Anda di halaman 1dari 12

Application Guide

Volume IV

AG2007-01

Using SELOGIC Programming to Implement


an SEL-487B Bus Differential Check Zone
Armando Guzman

Casper Labuschagne

Edmund Stokes-Waller

INTRODUCTION
Each SEL-487B current differential relay has six differential elements available for configuring
as many as six zones of protection. These six zones are identical, so one can configure the zones
indiscriminately to protect complex busbar arrangements. However, configuration of one of these
differential elements as a check zone involves complicated terminal-to-bus-zone settings and is
prone to errors. These complicated settings help isolate check zone tripping from differential
element tripping. Such isolation is necessary because the check zone includes current inputs from
all the bus-zones within the relay, so it operates for all faults within these bus-zones. When the
check zone operates, all differential trip Relay Word bits (87BTRkk, kk = 01 through 18) assert
and trip all terminals for a fault in any of the active zones.
This guide discusses how to program a separate check zone that is easy to configure and which
asserts only a single Relay Word bit, thus avoiding unintentional breaker tripping.

Check Zone Programming


Because the check zone is independent of disconnect auxiliary contact status, no zone selection is
necessary for the check zone differential current, and programming the check zone becomes
simple.
Although one can avoid tripping the wrong terminals with elaborate terminal-to-bus-zone
settings, creating a separate check zone instead offers an effective, easily programmed solution.
Perform the following steps to program the check zone:
Step 1.

Apply the zone settings (SET Z) so that the relay calculates the current
normalization factors (CNF).

Step 2.

Identify and record all buscouplers and sectionalizing breakers to ensure that the
check zone does not include these terminals.

Step 3.

Identify and record all terminals that are to be included in the check zone.

Step 4.

If the CTs of the terminals to be included in the check zone have different ratios,
record the CNF for each terminal to be included in the check zone.

Step 5.

Check the programming capacity and program the check zone (see the Appendix
for a diagram of the check zone logic).

As an example, consider Figure 1, which shows a substation consisting of one buscoupler (I09
and I10), one sectionalizing breaker (I07 and I08), four feeders, and two transformers.

Date Code 20070212

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

Section Breaker
Busbar 1

52

I07
600/1

I08
600/1

I09
600/1
Buscoupler

52

I10
600/1

Busbar 2
52

52

I01
600/1

FDR 1

I02
400/1

FDR 2

52

52

52

I03
500/1

TRFR 1

I06
600/1

I05
600/1

I04
600/1

FDR 3

52

FDR 4

TRFR 2

Figure 1 Substation Bus Arrangement Including One Buscoupler, One Section Breaker, Four Feeders, and
Two Transformers

In applying the previous steps to the present example, we obtain the following:
Step 1.

Apply the zone settings (SET Z) so that the relay calculates the current
normalization factors (CNF). Refer to the SEL-487B instruction manual for more
information.

Step 2.

Identify and record all buscouplers and sectionalizing terminals to ensure that the
check zone does not include these system components.
I07, I08 (sectionalizing breaker), I09 and I10 (buscoupler) in Figure 1 are excluded
from the check zone.

Step 3.

Identify and record all terminals that are to be included in the check zone.
I01, I02, I03, I04, I05 and I06 in Figure 1 are included in the check zone.

Step 4.

After applying the configuration settings, navigate in the ACSELERATOR


QuickSet SEL-5030 Software to the Current Normalization Factors screen
shown in Figure 2.

Step 5.

Record the current normalization factors of the terminals the check zone is to
include.

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

Date Code 20070212

Figure 2 ACSELERATOR QuickSet Current Normalization Factors Screen for the SEL-487B Relay

Alternatively, use a terminal emulation program and the SHO Z command, as Figure 3 illustrates,
to view current normalization factors.
=>>SHO Z<Enter>
Zone Config Group 1
Potential Transformer Ratio

Current Normalization Factor


TAP01
TAP05
TAP09
=>>

:= 1.00
:= 1.00
:= 1.00

TAP02
TAP06

:= 1.50
:= 1.00

TAP03
TAP07

:= 1.20
:= 1.00

TAP04
TAP08

:= 1.00
:= 1.00

Figure 3 Partial Result of SHO Z Command Showing the SEL-487B Current Normalization Factors (TAP01,
TAP02 through TAP09)

Date Code 20070212

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

Table 1 shows a summary of the information necessary to program the check zone.
Table 1 Terminals Included in the Check Zone and Corresponding Current Normalization Factors
Terminals Excluded
from the CZ (Step 2)

Terminals Included
in the CZ (Step 3)

CNF
(Step 4)

I07

NA

I08

NA

I09

NA

I10

NA
I01

I02

1.5

I03

1.2

I04

I05

I06

Before programming, verify that the relay, when using all 18 terminals, has at least 30 percent
Protection SELogic programming capacity (Execution > 30%) available. To determine this
capacity, use a terminal emulation program to issue the STA S command, as shown in Figure 4
(Execution = 76% for Group 1).
=>>STA S<Enter>
Relay 1
Station A

Date: 12/04/2006 Time: 08:51:37.103


Serial Number: 2003100177

FID=SEL-487B-R105-V0-Z001001-D20041129

CID=0xb4d6

SELogic Relay Programming Environment Errors


No Errors
Protection SELogic Available Capacity
(all non-Automation SELogic on a per Group basis)
Act. Group:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Settings
87% 87% 87% 87% 87% 87%
Execution
76% 77% 77% 77% 77% 77%

Available Capacity

Figure 4 Partial Result of STA S Command Showing Remaining Execution Capacity

To program the check zone, identify the instantaneous analog quantities of the terminals included
in the check zone, as shown in Table 2.
Table 2 Available Analog Quantities for Terminal I01 through Terminal I06

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

Terminal

Current Magnitude

Current Angle

I01

I01FIM

I01FIA

I02

I02FIM

I02FIA

I03

I03FIM

I03FIA

I04

I04FIM

I04FIA

I05

I05FIM

I05FIA

I06

I06FIM

I06FIA

Date Code 20070212

Use Equation 1 to convert the analog quantities in Table 2 from polar form to rectangular form.
IxxFIMIxxFIA = IxxFIM cos(IxxFIA) + jIxxFIM sin (IxxFIA)
where:

(1)

IxxFIM = I01FIM through I06FIM (see Table 2)


IxxFIA = I01FIA through I06FIA (see Table 2)

The relay reduces the number of trigonometric functions necessary for the program by using
Equation 2 to calculate only the real part (cosine term) of the phasor and then delaying the
calculated value by 90 degrees to produce the imaginary part (sine term) of the phasor.
Ixx (phasor _ real _ part ) = IxxFIM cos(IxxFIA)

(2)

The relay calculates the real parts of the input currents and adds these values. After this addition,
the relay delays the summed value by 90 degrees and uses the present value (real part) and the
delayed value (imaginary part) to calculate the phasor magnitude. The relay delays each current
value for three processing intervals, as Figure 5 illustrates, because the relay calculates current
values every 1/12 of a power system cycle (or 360/12 = 30 degrees).
(k-3)

(k-2)

30

(k-1)
30
30

(k)

Figure 5 Delay Necessary for Ninety-Degree Phase Shift

Figure 6 shows the complete check zone programming.


15: PMV48 := I02FIM / 1.500000 #SCALE I02FIM TO THE BASE
16: PMV49 := I03FIM / 1.200000 #SCALE I03FIM TO THE BASE
17: PMV50 := (I01FIM * COS(I01FIA)) + (PMV48 * COS(I02FIA)) + (PMV49 * \
COS(I03FIA)) + (I04FIM * COS(I04FIA)) + (I05FIM * \
COS(I05FIA)) #REAL PART OF CURRENTS AND SUMMATION THEREOF
18: PMV51 := (I06FIM * COS(I06FIA)) #REAL PART OF CURRENT
19: PMV54 := PMV50 + PMV51 #PHASOR SUM OF REAL PARTS OF ALL CURRENTS
20: PMV55 := SQRT((PMV54) * (PMV54) + (PMV56) * (PMV56)) #OPERATE CURRENT
21: PMV56 := PMV57 #THIRD DELAY INTERVAL
22: PMV57 := PMV58 #SECOND DELAY INTERVAL
23: PMV58 := PMV54 #FIRST DELAY INTERVAL
24: PMV59 := I01FIM + PMV48 + PMV49 + I04FIM + I05FIM + I06FIM #RESTRAINT \
CURRENT
25: PMV60 := PMV59 * 0.500000 #RESTRAINT CURRENT AT 50 % SLOPE
26: PSV64 := (PMV55 > PMV60) AND (PMV55 > 1.000000) #DIFFERENTIAL ELEMENT

Figure 6 Check Zone Programming

Program Description and Comments


Lines 15 through 26 in Figure 6 describe the programming of the differential check zone, as the
Appendix illustrates. The following text describes the programming.
Lines 15 and 16 scale those values that have CNFs other than 1. In this example, I02 (1.5) and I03
(1.2) both have CNFs other than 1. To convert I02 and I03 to the same base as the reference
Date Code 20070212

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

current, divide I02 and I03 by their respective CNFs. Scaling the currents here saves
programming steps in Line 24.
Lines 17 and 18 include the following two steps.
1. Calculation of the real part of the listed currents. Using the cosine function produces the
real part of a phasor.
2. Summation of the real part of the listed currents.
Line 19 calculates the sum of the real parts of all the currents listed in lines 17 and 18.
Line 20 uses Equation 3 to calculate the magnitude of the operating current.

IOP _ CZ = (IOP ) 2 + (IOP ) 2


k
k
k 3

(3)

IOP_CZ is the alias name for PMV55, the check zone operating current.
Lines 21 and 23 are the delays necessary for calculating the imaginary parts of the currents.
Line 24 is the sum of the current magnitudes (this sum is the restraint current).
Line 25 is the restraint current scaled by the slope setting (50 percent in this example).
Line 26 is the actual differential element and shows comparison of the differential current against
both scaled restraint current and the threshold setting (1 per unit in this example). The line has
two components:

comparison of the differential current with the solution of the restraint current at a
specific slope (PMV55 > PMV60)

comparison of the differential current with a specific per unit threshold (PMV55 >
1.000000). Slope and threshold values can both be set differently from the zone-specific
slope and threshold settings.

This concludes the check zone programming.


Issue the STA S command again to check the available programming capacity (Execution =
65%), as shown in Figure 7. (Note that available programming capacity decreases in proportion to
the number of current inputs in the check zone. Compare the available programming capacity in
Figure 7 to that in Figure 4).

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

Date Code 20070212

=>>STA S<Enter>
Relay 1
Station A

Date: 12/04/2006 Time: 08:53:11.115


Serial Number: 2003100177

FID=SEL-487B-R105-V0-Z001001-D20041129

CID=0xb4d6

SELogic Relay Programming Environment Errors


No Errors
Protection SELogic Available Capacity
(all non-Automation SELogic on a per Group basis)
Act. Group:
1
2
3
4
5
6
Settings
85% 87% 87% 87% 87% 87%
Execution
65% 77% 77% 77% 77% 77%

Available Capacity

Figure 7 Partial Result of STA A Command Showing Available Programming Capacity

Configuration Settings
Use PVS64, the output of the check zone, as supervision for the zone-specific differential
elements, as Figure 8 illustrates. Both the check zone and zone-specific differential element must
assert before the relay issues a trip output for that specific zone.

Figure 8

Check Zone Used as Zone Supervision in ACSELERATOR QuickSet

Testing
Because the terminals in the check zone and any specific zone are different under normal
operating conditions, testing may be tedious and time consuming. An easy way to test the
programming is to test the zones on an individual basis, in such a way that the terminals in the
check zone and the specific zone are the same terminals. For example, assign I01, I02, and I03 to
Zone 1. Assign no terminals to any of the other zones.

Date Code 20070212

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

Use the ZONE command, as in Figure 9, to verify current-to-zone assignment.


=>>ZONE<Enter>
Relay 1
Station A

Date: 12/01/2006 Time: 15:46:32.607


Serial Number: 2003100177

Terminals in Protection Zone 1


I01
I02
I03
Bus-Zones in Protection Zone 1
BZ1
Terminals in Protection Zone 2
Bus-Zones in Protection Zone 2
BZ2
Terminals in Protection Zone 3
Bus-Zones in Protection Zone 3
BZ3
Protection Zone 4 is inactive
Protection Zone 5 is inactive
Protection Zone 6 is inactive

Figure 9 Result of ZONE Command

From Figure 9 we see that Protection Zone 1 contains only BZ1 (i.e., no merged zones) and
Terminals I01 through I03. With only these three terminals connected, the check zone and the
zone-specific elements use the same input currents, and must therefore compute the same operate
and restraint values. Figure 10 shows an example of three injected currents (for a 1 A relay) to
test the Check Zone and Zone 1.

Figure 10 Injected Currents

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

Date Code 20070212

Use the MET DIF command, as shown in Figure 11, to read the differential current in Zone 1
(zone-specific values).
=>>MET DIF<Enter>
Relay 1
Station A

ZONE
1
2
3

Operate Currents
(Per Unit)
IOP
0.01
0.00
0.00

Date: 12/01/2006 Time: 15:49:44.068


Serial Number: 2003100177
Restraint Currents
(Per Unit)
IRT
3.99
0.00
0.00

Current Reference (A)


IREF
600

Figure 11 Result of MET DIF Command

We need to compare the zone-specific values (from Figure 11) to the check zone values. The
programmed check zone uses math variables to calculate the differential and operating currents,
so we use the MET PMV command (Figure 12), to read the check zone values (Figure 12 uses
alias settings PMV55 = IOP_CZ and PMV59 = IRT_CZ for clarity).
=>>MET PMV<Enter>
Relay 1
Station A

Date: 12/01/2006 Time: 15:30:03.494


Serial Number: 2003100177

Protection Analog Quantities


PMV49 =
0.000
PMV50 = 1.851E-03
PMV51 = -1.728E-03
PMV52 =
0.000
PMV53 =
0.000
PMV54 = 1.233E-04
IOP_CZ = 8.563E-03
PMV56 = 7.208E-03
PMV57 = 3.868E-03
PMV58 = 1.233E-04
IRT_CZ =
3.989
PMV60 =
1.995
PMV61 =
0.000
PMV62 =
0.000
PMV63 =
0.000
PMV64 =
0.000

Figure 12 Result of MET PMV Command

Figure 11 and Figure 12 show that the check zone and Zone 1 calculate the same values (IOP
IOP_CZ 0, and IRT = IRT_CZ = 3.99), so the check zone programming is correct for the three
currents we injected in this example. Conduct similar tests for the remaining terminals.

Date Code 20070212

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

10

Performance
A distinct advantage of using the programmed check zone over a configured check zone setting
method is the ability to set the check zone slope and threshold settings independently from the
zone-specific slope and threshold settings, thereby avoiding overstabilization conditions.
The most obvious difference between the check zone and the zone-specific elements is that the
check zone lacks the high-security mode that exists in the zone-specific elements. The check zone
is therefore more vulnerable than the zone-specific elements to CT saturation during through
faults. However, this does not compromise the security of the overall check zone/zone-specific
element combination. Both check zone and zone-specific elements must assert before there can be
a trip output, so the zone-specific elements provide the necessary security against CT saturation.
There is, nonetheless, a third contingency (n-3) risk of SEL-487B misoperation when the
following three simultaneous events occur.
1. A disconnect auxiliary contact fails.
2. A through fault occurs within the disconnect monitoring time setting of 510 seconds
(the zone-specific element operates).
3. Severe CT saturation occurs (the check zone operates).
This third contingency risk compares favorably with the present double contingency (n-2) risk of
SEL-487B misoperation for the following two simultaneous events.
1. An open circuit exists on the CT.
2. A through fault occurs within 2 seconds of the CT open circuit (zone-specific element
operates).

Conclusion
The programmed check zone is easy to configure and provides reliable check zone protection when it is
used in the traditional check zone/zone-specific element combination.

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

Date Code 20070212

11

APPENDIX
Figure 13 shows the logic diagram of the check zone.
I 01FIMI 01FIA

Calculate
Real Part

IxxFIMIxxFIA

Cycle
Delay

Calculate
Real Part

Calculate
Magnitude

IOP

I 01FIM

Threshold

IRT

Slope

PSV64
(87CZ)

IxxFIM

Figure 13 Check Zone Logic Diagram

Date Code 20070212

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

12

FACTORY ASSISTANCE
We appreciate your interest in SEL products and services. If you have questions or comments,
please contact us at:
Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
2350 NE Hopkins Court
Pullman, WA USA 99163-5603
Telephone: (509) 332-1890
Fax: (509) 332-7990
www.selinc.com info@selinc.com

2007 by Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. All rights


reserved.
All brand or product names appearing in this document are
the trademark or registered trademark of their respective
holders. No SEL trademarks may be used without written
permission.
SEL products appearing in this document may be covered by
US and Foreign patents.

SEL Application Guide 2007-01

*AG2007-01*
Date Code 20070212