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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308

INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)

IJCIET

ISSN 0976 6308 (Print)


ISSN 0976 6316(Online)
Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55
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IAEME

SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM STRUCTURE


Khaza Mohiddin Shaik1,
1

Prof. Vasugi K2

B.Tech Civil Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technologies, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India


2
Assosiate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Vellore Institute of Technologies,
chennai, Tamilnadu, India

ABSTRACT
In this study, Wind Force and Seismic forces acting on an Elevated water tank e.g. Intze Tank
are studied. Seismic forces acting on the tank are also calculated changing the Seismic Response
Reduction Factor(R). IS: 1893-1984/2002 for seismic design and IS: 875-1987(Part III) for wind
load has been referred. Then Analyzed the Elevated Tank by using the software STAAD PRO.
Reinforcement detailing is done for the Tank. Base Shear and Base Moment are calculated and
compared the results for Tank Full Condition and Empty Condition and found that the Base shear in
the full tank condition is high and Base moment also high in the case of tank full condition. With the
increase in R value Base Shear and Base Moment decreases. Considering the design aspect, the
seismic forces remain constant in a particular Zone provided the soil properties remain same whereas
the Wind force is predominant in coastal region, but in interior region earthquake forces are more
predominant. Design of Elevated Tank is done by calculating the all Horizontal Thrust, Meridonal
stress, Hoop Tension, Hoop Stress and Reinforcement is calculated for Top spherical Dome, Top
Ring Beam, cylindrical wall, Bottom Ring Beam, Conical Portion, Circular Beam, Columns and
Stagings and then Detail Drawing of Reinforcement is Done.
Keywords: Seismic Analysis, Staad Pro, Base Shear, Base Moment.
I. INTRODUCTION
An Earthquake is a phenomenon that results from and is powered by the sudden release of
stored energy in the crust that propagates Seismic waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes may
manifest themselves by a shaking or displacement of the ground and sometimes tsunamis, which
may lead to loss of life and destruction of property. Seismic safety of liquid tanks is of considerable
importance. Water storage tanks should remain functional in the post-earthquake period to ensure
potable water supply to earthquake-affected regions and to cater the need for firefighting demand.
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
Industrial liquid containing tanks may contain highly toxic and inflammable liquids and these tanks
should not lose their contents during the earthquake. The current design of supporting st
structures of
elevated water tanks are extremely vulnerable under lateral forces due to an earthquake as it is
designed only for the wind forces but not the seismic forces. The strength analysis of a few damaged
shaft types of stagings clearly shows that all
all of them either met or exceeded the strength
requirement of IS: 1893-1984
1984 however they were all found deficient when Compared with
requirements of International Building Codes. Frame type stagings are generally regarded superior to
shaft type of stagings for lateral resistance because of their large redundancy and greater capacity to
absorb seismic energy through inelastic actions. This implies that design base shear for a low
ductility tank is double that of a high ductility tank. Indian Standard IS: 189
1893-1984 provides
guidelines for earthquake resistant design of several types of structures including liquid storage
tanks. This standard is under revision and in the revised form it has been divided into five parts. First
part, IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002; which deals with general guidelines and provisions for buildings which
is used as a Reference Code and for Ductile Detailing the IS 13920Code book is Preferred.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
According to Guidelines of Seismic Design of Liquid Storage Tanks.

In the spring mass model of tank, hi is the height at which the resultant of impulsive
hydrodynamic pressure on wall is located from the bottom of tank wall. On the other hand, hi*is the
height at which the resultant of impulsive pressure on wall and base is located from the bottom of
tank wall. Thus, if effect of base pressure is not considered, impulsive mass of liquid, mi will act at a
height of hi and if effect of base pressure is considered,
c
mi will act at hi*. Heights hi and hi*, are
schematically described in Figures.

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME

Provisions:-

Description:Ti= Time period of impulsive mode


Tc = Time period of convective mode
(Ah) i = Design horizontal seismic coefficient for Impulsive mode.
mode
(Ah) c = Design horizontal seismic coefficient for Convective mode.
mode
Vi = Base shear at the bottom of staging, in impulsive mode.
Vc =Base shear at the bottom of staging, in convective mode.
mod
V
=Total
Total base shear at the bottom of staging
Mi* = Overturning moment at the base of staging in mode
M c* = Overturning moment at the base of staging in convective mode
M =Total overturning moment
d max =Sloshing Wave Height
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME

Response acceleration coefficient (Sa /g).


Fig.1 & Table 1: Geometry and size of the Structure

Sl.No.
1

Code Books Preferred


IS 3370(part 1):2009 water structures general.

IS 3370(part 2):2009 water structures using RCC.

3
4
5
6
7
8

IS 3370(part 4):2009.General tables.


IS 875(part 3):2009: wind load.
IS 1893-2002
1893
design for earthquake loads.
Is-13920
13920-Ductile Detailing
IS 456:2000 design for RCC structures.
SP: 16 Design aids.
SP: 34 Hand book for concreting & detailing of
Reinforcement.

Table 2: - Code Books Preferred for Analysis


Sl.No.
Component
Size(mm)
1
Top Dome
120 thick
2
Top Ring Beam
250*300
3
Cylindrical wall
200 thick
4
Bottom Ring Beam
500*300
5
Circular Ring Beam
500*600
6
Bottom Dome
200 thick
7
Conical Dome
250 thick
8
Braces
300*600
9
Columns
650 Dia

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
LOAD COMBINATION FOR FOUNDATION (IS1893)
1) 1(SW+D.L+L.L)
2) 0.75(SW+D.LELX)
3) 0.75(SW+D.LELZ)
4) 0.75(SW+D.L+R.LLELX)
5) 0.75(SW+D.L+R.LLELZ)
Wind Load Combination in accordance with IS 875: 1964 Part3
1) DL+LL
2) 0.75 (DL + C, X WL,)
3) 0.75 (DL + c, X WL2)
4) 0.75 (DL + C, X WL,)
Where C = 0.75
SEISMIC LOAD COMBINATION
(As per IS1893):
1) ELX seismic load
2) ELZ seismic load
3) 1(SW+D.L+L.L)
4) 1.5(SW+D.L+L.L)
5) 1.2(SW+D.L+L.LELX)
6) 1.2(SW+D.L+L.LELZ)
7) 1.5(SW+D.LELX)
8) 1.5(SW+D.LELZ)
9) 0.9(SW+D.L) 1.5ELX
10) 0.9(SW+D.L) 1.5ELZ
SPECIFICATIONS:
1) Grade of concrete - M25
2) Grade of steel - Fe 500D
3) Unit weight of concrete - 25 kN/m3
4) Height of Tank =16 m
III. LOAD APPLICATION AND ANALYSIS OF ELEVATED TANK USING STAAD PRO
Geometry (Size) &Property:

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
STAAD MODEL

Hydrostatic Load Application


pplication

Post Processing (Mode Shape)

Staad Analysis for the Model

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
IV. WEIGHT CALCULATIONS
Top Dome (120thick):
Radius of Curvature (Rc) =(r^2+h^2)/2h
h=1750-60=1690=1.69m
r=8.6+0.2=8.8
(Rc)= (((8.8)^2/1.69)+1.69)/2=6.57
Weight=2**6.57*1.69*0.12*25=209.3 KN.
Top Ring Beam (250*300):
r= (8.6+0.25) =8.85
Weight=*8.85*0.25*0.3*25= 52.1 KN
Cylindrical Wall (200thick):
r=8.6+0.2=8.8
Weight=*8.8*0.2*0.4*1000*25= 552.9KN
Bottom Ring Beam (500*300):
r=8.6+0.5=9.1
Weight= (*9.1*0.5*0.3*25) = 107.2 KN
Circular Ring Beam (500*600):
r or l =3.14+3.14=6.28
Weight=*6.28*0.5*0.6*25=148KN.
Bottom Dome (200 thick):
r2=(r^2+h^2)/2h
r=6.28/2=3.14
r2=1/2((3.14^2)/1.4) +1.4) =4.22m
Weight=2**4.22*1.40*0.20*25=185.6KN
Conical Dome (250 thick): Length of cone=l=square root of (h^2+r^2) h=1.65,
r = 1.41, l=2.17
Weight=*((8.8+6.28)/2)*2.17*0.25*25
=321.1KN
Water:
(((*8.6^2*3.7)/4+*1.5(8.6^2+5.63^2+ (8.6*5.63)/12))*9.81=2508 KN
Total Weight of Water=2508 KN.
Stagging Weight:
Columns (650)
Weight= (*0.65^2*15.7*6*25)/4 =782 KN
Braces (300*600):
Weight=3.14*0.3*0.6*3*6*25=254KN
From Above Results:
Weight of Empty Container=Top Dome +Top Ring Beam + Cylindrical Wall + Bottom Ring Beam
+ Circular Ring Beam + Bottom Dome +Conical Dome
=209.3+52.1+552.9+107.2+148+185.6+321.3 =1576KN.
Weight of Stagging=Weight of Columns + Weight of Bracings = 782+ 254 =1036KN.
Hence, Weight of empty Container + 1/3(Weight of Stagging) =1576+ (1036/3) =1921KN
Centre of Gravity of empty Container above top Circular Ring Beam= ((209.3*7.22) + (52.1*5.9) +
(552.9*3.8) + (107.2*1.65) + (321.3*1) + (185.6*0.92)+ (148*0.3))/1576=2.88m
Height of C.G. of empty container from top of footing =h cg
Height up to Circular Ring Beam from the Footing = (4+4+4+4+ (0.6/2))=16.3
hcg =16.3+2.88=19.18m
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
V. PARAMETERS OF SPRING MASS MODEL
Total Weight of Water =2508000N.
Volume=2508 KN/9.81=255.65 m^3
Mass =255658kg
D=8.6m
Let h be height of equivalent circular Cylinder, (D/2) ^2*h=255.65h=4.4m
Volume of water = 2,508 / 9.81 = 255.65 m^3
h / D = 4.4 / 8.6 = 0.51
m i / m = 0.55;
mi = 0.55 x 2,55,658 = 1,40,612 kg
mc /m = 0.43;
mc = 0.43 x 2,55,658 = 1,09,933 kg
hi / h = 0.375; hi = 0.375 x 4.4 = 1.65 m
hi*/h =0.78,

hi*= 0.78 x 4.4 = 3.43 m

hc/h

=0.61,

hc = 0.61 x 4.4 = 2.68 m

hc */h =0.78,

hc*= 0.78 x 4.4 = 3.43 m

According to IS code,About 55% of Liquid mass is excited in impulsive mode while 43% liquid
mass participates in convective mode.Sum of impulsive and convective mass is 2,50,545kg which is
about 2% less than the total mass of liquid.
Mass of empty container+one third mass of staging,
ms=(1576+1036/3)*(1000/9.81)=195821kg.
Table 3: Comparison of Base Shear and Moment for full tank and Empty Tank

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
VI. DESIGN OF ELEVATED TANK CONSIDERING SEISMIC FORCE

I.Spherical Roof Dome


(120mm)

Total Load=4.5KN/m^2
Maximun Hoop Stress =0.083(N/mm^2)
Meridonial Stress= 0.22 N/mm2
2

II.Design of Top Ring Beam


(300x300mm)

Horizontal Thrust/cm length= 22.2 KN/m


Hoop Tension= 106.61 KN

III.Design of Conical Dome

Tensile Stress= 10.9 Kg/cm


Total Vertical Load= 4814.758KN

IV.Design of Bottom Dome:

Meridonial Stress= 1.444 N/mm


Thickness of Conical Dome= 350mm.
Radius of Bottom Dome = 4.567 m
200mm thickness is provided.
Total Load= 3591.946 KN
2

Meridonial Stress= 0.946 N/mm


2

Hoop Stress= 0.2349 N/mm


Tank will be at Chennai: Wind Speed: 50 m/s

V.Design of Cylindrical Wall

VI.Design of Ring Beam at junction


of cylindrical wall and conical wall

VII.Design of Circular Beam

Hoop Tension (Ft) = 172 KN/m


Wall thickness is 250mm thick at base and
150mm at top
Total Load= 48.925 KN/m
Meridonial Thrust in the Conical Dome=
48925N
Total Hoop Tension= 313.577 KN
Tensile Stress= 1.05<1.2 N/mm
Horizontal Thrust on circular beam= 10860 Kg/m
Vertical load on beam /m= 36580 Kg/m
Maximum Bending Moment (-ve) = 31330Kgm

VIII.Design of Column(650Dia)
IX.Design of Braces

Total vertical load on column: 1944K N


Provide 10mm -2 legged stirrups @225mm
c/c

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
VII. REINFORCEMENT DETAILING
S.No.

Component

Reinforcement

1 Spherical Roof Dome

8mm@160 mm c/c both ways

2 Top Ring Beam

8,12mm bars Main Reinforcement and 6mm stirrups @ 20cm c/c are provided

3 Cylindrical Wall

(0-2m) Main Hoop Steel 10mm-180mmc/c (2-4) vertical distribution 10mm-250mmc/c,


(2-4m)Main Hoop Steel 10mm-180mmc/c (2-4) vertical distribution 10mm-250mmc/c.

4 Conical Dome

Provide 25mm bars @180mmc/con both faces of the slab

5 Bottom Dome

Distribution Steel :10mm @130mm c/c both faces along meridons


12mm bars @ 120mm centers both circumferentially and meridonally.

6 Circular Beam

Provide 6 bars of 20mm at center and 5, 16mm at support


Shear Reinforcement: Provide 12 mm , 6 legged stirrups @ 9cm c/c at support.

Shear Reinforcement: Provide 12mm , 4 legged stirrups @ 9cm c/c at center


Longitudinal Steel: Provide 8 bars of 12mm , 4 cm each face
7 Column

Provide 8bars of 32 mm and 10mm ties at 300 mm c/c

8 Braces

Provide 10mm -2 legged stirrups @226mm c/c.

VIII. REINFORCEMENT DRAWING OF ELEVATED WATER TANK

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
IX. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
1. In India elevated tanks are widely used and these tanks have various types of supports.
2. Maintains hydraulic grade lines without automated controls. Provides pressure when power is
lost.
3. Simple to operate Lower power cost because an elevated tank can be filled in evening when
power costs are less.
4. The seismic design of the R/C elevated tanks, based on the rough Assumption that the subsoil
is rigid or rock without any site investigation, may lead to a wrong assessment of the seismic
base shear and overturning moment.
5. Suitable value of lower bound limits on spectral values for structure including tanks needs to be
arrived at does not recommend consideration of Convective Mode of vibration. R Value taken
in IS 1893:1984 is nowhere in the range corresponding to that value in different international
Codes.
6. As per observed from Table 1, Base Shear and Base Moment have increased from Empty Tank
Condition to Full Tank Condition.
7. we observe that due to change in place from Base Shear due to Wind Force decreases by 26%
and Base Moment decreases by 18%
8. Analysis & design of elevated water tanks against earthquake effect is of Considerable
importance. These structures must remain functional even after an earthquake. Elevated water
tanks, which typically consist of a large mass supported on the top of a slender staging, are
particularly susceptible to earthquake damage. Thus, analysis & design of such structures
against the earthquake effect is of considerable importance.
9. Most elevated water tank are never completely filled with water. Hence, a two mass
idealization of the tank is more appropriate as compared to one-mass idealization.
10. Basically, there are three cases that are generally considered while analyze the Elevated water
tank (1) Empty condition. (2) Partially filled condition.
(3) Fully Filled condition. For (1) & (3) case, the tank will behave as a one-mass structure and
for (3) case the tank will behave as a two-mass structure.
11. If we compared the case (1) & (3) with case (2) for maximum earthquake force, the Maximum
force to which the partially filled tank is subjected may be less than half the force to which the
fully filled tank is subjected. Actual forces may be as little as 1/3 of the forces anticipated on
the basis of a fully filled tank.
12. During the earthquake, water in the tank get vibrates. Due to this vibration water Exerts
impulsive & convective hydrodynamic pressure on the tank wall and the tank base in addition
to the hydrostatic pressure.
13. The effect of impulsive & convective hydrodynamic pressure should consider in the analysis of
tanks. For small capacity tanks, the impulsive pressure is always greater than the convective
pressure, but it is vice-versa for tanks with large capacity. Magnitudes of both the pressure are
different.
14. The effect of water sloshing must be considered in the analysis. Free board to be provided in
the tank may be based on maximum value of sloshing wave height. If sufficient free board is
not provided, roof structure should be designed to resist the uplift pressure due to sloshing of
water.
15. Earthquake forces increases with increase in Zone factor & decreases with increase in staging
height. Earthquake force are also depends on the soil condition.

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 44-55 IAEME
REFERENCES
1.

Rai Durgesh C; Performance of Elevated Tanks in Bhurj Earthquake; Proc. Indian Acad.
Sci. (Earth Planet Sci.), 112, No. 3, September 2003, pp 421-429.
2. Jaiswal O. R., Rai Durgesh C and Jain Sudhir K; Review of Code Provisions on Design
Seismic forces for Liquid Storage Tanks; Document No.: IITK-GSDMA-EQ01-V1.0, Final
Report: A - Earthquake Codes, IITK.
3. Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, IITK GSDMA Guidelines for Seismic Design of
Liquid Storage Tanks.
4. IS 1893:1984, Criteria for Earthquake Resistance Design of Structures.
5. IS 1893(Part I): 2002, Criteria for Earthquake Resistance Design of Structures.
(PART 1: General Provisions and Buildings).
6. IS 875:1987, Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than Earthquake) for Buildings and
Structures Part 3: Wind Loads.
7. Vazirani & Ratwani, Concrete Structures, Khanna Publishers, Year of Publication 1996.
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