cause to (v)

salh

red, become (v) hmar

red hmr

red, purplish zbibi (m)

reed qsba (f) / qsb

refined raqi (m)

registration (civil state)

lhal

lmadany:a

hd (m) I 'uhud

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reign

relation muralaga (f) / -t

relative grib (m) / grab ; griba

(f) / grabat

relatives hbab

relax (v) rtah ; strah ; tsr:h

release (v)

t1q

religion din (m) / adyan

diyana

(f) / diyanat

religious leader

imam (m) / -at

rely (on) (v)

remain (v)

tk:l (Cla)

bqa (a) ; dl:

remaining baqi

rent (v) kra (i)

rent kra (m) ; lkra (m) (def)

repeat (v) S awd

repose (v)

stra.

research bht (m) / abhat

respect (v)

respectable

htarm

muhtarm

rest (v) rtah ;'ry:h

restaurant mattm (m)

mtm ( m) /

ata.m -matatim.

restless mql:q (m)

restroom bit lma

retirement

lantrit (Fr)

return (v)

r2t

return (something) (v)

rI:t

return (become) (v)

rd: (-u-) ;

wl:a

reveal (shameful secrets) (v)

revenge, take on (v)

reward (v)

laza

rib dlva (f) / dlut

fdh

ntaqm (in)

428

rob (v) k9:tz

rock h~ra (f) / h.r

Romans -r: umany : in

room bit (in) / byut

rooster

fr : ui(mn) / fraz

rosary

tsb i1h(mn) its ab1h

rose w!'da (f) / wrd

rose-colored wrdi (in)

rottenness

f sad (m)

round (v)

dw: r

rude, be tbs :1 (fla) ; tqb :h i(Sia)

rug ;rby :a (f) / ;;abi

ruins (historical monuments)

ata; (3m) / -a~t

run away (from) (v) hrb (inn)

run away, cause to (v)

rural areas

hr :b

Ula br :a

Russian (language)

T: usy :a

sack xn.a (f) / xnagi

sacrifice (religious) Cv)

dh :a

sacrifice dbiha (f) / dbay1h

sad hazn (m)

saddle pack brdasta (f) / -t

brad T

safety ?aman

said, what is

saint

klam Cm)

wali Cm) I awliya

salad

93ada Cf)

sale

sla

salt

mlIha (f) - ilh Cm)

salt, lacking enough

same, the

ms :us

kif kif

samovar babur (in) / -at

rmla

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sand

satiated, be (v)

ghm

satiated aghum (m)

Saturday

nhar s :b t

sauce mrqa-

save (v)

d :axr ( dx

save Cv) (hide)

say Cv)

xb :a

gal Cu)- qal Cu)

scandal f .i1 a Cf) I tdayIh

scarf

z if (in) I zyuf zyufa

scent riIha Cf) / -t -rwaykh

scholar Salim (m) / Sulaa

Sl: ama (m) / Sulaina

scholarship (=grant)

-t

imIha (f) /

school m4;as a (f) ; madatis

school (primary)

in4ras a b tida?y :a

school (secondary)

t : lim

t .: k anai

science (learning)

cilm - lm Cm)

/ 'dulum

scientific

Vlii(m)

sea big Cm) / blut

search

ft:s

seclude oneself for privacy (v)

hbb

second (indef)

tansi Cm) , -ya (f)

secondary school

t:Udim t :anawi

secret

section

sr : Cm) I asrar

qsm Cm) I qs am

see Cv)

ndr ; saf Cu)

seem Cv) s1hab

seem (appear) Cv)

s ';lf nfs

4ig

429

shoe, slipper (North African)

blra (f) / blari

shoes, ladies

irbil (m) / Irabl

shop (v) sw:q

shop hanut (m) / hwant

shopping mqdy:a (f) / -t

short qsir (m)

shorten (v) qs:r

shot (injection)

ybra - ibra /

ybari - ibari

shoulder ktf (m) / ktaf

show (v) wr:a

shyness ]ya

sick mri4 (m) / mrad

side inb (m) I /nab

side ziha (f) / -t

sight mn4r (m) / manadt ~ manadir

silent, become (v)

skt

silk hrir

silk, artificial (material)

sabra

silly,'be (v)

tbs:l (Sla)

silver nuqa

similar bhal baal

sin dnb (m) / dnub

dunub

since (because) hit ; ml:i ;

mnin

sing (v)

rn:a (i)

sing (=chirp)

rr:d

sing (religious) (v) md]

singing ?na

sink (=drown) (v)

rrq

sister uxt / xwatat

sister, my uxti - 2ti / wxatati

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sister-in-law (husband's sister)

lusa / -t -iways

sister-in-law (my husband's sister)

-uxt raili

sit (down) (v)

gls

situation (the) lal

six st:a

sixteenth

st:a a

sixth sads

sixty st:in

skin (v) six

skin zld (m)

skin a sheep (v)

bt:n

slaughter (v) dbI

slave

bd (m) I /bid

sleep (v) nTs

slowly bl:ati

small grir (m) / g-ar - gia;

smart mtw :r (m)

smash (v) hr:s

smell ribaa (f) / -t - rway

smelly (bad) xanz

smile (v) tbs:m

smoke (v) kma (i)

smuggle (v) ht:b

smuggling trafik (Fr)

snake hn (m) I hnu a -mhnas

sniff (v) sty

sniff tobacco (v) nf:h

snow tli (m)

so that (in order to) bat

soap sabun Cm)

soap, toilet sabun dlhm: am

gabun dr:iha

430

spring (season) tbiT (m)

squash gTia (f) / -t ; grc (coil)

stage tur (m) / atwar

stalk (of wheat) snbula (f) /

snab1

stand up (v) qam (u) ; wqf

state (condition) hala (f) / -t

state (e.g. Michigan) wilaya (f)

/ -t

stay (in a place) (v) gls

stay late visiting (v) qs:r

stay up late (v) shr

steal (v) srq ; 5f:r

step xlfa (f) / -t

stew taiin (m)

stick Ta (f) /Tsi

still mazal-

sting (v)

d: (u)

stink (v) xnz

stink, cause to (v) xn:z

stomach kri (f) / krui

stone ]ira (f) / /ir

stop (v) hbs

stop (also stand up) (v) wqf

story akaya (f) / -t ; xrafa (f)

/ xrayf

straight nisan

strain (v)

f:a

strange (thing)! ! zuba

stranger b; :ani

strawberry tuta dly4 / tut ].;4

(coil) - tut rumi

street

znqa (f) / -t - znaqi

street (alley) drb (m) I druba

qn:ba (f) / -t qnanb ;

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string

xit (m) / xyut

strong

qwi (m) ; aqwa (compara-

tive - superlative)

stuck, get (v)

hsl

studying graya

stupid mfl:s (m)

stutter (v)

tutu

subject muduT (m) / mawadi S

subject (of study)

mad:a (f) /

mawad

succeed (v) nia

success nazah (m)

such as bhal

suck (v) ms: C-u-)

suckle (v) rd

Sudan s :udan

sugar suk:a; ~0suk:- -sk: Cm)

sugar, lacking enough as:us

suggest (v) qtare

suit (v) wata

sultan slta (m) - ultan (m) /

slain

summary muxtasaz (m) I-at

summer sif (m)

sun, the s:ms (f) - s:mi (f)

Sunday nhar lhd:

sunrise suruq

sunset rurub

sunset prayer

lmxrb

supervise (v) raqb

supervision muraqaba (f) / -t

supervisor muraqib (an) / -in

supper

ia (m)

431

teacher muTl:im (m) / -in

muil:ima (f) / -t

teacher, religious (Koranic)

fqih (m) / fuqaha ~ fuqaha?

teapot br:ad (m) / brard

tear (v) sr:g ; q:T

tease (v) tfl:a

tell (v) gal (u) qal (u)

ten csra

ten minutes qsmayn

tend sheep (v) srh

tender, become (v) rtab

tent xima (f) / xyam

tenth (indef)

air (m) , -a (f)

tenth day of the Moslem month of

Muharram casura

Tetouan

titwan

than (in comparative constructions)

in

thank (v)' kr

thank God lhmdu lil:ah - lhmdu

l1:ah

thanks lukrn - sukran

that (correlative) ma

that (demonstrative)

dak (m)

dik (f) ; hadak (m) (demonstra-

tive) ; hadik (f) (demonstrative)

that (nominalizer) bayl:a

that (relative) 1:i

that's all there is had s:i makan

that is it huwa hada (m) ; huwa

hadak (a) ; hiya hadi (f)

hiya hadik (f) ; huma hadu (p)

huma haduk (p)

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that with which ba

theft srqa (f)

then ad

there tm:a

these hadu

they (m, f) huma

thief Ef:ar (m) / /f:ara ; sr:aq

(m) / sr:aqa

thigh fxi (m) / fxad

thing haza (f) / ]waei

thing (matter), the s::i

think (v) dn: ; fk:r ; xm:m

third (indef) talt (m) , -a (f)

third (fraction) tulut

thirsty, be (v) tti

thirteen, thirteenth (indef)

tit:ag

thirty tlatin

this hada (m) ; hadi (f)

those duk ; haduk

thousand alf

threaten (v) thd:d (Tla)

threaten (someone) (v) hd:d

three tlata

three hundred tit my:a

three thousand

tlt alaf

throat (internal) hlq (m) / ]luq

throw away (v)

lah (u) ; rma (i)

thrown away, be (v)

throw stones at (v)

tla

rim

Thursday nhar 1xmis

thus (for this reason)

walihada

thus (in this manner)

hakdk

tie (v) rbt

432

travelling gafaT (m)

tray siny:a (f) / -t - wani

treasure (v) knz

treasure knz (m) I/knuz

tree szra (f) / szT

tribe qbila (f) / qbayl

trick bila

trip safar (m) ~sfr (m) ~ gafat

(m)

tripe krsa (f) / -t

Tripoli trabls

trouble (v) 5k:;t

trouble hm: (m) / hmum ~-humum

trouble, cause (v)

hy:T

troubled, be (v) thy:T

trousers (one pair)

srwal (m) /

srawl

truck kamyun (in) / -at

true bs:aa - sahb

true (as in true believer)

true, is that ...?

xals

sahib

trust (v) taq (i) Cb-) (f-)

ty:q

try (v) hawl ; it:b

truth Iaqiqa (f) ; sdq (m)

Tuesday nhar t:lat -.nhar t:lata

Tunis

tuns

Tunisia

tuns

Turk

turki Cm) - turki

Turkey turkya - turkya

Turkish

turki (m) turki

Turks, the

turn (time)

latrak

nuba (f) / -t

dar (u)

turn over (v)

ql:b

turnip

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turn around (v)

Ifta (f) ; ift (coll)

twelfth

inas

twelve

twenty

tna.

irin

twenty-one wahd w33rin

twice

twins

two

nubtayn

twam

zul zui

two days

two hours

yumayn

saTtayn

two hundred mitayn

two million

zui dlmlayn

two thousand

alfayn

two weeks

ui dlasabiT

two years

camayn

uncle, maternal xal / xwal

uncle, my maternal xali / xwali

uncle, paternal

m: / /imam

uncle, my paternal Tm:i / / mami

under tit

unclog (v) xw:t

uncovered (for persons) Bryan (m)

/ -in

understand (v) fhm

understand, cause to (v) fh:m

understanding, reach mutual under-

standing (with) (v) tfahim (ma)

unfortunately mac 1?asaf

unite (v)

t:ahd

United States of America, the

lwilayat lmut:ahida

unity t:ihad (m)

433

Volubilis walili

vomit (v) r: c

wait (v) sbr

wait! bl:ati

wait for (v) ntadr ; tsn:a

waiter garsun (Fi)

wake someone up (v) fy:q

wake up (v) faq (i)

walk (v) . m~a (i)

walk, make (v) ms:a

walk, take a (v) tml:a ; tsaras

wallet bztam (m) / bzatn

wall hit'(m) / hyut

wallow (v) tr:

'

walnuts grga'

wander around (v) tlw:l

want (v) bra (i)

warm (v) sx:n

wash (v) rsl -?sl

wash clothes (v) sb :n ; 4ml

s :abun

wasfierwoman sb:ana (f) / -t

watch magana (f) / maganat

mwagn

watch over (v) hda (i)

water ma

water fountain xus:a (f) / -t

watermelon dl:aha'(f) / -t

dl:ah (coll)

way (mainer) tariqa (f) / -t

way (road) tariq (m) / turgan

we hna

weak,'to become (v) draf

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weak (adj) drif (m)

wealth mal (m)

wear (clothes) (v) lbs

wear (necklace) -(v) sf1:q

weather tqs ; 2w: (m)

weather, tfe lDal (m) ; lzw: (m) ;

;:q* (m)

weave (v) nsz

wedding Trs (m) / f rasat - Furs

(m) / rasat

Wednesday nhaT laTbat

week simana (f) / -t ; usbut (m)

/ asabi

week, last 17usbut 1mai

week, next l?usbu liazi -

l?usbu 1mustaqbl

weeks, two zui dl?asabit

weigh (for) (v) wzn (-)

welcome (v) rh:b (b-)

welcome (you are)

well (of water)

mr4ba

bir (m) / byur

well. (then,...)

iwa

well! (well, when...)

aralna

aran:a

west' rb

western

rtbi (m)

wet rtb (m)

what? (interrogative particle)

al

what (is, are)?

what day?

what for?

gnu

nharag

lag

what is said klam (m)

whatever

a.im:a

a;

434

wine, rose

s : ab : uzi (in)

wine, white

s : ab lbyd (m)

wing znah (in) / zwanh

winter stwa

wish (v)

tmn: a

wish xa;; (m)

wish, the

lxa;r (m)

with me msa

with, by (instrumental)

b- bi

without bla

without (con j) b la ma

woman mra / Lyal at

wonderful

S aib

wood (plural means 'pieces of wood')

Lud (in) / Swad

wool uf (m)

word kina Cf) I kl am

work (v) xdm

work suol Cm) / as+al ; xd"&G(f)

/ -t xdami ; T aual (m) I a~mal

world Salam (in)

world, the d:nya (f) , ltalam (in)

worried mql :q Cm)

worry someon~e (v) ql :q

worry bin: Cm) / bmizm- humum

worship (v)

Tbd

worth (be) Cv)

swa (a)

wrap (v) km:s

wrap up (v)

lmn:

write (v) ktb

wrist mcsm Cm) I mrasm

zero sfr / sfura

zipper snsla (f) I -t

zone mntaqa (f) / -t

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zoo Tra dl]hayawan

x-ray blaka (f) / -t

year s ana (f) I s anawat snip ;

Tam Cm) / - at

years snip

years, two

yellow s

Tamayn

C m)

yellow, light s

yellow, pale

inituh (m)

liM.umi()

yes y: ih

yesterday lbarh

you (is) uti

you ap)

utuma

you (ms)M uta ; ntaya

youth dab : (a) I sub: an ; sab :a

Ci) / -t

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PART SEVEN

ZIIA STORIES

XRAYF HA

lolb :/301

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Moroccan Arabic

437

Text 1

Moroccan Arabic

437

Text 1

Jeha Stories*

ayta

Jeba and the Clay Pots

fta ilqdur

hadlo iba , s if toatuS:u bas ysri lqdur , msa wsra lq dur

wsra bz :arf dlq dur , wmalq as kif a yrf dhum , zaWlu bz:2f

bqa kayflc:r , kyfk:r snu ydfr , tqbum , wdw:z fihumn xit

Wd : ShUm "3a dbrii wd: ahum id: a r ml: i ws id :ar qal.to 3:u

"was nta hmr ? was rita bn .r aw : a m.k ? lq dur ttqbhum3

dabs Las 'adyin ysihu ? m tlibs hm-al wsafi ?n dazt y:am

wz.a wahd n:haz' qaitbi r:u 'sir azba srili wahd libra . "

e tatu bas ysri ybra . buys tfk; r dak n :bzr 1: i z f at c 1Sib

sra ybra , wbqa kayl :b la bm:al .9 tahalu , uq al:u "bak Ws :2ba

Id: am . m2:i w:lha ld: as, u ru dart ? etatu l'rrd wsafi

This series of Jeha stories ( 1.1 - 1.7) was recorded in the field

in Samar, 1969. The infor rt was a twenty-two year old college

student and a native of Oujda. As mentioned in the Introduction,

minor changes were mde in transcribing the field tapes for

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grammtical purposes.

Moroccan Arabic

438

Text I

Moroccan Arabic

438

Vocabulary

xrafa (f) / xayf

zga

qdra (f') / qdur

I2Zi bz:af

Z8h bZ : a.

f'k4r

bqa kay k:r

tqb

tuba (f) / -t

tqabi

xit (in) / xyait

hr (m) / dhur

mlu?

miha ?

1as ?

ial (m) I hinala

b aila ()/apt

;bra ibra (f) / ybari

ibari

story, tale

a fic ticious humorous

character known in all Vi dr1e

Bastern folk literature

to buy

cl~ay pot

I found it (m.) to be a lot.

He found them to be a lot .

to think

he remained thinking

to pierce, perforate

hole, perf oration

to cause to pass

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string

back

W hat is the matter with you r

What is the matter with hum?

What is the matter with her?

For what? What for?

to be good for

to carry, become prgiant,

flood

porter, carrier

pre giant

needle, injection

Text 2.

Moroccan Arabic

439

Text I

Moroccan Arabic

439

Text I

'tatu 1vr

t get ==,

beating

She gave him a

sound beating .

Before listening to the field recording, please notice the

following regional variants. The forms that occured in the tert are

listed first; in parentheses you find variant forms.

salt

gdra

kag

tayfk :r

aran :a

gal

ntaya

ruh

(sift )

(qdra)

(k.ifai)

(1kayfk r)

(ml:i)

(qal)

(nta )

(sir)

to send

clay pot

how

he thinks

wh~en, as for, suppose that

to say

yo (ins)

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go ! (imperative)

Questions -'aas'ila

2. W" sira z ,a bz :af Vl-a iwy sa dlqur ?

3. m s i ra z1 a ]qdur , ia dar bas ywil32hum 24:a ?

Z.. as qaltlu u ml:ii wal :;a?

5. m s i ra z1 a lib=a , s dar biha ?

6. s PMhk f4 a ? ( tagl 'intlligent

' insanet)

, mfl : ssstupid'

i~

2 ~

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Moroccan Arabic

440

Text 1

Moroccan Arabic

ciJ~~ 2~~LJ ~ c, ~r~ ~ LJ~5K~ C461

~
440
Text 1

Cta

~eft
X"

f-'-3 0 c3 ~ CrL KOO.

Sal40

-.

Moroccan Arabic

443.

Text 2

Jeaha , His Son , and Their Donkey

fta w: ldu z: dyalhum

hada 11_a kam adi huwa w; ldu'yadyin mnsafr in rakbin f'n

Wahl. Z:Y~S d3Za GUd: amw hd :

a &l~S~ 1

SI~,

fl; as m=U m5Wa u 1 badak z : h imskin h

SU

ky c ba~h daba

w1as mytms: aws Ala rz2.il~un wyxl :iwh yry~h swy: a ! hum

rata wm21:i fatu)nzlu nn fuq Z:hs , wx'kb zha f~uq z:hs , W:ldta

kaytrs: a qua: a *whum zaydin, dazu q la wad 7 : Ma a a d?2: a s

haduk n : as qailu n b adak r : ail makayhsms widu s'y'i~wa y1 ih3r

yrksb fuq :hs ihuwa yta: a el1a zl1I ha : 1 f uq

Z :h Wrkbwldu

dazu '1a wmod z a adz.-as xrin qaiu

"Bur had ?lwld hada,lil 1'ada b had lwl d , mz.yxi:i.' b: ah yrkrb

f~uq z~h whuwa ytms: a "la ="-2.Th I;"nwas dar zha ? nz :1 Wldu

wqal : u n ya: 5h * rkbt ana maqb lus f: as , rkbna bzuz maqbiias

rl;.:.s skttaya

q 1u n : as "yal :ah nhz 3uh -ela ktafna .r

irhadak i li daru . hz :u z :h~s'la ktaf'hu b u , wzaw daxlin

Iwad lmdina~ dazl.in lmdina un: as kaydbku "lihum .

Vocabulary

rkb

to m mt

ass

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zh (in) / zhusa

Moroccan Arabic

442

Text 2

Moroccan Arabic

442

Text 2

dazu Q d: 2m Wahd Z : ma2c a &: as

2ina ~(f) / -t

.si (m)) / ms- -irn zsak

tmns: a

s-yiwr (i) / s~iwrn

sriwra(f 1/ sriwrat

loadab

qii 3 adab

qbl

dbk (tla)

3 fq

Ab Cin a)

Thiey passed by a group of people.o

Poor

to torture

to w .lk

to rest

to be ashamed

dizutive of

s~r 'little,

small t

politeness, min nrs . literature

iipo te (of little nncrs)

to accept, agree

to carry

to entVer

to laiu (at.) 2 ock3, mke funof

to have pity

to kid someone

Before listening to the field recording, please notice the

following regional differences:

gad: as

(qud: an;

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ntari , n tas'k, ntau , etc.

in front of

of, bel on3ging to

Notice that the same informant uses /ka-/ prefix in /kar d :buki/ ' they

torture him= . is the previous story he used /ta.-/ prefix in /tayfl :r/

Moroccan Arabic

443

Text 2

'he thinks'. He also uses /mlJ:i/ 'wfren't In addition, note that

the same inf'ormant varies in the use of~ /ntat/ 'of' and Id-I o'

W~hen asked whether he used /dyal/ ' of , he answered in the af'firmative.

Questions - Qas'ila

1.

2.

3.

..

6.

7.

layn k1n 'adi ia W: Wldu ?

mau qalu fl: as ml2si 6afu za w:2du kbin biu~hum ezi;7i ?

'siu dar ianm btd ?

as qalu~hum Z :mat: anya du: as ?

anu qalu n :as m:i afu mb a kaytmm: a 'bia rziih Wdldu ;akb

fuq z ~ ?

a4wa cniu n:as ali m ifu Z a Wldtl ?8din Z :1;sdyaihtm ?

am 4bqicm Thad 1stai - "l; i ytbv kla n l: as maymb; fayn

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***

"

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1r 1 q
r

%DOWI

if5

LO'

SA*A

GO II 1

Lk 0(1

Moroccan Arabic

445

Text 3

Moroccan Arabic

445

Text 3

Jeha f'rom Morocco and Jeha from Algeria

fta nta layib 'wzba ntas lzaza'r

hada z1 a ntat 1l yib ;d 'la fta ntae lzaz'ir bas yt v s:a

ndu

arafl~a asidi whua galsin zabuh t : cam . zha ntat

imarib dar 1.m mxzihtu

z] a ntat 1lzaza'fr bqa kaysIxf

kaysuf , kaysuf , gal "kifas radi ndir bas nakiil hadak 3.:3m ; t

gr'an; a zatu wahd 1ikr aa l lha ntat lm1rib - gal:u - Ru

kar in mt ana s idi rb ;i , Tadi n gbd ird kim ha kda , wn4w:;h2.

wgbd t :bsii WdW: r l:bm Umzihtu . Zha ntae lmib gal:ii

nalayn: i nta druk msi sidi rb; i ,i:Ea Xl; i d~nya kim rabil?

WdW: r t:bsii W1 d.: l:bm n= ihtu

0..

Vocabulary

Od(cie)

l aza'ir

a~al:a

t: yam

2iha ( f) f -t

lukar w

k* 3c

to invite

Algeria

to have dinner

here ; ftwei2Y1

food; here: couscous

side

if (ipassible) , contrary to

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fact

Moroccan Arabic

446

Text 3

Moroccan Arabic

446

Text 3

lukai kun tana

luksn Ii~nt-i n to

lu1kan k an huwa

luk5m-w an-a bn a

"lukan kanu endi j mlayn a nxdm meardm

gbd ~qbd .,qbt~

ird

dW: s

druk

C.:fya ~d:Ltny

kim rahi

ki=. hi ya

rd: -.u-)

if I were

if Y=u were

jwe were

If I were a millionaire, I

would never work. (a song)

to demolish

to hold

the eart _ ,the world.)

to roun ,tur~n

nog:

th word

as it is

to return

Conditional Sentences with /ila/ 'if (possible, probable )' and /kum/,

/lukan/ , and /wkan/ "if (ipossible, contrary to fact)",. (on tape)

1. ila eta ri 1f2,us $ adi nmsi n sri ta:imbil

If he gives me money, I =ll buy the car.

mensi s

If it rains, I will not go to the movies .

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3.* ila b'riti tmasi Thaik , _ bai daba.

If you want to go, just tell me.

Moroccan Arabic

447

Text 3

Moroccan2Aabisc

447l Taie=xs: ty tvt-t3i

If' you have a sick child, you should call a doctor.

~.ila k rnu di = Plus . lv: sh i manbqa bra qsmayn dlrg na

If~ I had money, I would not stay here f~or more than

ten minutes.

6. wkan P. Iran rani. mit

Had he come, I would have left,

7. wkan Iran "m .:i2.t: i.ifr, kit mi t 'Tdu

Had he phoned me, I would have gone tohis place.

8. wkan Imzn: a mina bfri , k~n a tlaq ina mr ah tm a .

Had we lef't early, we would have met him there.

9. lulum za bkri

ken had s i gat' metra .

Had he come early, this would not have happened.

10. kizn kw t mat 11bl is : kena a'wnua bZ: of

Had she gone to the police, they would have helped her a lot.

11. luknm if tu , 2nkrm e~itu 1b'a .

If~ I had seen him, I would have given him the letter.

12. 1u.

n a , ken ra nacs mma rasu

Had he been here, he would have been asleep.

13. ila za dabs , nmiiw z

If he comes now, we'll1 all leave together.

1I.. luke aikznt ensa , mnmi s asidi

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If it were me, I would not go.

Moroccan Arabic

448

Text 3

2. uku kr : a ii a b1r i

an rah n a vs2n a .

If~ we had lef~t early, we would have been there now.

Bu a e n a r a k ?'. e a qa -. ad she been here, he would have discussed this matter with her.

Questions - 'as'pila

1. tlas end ia d3 aib ela zba d1iaza'ir ?

2. as dar z 1a d~myb ml .i ab alhum t: Paz?

3. sziu qal z a dlzaza~ir , vas=m des?

Li.. snu dar Z1aa dZm. ib fl'axir ?

5. au k f3 , *1 *ib *

/J --.

won

~~362 r- /

cv

00

L~'

&~-,- . ~ - yJ

(CpA fc~v J

~2~- ~low3X

Not e

J1

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* "9)

Moroccan Arabic

449

Text 4

The Age of Jeba's Uncle

iha wtm :u

hada whcl s:Y: d. z2' end ha q. m~r: : " du tiya

1;-1 t ~i eam La+: u zha TkiIf alu tiypwts' in ram . ~'em: j

u mrah ead eayS 3ki r ldu m:3 wtsr'i r L n .

Vocabulary

kif wa~u

it is nothing (i. e. , t

r tryimmr ssive )

lukan rah ead v ays

if' he were alive

ctistion snal

'awd~na 1q9:sa dyal z 1a wm.-u

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A ""

Moroccan Arabic

450

Text 5

Moroccan Arabic

450

Text S

Jeha and the Dnkeys

Eta wJ1i ir

Ibada iha d : a s Trad~hm . d: ahUm bas yb i hum d: ahum 2.s :Uq

whuwa kan' rakb fu, iahd ibr wt sea .&.'-mir 1in qui: am=2

mgw: dhun. hirwa k ;tsb 2 .mir kayiqa tsea , ='1a xatl huwa kain

Takb fuq wai Thmrr

likywd mmifu

lbhmr 1 i ]ai rakb

fucu, 1ayhtsb r ra. kayt1v fuq wbas, kayhsb ts~'a. kayhw: d

fuq Thets?, kay s r qal "kifas had lqa y: a hadi ?

vyIi

iqa ahd s~y: d w' aTl 154y: a qal:u he kifas ha kifa

q al.-u "I X; ik sb daba suf s hat kayo b z' ?" hada~kS:y: d

qa : u" awd: i a aani sayf bna Midas dl1~sir~

Vocabulary

eta x atr

liv: d

qady: a (.f) m-t

bka (i)

ha. kiias wha kiT as

to direct, to guide

because

to di smotmt, descend

problem, matter

it is impossibl e, it cat'=t be

to narrate

this and that (her'e: he told

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himn the story)

A Im It

Moroccan Arabic

45

Text 5

Questions - asE'ila

2. MI: i kay~sb imr whuwa rakb V1a wa~d , stea1lkayiqa?

3. Wm: i kyhw: d , s ~1 kayiqa ?

1 sn~u qs.1 41a mwa asu ?

50 mu gqa.: u hadak E:y: d m1: i tawd2.u 1q: a dyalu ?

6.0 siu lbrk fz.a?

c1

J-

)P~LloY,

49- t2)

. s "-~

N ~X2r

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44

Moroccan Arabic

452

Text 6

Jeha and the Ducks

Eta wlbr1kat

bada zha rndu wahd. zaru, wka= hadak z :ax sndu sra

dlbrkat

whadak z :ar bya ysfr qal 1ha "was =.tz :a

tqbt-hua2i vndk wt44ihuzn whadak s: ?" gal :u i3a 'a: a asidi

< la r: as Wrin n wax: a , h kz:a s af~zabaky

f'bkt, kay umkaysLLhu. iwa ivylbuh znmau, dbh whda wklaha .

sayf iz ts'~a * finha bhiya badik ? gal: u "asidi bad s:

1-.i kayn . rir tsta 1: i kayn .2 bqaw hakdak,hskdak,lht: a ft: ali

f ms w "nd iqadi .maw rnd lcqadi wfh3 mlu lqady: a whadak s :i

wlqSadi qa1 :u" aiua fin cwt' 1ia ?" q al :u " asidi iqadi had

s: i 1: i kayn . kayo, yir ts ca dlbrkat ." iqadi fkq r fw5hd

Tila

qal 'rad~i nib sra d azy: a , Wm1; i nf f rlbflt, kill :

wahd yqbe. brka . wvadi ybqa wahd bla brka . wtm a zba ya di

yibm bl : i Yz: brka . dare hadak s: . wml :i bqa wahd 3 =a=i

bla b ka, bqa ga'd bwhdu . qal~iu lqa&i l3a a "ha nta kat~f ,

ha huwa badak mandu i1brka". qala:u "asi di ha hm kanu tm a ,

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'las fzw :I. mymsi s yzi ht :a huwa Sp yd: i wbda ?"

Moroccan Arabic

453

Text 6.

Moroccan Arabic

453

Text 6

Vocabulary

brk (if) /-t

la r: as ,.71in

A.2b

ZS:bCm) /un

hakdak

ft: ali

q ad~i (mn) / qudea

:mni(i) / ay:a

linxzn

sf :r

hila

duck

to be able to

to watCh over

with great pl.easure

to- beat, conquer

demon., j in

he could not resist

to slaughter

thus

'inalJ y

judge

governmnit employee, usually

unuiformned, having messenger

duties

government administration,

authorities

to whistle

trick

Questions - 'sa'ils

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3. a~s dsz fa ml~i 'rlbuh intmu ?

ii.. axu b; =l lb;ka~t ml: i rz 1ms:fr dyalu ?

50.s au dwailqac i m:i miaw ledu ?

6. wai qdr lqa4i y1: luikila awl :aa ? 9 eaS ?

***

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Moroccan Arabic45

cow,) J W a "e " ") -~4#


Text 6

C -r

J JI

Moroccan Arabic

455

Text 7

Jeba from Ou da and Jeha from Fez

Yha duida w &a dIfas

h ada z1ia duz da , sn d

d'ry: s wb'ra yh s :lu iwa n :as

w'Iatu i3a bz:Sf . wzha duida bdalhum qa l:hum R kun huwa 1: i

day!! kiat 2liar ndu 1" inira i? re in 2. w: drin T.r wdnin

Ibmar

w: ,

* r bIhs, zi

rzlin 31-4 , ws :naz i ? msnau 1bmr,

'R wzWal T

4a2 42ha z ,

'r hit bada "ndu in:ah ,

-t if yTinif 3I im' ,

: vi msi k i~hmz, irfhaza

!-.~m ytir.' n: as asidi bqaw yfk3aL

ym ru wahd yqul:u bzdi t:y r

wahd yqul: u Z :aw . w

wahd as kayq~u:u I ht ~a kay ~u . kui1:hum hslu,w dfas h$3 ,

wkul: ii hamn, uqaluin qulhala, daba mtsrf aha . qal:hum iba

du da 'm hadak buwa 2bzm * q alulu "walaynt: i 2bmr was i tdu

si nah

g allium sma drt i1:n1h Tir bas mt zini tlia wsafi,

bas mttz'czai.

Vocabulary

bal

to get trapped, get stuck,

be cau*it up

h.S:l

to catch, capture,: trap

ztamt

'ir

to gather, meet (with)

here: likefi

tail

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aw: al (a) / SWawi

Moroccan Arabic

456

Text 7

Moroccau Arabic

456

Text 7

"yit hit

zaws in)j/ WaWS -Z C'z

qustions - 'as'ila".

1. r i

n MISS 2 d u dc. bas .. qa m em

2. tawd2na as qal 2'1a duzda 2n as ?

3. Was qdrti n;as yzawbuhWl: a la ?

40 . m kan lmmwb dza duizda ?

1avir~; except for, xcept that

wing

Sp alTor

to go out , to leave~

to let soineoiz down, break

oriv'S Wordi, go Off(:;ga

car goes off t z. road)

i;Wa Afar 40

cps

zl

dlbP

long

:tp

ffoo --

A 10

. . ..+ fit' .?r.. Lr"

' t .t.. ,

4L 41b

40

ds .9J JJ

,,

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..

457

INDEX

/?/, 13

/a/, 23

Ia-/, 374

aches, 311

adjectives: 41, 351, 363

(See

Modifiers)

color, 351

comparative, superlative, 233

defect, 351

adverbs, 351

affix, 351

Afro-Asiatic, 351

age, 89, 247

ago, 293

alike, 299

allomorph, 351

allophones: 352, 367

vowelss, 23

alveolar, 6, 10

alveolar ridge, 2, 3

alveopalatal, 6, 10

apex, 2, 3

Arabic, 352

article:

definite, 41, 356

indefinite, 361

articulation:

manner, 4, 10

place, 4, 6, 10

articulators, 2

ara, 152

asing directions, 180ff

aspect: 352

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auxiliaries, 353

aspiration, 9, 352

assimilation, 44, 265, 353

at all, 245

auxiliaries, 353

back-velar, 6, 10

base form, 353

basic noun, 354

bag, 204

bayI:a, 232

bda, 353

Berber, 354

bhal, 245

bhal bhal, 299

bilabial, 6, 10

biradicals:

imperfect, 161

stem, 354

verbs, 149

blade, of tongue, 2, 3

body parts, 308

bqa, 353

broken plurals, 354

buying, 66

bra, 353

can't, 260

cardinal numerals: 318

11 - 19, 104

.19, 132

character, noun, 364

clusters, consonant, 356

collective noun, 354

colors, 94

comparatives, 233, 355

458

doubled verbs: 149, 358

imperfect, 161

doubling, 109

dual, 90, 358

durative, 360

dyal, 97, 99

either...or, 233

emphasis, 5, 7, 8, 11, 19

emphatic, 359

equational sentences, 41, 52, 53,

55, 59, 61, 93

ever, 247

excellent, 293

exhortative particle, 359

exhortatives, 173ff, 361

/e/, 27

feminine, 42, 50

final weak imperfect, 160

final weak verbs: 140, 141, 142,

359

.Form II, 146

flap, 10

flat, 359

flatness, 19

Form II: 108, 109, 112

medial weak imperfect, 161

forms, 112, 354

fortis, 9

fractions, 84

frequentative form, 360

frequentative particle, 157ff,

360

fricative, 10

from now, 265

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fruits, 69

future, 164, 264, 360, 361

glottal, 6, 10

glottal stop, 10

glottis, 2

grains, 69

grapheme, 360

greetings, 186ff

grocery items, 69

/h/, 13

ha, 53, 314, 367

had, _60, 62

had si makan, 245

hada, 60

hadak, 60

hadi + time, 293

hak, 315

Eere, 314fff

hortatory, 173ff

human body, 308

/h/, 17

/i/, 25

im:a...aw, 233

imperatives: 117, 128, 138, 141,

152, 173ff

negative, 361

imperfects, 156, 157, 159ff, 360

impossibility, 246, 260, 286

indefinite article, 361

indefinite pronoun, 361

infinitive, 176

inflection, 361

interchange of phonemes, 32

interrogative particles, 362

459

morpheme boundary, 363

morphophoneme, 363

mia, 152, 264

names, 78

nasal, 10

nasal cavity, 2

necessary, 204, 246

need not, 315

negatives: 364

imperfect, 165

negative morpheme, 96

never, 247

Nisba, 158, 364

nothing, 264

nouns: 41, 50, 365

basic, 354

broken plural, 354

character, 364

collective, 354

derived, 357

nisba, 364

of unity, 69

profession, 364

sound plural, 370

verbal, 207, 362, 374

number, 50

numerals: 315

cardinal: 318

1 -10: 67

shortened form, 90

11-19, 104

.19, 132

ordinal, 218

one, 67

173ff, 361, 365, 366

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optative

oral cavity, 2

ordinal numerals, 318

or-gans of speech, 2, 3

pains,

311

palatal, 6, 10

palate:

hard, 2

soft, 2

participles, 204, 365

particles: 365

correlative, 356

exhortative, 359

frequentative, 360

interrogative, 362

isolating, 362

negative, 364

presentational, 367

reinforcing, 369

vocative, 374

pattern, 366, 370

perfect, 366

pharyngeal, 6, 10

pharynx, 2, 3

phoneme, 366

phoneme interchange, 32

plurals: 367

broken, 354

feminine, 50

masculine, SO

sound, 370

possession, 97, 99

possibility, 286

prepositions, 367

460

sun letters, 44

superlatives, 233

syllable, 19

saft , 152

sift, 152

si, 361

sun, 255

snu, 255

tense: 9, 352

auxiliaries, 353

tenseness, 9, 22, 371

that, 232, 304

that is it, 245

time, 82

to, 176

tongue, 2, 22

trachea, 2

transcription, 9, 20

transition, 27

triradical stem, 371

triradical verb, 105

two, 68

/u/, 26

used to, 286

uvula, 2, 3

uvular, 6, 10

vegetables, 69

velar, 6, 10

velarization, 19

velarized, 359

velum, 2, 3

verbal nouns, 207, 362, 374

verbal sentence, 106, 107

verbs: 371

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biradical, 149

doubled, 358

final weak: 359

Form II, 146

imperfect, 160

Form II: 108, 109, 112

medial weak, 145

Forms II - X, 122, 129

medial weak: 362

Form II imperfect, 161

imperfect, 160

imperfect, 156, 157, 159ff

participles, 204ff

quadriliteral, 147, 369

reduplicative, 369

sound, 107

triradical, 105

weak, 375

vocal cords, 2, 3

vocal folds, 2

vocalic transition, 27

vocative particle, 374

voicing, 5, 11

vowels: 22

short, 27

vowel allophones, 23

wad, 67

walu, 219

Was 603, 246

weak verbs: 375

biradical, 149

final, 140 , 141, 142, 359

medial, 138

week, 85

PUBLICATIONS OF THE

- CENTER FOR NEAR EASTERN AND NORTH AFRICAN STUDIES

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

EGYPTIAN ARABIC

An Introduction to Egyptian Arabic

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH. Sixth Printing 1981.

405 pp.

A Comprehensive Study of Egyptian Arabic, Volume I:

Conversations, Cultural Texts, Sociolinguistic Notes.

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH, A. FATHY BAHIG, EL-SAID

BADAWI, and CAROLYN KILLEAN. 1976. (Second

Revised Edition 1978) . 454 pp.

A Comprehensive Study of Egyptian Arabic, Volume II:

Proverbs and Metaphoric Expressions.

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH, EL-SAID BADAWI, ZAKI N.

ABDEL-MALEK and ERNEST N. McCARUS. 1978 (Preliminary

Edition). 396 pp.

A Comprehensive Study of Egyptian Arabic, Volume III:

A Reference Grammar of Egyptian Arabic.

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH, ZAKI ABDEL-MALEK, EL-SAID

BADAWI and ERNEST N. McCARUJS. 1978 (Preliminary

Edition). 337 pp.

A Comprehensive Study of Egyptian Arabic, Volume IV:

Lexicon. Part I: Egyptian Arabic - English; Part II:

English - Egyptian Arabic

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH, EL-SAID M. BADAWI, ZAKI N.

ABDEL-MA.LEK and ERNEST N. McCarus.. 1979 (Preliminary

Edition). 494 pp.

MOROCCAN ARABIC

An Introduction to Moroccan Arabic

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH. Revised Edition 1982.

460 pp.

Advanced Moroccan Arabic

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH. 1974.

244 pp.

PAN-ARABIC

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A Sample Lexicon of Pan-Arabic

By ERNEST T ABDEL-MASSIH. 1976. (Second

Printing 1980.) 157 pp.

BERBER (TAMAZIGHT)

A Course in Spoken Tamazight: Middle Atlas Berber

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH. 1971. 456 pp.

A Reference Grammar of Tamazight: Middle Atlas Berber

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH. 1971. 322 pp. plus introduction.

A Computerized Lexicon of Tamazight (Berber Dialect

of Ayt Seghrouchen)

By ERNEST T. ABDEL-MASSIH. 1971.

397 pp. plus introduction.

GENERAL NEAR EAST

Afghanistan: Some New Approaches

Edited by GEORGE GRASSMUCK and LUDWIG W. ADAMEC

with FRANCES IRWIN. 1969. 405 pp.

Preliminary Index of Shah-Nameh Illustrations

Compiled by JILL NORGREN and EDWARD DAVIS, with an

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Introduction by OLEG GRABAR. 1969. 477 pp.

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000

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4.

zAJJuI

-?~

WI-i do
"

eft

10 P4 --"
00:00or

oft 406
AA)
ot

AOO
NO

L7

*away

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