Anda di halaman 1dari 104

Petrologi #1Petrologi

#1
MagmadanBatuanBekuMagmadan
BatuanBeku

Dr. I Wayan
WarmadaDr. I
Wayan Warmada
Laboratorium Bahan
GalianLaboratorium
Bahan Galian
Jurusan Teknik Geologi, FTUGMJurusan Teknik Geologi,
FT-UGM
URL:
http://warmada.staff.ugm.ac.id
URL:
http://warmada.staff.ugm.ac.id

DefinisiDefinisi
q

PetrologiPetrologi
termasuk
petrapetrabatu,
= batuan=
batuan
(rocks)(rocks),
termasuk batu
(lithology, stone)(lithology, stone);; logoslogos
= ilmu,= ilmu,

Petrologi
adalah
cabang
dari geologi
yangPetrologi
adalah
cabang
dari geologi
yang
mempelajari tentangmempelajari tentang
batuanbatuan, yang meliputi, yang meliputi
asal-asal-

mulanyamulanya (origin)(origin),,
keterdapatannyaketerdapatannya
(occurrence)(occurrence),,
strukturstruktur, dan, dan
sejarahnyasejarahnya,,
q

Batuan
adalahBatuan
adalah
material
alammaterial
alam
yang
tersusun
atasyang
tersusun atas
kumpulan (agregat) mineralkumpulan
(agregat) mineral baik yang terkonsolidasibaik
yang terkonsolidasi
maupun yang tidak terkonsolidasi
yangmaupun yang tidak terkonsolidasi yang

merupakanmerupakan penyusun utama kerak


bumipenyusun utama kerak bumi, serta, serta
terbentuk sebagai hasil proses alam.terbentuk
sebagai hasil proses alam.

Apa itu bebatuan?Apa itu


bebatuan?

Batuan BekuBatuan
Beku

Batuan SedimenBatuan
Sedimen

Batuan MetamorfBatuan
Metamorf

Siklus BebatuanSiklus
Bebatuan

Interactions between the


plateInteractions between
the plate
tectonic and climate
systemstectonic and climate
systems

Siklus BebatuanSiklus
Bebatuan

Siklus BebatuanSiklus
Bebatuan

Siklus BebatuanSiklus
Bebatuan

Siklus BebatuanSiklus
Bebatuan

Siklus BebatuanSiklus
Bebatuan

Siklus BebatuanSiklus Bebatuan

Some important human's


treasuresSome important human's
treasures

Cappadocia,
TurkeyCappadocia, Turkey
(amongearliestcitiesbuiltonvolcanicrocks)(amongearliestcities
builtonvolcanicrocks)

Pyramids in
MexicoPyramids in Mexico
stst

(from1 CenturyAD,madeofvolcanicrocks)(from1 CenturyAD,


madeofvolcanicrocks)

Indonesian cultural
heritagesIndonesian cultural
heritages
(madeofvolcanicrocks,i.e.,andesite)(madeofvolcanic
rocks,i.e.,andesite)
thth
7-97-9
CentMataram-CentMataramSyailendraDinastySyailendraDinasty
(madeofandesite)(madeofandesite)

Angkor Wat & Angkor


ThomAngkor Wat & Angkor
Thom
(madeofsedimentaryrocks,i.e.,sandstone)(madeof
sedimentaryrocks,i.e.,sandstone)

thth
9-139-13
CenturyKhmerCenturyKhmer
Kingdom(madeofsandstone)Kingdom(madeofsandstone)

MarbleMarble
themainbuildingstoneinEuropesinceRomanthemainbuilding
stoneinEuropesinceRoman

Florence,Italy:CarraraMarbleFlorence,Italy:CarraraMarble

Ephesus, TurkeyEphesus,
Turkey
stst

(a1 CenturyRomanmarblecity)(a1 CenturyRoman


marblecity)

BatuanBatuan (rocks)(rocks)
tersusunolehkumpulansejumlahmineraltersusunoleh
kumpulansejumlahmineral

Rock types of the EarthRock


types of the Earth

igneous&metamorphicrocks=crystallinerocksigneous&
metamorphicrocks=crystallinerocks

Identifikasi
batuanIdentifikasi batuan
q

KomposisiKomposisi
TeksturTekstur

Mineral
3 Bagaimana bentuk
Mineral apa
apa saja
saja yang
yang
Bagaimana bentuk
menyusun suatumenyusun suatu
(shape)(shape), ukuran, ukuran (size)(size)
batuan?batuan?
dan orientasi
daridan orientasi dari
3
butiranbutiranbutiran-butiran
Dalam perkembang-Dalam perkembang3

mineral
penyusunmineral
penyusun
annya bisa juga ber-annya
bisa juga berbatuan?batuan?
arti komposisi kimiaarti komposisi
kimia
dari batuandari batuan
Majordifference:Crystal-Majordifference:
Crystallinevs.Clastic(non-linevs.Clastic(noncrystal-line)crystal-line)

Mengapa Batuan Beku


BerbedaMengapa Batuan Beku
Berbeda
dengan Batuan Lainnya?
dengan Batuan Lainnya?

PyroclastsPyroclasts

Tekstur Batuan
BekuTekstur Batuan
Beku

Extrusive rocksExtrusive rocks

PorphyryPorphyry

Intrusive rocksIntrusive rocks

PyroclastsPyroclasts

Volcanic ashVolcanic ash

Extrusive rocksExtrusive rocks

PorphyryPorphyry

Intrusive rocksIntrusive rocks

BombBomb

PumicePumice

PyroclastsPyroclasts

Volcanic ashVolcanic ash

Extrusive rocksExtrusive rocks

PorphyryPorphyry

BombBomb PumicePumice
Extrusive
pyroclastsExtrusive
pyroclasts
form in violentform in
violent
eruptions from
lavaeruptions from
lava
in the air.in the air.

Intrusive rocksIntrusive rocks

PyroclastsPyroclasts

Volcanic ashVolcanic ash

Extrusive rocksExtrusive rocks


MaficMafic
BasaltBasalt

PorphyryPorphyry

BombBomb PumicePumice
Extrusive
pyroclastsExtrusive
pyroclasts
form in violentform in
violent
eruptions from
lavaeruptions from
lava
in the air.in the air.
FelsicFelsic
RhyoliteRhyolite

Intrusive rocksIntrusive rocks

PyroclastsPyroclasts

Volcanic ashVolcanic ash

Extrusive rocksExtrusive rocks


MaficMafic
BasaltBasalt

PorphyryPorphyry

BombBomb PumicePumice
Extrusive
pyroclastsExtrusive
pyroclasts
form in violentform in
violent
eruptions from
lavaeruptions from
lava
in the air.in the air.
FelsicFelsic
RhyoliteRhyolite
Extrusive
igneousExtrusive
igneous

rocks cool
rapidlyrocks cool
rapidly
and are fine-and are
finegrained.grained.

Intrusive rocksIntrusive rocks

PyroclastsPyroclasts

Volcanic ashVolcanic ash

Extrusive rocksExtrusive rocks


MaficMafic
BasaltBasalt

BombBomb PumicePumice
Extrusive
pyroclastsExtrusive
pyroclasts
form in violentform in
violent
eruptions from
lavaeruptions from
lava
in the air.in the air.
FelsicFelsic
RhyoliteRhyolite
Extrusive
igneousExtrusive
igneous

rocks cool
rapidlyrocks cool
rapidly
and are fine-and are
finegrained.grained.

PorphyryPorphyry
GabbroGabbro

GraniteGranite

Intrusive rocksIntrusive rocks

PyroclastsPyroclasts

Volcanic ashVolcanic ash

Extrusive rocksExtrusive rocks


MaficMafic
BasaltBasalt

BombBomb PumicePumice
Extrusive
pyroclastsExtrusive
pyroclasts
form in violentform in
violent
eruptions from
lavaeruptions from
lava
in the air.in the air.
FelsicFelsic
RhyoliteRhyolite
Extrusive
igneousExtrusive
igneous

rocks cool
rapidlyrocks cool
rapidly
and are fine-and are
finegrained.grained.

PorphyryPorphyry
GabbroGabbro

GraniteGranite
Intrusive
igneousIntrusive
igneous

rocks cool
slowly,rocks cool
slowly,
allowing
large,allowing large,
coarse crystals
tocoarse crystals to
form.form.
Intrusive rocksIntrusive rocks

PyroclastsPyroclasts

Volcanic ashVolcanic ash

Extrusive rocksExtrusive rocks


MaficMafic
BasaltBasalt

BombBomb PumicePumice
Extrusive
pyroclastsExtrusive
pyroclasts
form in violentform in
violent
eruptions from
lavaeruptions from
lava
in the air.in the air.
FelsicFelsic
RhyoliteRhyolite
Extrusive
igneousExtrusive
igneous

rocks cool
rapidlyrocks cool
rapidly
and are fine-and are
finegrained.grained.

PorphyryPorphyry
GabbroGabbro

GraniteGranite
Intrusive
igneousIntrusive
igneous

rocks cool
slowly,rocks cool
slowly,
allowing
large,allowing large,
coarse crystals
tocoarse crystals to
form.form.
Intrusive rocksIntrusive rocks

PhenocrystsPhenocrysts

PorphyryPorphyry

PyroclastsPyroclasts

Volcanic ashVolcanic ash

Extrusive rocksExtrusive rocks


MaficMafic
BasaltBasalt

BombBomb PumicePumice
Extrusive
pyroclastsExtrusive
pyroclasts
form in violentform in
violent
eruptions from
lavaeruptions from
lava
in the air.in the air.
FelsicFelsic
RhyoliteRhyolite
Extrusive
igneousExtrusive
igneous

rocks cool
rapidlyrocks cool
rapidly
and are fine-and are
finegrained.grained.

PorphyryPorphyry
GabbroGabbro

GraniteGranite
Intrusive
igneousIntrusive
igneous

rocks cool
slowly,rocks cool
slowly,
allowing
large,allowing large,
coarse crystals
tocoarse crystals to
form.form.
Intrusive rocksIntrusive rocks

PhenocrystsPhenocrysts
Some
phenocrystsSome
phenocrysts
grow large, but thegrow
large, but the
remaining meltremaining
melt
cools faster,cools faster,
forming smallerforming
smaller
PorphyryPorphyry
crystals during
ancrystals during an
eruption.eruption.

Komposisi Kimia dan


MineralKomposisi Kimia dan
Mineral
Batuan BekuBatuan
Beku

Dua kelompok komposisi


dasar:Dua kelompok komposisi
dasar:
Batuan beku felsikBatuan
beku felsik
Batuan beku mafikBatuan
beku mafik

Komposisi Kimia dan


MineralKomposisi Kimia dan
Mineral
Batuan BekuBatuan
Beku

Empat kelompok
komposisi:Empat kelompok
komposisi:
Batuan beku felsikBatuan
beku felsik
Batuan beku
intermediatBatuan beku
intermediat

Batuan beku mafikBatuan


beku mafik
Batuan beku
ultramafikBatuan beku
ultramafik

Bagaimana Magma Terbentuk?


Bagaimana Magma Terbentuk?
Mengapa batuan meleleh?Mengapa
batuan meleleh?

Diferensiasi
MagmaDiferensiasi Magma
q

Suatu
Suatu proses
proses dimana
dimana batuan
batuan dari
dari bermacambermacammacam komposisi dapat muncul dari
suatumacam komposisi dapat muncul dari suatu
magma asal yang sama.magma asal yang
sama.

Mineral
mengkristal
dari suatuMineral
pertamapertama
mengkristal
dari suatu

pemdinginan magma merupakan mineral


yangpemdinginan magma merupakan mineral
yang
terakhir meleleh.terakhir meleleh.
q

Kristalisasi
fraksional
merupakan
proses proses
dimanaKristalisasi
fraksional
merupakan
dimana
kristal terbentuk pada suatu pendinginan
magmakristal terbentuk pada suatu pendinginan
magma
dan tersegregasi dari sisa cairan.dan
tersegregasi dari sisa cairan.

Contoh:
intrusi
basaltik
seperti
Palisades,
NewContoh:
intrusi
basaltik
seperti
Palisades,
New
JerseyJersey

Diferensiasi
MagmaDiferensiasi Magma
THE PALISADES
INTRUSIONTHE PALISADES
INTRUSION

Diferensiasi
MagmaDiferensiasi Magma
BOWENS REACTION
SERIESBOWENS REACTION
SERIES
MagmaMag
ma
compositionc
omposition
TemperatureTemperature

Orthoclase feldsparOrthoclase feldspar


Muscovite micaMuscovite mica

Felsic,Felsic,

~600C~600C
RhyoliticRhyolitic

QuartzQuartz

BiotiteBiotite
micamica

(high silica)
(high silica)

Sodium-Sodiumrichrich

Intermediate,Int
ermediate,

AmphiboleAmphibole

andesiticandesitic
Mafic,Mafic,
basalticbasalti
c

PyroxenePyroxene

SimultaneousSimultaneous

~1200C~1200C
(low silica)(low silica)

UltramaficUltramafic

OlivineOlivine

Calcium-Calcium-

crystallizationcrystallization

richrich

BOWENS REACTION
SERIESBOWENS REACTION
SERIES
As magma temperatureAs magma temperature
decreasesdecreases
MagmaMag
ma
compositionc
omposition
TemperatureTemperature
~600C~600C
RhyoliticRhyolitic

Orthoclase feldsparOrthoclase feldspar


Muscovite micaMuscovite mica

Felsic,Felsic,

QuartzQuartz

(high silica)
(high silica)

BiotiteBiotite
micamica

Sodium-Sodiumrichrich

Intermediate,Int
ermediate,

AmphiboleAmphibole

andesiticandesitic
Mafic,Mafic,
basalticbasalti
c

PyroxenePyroxene

SimultaneousSimultaneous

~1200C~1200C
(low silica)(low silica)

UltramaficUltramafic

OlivineOlivine

Calcium-Calcium-

crystallizationcrystallization

richrich

BOWENS REACTION
SERIESBOWENS REACTION
SERIES
As magma temperatureAs magma temperature
decreasesdecreases
materials materials
crystallize incrystallize in

MagmaMag
ma

compositioncomposition

an orderedan ordered Orthoclase feldsparOrthoclase feldspar


seriesseries
Muscovite micaMuscovite mica
Felsic,Felsic,

TemperatureTemperature
~600C~600C
RhyoliticRhyolitic

QuartzQuartz

BiotiteBiotite
micamica

Sodium-Sodiumrichrich

(high silica)
(high silica)

Intermediate,Int
ermediate,
AmphiboleAmphibole

andesiticandesitic
Mafic,Mafic,
basalticbasalti
c

PyroxenePyroxene

SimultaneousSimultaneous

~1200C~1200C
(low silica)(low silica)

UltramaficUltramafic

OlivineOlivine

Calcium-Calcium-

crystallizationcrystallization

richrich

BOWENS REACTION
SERIESBOWENS REACTION
SERIES
whi l e pl ag i o cl ase whi l e
p l ag io c l ase
As magma temperatureAs magma temperature
feldspar crystallizes,feldspar
crystallizes,
decreasesdecreases
from calcium-richfrom calciumrich
sodium-rich formsodium-rich
form
materials materials
MagmaMag
ma
crystallize incrystallize in
compositioncomposition

an orderedan ordered Orthoclase feldsparOrthoclase feldspar


seriesseries
Muscovite micaMuscovite mica
Felsic,Felsic,

TemperatureTemperature

~600C~600C
RhyoliticRhyolitic

QuartzQuartz

BiotiteBiotite
micamica

(high silica)
(high silica)

Sodium-Sodiumrichrich

Intermediate,Int
ermediate,

AmphiboleAmphibole

andesiticandesitic
Mafic,Mafic,
basalticbasalti
c

PyroxenePyroxene

SimultaneousSimultaneous

~1200C~1200C
(low silica)(low silica)

UltramaficUltramafic

OlivineOlivine

Calcium-Calcium-

crystallizationcrystallization

richrich

BOWENS REACTION
SERIESBOWENS REACTION
SERIES
whi l e pl ag i o cl ase whi l e
p l ag io c l ase
As magma temperatureAs magma temperature
feldspar crystallizes,feldspar
crystallizes,
decreasesdecreases
from calcium-richfrom calciumrich
sodium-rich formsodium-rich
form
materials materials
MagmaMag
ma
crystallize incrystallize in
compositioncomposition

an orderedan ordered Orthoclase feldsparOrthoclase feldspar


seriesseries
Muscovite micaMuscovite mica
Felsic,Felsic,

TemperatureTemperature

~600C~600C
RhyoliticRhyolitic

QuartzQuartz

BiotiteBiotite
micamica

(high silica)
(high silica)

Sodium-Sodiumrichrich

Intermediate,Int
ermediate,

AmphiboleAmphibole

andesiticandesitic
Mafic,Mafic,
basalticbasalti
c

PyroxenePyroxene

SimultaneousSimultaneous

~1200C~1200C
(low silica)(low silica)

UltramaficUltramafic

OlivineOlivine

Calcium-Calcium-

crystallizationcrystallization

richrich

and the compositionand the


composition
of magma changesof magma changes
from ultramafic tofrom ultramafic to
andesitic.andesitic.

Bentuk Intrusi Batuan


BekuBentuk Intrusi Batuan Beku
PlutonPluton
q

Intrusi diskordanIntrusi diskordan


3
3

Batholith
Batholith
Stock
Stock

Intrusi konkordanIntrusi konkordan


3

Sill
Sill

3
3

Dike
Dike
Urat
Urat

Lava flowLava flow


pyroclasts
CountryCountry

Ash falls and pyroclastsAsh falls and

VolcanoVolcano

Volcanic neck withVolcanic neck


with
radiating dikesradiating dikes

rockrock

StockStock
SillSill

SillSill

SillSill

Lava flowLava flow


pyroclasts
CountryCountry

Ash falls and pyroclastsAsh falls and

VolcanoVolcano

Volcanic neck withVolcanic neck


with
radiating dikesradiating dikes

rockrock

StockStock
SillSill

SillSill

SillSill

Dikes cutDikes
cut
across
layersacross
layers
of countryof
country
rockrock

Lava flowLava flow


pyroclasts
CountryCountry

Ash falls and pyroclastsAsh falls and

VolcanoVolcano

Volcanic neck withVolcanic neck


with
radiating dikesradiating dikes

rockrock

StockStock
SillSill

SillSill

SillSill

Dikes cutDikes
cut
across
layersacross
layers
of countryof
country
rockrock

but sills run


but sills run
parallel to
them.parallel to
them.

Lava flowLava flow


pyroclasts
CountryCountry

Ash falls and pyroclastsAsh falls and

VolcanoVolcano

Volcanic neck withVolcanic neck


with
radiating dikesradiating dikes

rockrock

StockStock
SillSill

SillSill

SillSill

Dikes cutDikes
cut
across
layersacross
layers
of countryof
country
rockrock

but sills run


but sills run
parallel to
them.parallel to
them.
Batholiths are the
largestBatholiths are the
largest
forms of plutons,
coveringforms of plutons,
covering
22
at
least
100
km
.at least 100
km .

Proses Pembekuan danProses


Pembekuan dan
Tektonik LempengTektonik
Lempeng
Penghasil magma:Penghasil magma:
q
q
q

Pusat pemekaranPusat pemekaran


Zona subduksiZona subduksi
Mantle plumesMantle plumes

Proses Pembekuan danProses


Pembekuan dan
Tektonik LempengTektonik
Lempeng

Proses Pembekuan danProses


Pembekuan dan
Tektonik LempengTektonik
Lempeng
Asal magma pada penghasil magma:Asal
magma pada penghasil magma:
q

Pelelehan
dekompresidekompresi
pada pusat pada pusat
pemekaranPelelehan
pemekaran
(samudra)(samudra)

Pelelehan
karena
kehadiran
cairan/air
padaPelelehan
karena
kehadiran
cairan/air
pada
zona subduksi.zona subduksi.

A thin dike erupts,A thin dike erupts,


spilling lava inspilling lava in
pillows. pillows.
Hot mantle rises,Hot mantle rises,
decompresses,decompresses,
and melts.and melts.

Pillow lavaPillow lava

DikesDikes
Dikes intruding
dikesDikes intruding dikes

Dikes
intrudeDikes
intrude
dikes to formdikes
to form
Newer, thinnerNewer, thinner
sheeted
dikes.sheeted
dikes.
sedimentssediments
Older, thickerOlder, thicker
sedimentssediments

Sediments
areSediments are
deposited
ondeposited on
the spreadingthe
spreading

Sheeted dikesSheeted dikes


in basaltin basalt
OceanicOceanic
crustcrust

MohoMoho

seafloor.seafloor.
GabbroGabbro

The gabbro
layerThe gabbro
layer

MantleMantle

contact withby contact with

ColdCold
seawaterseawater

SheetedSheeted
dikesdikes

Peridotite layerPeridotite layer

metamorphosesm
etamorphoses
by
the magma.the
magma.

SpreadingSpreading
centercenter
HeatedHeated
seawaterseawater
carryingcarrying
dissolveddissolved
mineralsminerals

Magma chamberMagma chamber


Peridotite layerPeridotite layer

MantleMantle

Seawater filtersSeawater filters


The heated seawaterThe heated seawater
Crystals settle outCrystals settle out
through thethrough the
then rises. Dissolvedthen rises. Dissolved
the magma,of the magma,
basalt layer,basalt layer,
minerals precipitate inminerals precipitate in
forming theforming the
where it is heated.where it is heated.
the ocean.the ocean.
peridotite layer.peridotite layer.

of

Magma of intermediateMagma of intermediate


Molten
sedimentsMolten
sediments
composition is erupted tocomposition
is erupted to
combine
withcombine with
form arc volcanoes.form arc volcanoes.
lithospheric
magma.lithospheric
magma.
TrenchTrench

Oceanic sedimentsOceanic sediments


Magma chamberMagma chamber
Oceanic crust basaltOceanic crust basalt
Oceanic mantleOceanic mantle
lithospherelithosphere

AsthenosphereAsthenosphere

The waterThe
water
and moltenand
molten
sediments
meltsediments
melt

Subducting oceanic crustSubducting oceanic crust


overlying plate.overlying plate.
carries sediments with it.carries sediments with it.

parts of theparts
of the

H OH O
H OH O22
22
t hHeOH
cOa22u s i n g t h e c a u s i n g

Water remains trappedWater remains trapped


as the pressure andas the pressure and
temperature increase.temperature increase.

sedimentarysedi
mentary
rocks
to to
meltrocks
melt
at lowerat lower
temperatures.te
mperatures.

SedimentSediment
grains
The trapped water isThe trapped water is
grains
WaterWater
released as thereleased as the

temperature increases,temperature
increases,

Igneous rocks vs
tectonicIgneous rocks vs
tectonic
settingssettings

Deskripsi batuan
bekuDeskripsi batuan beku
q

PengamatanPengamatan
fisik (warna)fisik
(warna):
Warna
mencerminkan:
Warna
mencerminkan
proporsi kehadiranproporsi kehadiran mineral
terang (felsik)mineral terang (felsik)
terhadapterhadap
mineral gelap (mafik)mineral gelap (mafik).
Untuk penafsiran tipe batuan. Untuk
penafsiran tipe batuan

((asamasam,, menengahmenengah,,
basabasa,, ultrabasaultrabasa),),
q

PengamatanPengamatan
teksturtekstur
meliputi:meliputi:
ukuran
kristalukuran
kristal,,
keseragaman kristalkeseragaman kristal
dandan tingkat kristalisasitingkat kristalisasi,,
Ukuran kristal: halus (< 1mm), sedang (1
5mm),
Ukuran
5mm), kristal: halus (< 1mm), sedang (1
dandan kasarkasar (> 5mm),(> 5mm),
3 Keseragaman kristal: ekuigranular (seragam),
Keseragaman kristal: ekuigranular (seragam),
porfiritikporfiritik (tidak seragam),(tidak
seragam), afanitikafanitik (sangat halus)
(sangat halus)
3

Deskripsi batuan
bekuDeskripsi batuan beku
Tingkat kristalisasi: holokristalin (seluruhnya
terdiri
Tingkat
terdiri kristalisasi: holokristalin (seluruhnya
atas kristal),atas kristal), holohyalinholohyalin
(seluruhnya terdiri atas(seluruhnya terdiri atas
gelas), dangelas), dan hypohyalinhypohyalin
(sebagian kristal dan(sebagian kristal dan
sebagian gelas),sebagian gelas),
3

Pengamatan
komposisi:
jenis-jenis
mineral
yangPengamatan
komposisi:
jenis-jenis
mineral yang
dijumpai pada batuan beku, seperti
ortoklas,dijumpai pada batuan beku, seperti
ortoklas,
plagioklas, kuarsa, piroksen, dan
olivin.plagioklas, kuarsa, piroksen, dan olivin.
q

Pengamatan
struktur: pengamatan
hubunganPengamatan
struktur: pengamatan
hubungan
antara bagian-bagian batuan beku, seperti
masif,antara bagian-bagian batuan beku,
seperti masif,

vesikuler, skoriaan, aliran, kekar tiang,


kekarvesikuler, skoriaan, aliran, kekar tiang,
kekar
lembaran, amigdaloidal, dll.lembaran,
amigdaloidal, dll.

ReferensiReferensi
q

Best,
M.G. (2003)Best, M.G.
(2003)
Igneous
and MetamorphicIgneous
and
Metamorphic
Petrology.Petrology. Blackwell Publishing,
Melden, 729h.Blackwell Publishing, Melden,
729h.

Boggs,
S., of
Jr. Sedimentary
(2009)Boggs,Rocks.Petrology
S., Jr. (2009)
Petrology
of
Sedimentary Rocks.
ndnd
22 Edition, Cambridge University
Press,Edition, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 600h.Cambridge, 600h.

Hefferan,
K. and
O'Brien,
J. (2010)Hefferan,
K.
and
O'Brien,
J.
(2010)
Earth
MaterialsEarth
Materials..

Willey-Blackwell, Chichester, 608h.WilleyBlackwell, Chichester, 608h.