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MICROCONTROLLER BASED DIGITAL CODE

LOCK
PROJECT REPORT
SUBMITTED BY
KABIL DAS K
KRISHNA PRIYA VINOD M
KURIAN MATHEW
in partial fulfilment for the award
of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION


SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINNERING,
KADAYIRUPPU

MG UNIVERSITY: KOTTAYAM
APRIL 2011

MG UNIVERSITY- KOTTAYAM

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report MICROCONTROLLER
BASED DIGITAL CODE LOCK is the onafide ork of KABIL
DAS K, KRISHNA PRIYA VINOD M and KURIAN MATHEW who
carried out the project work under my supervision.
SIGNATURE

PROF. ARUMUGASAMY
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

SIGNATURE

Mr. DEEPAK.P
STAFF IN CHARGE

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

ASST. PROFESSOR

SREE NARAYANA GURUKULAM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF ECE

KADAYIRUPPU

S.N.G.C.E

KOLENCHERY

KADAYIRUPPU

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I extend my sincere thanks to Prof. Arumugasami, Head of the department for


providing me with the guidance and facilities for the mini project.
I express my sincere gratitude to mini project coordinator Mr. Deepak, staff in
charge, for their cooperation and guidance for preparing and presenting this
mini project.
I also extend my sincere thanks to all other faculty members of Electronics and
Communication
encouragement.

Department

and my friends for

their

support

and

ABSTRACT

Security is a prime concern in our day-today life. Everyone wants to


be as much secure as possible. An access control for doors forms a
vital link in a security chain. The microcontroller based Door locker is
an access control system that allows only authorized persons to
access a restricted area. The system is fully controlled by the 8 bit
microcontroller AT89C2051 which has a 2Kbytes of ROM for the
program memory. The password is stored in the EPROM so that we can
change it at any time. The system has a Keypad by which the password
can be entered through it. When they entered password equals with the
password stored in the memory then the relay gets on and so that the door is
opened. If we entered a wrong password for more than three times then
the Alarm is switched on. When we go inside and come back then the
microcontroller will sense the person

using the Laser light, the

microcontroller will automatically open the door for you.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO.

TITLE

PAGE
NO.

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

7
8

BLOCK DIAGRAM

BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

17

2.
1
2.
2
3.
3.
1
3.
2
3.
3

MAIN CIRCUIT D IAGRAM

17

POWER SUPPLY

18

CIRCUIT EXPLANATION

18

4.

FLOW CHART

19

5.

ALGORITHM

20

6.

PROGRAM

22

7.

COMPONENTS DETAILS

40

7.
1.
7.
2
7.
3
7.
4
7.
5.

RESISTOR

40

CAPACITOR

40

TRANSISTOR

41

DIODE

42

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

42

8.

PCB FABRICATION

46

9.

APPLICATIONS

48

FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

49

11.

CONCLUSION

49

12.

REFERENCES

49

13.

APPENDICES

50

10.

LIST OF TABLES:
1. PIN DESCRIPTION OF AT89C2051
2. PORT ALTERNATE FUNCTIONS

LIST OF
FIGURES:
A. BLOCK DIAGRAM
B. PIN OUT OF AT89C2051
C. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AT89C2051
D. PCB FBRICATION
E. FLOW CHART
F. PINOUT FOR IC LM7805
G. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF IC LM7805
H. PINOUT FOR BC547

1. INTRODUCTION

Password Based Door Security System using Microcontroller is used in the


places where we need more security. It can also used to secure lockers and other
protective doors.
The system comprises a number keypad and the ke
y p a d s a r e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e 8 b i t microcontroller AT89C2051.
This is one of the popular Microcontrollers. It has only 20 pins a n d t he re
are

15

p ro gr a m

in p u t / o utp u t l i nes . The


me

mo r y

mi c r oco n t ro l le r
of

has

Kilobytes.

a
The

microcontroller continuously monitor the keypad and if somebody


enters the password it will check the entered password with the password
which was stored in the memory and if it they are same then the
microcontroller will switch on the corresponding device.
The system will allow the person who knows the password and it will
not allow who dont know the password and the system will also show
the persons who try to break the protection barrier.

2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION
2.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure: A
2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION

INTELS 8051 Architecture


The generic 8051 architecture sports a Harvard architecture, which contains
two separate buses for both program and data.

So,

it

has

two

distinctive memory spaces of 64K X 8 size for both program and data.
It is based on an 8 bit central p r oc e s s ing un it w i t h an 8 b i t
A c c u mu l at o r a n d a no t he r 8 b it B re gis te r as ma in

processing

blocks. Other portions of the architecture include few 8 bit and 16 bit
registers and 8 bit memory locations. Each 8031 device has some
amount of data R A M

built

in

the

device

for

inter

n a l p r o c e s s i n g . T h i s a r e a i s u s e d f o r s t a c k operations and
temporary storage of data. This base architecture is supported with on
chip peripheral functions like

I/O ports, timers/counters, versatile serial

communication port. So it is clear that this 8051 architecture was designed to


cater many real time embedded needs.
The following list gives the features of the 8051 architecture:
Optimized 8 bit CPU for control applications.
Extensive Boolean processing capabilities.
64K Program Memory address space.
64K Data Memory address space.
128 bytes of on chip Data Memory.
32 Bi directional and individually addressable I/O lines.
Two 16 bit timer/counters.
Full Duplex UART.
6 source / 5 vectors interrupt structure with priority levels.
On chip clock oscillator.
Now you may be wondering about the non mentioning of
memory space meant for the program storage, the most important part of any
embedded controller. Originally this 8031 architecture was introduced with
on chip, `one time programmable' version of Program Memory of size 4K X
8. Intel delivered all these microcontrollers (8051) with user's program fused
inside the device. The memory p or t io n was map p ed a t

t he

l owe r e n d of t h e Pr o g ra m M e mo r y a rea . B ut , a f te r getting


devices, customers couldn't change anything in their program code,
which was already made available inside during device fabrication. So, very

soon Intel introduced the 8031 devices

(8751)

with

reprogrammable

type of Program Memory using built in EPROM of size 4K X 8.Like a

regular EPROM, this memory can be re programmed many

times.

Later on I n te l s ta r ted ma nu fa c t ur in g t hes e 80 3 1 de v i c e s w i t ho ut


a n y on c h ip P ro g r a m Memory.

Central Processing Unit


The CPU is the brain of

the

microcontrollers

reading

user's

programs and executing the expected task as per instructions stored there in.
Its primary elements are an 8 b it A r it h me t ic Lo gic U n i t ( A LU ),
A c c u mu l at o r ( A cc ), fe w mo r e 8 bit registers, B register, Stack
Pointer (SP), Program Status Word (PSW) and 16 bit re g is te rs ,
P r o g ra m C o un t e r ( PC ) a nd D a ta Po int e r R e g i s t e r ( D P TR ). The
ALU (Acc) performs arithmetic and logic functions on 8 bit input
variables.

Arithmetic

operations include basic addition, subtraction,

multiplication and division. Logical operations are AND, OR, Exclusive


OR as well as rotate, clear, complement and e t c . A p a r t f r o m a
ll theabove,ALUisresponsibleinconditionalbranchi
n g decisions, and provides a temporary place in data transfer
operations within the d e v i c e . B r e g i s t e r i s m a i n l y u s e d i n
m u l t i p l y a n d d i v i d e o p e r a t i o n s . D u r i n g execution, B
register either keeps one of the two inputs or then retains a portion of the
result. For other instructions, it can be used as another general purpose register.

1
0

Timers/Counters
8031 has two 16 bit Timers/Counters capable of working in different
modes. Eac h co ns is ts of a ` Hi g h ' b yt e a nd a ` Lo w ' b y t e w hic h
c a n be ac ce s s e d und e r software. There is a mode control register
and a control register to configure these t ime rs / c o un t e rs in nu mb e r
of w a ys . T he s e t i me rs c a n be us ed to mea s ure t ime intervals,
determine pulse widths or initiate events with one microsecond resolution up to
a maximum of 65 millisecond (corresponding to 65, 536 counts). Use software
to get lo ng er d e la ys . Wo rk i n g as c o un t e r, t he y c a n a c c u mu l at e
o c c u rr e nc e s of external events (from DC to 500 KHz) with 16 bit precision.
In o u r p ro je c t we a re us ing 8 b i t mi cr oc o nt ro ll e r AT 89 C 2 05 1
,

i t is the advanced 8 bit microcontroller from ATMEL,

which incorporates Flash Rom, and Timer etc.


Features of AT89C2051:
Compatible with MCS-51 Products
2 Kbytes of Reprogrammable Flash Memory
Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles
2.7 V to 6 V Operating Range
Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz
Two-Level Program Memory Lock
128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM
15 Programmable I/O Lines
Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters
1
1

Six Interrupt Sources

1
2

Programmable Serial UART Channel


Direct LED Drive Outputs
On-Chip Analog Comparator
Low Power Idle and Power down Modes

DESCRIPTION
The AT89C2051 is a

low-voltage, high-performance CMOS

8-

bitmicroco mp u t e r w i t h 2 Kb y t es of Fl as h P r o gra mma b le a nd


e ras ab le re a d o nl y me mo r y ( P ER O M ) .

The

de v ic e

is

ma n ufa c t u re d us in g At me l s h i g h d e ns i ty non-volatile memory


technology and is compatible with the industry Standard MCS-51 instruction
set and pin out. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a
mo n o l it h i c c hi p , t h e At mel AT 89 C 20 5 1 is a p o we r fu l
mi c ro c o mp u t e r w hic h provides a highly flexible and cost effective
solution to many embedded control applications.

PIN CONFIGURATIONS OF 8051:

Figure : B

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure: C

PIN DESCRIPTION OF AT89C2051:

VCC
GND

Supply voltage.
Ground.

Port 1

Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port. Port pins


P1.2 to P1.7 provide internal pull-ups. P1.0 and P1.1
require external pull-ups. P1.0 and P1.1also serve as
the positive input (AIN0) and the negative input
(AIN1), respectively, of the on-chip precision analog
comparator. The Port 1output buffers can sink 20
mA and can drive LED displays directly. When 1s
are written to Port 1 pins, they can be used as inputs.
When pins P1.2 to P1.7 are used as inputs and are
externally pulled low, they will source current (IIL)
because of the internal pull-ups. Port 1 also receives
code data during Flash programming and program
verification.
Po rt 3 p in s P 3 . 0 to P 3 . 5 , P 3 . 7 are s ev e n
b id i r ec t i o n a l I / O p ins w it h internal pull-ups. P3.6
is
hard-wired as an input to the output of the
on-chip comparator and is not accessible as a general
purpose I/O pin. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20
mA. When 1s are written to Port 3p i n s t he y a re
p u l l ed hig h by t h e
in t e r n a l p u l l - ups a nd ca n be us e d as inputs. As
inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled
low will s o u r c e c urr e nt ( II L) bec a us e of t he
p u l l - up s .
Po rt 3 a lso s e r ve s the
functions of various special
features of the AT89C2051
as listed below. Port 3 also
receives some control signals for Flash
programming and programming verification.
R e s e t in p u t. All I / O p ins a re r es et to 1 s as
soon
as R S T go e s hi g h. Holding the RST
pin high for two
machine cycles while the oscillator
is running resets the
device. Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or
clock cycles

Port 3

RST

XTAL1

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to


the internal clock operating circuit.

XTAL2

Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

Table:1
PORT ALTERNATE FUNCTIONS:
Port Pin

Alternate functions

P3.0

RXD (serial input port)

P3.1

TXD (serial output port)

P3.2

INT0 (external interrupt 0)

P3.3

INT1 (external interrupt 1)

P3.4

T0 (timer 0 external input)

TABLE: 2

3. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
3.1 MAIN CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

3.2 POWER SUPPLY DIAGRAM

FIGURE: D

3.3. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM EXPLANATION


The

Main

Part

of

the

above

Circuit

diagrams

is

the

Microcontroller AT89C2051. The Keypad was the input device and it was
connected in a matrix format so that the numbers of ports needed are reduced.
The Microcontroller reads a four-digit p a s s wor d t h r o ug h t he Ke yp ad.
T he n the M ic r oco n t ro l le r co mp a r e s the fo u r d i g i t p a s s w o r
d

with the number which is pre-programme

d a n d i f i t i s e q u a l t h e n t h e M ic r o co n t ro l le r w il l s w it c h
on t he mot o r fo r

the do o r and i f we e nt e r the w r o ng

p a s s w o rd fo r mo re t h a n
w il l be s w i tc he d on un t i l a r i gh t

t h re e t i mes t he n an a lar m
password was pressed

through the Keypad.


The Password was stored in the EEPROM and the password can be changed at
anytime using the same keypad. To change the password dial 12345

Old password - New Password. The power supply section is the


important one. It should deliver constant output regulated power supply

for successful working of the project. A 0-12V/500 mA transformer is used


for our purpose the primary of this transformer is connected in to main
supply through on/off switch& fuse for protecting from overload and short
circuit protection. The secondary is connected to the diodes convert from 12V
AC to 12V DC voltage. Which is further regulated to +5v, by using IC 7805

4. FLOWCHART

Figure: E

5. ALGORITM
1. START
2. initialise lcd , keypad
3. clear lcd
4. print Enter lock code on lcd
5. get 5 char long password using matrix key pad
6. if input = 12345 then
6.1 print Enter master code
6.2 get 10 char long password using matrix key pad
6.3 if input = masterlock then
6.3.1 change user password
6.3.2go to step 4
6.4 else
6.4.1 print wrong code on lcd
6.4.2 go to step 4
7. else
7.1 if input = userlock or input = default lock then
7.1.1 unlock the lock
7.1.2 retry count = 3
2
0

7.1.3 print # to lock on lcd

2
0

7.1.4 accept input using matrix key pad


7.1.5 if input = # then lock
7.1.6 goto step 4
7.2 else
7.2.1 decrement retry count
7.2.2 print wrong code on lcd
7.2.3if retry count = 0 then sound alarm on
7.2.4go to step 4
8. STOP

2
1

6. PROGRAM
Delay program:
#include "delay.h"
void delayus(unsigned char delay)
{
while(delay--);
}
void delayms(unsigned char delay)
{
while(delay--)
delayus(149);
}
Keypad program:
#include "keypad.h"
#include "delay.h"
bit keystatus = FALSE;
void keypad_init()
{
keyport &=0x0F;

unsigned char getkey ()


{
unsigned char i,j,k,key=0,temp;
k=1;
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{
keyport &=~(0x80>>i);
temp = keyport;
temp &=
0x07; if(7temp)
{
if(!col1)
{
key = k+0;
while(!col1);
return key;
}
if(!col2)
{

key = k+1;

while(!col2);
return key;
}
if(!col3)
{
key = k+2;
while(!col3);
return key;
} j+
+;
}
k+=3;
keyport |= 0x80>>i;
delayms(10);
}
return FALSE;
}
unsigned char translate(unsigned char keyval)
{

if(keyval<10)
return keyval+'0';

else if(keyval==10)
return 'x';
else if(keyval==11)
return '0';
else if(keyval==12)
return 'e';
}
LCD program:
#include "lcd.h"
#include "delay.h"
#include <REG2051.H>
unsigned char code lockicon[]={0xe, 0xa, 0x1f, 0x1f, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0xe, 0x0};
unsigned char code unlockicon[]={0xe, 0x2, 0x1f, 0x1f, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0xe, 0x0};
unsigned char code ex[]={0x1f, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0x1b, 0x1f, 0x1b, 0x1f};
unsigned char code ok[]={0x0, 0x1, 0x3, 0x16, 0x1c, 0x8, 0x0, 0x0};
void lcd_reset()
{

lcd_port =
0xFF;
delayms(20);

lcd_port = 0x03+LCD_EN;
lcd_port = 0x03;

delayms(10);
lcd_port =
0x03+LCD_EN; lcd_port
= 0x03; delayms(1);
lcd_port =
0x03+LCD_EN; lcd_port
= 0x03; delayms(1);
lcd_port =
0x02+LCD_EN; lcd_port
= 0x02; delayms(1);
}
void lcd_init ()
{

unsigned char
i; lcd_reset();
lcd_cmd(LCD_SETFUNCTION);
font. lcd_cmd(LCD_SETVISIBLE+0x04);

// 4-bit mode - 1 line - 5x7


// Display no cursor - no

blink.

shift
.

lcd_cmd(LCD_SETMODE+0x02);
Display

// Automatic Increment - No

lcd_cmd(LCD_SETCGADDR); for(i=0;i<8;i+
+)
lcd_data(lockicon[i]);

for(i=0;i<8;i++)
lcd_data(unlockicon[i]);
for(i=0;i<8;i++)
lcd_data(ex[i]); for(i=0;i<8;i+
+)
lcd_data(ok[i]);
lcd_cmd(LCD_SETDDADDR);
80h.
}
void lcd_cmd (char cmd)
{

lcd_port = ((cmd >> 4) & 0x0F)|


LCD_EN; lcd_port = ((cmd >> 4) &
0x0F);
lcd_port = (cmd & 0x0F)|LCD_EN;
lcd_port = (cmd & 0x0F);
delayus(200);
delayus(200);

}
void lcd_data (unsigned char dat)

// Address DDRAM with 0 offset

lcd_port = (((dat >> 4) & 0x0F)|LCD_EN|


LCD_RS); lcd_port = (((dat >> 4) & 0x0F)|
LCD_RS);
lcd_port = ((dat & 0x0F)|LCD_EN|LCD_RS);

lcd_port = ((dat & 0x0F)|LCD_RS);


delayus(200);
delayus(200);
}
void lcd_str (unsigned char *str)
{

while(*str){
lcd_data(*str++);
}

}
Lock program:
#include "keypad.h"
#include "lcd.h"
#include "delay.h"
#include "lock.h"
unsigned char code masterlock[10]="1234567890", defaultulock[5]="54321";
unsigned char userlock[5], input[10];
extern bit newlock;
bit check(unsigned char *first, unsigned char *second, unsigned char len)
{
unsigned char i=0;

for(i=0;i<len;i++){
if(first[i]!=second[i])
return FALSE;
}
return TRUE;
}
void setulock(){
char status;
retry:
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_cmd(LCD_SETDDADDR);
lcd_str("Enter Mastercode");
lcd_cmd(0xC0);
lcd_data(LOCK);
lcd_data(':');
status = getinput(10);
if(status == TRUE){
if(check(input,masterlock,10)){
retry1:
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);

lcd_str("Enter new
code"); lcd_cmd(0xC0);
lcd_data(LOCK);
lcd_data(':');
status = getinput(5);
if(status == TRUE){
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_data(OK);
lcd_str("lock code
saved!"); newlock =
TRUE; store_code();
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
goto exit;
}
else if(status == RETRY)
goto retry1;
else if(status == EXIT)

3
0

goto exit;
}
else{
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_str("WRONG
CODE!"); delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
goto exit;
}
}
else if(status == RETRY)
goto retry;
else if(status == EXIT)
goto exit;
exit:;
}
char getinput(unsigned char max)
{

unsigned char i,key;


3
1

i=0;
while(1){
while(!(key=getkey()));
key = translate(key);
input[i]=key;
if(key=='x'){
if(i==0)
return EXIT;
i--;
lcd_cmd(0xC2+i);
lcd_data(' ');
lcd_cmd(0xC2+i);
}
else if(key=='e')
{

return TRUE;
}
else{ i+
+;
if(i>max){
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);

lcd_data(EX);
lcd_str(" Code too
Long..."); delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
return RETRY;
}
lcd_data('*');
}

void store_code(){
unsigned char i;
for(i=0;i<5;i++)
userlock[i]=input[i];
}
Main program:
#include "lcd.h"
#include "keypad.h"
#include "lock.h"
#include "delay.h"

extern unsigned char input[10], userlock[5];


extern unsigned char code
defaultulock[5],masterlock[10]; bit newlock=FALSE;
unsigned char retrycount=3;

void main(){
unsigned char
status,i=0; bit
lockstatus;
lcd_init();
keypad_init();
while(1){
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_str("Enter lock
code"); lcd_cmd(0xC0);
lcd_data(LOCK);
lcd_data(':');
status = getinput(5);
if(check(input,"12345",5)){

setulock();

goto done;
}
if(status == TRUE){
if(newlock)
lockstatus = check(input,userlock,5);
else
lockstatus = check(input,defaultulock,5);
if(lockstatus){
retrycount = 3;
lockpin = 0;
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_data(OK);
lcd_str(" Lock is");
lcd_cmd(0xC0);
lcd_str("deactivated!");
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);

lcd_str("Press '#' key to");


lcd_cmd(0xC0);
lcd_str("lock again!");
while(getkey()!=12);
lockpin = 1;
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_data(OK);
lcd_str("Lock is active!");
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
}
else{
retrycount--;
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_data(EX);
lcd_str(" Wrong Code!");
lcd_cmd(0xC0);
lcd_str("Tries left = ");

lcd_data('0'+retrycount);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
if(retrycount==0){
blocked:
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_data(EX);
lcd_str("BLOCKED");
for(i=0;i<150;i++)
{
bus=~bus;
delayms(250);
}
lcd_data(EX);
lcd_cmd(0xC0);
lcd_data(LOCK);
lcd_data(':');
status = getinput(10);

if(check(input,masterlock,10)){
retrycount=3;
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_data(EX);
lcd_str("UNBLOCKED");
lcd_data(EX);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
}
else{
lcd_cmd(LCD_CLS);
lcd_data(EX);
lcd_str("WRONG
CODE"); lcd_data(EX);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);
delayms(250);

goto blocked;
}
}
}
}
done:;
}
}

7. COMPONENTS DETAILS

7.1. Resistor:
Resistor is a component that resists the flow of direct or alternating electric
c irc u it . Res is to rs ca n l i mi t or d ivi de t h e c ur re nt , red u ce the
v o lt a ge , p ro te c t an electric circuit, or provide large amounts of heat
or light. An electric current is the

movement

of

charg

ed particles called electrons from one region to anoth


e r . Resistors are usually placed in electric circuits. Physicists explain the
flow of current through a material, such as a resistor, by comparing it
to water flowing through a pipe. Resistors are designed to have a
specific value of resistance. Resistors used in electric circuits are cylindrical.
They are often colour coded by three or four colour bands that indicate the
specific value of res is t a nc e . Res is to rs ob e y o h m s l aw , w h ic h s
t at es t h at t h e
the electric field when the

c ur re nt d e ns i ty i s directly proportional to
temperature is constant.

7.2 Capacitor:
Capacitor or electric condenser is a device for storing an electric charge. The
simplest form of capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by a non
touching layer called the dielectric. When one plate is charged with
electricity from a direct current or electrostatic source, the other plate
have induced in it a charge of the opposite sign; that is, positive if the
original charge is negative and negative if the original charge is
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positive. The electrical size of the capacitor is its

capacitance.

Capacitors are limited in the amount of electric charge they can


absorb; they can c o n d u c t d i r e c t c u r r e n t f o r o n l y i n s t a
n c e s b u t f u n c t i o n w e l l a s c o n d u c t o r s i n alternating current
circuits. Fixed capacity and variable capacity capacitors are used i n c o n j u
nction with
and

coils

as

resonant

circuits

in

radios

otherelectronic equipment. Capacitors are pro

d u c e d i n a w i d e v a r i e t y o f f o r m s . A i r , M i c a , C e ra mic s ,
P ape r, O il , and

Vac uu ms are us e d as d ie l ec t r ic s d e pe nd i n g

on the purpose for

which the device is intended.

7.3 Transistor:
Transistor is a device which transforms current flow
resistance pa t h to

h i gh

res is ta n ce

p a t h.

It

is

from

low

ca pa b le

of

p e r fo r min g ma ny fu nc t io ns of t h e vacuum tube in electronic circuits,


the transistor is the solid state device consisting of a tiny piece of semi
conducting material, usually germanium or silicon, to which three or more
electrical connections are made.
N-type and P-type Transistor:
A germanium or silicon crystal, containing donor impurity atoms is called a
n e ga t ive or n- t y pe s e mi c o nd uct or to i nd ic at e t he p re s e n c e of
e xce s s n e ga t ive l y charged electrons. The use of an acceptor impurity
produces a positive, or p-type semiconductor so called because of the
presence of positively charged holes. When an electrical voltage is applied,
the n-p junction acts as a rectifier, permitting current to flow in only one
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direction. If the p-type region is connected to the positive terminal of the


battery and the n-type to the negative terminal, a large current flows
through the material across the junction.

7.4 Diode:
Diode is a electronic device that allows the passage of current in
only one d i r e c t i o n . T h e f i r s t s u c h d e v i c e s w e r e v a c
u u m - t u b e d i o d e s , c o n s i s t i n g o f a n e v ac ua te d gl as s or s
t ee l
an

e n ve l op e c o n t a in in g t w o e le c tr o d es a c a t h o d e a nd
anode.

The diodes commonly used in electronic

circuits are semiconductor diodes. There are different diodes used in


electronic circuits such as Junction diode, Zener diode, Photo diodes,
and tunnel diode.
Junction diodes

consist of junction of two different

kinds of

semiconductor material. The Zener diode is a special junction type


diode, using silicon, in which the voltage across the junction is independent
of the current through the junction.

7.5 Integrated circuits


Regulator IC (LM
7805):
The LM 7 8 0 5 mo n o li t hic 3 - te r min a l

p o s i t ive

vo l ta ge

re gu l a to rs e mp l o y internal current-limiting, thermal shutdown and

safe-area compensation, making the m es s e nt ia l ly i nd e s t r uc t ib le . I f


a d eq u at e h ea t s i n k i n g is p r o v i ded, t he y c a n deliver over 1.0A output

current. They are intended as fixed voltage regulators in a wide range of


applications including local

(on-card)

regulation

for

elimination

of noise and distribution problems associated with single-point regulation. In


addition t o u s e a s f i x e d v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r s , t h e s e d e
v i c e s c a n b e u s e d w i t h e x t e r n a l components

to obtain

adjustable output voltages and currents. Considerable effort was


expended

to make the entire series of regulators easy to use and

minimize the number of external components. It is not necessary to


bypass the output, although this does improve transient response. Input
bypassing is needed only if the regulator is located far from the filter capacitor
of the power supply.
Features:
Complete specifications at 1A load
Output voltage tolerances of 2% at Tj = 25
Line regulation of 0.01% of VOUT/V of VIN at 1A load
Load regulation of 0.3% of VOUT/A
Internal thermal overload protection
Internal short-circuit current limit
Output transistor safe area protection

PINOUT FOR LM7805:

43

FIGURE: F

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR IC LM7805:

FIGURE: G

Relay Driver (BC547):


The BC547 transistor is an NPN Epitaxial Silicon Transistor. The BC547
transistor is a general-purpose transistor in small plastic packages. It is used in
general-purpose switching and amplification BC847/BC547 series 45 V, 100
mA NPN general-purpose transistors.
The BC547 transistor is an NPN bipolar transistor, in which the letters "N" and
"P" refer to the majority charge carriers inside the different regions of the
transistor. Most bipolar transistors used today are NPN, because electron
mobility is higher than whole mobility in semiconductors, allowing greater
currents and faster operation. NPN transistors consist of a layer of P-doped

semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped layers. A small current


entering the base in common-emitter mode is amplified in the collector output.
In other terms, an NPN transistor is "on" when its base is pulled high relative to
the emitter. The arrow in the NPN transistor symbol is on the emitter leg and
points in the direction of the conventional current flow when the device is in
forward active mode. One mnemonic device for identifying the symbol for the
NPN transistor is "not pointing in." An NPN transistor can be considered as two
diodes with a shared anode region. In typical operation, the emitter base
junction is forward biased and the base collector junction is reverse biased. In
an NPN transistor, for example, when a positive voltage is applied to the base
emitter junction, the equilibrium between thermally generated carriers and the
repelling electric field of the depletion region becomes unbalanced, allowing
thermally excited electrons to inject into the base region. These electrons
wander (or "diffuse") through the base from the region of high concentration
near the emitter towards the region of low concentration near the collector. The
electrons in the base are called minority carriers because the base is doped ptype which would make holes the majority carrier in the base
PINOUT FOR BC547:

Figure: H
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8. PCB FABRICATION
The first step of assembling is to produce a printed circuit
board. The fabrication of the program counter plays a crucial
role in the electronic field. The success of the circuit is also
dependent on the PCB. As far as the cost is concerned, more
than 25% of the total cost is for the PCB design and
fabrication.
The board is designed using a personal computer. The
layout is drawn using the softare Adoe PageMaker .. The
layout is printed in a uffer sheet using a laser proedure.
First, a negatie sreen of the layout is prepared with the help
of a professional screen printer. Then the copper clad sheet is
kept under this screen. The screen printing ink is poured on the
screen and brushed through the top of the screen. The
printed board is kept under shade for few hours till the ink
becomes dry.
The etching medium is prepared with the un-hydrous ferric
chloride water. The printed board is kept in this solution till the
exposed copper dissolves in the solution fully. After that the
board is taken out and rinsed in flowing water under a tap.
The ink is removed with solder in order to prevent oxidation.
Another screen, which contains component side layout, is
prepared and the same is printed on the component side of
the board. A paper epoxy laminate is used as the board. Both
the component and the track layout of the peripheral PCB is
given at the end of this report.

PCB LAYOUT

COMPONENT LAYOUT

9. APPLICATIONS
Our electronic door lock performed as expected. We were able to implement all
the functions specified in our proposal. The biggest hurdle we had to overcome
with this project was interfacing the micro controller with the hardware
components. We f e e l t h a t t h i s e l e c t r o n i c d o o r l o c k i s v
e r y m a r k e t a b l e b e c a u s e i t i s e a s y t o u s e , comparatively
inexpensive due to low power consumption, and highly reliable. This
door lock is therefore particularly useful in applications such as hotel room door
locks, residential housing, and even office buildings.

10.
E lec t r ic a l

de vices

FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS
s uch as L i ghts ,

Co mp ut e r e tc c a n be

c o nt ro l le d by us ing separate passwords.


The system can be easily connected to the personal computer for further
control.
Other than the speaker sounds, all the lights are made to turned on if
password entered is wrong for three times and also a hidden camera is used
to record the faces who trespassed.
We can use this system as an attendance register for the students to enter a
class room with their respective password.

11.

CONCLUSION

This project is meant for security systems whose access is only for respected
authorities. Using a microcontroller the password entered is checked with the
stored password and then does the corresponding operations. Here we use a 5
digit password for better secrecy.

12.

REFERENCES

Electronic circuits and devices: J.B. Gupta.


Op-amps and linear integrated circuits: Ramakanth A. Gayakward
Integrated circuits : K.R. Botkar
The 8051 microcontrollers: Muhammed Ali Mazidi

13. APPENDICES

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