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# Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Mechanical and Production Engineering Department
MECH 2006Y/MECH 2001Y
TUTORIAL 1 Atoms & Basics Chemistry
Qu.1 Explain what is meant by the following terms:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
(xi)
(xii)
(xiii)
(xiv)
(xv)
(xvi)

Atom
Molecule
Element,
Compound
Mixture
Symbol
Formula
Relative Atomic Mass
Atomic number
Mass number
Isotopes
Atomic Structure
Ionisation Energy
Bohr Atomic Model
Wave Mechanical Atomic Model.

## 2. State the Dalton Atomic theory

3. State the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle.
4. State the Paulis Exclusion principle.
5. Give the four Quantum numbers that are used to specify the electronic configuration of
atoms.
6. What is the significance of the periodic table in engineering materials?
7. Explain what is an alloy?
8. What is a phase?
9. Explain the difference between crystalline structure and amorphous structure.
10. Explain what is a eutectic mixture?
11. Why are gases such as neon, argon, helium and krypton inert?
12. What is the largest principal quantum number of iron?

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

University of Mauritius.
Faculty of Engineering
B.Eng (Hons.) Mechanical Engg./Manufacturing Engg./Mechatronics
Materials Science MECH 2006Y/MECH 2001Y
TUTORIAL 2 - Bonding & Crystal Structure
1. The attractive force between ions with unlike charges is e2/(40r2) while the repulsive force may
be written as Ce2/rn, where the exponent n is about 10 and C is a constant.
Obtain an expression for the equilibrium distance r0 between the ions in terms of C and n. Hence
deduce an expression fro the energy E required to separate the ions to an infinite distance apart, and
show that it may be written in the from
E=
e2
[1 1/(n-1)]
2
(40r )
2. To remove an electron to infinity from a Na atom, 5.13eV of energy must be used, while adding
an electron from infinity to a Cl atom to form the Cl- ion liberates 3.8 eV of energy. What is the
energy expenditure in transferring an electron from an isolated sodium atom to an isolated
chlorine atom?
Using the expression given in problem 1 above, calculate the energy change when the two isolated
atoms are brought together to from an NaCl molecule, given that the ionic separation is 2.7 at
equilibrium, and that the exponent n in the expression for the energy is equal to 10. Compare your
result with the theoretical value of the heat of vaporization of NaCl of 153 kcal/mole. Comment on
the discrepancy in the two values (if any).
[Ans:1.33eV, 4.8eV]
3. Does the decrease in melting point with increasing atomic number which is displayed by the
elements in Group IV appear in all the groups?
4. In the CsCl structure, let the ionic radii be r1 and r2 (r2>r1). Assuming that the anions just touch
the cations, calculate the length of the body diagonal, and hence derive the value of the radius
ratio at which the structure just becomes unstable.
Using the ionic radii given in the table below, find the size of the largest impurity ion which can be
accommodated interstitially in the CsCl lattice with its center at the point , ,0 in the unit cell.
[0.732, 1.04]
5. If the radii of the ions in the NaCl structure are r1 and r2 (r2>r1), calculate the length of the face
diagonal in the unit cell and hence show that the structure is stable only when r 1 > 0.414r2.
6. What crystal structure do you expect to find in the following solids: BaO, RbBr, SiC, GaAs, Cu,
NH3, BN, SnTe, Ni? Place the materials in the expected order of increasing melting points.
Compare with the melting points given in a standard reference book.

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

7. Calculate the density of graphite if the interplanar distance is 3.4 and the interatomic distance
within the plane is 1.4.
[2250 kg/m3]
8. The lattice constants of the metals Na, K, Cu, and Ag are respectively 4.24, 4.62. 3.61, and
4.08. Both Na and K have BCC structures, while Cu and Ag have FCC structures. Calculate in
each case the distance between the centers of neighbouring atoms, and hence deduce the atomic
9. Calculate the angles for first order diffraction (i.e. n=1) from the (100) and (110) planes of a
simple cubic lattice of side 3 when the wavelength is 1.0. If the lattice were BCC, would you
expect to find diffracted beams at the same angles?
[9036, 2806]
3
10. The density of solid copper is 8900 kg/m . Calculate the number of atoms per cubic metre.
In an X ray diffraction experiment the unit cell of copper is found to be face centred cubic, and the
lattice parameter is 3.61. Deduce another figure for the number of atoms per cubic metre and
compare the two results. What factors might give rise to a discrepancy between them.
[8.50*1028m-3, 8.50*1028m-3]
Ion
Li+
Na+
K+
Rb+
Cu+
Be2+
Mg2+
Ba2+

0.78
0.98
1.33
1.49
0.96
0.34
0.78
1.35

Ion
U4+
ClBrIO2S2-

1.05
1.81
1.96
2.20
1.32
1.74

11 On the basis of the values permissible for the four quantum numbers, derive the number of
quantum states corresponding to the fourth principal shell (n = 4).
12 The net potential energy EN between 2 adjacent ions is sometimes represented by the expression
EN = (-C/r)+ D exp (-r/) ---------1
in which r is the interionic separation and C, D and are constants whose values depend on the specific material.
(a) Derive an expression for the bonding energy E 0 in terms of the equilibrium interionic separation r0
and the constants D and using the following procedure.
1. Differentiate EN with respect to r and set the resulting expression equal to zero.
2. Solve for C in terms of D, and r0
3. Determine the expression for E0 by substitution for C in Eq. 1
(b) Derive another expression for E0 in terms of r0, C and using procedure analogous to the one outlined in part

(a).
13 Explain why covalently bonded materials are generally less dense than ionically or metallically bonded
ones.

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

14 Explain why hydrogen fluoride (HF) has a higher boiling temperature than hydrogen chloride (HCl)
(19.4 versus -850C), even though HF has a lower molecular weight.
15 (I) Cite 2 important quantum-mechanical concepts associated with the Bohr model of the atom.
(II) Cite 2 important refinements that resulted from the wave-mechanical atomic model.

16 The potential energy W of a system of two atoms varies as a function of their distance of separation r as
follows:
W= - A/rn + B/rm
Show that at equilibrium
(i)
r = r0 = (mB/nA) 1/m-n
(ii)
the energy of attraction is m/n times the energy of repulsion, and
(iii)
the bond energy W0 = A * (m-n)
r0n
m
17. Make a plot of the melting points and the boiling points of materials of different bonding characteristics as a
function of their bond energy.
18. Compare the bond energies, bond length, melting point and boiling point of the following inert gas
crystals: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe. Explain why the bond lengths increase with increasing atomic number
although there is an increase in the bond energy.
19. Give the Miller indices of the family of close packed directions in SC, BCC, FCC and DC Crystals,
indicating the closest distance of approach between neighbouring atoms.
[<100>, <111>, <110>, None, a, 3a/2, a/2, 3a/4]
20.Find the diameter of the largest atom that would fit an interstitial void in FCC nickel without distortion.
21 Find the size of the largest sphere that will fit an interstitial void in a BCC crystal as a function of the
atomic radius r. The void is located at (0, , ) and other equivalent positions.
22. Distinguish between atom sites and lattice points in a monoatomic FCC crystal and a NaCl crystal.
23 State the differences and common points between (i) CsCl, (ii) a monoatomic BCC crystal, and (iii) a
monoatomic SC crystal.
24 X ray analysis of a Mn-Si alloy with 75 atomic percent of Mn and 25 atomic percent of Si showed that
the unit cell is cubic and the lattice parameter a= 2.86 . The density of the alloy is 6850 kg/m3. Find the
number of atoms in the unit cell.
25 Calculate the density of the CsCl crystal from the radii of the ions: Cs+ = 1.65 and Cl- = 1.81.
26 The bonds in diamond are predominantly covalent in character and so are the bonds along the chains of a
long chain polymer. Why does the polymer melt at a much lower temperature?
27 Find the radius of the largest sphere that will fit an interstitial void in magnesium (HCP). a Mg = 3.21.
Take the c/a ratio of Mg to be the ideal value.

[0.66]

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

28 X rays with a wavelength of 1.54 are used to calculate the spacing of (200) planes in aluminium. The
Bragg angle for this reflection is 22.40. What is the size of the unit cell of the aluminium crystal?
Determine the structure of the crystal.
29 The distance between (111) planes in a FCC crystal is 2. Determine the lattice parameter and the atomic
diameter.
30 A BCC crystal is used to measure the wavelength of some X rays. The Bragg angle for reflection from
(110) planes is 20.20. What is the wavelength? The lattice parameter of the crystal is 3.15.
31 Calculate the atomic density (number of atoms per unit area) in (111), (110) and (100) planes of copper
(FCC) with the lattice parameter of 3.61. Can you pack atoms more closely than in (111) plane?
32 Calculate the number of atoms per unit area of (111), (110) and (100) planes of a BCC crystal. The
answer may be derived as a function of the lattice parameter a.
33 Express the edge, face diagonal and body diagonal of the unit cell in terms of the atomic radius r for SC,
BCC and FCC crystals.
34 Sketch a (110) plane in the unit cell of a cubic crystal. Show all the <111> directions that lie on this
plane, giving the Miller indices of each atom of them.
35 Draw a (11-1) plane in the unit cell of a cubic crystal. Show all the <110> directions that lie on this
plane, giving the Miller indices of each one of them.
36 Draw a (111) plane and a (222) plane in the unit cell of a cubic lattice with lattice parameter a. Determine
their distances from a parallel plane through the origin.
[a/3, a/(23)]

REFERENCES:
1. Materials Science and Engineering by W. D. Callister
2. Materials Science and Engineering A first Course by Vv. Raghavan
3. Engineering Metallurgy by R. A. Higgins
4. Materials for Engineering by Bolton
5. Mechanics of Materials vol. 1 by Hearns.V

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

University of Mauritius.
Faculty of Engineering
B.Eng (Hons.) Mechanical Engg./Manufacturing Engg./Mechatronics
Materials Science MECH 2006Y/MECH 2001Y
TUTORIAL 3 - Bonding & Crystal Structure
1 (a) Discuss how the properties of materials are affected by the types of bonding present in the
structure?
(b) The crystal structures are not always perfect. Edge dislocation is one type of line imperfection that
may occur in crystal structures. Explain, with the help of proper diagram/s, what you understand by
edge dislocation?
2

Describe, with the help of diagrams, the different types of faults and dislocations that exist in the
lattice structure of pure metals.

3 (a)Using suitable diagrams, explain what you understand by the following crystal lattice
i. Simple cubic (SC)
ii. Body centred cubic (BCC)
iii. Face centred cubic (FCC)
iv. Hexagonally Closed Pack (HCP)
(b) For each of the crystal lattices given in (a) above determine the following;
i.
the lattice parameter in terms of the radius R
ii.
the no. of atoms associated with each unit cell
iii.
the co-ordination number
iv.
the Atomic packing factor (APF)
c. Aluminium has a face centred cubic (FCC) structure at room temperature. The atomic radius of
Aluminium is 0.143 nm and its atomic mass is 26.982 g/mol
Determine the following for aluminium: (Show all your calculations and diagrams)
(i) the lattice parameter
(j) the number of atoms associated with each unit cell
(ii)
the co-ordination number
(iii)
the density
Avogadros number = 6.023 1023 atoms/mol
4. Determine the lattice parameters (a & c) in the terms of the radius R of the atom for a hexagonally
closed packed crystal structure. Show your calculations.
Calculate the density of HCP titanium at room temperature for the atomic radius of 0.1475nm and c/a =
1.587. The Atomic mass of the metal is 47.9 g/mol and Avogadros number = 6.02 E23 atoms/mol.

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

5. (a) Sketch the  direction in a BCC lattice structure and calculate its linear density.
(b) Sketch the (110) plane in a FCC lattice structure and calculate its planar density.
(c) Draw a (110) and a (111) plane inside the cubic unit cell. Determine the Miller indices of the
direction common to both planes.
6 . Calculate the linear density of atoms in the , , and  directions in BCC iron (a 0 =
0.286nm).
7. Calculate the planar density of atoms in BCC iron in the (100), (110), and (111) planes (a0 =
0.286nm).
8

Calculate the density of BCC iron at room temperature from the atomic radius of 1.24 .
(Atomic mass 55.847 g/mol & Avogadros no = 6.02 E23 atoms/mol).

Copper has FCC structure and the atomic radius is 1.278 . Calculate the density of copper.
Given the atomic weight of copper 63.5.
[8.92 g/cm3]

10 NaCl crystals have FCC structure. The density of NaCl is 2.18 g/cm3. Calculate the distance
[2.81 ]
11 Calculate the number of atoms per unit cell of a metal having the lattice parameter 2.9 and
density 7.87 g/cm3. Atomic weight of the metal is 55.85.


12 :Lead is a FCC with an atomic radius of r = 1.746 . Find the spacing of (I) (200) planes and
(ii) (220) planes and (iii) (111) planes.
[2.465, 1.74, 2.85 ]
13 How many atoms per square millimetre are there on the (100) plane of lead (FCC)? Assume the

14 Calculate the atomic density (no. of atoms per unit area) in (111), ( 110) and (100) planes of
copper (FCC) atoms with lattice parameter 3.61 .
15 Calculate the number of atoms per unit area of (111), (110) and (100) planes of a BCC crystal.
Derive answers in terms of lattice parameter a.
16 On cooling through 8800C, titanium goes through a phase change analogous to iron except that in
this case the crystal structure changes from BCC to HCP. BCC : a = 3.32 . HCP ; a = 2.956 ,
c= 4.683 . What is the volume change?
17. Sketch the following directions and planes in a BCC unit cell;




(100)
(110)
(111)

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

18 Draw a (110) and a (111) plane inside the cubic unit cell. Determine the Miller indices of the
direction common to both planes.
19 The diffraction pattern of a cubic material of lattice parameter a = 3.16 is obtained with a
monochromatic X-ray beam of wavelength 1.54 . The first four lines on the pattern were
observed to have the following values
LINE
1
2
3
4

( degrees)
20.3
29.2
36.7
43.6

Determine the interplanar spacing and the miller indices of the reflecting plane.
20 (a) The density of nickel, which has an FCC structure and one atom per lattice point is 8902kg/m3.
The atomic weight of nickel is 58.71 g/mol. Calculate
(I) the lattice parameter
(ii) the atomic radius of nickel
21 (a) A specimen of silver (FCC, r0 = 0.144 nm) is placed in an x-ray camera and irradiated with
molybdenum-characteristic radiation (0.0709 nm). It is observed that for 111 planes decreases by
0.110 as the silver is heated from room temperature to 8000C. Given that the crystal structure remains
the same upon heating, find the change in a due to the heating.
(b) Pure iron undergoes an allotropic transformation at 9100C. The BCC form is stable at temperature
below 9100C, while the FCC form is stable above 9100C. Calculate the volume change for the
transformation BCC FCC, if at 9100C a = 0.363 nm for FCC and a = 0.293 nm for BCC.
22 Determine the Miller indices of plane ABC in the BCC unit cell shown in Fig Qu. 1. Explain clearly
the steps involved. The coordinates of the A, B, and C are (0, 1, 3/4), (1/2 , 1, 0) and (0, 0, 0)
respectively.
(b) Calculate the atomic density of the (111) plane of Rhodium (FCC) with lattice parameter 0.3796 nm.

23 Derive Braggs law, relating the interplanar spacing in a crystal lattice to the wavelength and diffraction pattern of X
rays falling on it.
A second order diffraction maximum occurs at an angle of 150 to the original direction of a beam of X rays
incident on a crystal. The wavelength is 0.05nm: What is the interplanar spacing?

24 a) Sketch a simple cubic lattice, and indicate on it (I) the 112 plane and (ii) the 221 direction.
(b) Calculate the diameter of the largest sphere that can be accommodated in the interstitial spaces of such a
lattice, and find the values of
i.
the packing factor of the simple cubic lattice and
ii.
that of the lattice containing the interstitial spheres
(Assume the spheres of the cubic lattice to be of unit diameter)

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

25 Derive Braggs law, relating the interplanar spacing in a crystal lattice to the wavelength and
diffraction pattern of X-rays falling on it.
For which set of crystallographic planes will a first order diffraction peak occur at a diffraction angle of
44.530 for FCC nickel when monochromatic radiation having a wavelength of 0.1542 nm is used.
(Atomic radius of nickel 0.125 nm)

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

University of Mauritius.
Faculty of Engineering
B.Eng (Hons.) Mechanical Engg./Manufacturing Engg./Mechatronics
Materials Science MECH 2006Y/MECH 2001Y
TUTORIAL 4 - Bonding & Crystal Structure
1. Calculate the atomic radius in cm for the following:
a. BCC metal with a0 = 0.3294 nm and one atom per lattice point.
b. FCC metal with a0 = 0.4086 nm and one atom per lattice point.
2. Determine the crystal structure for the following:
a. A metal with a0 = 0.4949 nm, r = 0.175 nm, and one atom per lattice point
b. A metal with a0= 0.42906 nm, r = 0.1858 nm, and one atom per lattice point
3. Calculate the following for each of the metal given in the table below:
a. Lattice parameter and
Metal
Density
Atomic
weight
(kgm-3)
(gmol-1)
potassium
855
39.09
Thorium
11720
232
Iron
7800
55.85
4. Determine the crystal structure of the following metals given that they have cubic structures:
Metal
A
B

Density
(kgm-3)
2600
1892

Atomic
(gmol-1)
87.62
132.91

## weight Lattice parameter

(nm)
0.60849
0.613

5. Bismuth has a hexagonal structure, with a0 = 0.4546 nm and c0 = 1.186 nm. The density is 9.808
Mgm-3 and the atomic weight is 208.98 gmol-1. Determine the
a. The volume of the unit cell
b. How many atoms are in each unit cell
6. Beryllium has a hexagonal crystal structure, with a0 = 0.22858 nm and c0 = 0.35842 nm. The
atomic radius is 0.1143 nm, density is 1.848 Mgm-3, and the atomic weight is 9.01 gmol-1.
Determine
a. The number of atoms in each unit cell
b. The packing factor in the unit cell
7. -Mn has a cubic structure, with a0 = 0.8931 nm and a density of 7.47 Mgm-3. -Mn has a
different cubic structure, with a0 = 0.6326 nm and a density of 7.26 Mgm-3. The atomic weight

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

of manganese is 54.938 gmol-1 and the atomic radius is 0.112 nm. Determine the percent
volume change that would occur if -Mn transforms to -Mn.
(NOTE: Many lattice structures may have more than one atom per lattice site)
8. Would you expect the following compounds to have the CsCl, NaCl, ZnS or Fluorite structure:
a. NiO
b. UO2
c. BeO
d. CsBr
Determine the following for the above mentioned compounds:
a. The lattice parameter
b. The density
c. The packing factor (volume)
Ions
Ni2+
O2Cs+
BrU4+
Be2+
Ionic
0.069
0.132
0.167
0.196
0.097
0.035
(nm)
Atomic
58.71
16.00
132.9
79.91
238.0
9.012
Weight
(gmol-1)
(Note: The molecular weight of NiO would be 1 Ni2+ + 1 O2-= (58.71+16) g mol-1
The molecular weight of UO2 would be 1 U4+ + 2 O2- = (238 + 2*(16)) g mol-1
9. A diffracted X ray beam is observed from the (220) planes of iron at a 2 of 99.10 when X rays
of 0.15418 nm wavelength are used. Calculate the lattice parameter of the iron.
10. A diffracted X ray beam is observed from the (311) planes of iron at a 2 of 78.30 when X rays
of 0.15418 nm wavelength are used. Calculate the lattice parameter of the iron.

11. MgO which has the NaCl structure, has a lattice parameter of 0.396 nm. Determine the planar
density and the planar packing fraction for the (111) and the (222) planes of MgO. What ions
are present on each plane?
REFERENCES:
6. Materials Science and Engineering by W. D. Callister
7. Materials Science and Engineering A first Course by Vv. Raghavan
8. Engineering Metallurgy by R. A. Higgins
9. Materials for Engineering by Bolton
10. Mechanics of Materials vol. 1 by Hearns.V

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

University of Mauritius.
Faculty of Engineering
B.Eng (Hons.) Mechanical Engg./Manufacturing Engg./Mechatronics
Materials Science MECH 2006Y/MECH 2001Y
Tutorial 5 - Mechanical Properties
1. The following results were obtained from a tensile test of an aluminium alloy. The test piece had a
diameter of 11.28 mm and a gauge length of 56 mm. Plot the stress-strain graph and determine (a) the
tensile modulus (b) the 0.1% proof stress the modulus of resilience.
Loa 0
d/k
N
Ext/ 0
mm
Loa
d/k
N
Ext.
/
mm

2.5

5.0

7.5

10.0

12.5

15.0

17.5

20.0

22.5

1.8

4.0

6.2

8.4

10.0

12.5

14.6

16.3

19.0

32.5

35.0

37.5

38.5

39.0

39.0

## 21.2 23.5 25.7

28.1

31.5

35.0

40.0

61.0

86

2. The following results were obtained from a tensile test of a polymer. The test piece had a width of 20
mm, a thickness of 3mm and a gauge length of 80 mm. Plot the stress-strain graph and determine (a)
the tensile strength (b) the secant modulus at 0.2% strain
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 630
/kN
Ext. /mm 0 0.08 0.17 0.35 0.59 0.88 1.33 2.00 2.40
.
3. The following results were obtained from a tensile test of a steel specimen. The test piece had a
diameter of 10 mm and a gauge length of 50 mm. Plot the stress-strain graph and determine (a) the
tensile strength (b) the 0.1% proof stress the yield stress and (d) the tensile modulus.
Ext./mm 0

5
0.016

10
0.033

15
0.049

20
0.065

25
0.081

30
0.097

32.5
0.106

35.8
0.250

1. The following data was obtained from a tensile test on a stainless steel test piece. Determine (a) the
limit of proportionality stress (b) the tensile modulus the 0.2% proof stress.
Stress/ Mpa
Strain/
x10-4

0
0

90
5

170
10

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15

345
20

495
30

605
40

700
50

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760
60

805
70

845
80

880
90

895
100

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

Describe the process through which a material undergoes (I) Ductile fracture
Brittle fracture (crack formation and propagation, fracture surfaces)
Describe two commonly used impact testing techniques.
What do you understand by the Ductile to Brittle transition of a material?
Fatigue and Creep are two common forms of failure. Explain the terms (I) fatigue (ii) creep.
Describe tests to predict the lifetime of components subjected to fatigue creep. (paying attention to
terms such as fatigue limit, fatigue life, fatigue strength, steady state creep rate.)
10. List the factors that affect the fatigue life.
11. List measures to increase the resistance to fatigue of a metal alloy.
12. Give metallurgical/processing techniques that can be employed to enhance creep resistance of metal
alloys.
5.
(ii)
6.
7.
8.
9.

13 The following data were collected from a 3.2 x 19.1mm rectangular test
specimen of magnesium;
EXTENSION (mm)
0
0
1380
0.03
2780
0.08
5630
0.13
7430
0.20
8140
0.25
9870
0.64
12850
1.91
14100
3.18
14340
4.45
13830
5.72
12500
6.99 (fracture)
The initial length of the specimen was 63.5 mm and the final cross sectional
area was 58.42 mm2.
Plot the stress - strain curve and hence determine;
(a) the Youngs modulus of elasticity
(b) the modulus of resilience
(c) the tensile strength
(d) the 0.2% proof stress
(e) the percentage elongation
(f) the percentage reduction in area
(g) the true stress at fracture
14 Differentiate between :
(i) toughness and hardness
(ii) engineering stress and true stress
(iii) yield strength and tensile strength
(iv) creep and fatigue

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

15 Explain what you understand by the following terms (I) fatigue (ii) creep (iii) hardness, (iv)
toughness (v) Ultimate tensile stress.
16. The following results were obtained from a tensile test on a 20-mm diameter S.G. cast iron
specimen having a gauge length of 40 mm.
25
50
75
90
105
120
131
125

Extension (mm)
0.0185
0.0370
0.0555
0.2
0.6
1.56
7.52 (fracture)

After fracture, the gauge length is 47.42 mm and the diameter is 18.35 mm. Plot the data and calculate
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

## the 0.2% proof strength

the tensile strength
the modulus of elasticity
the % elongation
the % reduction of area
the engineering stress at fracture
the true stress at fracture, and
the modulus of resilience.

17

What mechanical properties of a material are determined by tensile testing? What valuable
information can be determined from the results of a tensile tests?
18 What is the difference between a ductile material and a malleable material?

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

University of Mauritius.
Faculty of Engineering
B.Eng (Hons.) Mechanical Engg./Manufacturing Engg./Mechatronics
Materials Science MECH 2006Y/MECH 2001Y
Tutorial 6 - Phases
1. There are some other phases that can be present in steel cooled under certain conditions. What are these phases and
explain how they are formed?
2. What do you understand by a Time-Temperature-Transformation diagram? Explain how you would use such a diagram to
determine the phases present in a particular quenched specimen.
3. It is sometimes more useful to use a modified TTT diagram also known as a Continuous-Cooling Transformation
diagram. Explain why?
4. What are the effects of increasing the percentage carbon content of steel on its properties such as tensile strength,
hardness, ductility, hardenability, weldability, elongation, etc...?
5. What are the effects of different cooling rates on the structure and properties of steel of different percentage carbon
content?
6. What do you understand by plain carbon steel? What are the different elements that might be present and their effects on
the properties and structure of the steel?
7. What is/are the difference/s between plain carbon steel and alloy steel? What are the different alloying elements used in
alloy steels? What are the benefits of using each of the alloying element?
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

14.

## Calculate the relative proportions by mass of ferrite and cementite in pearlite.

Draw the Iron-Iron Carbide phase equilibrium diagram labelling all the important points on the diagram. What do you
understand by the solidus and liquidus curve?
With reference to the diagram drawn in 9 above, explain what happens when a steel melt of 0.12% carbon is slowly
cooled to room temperature? Calculate the relative proportions by mass of ferrite and cementite in the steel at 7230C.
Discuss how the properties of the oxide films of metals affect the immunity of metals to corrosion?
Steel can be protected against corrosion by metallic coatings using elements such as Zinc, Tin, Aluminium and Lead?
Discuss why and how these elements protect the steel?
Explain what you understand by the following reactions:
Peritectic
Eutectoid
Draw the phase equilibrium diagram of the following binary systems:

Copper-Nickel
Platinum Silver

15. Draw the aluminium-magnesium phase equilibrium diagram. (available from any metallurgy book)
(i) What is the maximum solubility of magnesium in aluminium?
(ii) Over what temperature range will an alloy containing 7% magnesium exist as a single solid phase?
(iii) At what temperature does an alloy containing 5% magnesium begin to melt on heating?
(iv) An alloy containing 16% magnesium is at 5200C. What are the compositions of the phases present?

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

(v) In what proportions will the phases in (iv) be present?
(vi) What is the % increase in solubility of magnesium in aluminium in an alloy containing 12% magnesium as
the temperature rises slowly from 60 0C to 3500C?
(vii) Sketch the structure of an alloy containing 10% magnesium
(a) slowly cooled from 4500C.
(b) water quenched from 4500C.
(viii) Which will be stronger in (vii) (a) or (b)?
16. Draw a thermal equilibrium diagram representing the system between two metals X and Y, given the
following:
(i)
X melts at 10000C and Y at 8000C
(ii)
X is soluble in Y in the solid state to the extent of 10.0% at 7000C and 2.0% at 00C.
(iii)
Y is soluble in X in the solid state to the extent of 20.0% at 7000C and 8% at 00C.
(iv)
A eutectic is formed at 7000C containing 40.0% X and 60.0% Y.
Describe what happens when an alloy containing 70.0% solidifies and cools slowly to 00C.
Sketch the microstructures of an alloy containing 15% Y
(a) after it has cooled slowly to 00C.
(b) after it has been heated for some time at 7000C and then water quenched.
17. Determine the percentage Carbon content in carbon steel containing the following:
a. 15% ferrite + 85% pearlite
b. 70% pearlite + 30 %cementite
c. 30%ferrite + 70% cementite

18. Platinum and gold are completely soluble in both the liquid and solid states. The melting point of platinum is
17690C and that of gold is 10630C. An alloy containing 40% gold starts to solidify at 16000C by separating
crystals of 15% gold. An alloy containing 70% gold starts to solidify at 14000C by separating crystals of 37%
gold.
(a) Draw the equilibrium diagram to scale and label all important features and regions
(b) For an alloy containing 70% gold
I.
Give the temperature of the initial solidification
II.
Give the temperature of final solidification
III.
Give the chemical composition and relative amounts of the phases present at 13400C
IV.
Draw the cooling curve
19. Bismuth and Antimony are completely soluble in both the liquid and the solid states.
a. Check the crystal structure factor and calculate the relative size factor for these metals
b. Bismuth melts at 271.30C and antimony melts at 630.50C. An alloy containing 50% bismuth
starts to solidify at 5050C by separating crystals of 90% antimony. An Alloy containing 80%
bismuth starts to solidify by separating crystals containing 75% antimony.
i.
Draw the equilibrium diagram to scale labeling all important features and regions
ii.
For an alloy containing 40% antimony
i. Give the temperature of initial solidification
ii. Give the temperature of final solidification
iii. Give the chemical composition and relative amounts of the phases present at 4300C
iv. Draw the cooling curve
20. Draw the Tin-Lead equilibrium phase equilibrium diagram. Using the phase equilibrium diagram you have
drawn determine the following:

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a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

## What is the eutectic composition?

What are the compositions of the solid phases in equilibrium at the eutectic temperature?
For an alloy containing, 90% Sn, what fraction exists as the phase at 2200C?
What fraction of this alloy is liquid just above the eutectic temperature?
Determine the fractions of and phases just below the eutectic temperature in 90% Sn alloy
and the eutectic alloy.
f. What fraction of the total weight of the 90% Sn alloy will have eutectic structure, just below the
eutectic temperature?
g. Which of the following statements apply to an alloy containing 80% Tin?
i. The first solid to solidify is of composition 20% Tin
ii. The first solid to solidify is of composition 20% lead
iii. The first solid to solidify is of composition 2% Tin
iv. The first solid to solidify is of composition 2% lead
v. The first solid to solidify is of composition 80%tin
vi. When solidification is complete the microstructure of the alloy consists of an ( + )
eutectic mixture
vii. When solidification is complete the microstructure of the alloy consists of primary
crystals in an ( + ) eutectic mixture matrix.
viii. When solidification is complete the microstructure of the alloy consists of primary
crystals in an ( + ) eutectic mixture matrix.
ix. The cooling curve shows one discontinuity
x. The cooling curve shows 2 discontinuities
xi. The cooling curve shows 3 discontinuities

## 21. A martensitic transformation

a. Involves the precipitation of an equilibrium precipitate
b. Is extremely rapid
c. Can only lead to a change in the crystal structure of the phases
d. Can lead to a change in composition of the phases
e. Does not involve diffusion
22. Martensite in steel is
a. Hard
b. Ductile
c. BCC
d. BCT
e. An equilibrium phase
REFERENCES:

## Materials Science and Engineering by W. D. Callister

Materials Science and Engineering A first Course by Vv. Raghavan
Engineering Metallurgy by R. A. Higgins
Materials for Engineering by Bolton
Mechanics of Materials vol. 1 by Hearns.

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

University of Mauritius.
Faculty of Engineering
B.Eng (Hons.) Mechanical Engg./Manufacturing Engg./Mechatronics
Materials Science MECH 2006Y/MECH 2001Y
Tutorial 7 - Corrosion

## Question 1. Briefly define each one of the following:

(a) Corrosion
(b) Standard electrochemical potential
(c) Exchange current
(d) Polarisation
(e) Double layer.
Question 2.

(a) Explain what is meant by the term 'passivity' in the context of corrosion.
(b) Give two examples of natural passivity of metals.

Question 3. At high temperatures, copper reacts with air to form the oxide Cu20. Would this oxide be protective
according to the Pilling-Bedworth criterion? Densities are: Cu = 8.92 g/cm3, Cu20 = 6.0 g/cm3.

Question 4. The following couples with equal areas are immersed in fresh water: Fe/Cd; Fe/Ti; Fe/Zn;
Fe/Cu.
(a) In which one of the four will the iron corrode the fastest?
(b) Which combination offers the best protection to the iron?
Question 5. (a) Give two useful functions of E/pH (Pourbaix) diagrams.
(b) Give two limitations to their use.
Question 6. Iron is connected to copper and then immersed in a solution containing both Fe2+ and
Cu2+ ions.
(a) Which metal corrodes?
(b) Write equations to describe the reactions which occur at each electrode,
assuming each metal has a valency of 2.
(c) Calculate the maximum possible potential of the resulting corrosion cell.
Question 7. In service, most metals and alloys are affected by one of the different types of corrosion
processes depending on the environmental conditions. Explain, with the help of suitable diagrams, the
following terms as used in corrosion;
(i) Passivation
(ii) Selective leaching
(iii) Sacrificial anode
(iv) Cathodic protection
Question 8.

## (i) Explain what is meant by dezincification.

(ii) Which alloy is prone to dezincification?
(iii) Which elements may be added to the alloy to minimize dezincification?

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## Mechanical and Production Engineering Department

Question 9. Discuss the various considerations at the design stage to mitigate the effect of corrosion
on a structure.
Question 10.

Using the Nernst equation determine the value of the overall cell potential consisting of Zn
+2

+2

and Cu when the cell concentrations of Zn and Cu are at 0.00100 M and 0.00500 M respectively. The
solid electrodes are both in the elemental form of the element, the activity for each (and hence the
concentration term) is reduced to 1.0. [ANS 1.08V]

Question 11.

What is hydrogen overvoltage and what is its effect upon the rate of corrosion?

Question 12.

What is the effect of the rate of flow of a corrosive solution upon the rate of corrosion?

Question 13.

Question 14.

## What is anodizing? By what process does it tend to reduce corrosion?

Question 15. Why does a 0.5% C steel rust more quickly in the normalized condition than in water
quenched state?
Question 16.

What are the advantages of electro galvanizing over hot dip galvanizing?

Question 17. A mild steel nail has a cold forged head. Show how this nail is likely to rust when
immersed in rain water.
Question 18.

What is Sherardising?

Question 19.

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