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Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION

Array Resistivity Compensated Tools

arcVISION
Log Quality Control Reference Manual

Table of Contents
1 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.1 Mechanical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 Measurement specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2.1 Borehole fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2.2 Resistivity, accuracy, and depth of investigation specifications . . . . . . . . 3
2.2.3 Vertical resolution specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2.4 arcVISION gamma ray specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2.5 arcVISION shock sensor specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3 Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.1 arcVISION recorded-mode parameters and channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 arcVISION real-time parameters and transmitted channels. . . . . . . . . . . . .12

4 Calibration and Verifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14


4.1 Air calibration for resistivity measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
4.1.1 Air resistivity calibration checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
4.2 Gamma ray blanket calibration for gamma ray measurement. . . . . . . . . . . .14
4.2.1 Gamma ray calibration checks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
4.3 Detailed calibration record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

5 Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
5.1 Tool configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
5.2 Environmental effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
5.3 Environmental corrections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.4 Logging speed effect on measurement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
5.4.1 Logging speed limits for arcVISION measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Produced by Schlumberger Oilfield Marketing Communications
Copyright 2011 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored
in a retrieval system, or transcribed in any
form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying and recording, without
the prior written permission of the publisher.
While the information presented herein is
believed to be accurate, it is provided as is
without express or implied warranty.
An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to denote
a mark of Schlumberger.
Other company, product, and service names are the properties of
their respective owners.

5.5 Response in known conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18


5.5.1 Resistivity response in known conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
5.5.2 Gamma ray response in known conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

6 Data Quality Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20


6.1 ARC_LQC_LOG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
6.1.1 Curves description and interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
6.2 ARC_Tech_Res_2M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
6.2.1 Curves description and interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Symbology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

11-DR-0290

ii | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | iii

1 Overview

he Array Resistivity Compensated (ARC) family of tools has been developed


for small to large borehole sizes. It includes the following tools: arcVISION 312*,
arcVISION 475*, arcVISION 675*, arcVISION 825*, and arcVISION 900*.

These tools provide resistivity, gamma ray (GR), and annular pressure-while-drilling
(APWD) measurements. They can be operated in memory mode or real-time mode in
combination with the TeleScope* high-speed telemetry-while-drilling service,
SlimPulse* third-generation slim MWD tool, or PowerPulse* MWD telemetry
system tool. The arcVISION* services have the following main features:

arcVISION resistivity measurements (2 receivers, 5 transmitters,


2 MHz and 400 kHz)

spacings of 10-in, 16-in, 22-in, 28-in and 34-in (arcVISION 312 and arcVISION 475)

spacings of 16-in, 22-in, 28-in, 34-in and 40-in (all other tools)

APWD measurement (0 psi to 20,000 psi)

GR measurement

optional single-axis inclinometer measurement, providing continuous inclination

real-time operation with the MWD tool.

The arcVISION 312 and arcVISION 475 tools are the smallest array resistivity
compensated tools. The tools are designed for use with CTD* coiled-tubing drilling,
and through-tubing reentry drilling (TTRD), and when drilling small-diameter holes.
The arcVISION 675, arcVISION 825, and arcVISION 900 tools have the same functionality.
They offer fully digital electronics and simultaneous acquisition of the receiver pair.
The measurements enable the interpretation of petrophysically and geologically
complex formations.

arcVISION, arcVISION 312, arcVISION 475, arcVISION 675, arcVISION 825, and arcVISION 900 are marks of Schlumberger
and may be referred to in this document as their respective sizes.

iv | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 1

2 Specifications
2.1 Mechanical specifications

2.2 Measurement specifications

Table 2-1. arcVISION Mechanical Specifications

2.2.1 Borehole fluid

Specifications

Unit

arcVISION 312

arcVISION 475

arcVISION 675

arcVISION 825

arcVISION 900

Nominal API (OD)

in

3.125

4.75

6.75

8.25

9.00

Maximum OD
Upset type

in

3.28

5.3
4 wear bands

7.5
4 wear bands

9.1
4 wear bands

10.0
4 wear bands

Nominal length
Nominal weight (in air)

ft
lbf

23.85
475

21
1,000

18
1,800

18
2,400

18
2,800

Top thread connection

API

NC38 (3_IF) box

5 _FH box

6 58 FH box

7 58 H90 box
Measurement

Accuracy

Range

Bottom thread connection

API

2 38 Hughes
SL H-90 box
2 38 Hughes
SL H-90 box

NC38 (3_IF) pin

NC-50 box

5_IF box

6 58 FH box

2-MHz phase-shift resistivity

2%
0.3 mS/m

0.260 ohm.m
603,000 ohm.m

Maximum DLS rotating


Maximum DLS sliding

/100 ft
/100 ft

30
100

15
30

8
16

7
14

4
12

400-kHz phase-shift resistivity

2%
2 mS/m

0.110 ohm.m
10100 ohm.m

Maximum WOB
Maximum operating torque

lbf
lbf.ft

22,000
2,400

30,000
7,900

74,000,000 /L2
12,000

164,000,000 /L2
23,000

261,400,000 /L2
35,000

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

3%
1.5 mS/m

0.225 ohm.m
2550 ohm.m

Maximum operating pressure

psi

20,000

20,000

20,000

16,000

16,000

400-kHz attenuation resistivity

1,070

8,000

121,000

970,000

970,000

3%
10 mS/m

0.13 ohm.m
310 ohm.m

Pressure drop constant (C)

The tools can be run in all types of mud (including oil-base mud). In very saline muds, the borehole effect can be a large part of the
measured signal. In this case, the accuracy of the measurement may be questionable.

2.2.2 Resistivity, accuracy, and depth of investigation specifications


Table 2-2. arcVISION 900, 825, 675, 475, and 312 Resistivity Range and Accuracy

Maximum operating temperature

degC

150

150

150

150

150

Maximum flow rate

gpm

160

400

800

1,950

1,950

Table 2-3. arcVISION 675, 825, and 900 Resistivity Depth of Investigation

Maximum mud sand content


Maximum mud solid content

%
%

3
No limit

3
No limit

3
No limit

3
No limit

3
No limit

(Radius at which integrated geometrical factor reaches 0.5 in the specified formation resistivity)

Maximum LCM
Maximum LCM concentration

in
ppb

0.125
No limit

No limit
No limit

No limit
No limit

No limit
No limit

No limit
No limit

The maximum WOB depends on the unsupported length of collar (L), which is the distance between the stabilizers above and below the sub.

Measurement

Spacing (in)
16

22

28

34

40

13

14

15

17

18

R = 1.0 ohm.m (depth of investigation in radii and in)


2-MHz phase-shift resistivity
400-kHz phase-shift resistivity

17

19

22

25

27

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

19

22

24

26

29

400-kHz attenuation resistivity

27

30

33

36

38

2-MHz phase-shift resistivity

18

22

25

28

30

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

31

34

36

38

40

R = 10 ohm.m (depth of investigation in radii and in)

2 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 3

2 Specifications
Table 2-4. arcVISION 475 Resistivity Depth of Investigation

(Radius at which integrated geometrical factor reaches 0.5 in the specified formation resistivity)
Measurement

Spacing (in)
10

16

22

28

34

R = 1.0 ohm.m (depth of investigation in radii and in)


2-MHz phase-shift resistivity

13

14

15

17

18

400-kHz phase-shift resistivity

17

19

22

25

27

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

19

22

24

26

29

400-kHz attenuation resistivity

27

30

33

36

38

2-MHz phase-shift resistivity

18

22

25

28

30

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

31

34

36

38

40

R = 10 ohm.m (depth of investigation in radii and in)

Table 2-5. arcVISION 312 Resistivity Depth of Investigation

(Radius at which integrated geometrical factor reaches 0.5 in the specified formation resistivity)
Measurement

Spacing (in)
10

16

22

28

34

12

13

14

15

17

R = 1.0 ohm.m (depth of investigation in radii and in)


2-MHz phase-shift resistivity
400-kHz phase-shift resistivity

15

17

19

22

25

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

16

19

22

24

26

400-kHz attenuation resistivity

24

27

30

33

36

2-MHz phase-shift resistivity

14

18

22

25

28

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

27

31

34

36

38

R = 10 ohm.m (depth of investigation in radii and in)

4 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 5

2 Specifications
2.2.3 Vertical resolution specifications

2.2.4 arcVISION gamma ray specifications

Table 2-6. arcVISION 900, 825, and 675 Resistivity Vertical Resolution

Table 2-8. arcVISION 900, 825, and 675 Gamma Ray Measurement Specifications

(Width at half maximum of the response function along tool axis at the specified formation resistivity)
Measurement

Spacing (in)
16

22

28

34

40

R = 1.0 ohm.m (vertical resolution values in ft)


2-MHz phase-shift resistivity

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

400-kHz phase-shift resistivity

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.8

400-kHz attenuation resistivity

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.0

4.0

R = 10 ohm.m (vertical resolution values in ft)

Specification

Unit

Value

Range

gAPI

0250

Accuracy

Vertical resolution

in

Statistical repeatability

gAPI

2 at 100 gAPI and 100 ft/h, Level 3 average

Table 2-9. arcVISION 475 Gamma Ray Measurement Specifications


Specification

Unit

Value

Range

gAPI

0250

2-MHz phase-shift resistivity

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Accuracy

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

4.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

Vertical resolution

in

Statistical repeatability

gAPI

Table 2-7. arcVISON 475 and arcVISION 312 Resistivity Vertical Resolution
Table 2-10. arcVISION 312 Gamma Ray Measurement Specifications

(Width at half maximum of the response function along tool axis at the specified formation resistivity)

Specification

Unit

Value

Range

gAPI

0250

R = 1.0 ohm.m (vertical resolution values in ft)

Accuracy

2-MHz phase-shift resistivity

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

Vertical resolution

in

400-kHz phase-shift resistivity

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Statistical repeatability

gAPI

2.5

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.8

1.8

400-kHz attenuation resistivity

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.0

4.0

Measurement

Spacing (in)
10

16

22

28

34

R = 10 ohm.m (vertical resolution values in ft)


2-MHz phase-shift resistivity

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

2-MHz attenuation resistivity

4.0

5.0

6.0

6.0

6.0

6 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

2.2.5 arcVISION shock sensor specifications


Table 2-11. arcVISION Shock Sensor Specifications
Measurement

Value

Threshold

50 gn

Minimum update interval

1s

Level 0 (no risk)

cps < 1

Level 1 (medium risk)

1 cps < 5

Level 2 (high risk)

5 cps < 10

Level 3 (risk of tool failure)

cps 10

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 7

3 Presentation
3.1 arcVISION recorded-mode parameters and channels
The parameters listed in Table 3-1 must be set up correctly in order to compute and process the data output in
recorded-mode.
Table 3-1. arcVISION Recorded-Mode Parameters

8 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

Parameter Name

Description

Unit

BHK

Drilling fluid potassium concentration

BHT

Bottomhole temperature

degF

BS_RM

Bit size

in

DFD

Drilling fluid density

lbm/galUS

DFT

Drilling fluid type

Oil or water

GGRD

Geothermal gradient

0.001 degF/ft

GRSE_RM

Generalized mud resistivity selection for recorded-mode

Computed (GEN-9)

GTSE_RM

Generalized temperature selection for recorded-mode

Gradient from surface

MST

Mud sample temperature

degF

RMS

Resistivity of the mud sample at specific measured temperature

ohm.m

SHT

Surface hole temperature

degF

TD

Total measured depth

ft

TEMP_SEL_ARC

ARC temperature selection

Annular

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 9

3 Presentation
Table 3-2. arcVISION Recorded-Mode Channels

| TICKS_GR - Gamma Ray Tick Marks ARC8 RM

DLIS Name

Description

Unit

A40H

ARC attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, environmentally corrected

ohm.m

A40L

ARC attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, environmentally corrected

ohm.m

A40B

ARC blended attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing, environmentally corrected

ohm.m

P40H

ARC phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, environmentally corrected

P40L
P40B

| TICKS_RES - Resistivity Tick Marks ARC8 RM


Phase Shift Resistivity
16-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (P16H) ARC8 RM

Attenuation Resistivity
16-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (A16H) ARC8 RM

ohm.m

0.2

0.2

ARC phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, environmentally corrected

ohm.m

ARC blended phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing, environmentally corrected

ohm.m

Phase Shift Resistivity


22-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (P22H) ARC8 RM

Attenuation Resistivity
22-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (A22H) ARC8 RM

0.2

0.2

A40H_COND

ARC attenuation conductivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, environmentally corrected

mS/m

A40L_COND

ARC attenuation conductivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, environmentally corrected

mS/m

A40B_COND

ARC blended attenuation conductivity 40-in spacing, environmentally corrected

mS/m

P40H_COND

ARC phase-shift conductivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, environmentally corrected

mS/m

P40L_COND

ARC phase-shift conductivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, environmentally corrected

mS/m

P40B_COND

ARC blended phase-shift conductivity 40-in spacing, environmentally corrected

mS/m

A40H_UNC

ARC uncorrected attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz

ohm.m

A40L_UNC

ARC uncorrected attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz

ohm.m

A40B_UNC

ARC uncorrected blended attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing

ohm.m

P40H_UNC

ARC uncorrected phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz

ohm.m

P40L_UNC

ARC uncorrected phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz

ohm.m

P40B_UNC

ARC uncorrected blended phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing

ohm.m

ROP5 RM

Rate of penetration, averaged over last 5 ft

ft/h or m/h

GR ARC

ARC gamma ray

gAPI

TAB ARC RES

ARC resistivity time after bit

AGTM

ARC gamma ray time after bit

TICK ARC GR

ARC gamma ray samples

TICK ARC RES

ARC resistivity samples

ECD ARC

Equivalent circulating density

lb/galUS

APRS ARC

ARC annular pressure

psi

ATMP

ARC annular temperature

degC or degF

AGTM

ARC gamma ray time after bit

TICK ARC GR

ARC gamma ray samples

TICK ARC RES

ARC resistivity samples

ECD ARC

Equivalent circulating density

lb/galUS

APRS ARC

ARC annular pressure

psi

ATMP

ARC annular temperature

degC or degF

Gamma Ray (GR) ARC8 RM


0

gAPI

2000

Resistivity Time After Bit (TAB_RES) ARC8


0

10

Rate of Penetration Averaged


Over The Last 5 ft (1.5m) (ROP5) RT
200

ft/h

True Vertical Depth (TVD)


10000

ft

5000

ohm.m

ohm.m

2000

2000

ohm.m

ohm.m

2000

2000

Phase Shift Resistivity


28-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (P28H) ARC8 RM

Attenuation Resistivity
28-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (A28H) ARC8 RM

0.2

0.2

ohm.m

2000

ohm.m

2000

Phase Shift Resistivity


34-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (P34H) ARC8 RM

Attenuation Resistivity
34-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (A34H) ARC8 RM

0.2

0.2

ohm.m

2000

ohm.m

2000

Shock Rate
(SHKR)
ARC8 RM

Phase Shift Resistivity


40-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (P40H) ARC8 RM

Attenuation Resistivity
40-in Spacing at 2 MHz,
Environmentally Corrected (A40H) ARC8 RM

0.2

0.2

1/s 100

ohm.m

2000

ohm.m

2000

9000
9010
9020
9030
Figure 3-1. arcVISION 825 recorded-mode log example for 2-MHz data. The 400-kHz display is similar.


Note: = unitless
corrected attenuation resistivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Environmentally corrected phase-shift resistivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Environmentally corrected attenuation conductivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Environmentally corrected phase-shift conductivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Uncorrected attenuation resistivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Uncorrected phase-shift resistivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.

Environmentally

10 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 11

3 Presentation
3.2 arcVISION real-time parameters and transmitted channels

Table 3-4. arcVISION Real-Time Transmitted Channels

The parameters listed in Table 3-3 must be set up correctly in order to compute and process the data output in real time.

InterACT*
Channel Name

MaxWell* Software
Channel Name

Description

Unit

Table 3-3. arcVISION Real-Time Parameters

AGTM

TAB_GR

Gamma ray after bit

ARTM

TAB_RES

Resistivity time after bit

GR_ARC_RT

GR

ARC gamma ray, real time

gAPI

A40H_RT

A40H

ARC attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, environmentally corrected, real time

ohm.m

A40L_RT

A40L

ARC attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, environmentally corrected, real time

ohm.m

N/A

A40B

ARC blended attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing, environmentally corrected, real time

ohm.m

P40H_RT

P40H

ARC phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, environmentally corrected, real time

ohm.m

P40L_RT

P40L

ARC phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, environmentally corrected, real time

ohm.m

N/A

P40B

ARC blended phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing, environmentally corrected, real time

ohm.m

A40H_COND_RT

A40H_COND

ARC attenuation conductivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, environmentally corrected, real time

mS/m

A40L_COND_RT

A40L_COND

ARC attenuation conductivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, environmentally corrected, real time

mS/m

N/A

A40B_COND

ARC blended attenuation conductivity 40-in spacing, environmentally corrected, real time

mS/m

P40H_COND_RT

P40H_COND

ARC phase-shift conductivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, environmentally corrected, real time

mS/m

P40L_COND

P40L_COND

ARC phase-shift conductivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, environmentally corrected, real time

mS/m

N/A

P40B_COND

ARC blended phase-shift conductivity 40-in spacing , environmentally corrected, real time

mS/m

A40H_UNC_RT

A40H_UNC

ARC uncorrected attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, real time

ohm.m

A40L_UNC_RT

A40L_UNC

ARC uncorrected attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, real time

ohm.m

N/A

A40B_UNC

ARC uncorrected blended attenuation resistivity 40-in spacing, real time

ohm.m

P40H_UNC_RT

P40H_UNC

ARC uncorrected phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing at 2 MHz, real time

ohm.m

P40L_UNC_RT

P40L_UNC

ARC uncorrected phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing at 400 kHz, real time

ohm.m

N/A

P40B_UNC

ARC uncorrected blended phase-shift resistivity 40-in spacing, real time

ohm.m

Parameter Name

Description

Unit / Value

BHK

Drilling fluid potassium concentration

BHT

Bottom hole temperature

degF

BS

Bit size

in

DFD

Drilling fluid density

lbm/galUS

DFT

Drilling fluid type

Oil or water

GGRD

Geothermal gradient

0.001 degF/ft

GRSE_RT

Generalized mud resisitivity selection

Computed (GEN-9)

GTSE_RT

Generalized temperature selection for real-time mode

Gradient from surface

MST

Mud sample temperature

degF

RMS

Resistivity of the mud sample at specific measured temperature

ohm.m

SHT

Surface hole temperature

degF

TD

Total measured depth

ft

TEMP_SEL_ARC

ARC temperature selection

Annular


Note: N/A = not available
corrected attenuation resistivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Environmentally corrected phase-shift resistivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Environmentally corrected attenuation conductivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Environmentally corrected phase-shift conductivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Uncorrected attenuation resistivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.
Uncorrected phase-shift resistivity channels are also available at 10-, 16-, 22-, 28-, and 34-in transmitter to midpoint receiver spacings.

Environmentally

12 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 13

4 Calibration and Verifications


The aim of any calibration is to ensure that measurements are
accurate, repeatable, and within specifications.
The two main calibrations required for the arcVISION 900, 825,
675, 475, and 312 are air calibration and gamma ray (GR) blanket
calibration. These are described in this section.

4.1 Air calibration for resistivity measurement


Prior to every job, an air calibration for the 2-MHz and 400-kHz
resistivity measurements is required. This involves measuring
background readings (sonde error) in air to correct for the tools
presence in the borehole downhole (air is used because of
negligible dielectric effect). The calibration must be performed
with the tool at least 3 m away from any metallic object, and there
must be no radio frequency transmission in the designated area.

4.1.1 Air resistivity calibration checks


It is important to compare calibrations over time and to watch
for drift.

4.2.1 Gamma ray calibration checks


For the GR measurement, a good check is to monitor the
background GR reading on site. The reading should be close to
zero if not near any GR source (cement, ground, radioactive tool
sources, etc.). If there is a gamma ray radioactive source (GSR)
calibration blanket at the rig site, a functional check can be
performed to verify correct sensor operation.

4.3 Detailed calibration record


Figure 4-1 is an example of the calibration summary produced by
our acquisition system. This should be included in at least one of
the logs for each run. This summary contains information about the
air calibration corrections.
The value for each calibration measurement is given in the column
titled Shop. The font color of the calibration measurement is
normally green, but it will turn red if it is outside the calibration
limits. These limits are listed for each measurement in the column
titled Min/Nominal/Max.

At the wellsite, the tool can be checked by making air


measurements while the tool is on jackstands or hanging in the
derrick. This will give the field engineer a quick, quality validation of
the air calibration. Although the attenuation and phase-shift values
will not be exactly the same as in the air calibration, they should be
of similar value.
This is a crucial quick check that should be performed before and
after each tool run to verify proper functioning of the resistivity
measurement (calibration coefficients are not adjusted).

4.2 Gamma ray blanket calibration for


gamma ray measurement
The calibration for GR uses a radioactive blanket calibrated to the
API test pit. This blanket is a sheet of rubber impregnated with
radioactive material (monazite) with known K, U, and Th values.
The blanket is wrapped around the GR tool, and the total count
rates are calibrated to the known values.

Figure 4-1. arcVISION 825 detailed calibration record.

14 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 15

5 Operations
5.1 Tool configuration

5.3 Environmental corrections

The arcVISION 900, 825, 675, 475, and 312 tools are combinable above and below the MWD tool. Any other LWD
tool can be combined above or below the arcVISION tools.

The arcVISION resistivity measurements are all borehole compensated during acquisition. Borehole compensation reduces borehole
rugosity effects and cancels electronic and antenna drifts. The additional feature of simultaneous acquisition of transmitted signal by all
receivers also reduces the borehole rugosity effects, tool movement, and tool eccentricity.

5.2 Environmental effects


The arcVISION resistivity measurements will be affected by the factors listed in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1. Factors Affecting Resistivity Measurements
Factor

Resistivity Response

Mud conductivity

Very conductive mud will affect the shallower


resistivity curves. The effect increases with borehole size and mud conductivity. Invasion by very conductive
filtrate also tends to lower the resistivity measured, depending on the diameter of invasion. Borehole
correction charts and processing can be used to account for these effects (borehole and invasion).

High-resistivity
formation
(>1,000 ohm.m)

The resistivity measurement in high-resistivity environments can be affected by dielectric effects. Dielectric
inversion processing can be run on the resistivity measurements to correct for dielectric effects.

Mud weight

The formation GR measured by the tool is attenuated in heavy mud. Gamma ray environmental
corrections compensate for the loss of GRs to the heavy mud.

Hole size

Large washouts affect resistivity by increasing


the volume of mud around the tool. This increases the amount of borehole signal in the shallower resistivity
measurements. This also increases the GR attenuation seen by the tool. An electrical caliper can be run to
determine the hole size.

The arcVISION resistivity measurements can be corrected for mud conductivity. The inputs for the environmental corrections are bit size
and mud resistivity (which is corrected for temperature). Caliper-derived hole size corrections can be performed in advanced processing.
Additionally, many of the responses to known conditions can cause the final resistivity measurement to deviate from the true formation
resistivity (Rt ). There are modeling tools available that can accurately correct for these conditions, and should be strongly considered
when these conditions exist.

5.4 Logging speed effect on measurement


Logging speed directly affects measurement accuracy. The maximum logging speed for a tool is determined by many factors, including
tool design, desired repeatability, accuracy, formation characteristics, hole conditions, and sampling rate.
For real-time measurements, the maximum logging speed depends on the choice of time frame, data rate selected for MWD, and
the number of times data points display in the selected MWD frame. Because the sampling rate is fixed during a run, data density is
essentially a function of rate of penetration (ROP).
Faster ROP means fewer data points over a given interval. In severe cases, a characteristic step pattern is observed on the curve.
Statistical measurements, such as the GR curve, are particularly affected. Gamma ray curves do not repeat well if recorded at a high ROP.
This problem is compounded when multiple thin beds are logged because they require a higher data density. High ROP at a contact
between two zones may cause boundaries to appear smoothed.

5.4.1 Logging speed limits for arcVISION measurements


The maximum recommended logging speed for recorded-mode
resistivity logs is 900 ft/h if recording only one of the two
resistivities (2 MHz or 400 kHz), and is 300 ft/h if recording both resistivities. The maximum logging speed is 300 ft/h for GR data and 900
ft/h for pressure data. This requires

16 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

a 2-s record-rate configuration while recording only one of the two resistivities (2 MHz or 400 kHz) and a 5-s rate when
recording both

a 5-s record rate for GR

a 2-s record rate for pressure data.

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 17

5 Operations
5.5 Response in known conditions
5.5.1 Resistivity response in known conditions
For resistivity measurements, the relative positions (values) of the different curves depend on the resistivity values
of the mud (Rm) and the water-saturated formation (Rw ), on the respective fluid saturations, on the depth of
invasion, and on borehole effects. An unexpected resistivity response in a known formation condition provides
valuable information.
Table 5-2. Known Formation Conditions and Expected Resistivity Response
Formation Character

Resistivity Response

Impermeable zones

In impermeable zones such as shales, the curves should overlay (ignoring the effects of overpressure,
shale hydration, anisotropy, or formation fracture).

Permeable zones

In permeable zones, the relative positions of the curves should show a coherent profile with respect to the
values of Rm. Curves should follow the Rxo /Rt contrast, with the shallow curves reading close to invaded
zone resistivity (Rxo) and the deeper curves reading close to virgin formation resistivity (Rt ). This response
can be distorted in the presence of annulus-type invasion.

Near-bed boundaries
in high relative
deviation

Near-bed boundaries in high relative well deviation can affect logs. It is common to see sharp peaks,
or polarization horns, in the resistivity curves. The deeper curves tend to have higher peaks. Phase-shift
resistivities are more affected than attenuation resistivities. This is a normal effect with electromagnetic
propagation resistivity measurements and results from charge layers building up at boundaries between
formations of different resistivities.

Thin bedding in
the formation

Sharp peaks can also result from thin bedding in the formation. They tend to be more visible with the
phase-shift resistivities because the phase-shift measurement has better vertical resolution. Extreme or
very regular spikiness may result from tool failure or depth-time file problems and should be investigated.

Anisotropy presence

In the presence of anisotropy, the resistivity profile may be altered. Anisotropy tends to boost phase-shift
resistivity readings higher than attenuation resistivity readings. This effect is generally found at higher
well deviations in laminated formations.

Beds with high


relative dip

Beds with high relative dip, such as those found in horizontal wells, can have a range of effects on
resistivity log response. For very complex geological formations, performing modeling and/or inversion to
better understand the log responses is recommended.

5.5.2 Gamma ray response in known conditions


Most GR tools provide a similar typical response to known conditions:

In clean quartz sand or limestone zones, the GR response tends to be low.


In shaly zones, the GR reads higher than in clean formations. The actual reading will depend on the shaliness
of the formation and the shale type. The mineral content of a formation can also cause high GR readings
(e.g., wet sand with uranium salts in the water, or sand with high K-feldspar or K-rich volcanic content).
As the tool approaches a formation with high GR readings, the GR curve begins to respond before the zone is
reached. This is also true when the tool approaches a parallel bed, as can happen in a horizontal well.

18 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 19

6 Data Quality Control


6.1 ARC_LQC_LOG

6.1.1 Curves description and interpretation

This log is plotted against depth. It contains


raw phase-shift values recorded and raw
attenuation measured between the two
receivers from each of five transmitters,
T1 to T5, at 2 MHz and 400 kHz.

Track 1
Tool temperature (TTEM)
This is the temperature measured by the thermal sensor on the
resistivity acquisition board. It indicates the operating temperature
of the tool. If temperature does not follow the downhole annulus
temperature, the resistivity acquisition board could be suspected.

The log contains useful information


about tool performance. The curves
should correlate with the apparent
formation resistivity and should be
similar in character to one another. Any
measurement that is markedly different
from the others may indicate a problem
with that transmitter.

Battery voltage (BATV)


This is the voltage of the lithium battery of the tool. This voltage
should be between 17.5 and 23 V and should remain stable,
increasing a little with higher temperatures and decreasing
slowly as the batteries are used up.

The QC logs also have a tool status map


in the far-right track of the log format. The
different bits in the map are composed of
information from the various tool status
words. If a bit is flagged, it turns from white
to red, indicating that the parameter is out
of range.

Gamma ray (GR)


The GR curve should be active. If it is odd or spiky, it should be
correlated with shocks, which can induce false measurement in
the GR detector. Generally, values should be low in sand and high
in shales; however, in radioactive sands, values will also be high.

Index
Shock rate (SHKR)
Shocks are measured in the acquisition board and can also be
used as an indicator of the board operation. Excessive shocks can
induce false measurements in the tool.

Track 2
ARC phase R1 from T1 to T5 at 2-MHz
(P112, P122, P132, P142, P152)
Track 1

Index

Track 2

Track 3

Track 4

Figure 6-1. ARC LQC log example for 2-MHz data. The 400-kHz display is similar.

20 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

These are the raw phases measured at Receiver 1 with each


transmitter firing. The phases typically respond to lithology or fluid
changes and react similarly. The phases from each transmitter
should respond similarly to the corresponding phases at Receiver 2.

ARC phase R2 from T1 to T5 at 2-MHz


(P212, P222, P232, P242, P252)
These are the raw phases measured at Receiver 2 with each
transmitter firing. The phases typically respond to lithology or fluid
changes and react similarly. The phases from each transmitter
should respond similarly to the corresponding phases at Receiver 1.

Track 3
ARC amplitude R1 from T1 to T5 at 2-MHz
(A112, A122, A132, A142, A152)
These are the raw amplitudes measured at Receiver 1 with each
transmitter firing. The amplitudes should respond to formation
changes and react similarly. A112, A132, and A152 will be greater
at this receiver than A122 and A142. As the environment becomes
less resistive, all the amplitudes will decrease in magnitude. In air,
the amplitude of the signal is about 4,000 mV for the arcVISION tools.

ARC amplitude R2 from T1 to T5 at 2-MHz


(A212, A222, A232, A242, A252)
These are the raw amplitudes measured at Receiver 2 with each
transmitter firing. The amplitudes should respond to formation
changes and react similarly. A122 and A142 will be greater at this
receiver than A112, A132, and A152. As the environment becomes
less resistive, all the amplitudes will decrease in magnitude. Also,
A222 and A242 should be greater than A122 and A142, respectively.
Similarly, A112, A132, and A152 should be greater than A212,
A232, and A252, respectively. This is because of their respective
distances from the receivers in question.

Track 4
In this track, the tool status word can be seen. The status words
usually indicate a problem with a board or subsystem, and not
with a particular sensor or detector. Every flag that is set should
be investigated to its logical conclusion. The status word definition
can be seen in the header of the log.

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 21

6 Data Quality Control


6.2 ARC_Tech_Res_2M

6.2.1 Curves description and interpretation

This log is used to display the mixed borehole-compensated but


nonborehole-corrected 2-MHz computed resistivities (5 phase-shift
and 5 attenuation).

Track 1
Gamma ray (GR)
The GR curve should be active. If it is odd or spiky, it should be
correlated with shocks, which can induce false measurement in
the GR detector. Generally, values should be low in sand and high
in shales; however, in radioactive sands, values will be also high.

| GRR - Raw Gamma Ray ARC8 RM


| P34H_UNC - Uncorrected Phase Shift Resistivity for 34-in Spacing
at 2 MHz ARC8 RM
Uncorrected Phase Shift Resistivity
16 inch at 2 MHz
(P16H_UNC) ARC8 RM
0.2

ohm.m

20

Uncorrected Phase Shift Resistivity


22 inch at 2 MHz
(P22H_UNC) ARC8 RM
0.2

ft

0.2

200

1/s

Depth Index (DEPTH)


ft

ohm.m

20

Uncorrected Phase Shift Resistivity


34 inch at 2 MHz
(P34H_UNC) ARC8 RM

Raw Gamma Ray (GRR) ARC8 RM


0

20

Uncorrected Phase Shift Resistivity


28 inch at 2 MHz
(P28H_UNC) ARC8 RM

Depth Index (DEPTH) RT


0

ohm.m

0.2

150
Shock Rate
(SHKR)
ARC8 RM

ohm.m

20

Uncorrected Phase Shift Resistivity


40 inch at 2 MHz
(P40H_UNC) ARC8 RM

0 1/s 99 0.2

ohm.m

20

Index

Uncorrected Attenuation Resistivity


16 inch at 2 MHz
(A16H_UNC) ARC8 RM
0.2

ohm.m

20

Uncorrected Attenuation Resistivity


22 inch at 2 MHz
(A22H_UNC) ARC8 RM
0.2

ohm.m

20

Uncorrected Attenuation Resistivity


28 inch at 2 MHz
(A28H_UNC) ARC8 RM
0.2

ohm.m

20

Uncorrected Attenuation Resistivity


34 inch at 2 MHz
(A34H_UNC) ARC8 RM
0.2

ohm.m

20

Uncorrected Attenuation Resistivity


40 inch at 2 MHz
(A40H_UNC) ARC8 RM
0.2

ohm.m

20

Track 3
Uncorrected attenuation resistivity 16-, 22-, 28-, 34-, and 40-in
at 2-MHz (A16H_UNC, A22H_UNC, A28H_UNC, A34H_UNC,
A40H_UNC)
These are uncorrected attenuation resistivities plotted against
time. They should overlay in shale zones where the GR is high
and there is little or no invasion and respond similarly to the
lithology changes.

Shock rate (SHKR)

When they separate because of borehole or formation effects,


especially in the sands, the curves should react similarly.

Shocks are measured in the acquisition board and can also be


used as an indicator of the board operation. Excessive shocks can
induce false measurements in the tool.

In the casing, the curves will be very noisy because of the high
attenuation of the signals.

Track 2
Uncorrected phase-shift resistivity 16-, 22-, 28-, 34-, and 40-in
at 2-MHz (P16H_UNC, P22H_UNC, P28H_UNC, P34H_UNC,
P40H_UNC)

Once below the casing shoe, the curves should all come together.
In resistive formations approaching 50 ohm.m, the attenuation
curves can become noisy or saturated as they approach the limits
of the attenuation resistivity measurement.

These are the uncorrected phase-shift resistivities plotted


against time. They should overlay in tight formations (e.g., shales,
impermeable limestones, etc.) where there is little or no invasion
and respond similarly to the lithology changes.
When they separate because of borehole or formation effects,
especially in the sands, the curves should react similarly.
In the casing, the curves will be very noisy because of the high
attenuation of the signals.
Once below the casing shoe, the curves should all come together.
In resistive formations approaching 3,000 ohm.m, the phase-shift
curves can become noisy or saturated as they approach the limits
of the phase-shift resistivity measurement.

18:34:00

Track 1

Index

Track 2

Track 3

Figure 6-2. arcVISION technical resolution for 2-MHz data. The 400-kHz display is similar.

22 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900 | 23

Symbology
APWD annular pressure-while-drilling
ARC
array resistivity compensated
C
pressure drop constant
CTD
coiled-tubing drilling
DLIS
Digital Log Interchange Standard
GR
gamma ray
GSR
gamma ray radioactive source
L length
LWD logging-while-drilling
MWD measurement-while-drilling
OD
outside diameter
R resistivity
Rm
mud resistivity
Rt
true formation resistivity
Rw
resistivity of water-saturated formation
Rxo
invaded zone resistivity
RM
recorded mode
ROP
rate of penetration
TTRD through-tubing reentry drilling
TVD
true vertical depth
WOB
weight on bottom

24 | Log Quality Control Reference Manual

arcVISION 312, 475, 675, 825, 900


Log Quality Control Reference Manual

www.slb.com/vision