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WorkingpaperNo7(2008)

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EmergingSmallWind
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WorkingPaperNo7(2008)

EmergingSmallWindTechnology

Contents
Small scale renewables ...................................................................................................................... 1
Small wind versus solar panels................................................................................................... 3
Types of Small Wind Turbines ......................................................................................................... 5
Application areas .............................................................................................................................. 6
Main designs of small wind turbines ......................................................................................... 7
Main technical limitations of existing small wind turbines ............................................... 9
Emerging small wind technology.................................................................................................. 12
Magnus effect................................................................................................................................... 12
Magnus type wind turbine........................................................................................................... 16
Review: Patents on Magnus type wind turbine....................................................................... 17

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Small scale renewables


The specific factors that drive the uptake of domestic scale grid-connected
renewables are predominantly financial (61% of respondents identified the high
cost of the technology as the most important barrier to overcome),1 which may be
a factor in the limited take-up to date. For many end-users of electricity, there
may be no move to small-scale renewable energy generation until the total cost to
the end-user of using grid-supplied electricity (taking account of its retail price,
any other expenses as an electricity consumer and convenience) exceeds the total
cost of electricity generated from small-scale renewables. The utility of the
electricity supply is generally similar (i.e. there are no specific advantages or
disadvantages derived from the implementation of a grid-connected renewable
electricity system). In general, it is cheaper and easier for a grid-connected
consumer to purchase standard electricity via the grid. Notwithstanding this, takeup of domestic grid-connected renewable energy systems is observed to be
increasing, mainly due to changes in awareness of climate change, and community
desire to take direct action. Rising residential and commercial electricity price rises
over the past seven years are also having a significant impact. Policy measures
and incentive programs have also successfully stimulated development of the
domestic and small scale renewable energy around the world. Some of these have
led to high levels of grid-connected small-scale renewables (e.g. in Germany and
Japan).
As well as factors that evenly influence the demand for all renewable technologies,
there are those that only influence demand for particular technology that are
mainly competitive price of technology and the availability of resources, site
dependence.
Small scale renewables for primary energy production (electricity generation not
heat production) presently available are:

Solar photovoltaic (PV) panels;

Small wind turbines;

Micro, small hydro turbines.

The comparison of these technologies is presented in the Table 1:

Cipcigan L.M., Taylor P.C., Trichakis P. Potential for Microgeneration Study and Analysis. Final Report. 2005

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Table 1: Comparison of small scale renewables for primary energy production


Costs
Renewable
technology

Pay-back
period2

Solar
photovoltaic
panels3

6 to 12 years
for businesses

Small wind
turbines4

6 to 12 years
for businesses

[Euro
cents per
kWh]

Resource availability

25-65

Yearly sum of horizontal global irradiation


varies from 800-1800 (kWh/m2/year)

4-12

Wind resources level at 50 m above ground


varies from depending on topographic
conditions (5-9 m/s in open area, 7-11.5
hills and ridges; 2-6 sheltered terrain Weibull distribution).

6 to 22 years
for residential
installations

8 to 16 years
for residential
installations

Every EU-25 country have and exploitable


wind resources.
Micro, small
hydro
turbines5

6-15

5-15

Extremely dependent on a countrys


geography the water drop height of 4 m
is needed.
More than 82% of economically feasible
potential has already been exploited in
former EU15, presently target countries are
New Member Stated and Accession
Countries.

Small wind versus solar panels


Typical location for installation of small scale renewables are rural or suburban
homes; on-site communities (schools and other public sector buildings); farms;

The figures reflect net-metering systems displacing energy that would otherwise be purchased from a utility
company. The actual payback period depends on resource availability at the site, system efficiency and utility
rates. Not taking into account the ongoing incentive programms.

Marcel ri, Thomas A. Hulda, Ewan D. Dunlopa, Heinz A. Ossenbrinka. Potential of solar electricity generation in
the European Union member states and candidate countries. Solar Energy. Volume 81, Issue 10, October 2007,
Pages 1295-1305

Wind Energy THE FACTS an analysis of wind energy in the EU-25. 2004

European Small Hydropower Association small hydro power in figures


< http://www.esha.be/index.php?id=50>

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industries (with high energy consumption processes) and other (urban settings,
off-grid battery systems remote homed, telecom, marine). All technologies are
site specific due to the nature of resources, especially hydropower (it mostly used
for electrification of isolated sites).
PV growth during last years was mainly driven by government incentives. Although
it is generally recognised that grant support cannot be a long term mechanism
(cost effectiveness is not predicted to occur until 2030, however, a technology
breakthrough could reduce capital costs and bring this forward towards 2020),
when the break-even for small wind is predicted circa 2010 2015, Figure 1.

Figure 1: Energy cost: domestic small wind (EEE - Energy Export Equivalence)1

Moreover, small wind turbines is more cost-effective solution to those homes,


communities or businesses needing more than 1kW watts of generated power
(which is in most cases,

Table 2) than PV. Unlike PV's, which stay at basically the same cost per watt
independent of array size, wind turbines get less expensive with increasing system
size. The cost of regulators and controls is essentially the same for PV and wind.
Somewhat surprisingly, the cost of towers for the wind turbines is about the same
as the cost of equivalent PV racks and trackers. The cost of wiring is usually higher
for PV systems because of the large number of connections. A typical home
consumes between 800-2,000 kWh of electricity per month and a 4-10 kW wind

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turbine or PV system is about the right size to meet this demand. At this size wind
turbines are much less expensive.

Table 2: Need of generated power depending on application area


Application

Generated power
(need)

Rural or suburban homes

1-25 kW

On-site communities (schools and other


public sector buildings)

100kW-1MW

Farms

10-400kW

Industries
(high
processes).

energy

consumption

Other (urban settings, off-grid battery


systems remote homed, telecom, marine)

10-400 kW

0.1-60kW

Types of Small Wind Turbines


Small wind turbines are generally categorized as (Figure 2):

Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT): in these models the shaft is parallel
to the ground. Although they must self-align with the wind, HAWTs are
mechanically simple and require a relatively small footprint on the ground
to mount and secure the tower. The majority of small and large turbines
installed today are HAWTs.

Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT): in these models the shaft is


perpendicular to the ground. These turbines typically require a relatively
large footprint on the ground to mount and secure the tower.

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Horizontal axis wind turbine

Darreius-type vertical axis wind turbine

Cycloturbine
Figure 2: Schematic views of different turbine concepts

Application areas
Small turbines were used mainly for remote power generation either alone or in
conjunction with other energy sources and battery storage with presently emerging
target to enter the urban or industrial areas. They can be divided into three
categories: micro (up to 1 kW), mid-range (1-10kW) and mini-turbines (10-50kW).
Typical applications are presented in

Table 3.
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Table 3: Applications for Small wind turbine


Small Wind Turbine Category
Battery Charging & light
seasonal loads

Residential & heavy


seasonal loads

Commercial, institutional,
farms, and remote
communities

Typical Power
Rating

1 kW

1-10 kW

10-50 kW (and more)

Typical Grid
Connectivity

Mostly off-grid, some ongrid

Mostly on-grid, some offgrid

On-grid, Isolated-grid, or
off-grid

Typical
Applications

Mobile uses (sailboats,

Off-grid rural houses

On-grid or isolated-grid

recreational vehicles,
etc.)

with large lot sizes


(usually >1 acre)

Seasonal applications

On-grid rural houses

Entitlement

(small cottages, hunting


lodges, etc.)

Rural & 'urban


perimeter' residential
homes (small loads)

Specialty power sources


(radar and telecomm
devices, measurement
instruments, cathodic
protection, remote
weather stations, etc.)

with large lot sizes


(usually >1 acre) where
DC appliances are
driven by wind
turbine/batteries or
where some electricity
is stored on the grid
through Net Metering

Larger cottages or
hunting lodges with
significant share of
electricity from wind

large farms

Off-grid small farms


where small wind
complements a diesel
generator set and/or
solar photovoltaics

On- or off-grid
commercial or
institutional buildings

Isolated-grid
communities where
wind is complemented
by diesel generators
and/or other sources

Commercial parks &


camps

Electric fencing

Main designs of small wind turbines


The main components of common wind turbine are presented in Figure 3.

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Figure 3: Main components of typical small wind turbine

The main options in wind machine design and construction include:

Number of blades (commonly two or three);

Rotor orientation: downwind or upwind of tower;

Blade material, construction method, and profile;

Hub design: rigid, teetering or hinged;

Power control via aerodynamic control (stall control) or variable pitch blades
(pitch control);

Fixed or variable rotor speed;

Orientation by self aligning action (free yaw), or direct control (active yaw);

Synchronous or induction generator;

Gearbox or direct drive generator.

The most common small wind turbines in 10-50 kW category are 3-bladed,
horizontal axis, up-wind machines with many designs available, having their own
unique advantages and disadvantages. While most of these turbines employ directdrive permanent magnet alternators, some use asynchronous induction generators
and gearboxes (placed in the nacelle assembled with the rotor). Different electrical
controls and power conditioning equipment packages are available depending on
whether the turbines are intended for stand-alone battery charging or for gridconnected applications. Most of these wind turbines are variable speed machines
that employ passive stall regulation and furling for overspeed control, although
some use electrical controls to slow down the generator rotor. No turbines in this
size range are known to use active (i.e. motorized) pitch control. Typical rotor
diameters for these turbines range from 5 to 15 m while tower heights are usually
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from 18 to 40 m. Because of the significant weight and loading of these turbines,


special attention has to be paid to proper tower design and installation. The life
expectancy of well-built and well-maintained wind turbines is generally expected to
be over 20 years. This may vary significantly however depending on operating
conditions (e.g. high turbulence winds, extreme dust or cold). Some nonintegrated turbine designs allow for the replacement of virtually all major
components, allowing the systems life to be extended indefinitely.
The ideal wind turbine design is not dictated by technology alone, but by a
combination of technology and economics: wind turbine manufacturers wish to
optimise their machines, so that they deliver electricity at the lowest possible cost
per kilowatt hour (kWh) of energy.

Main technical limitations of existing small wind turbines


The main technical limitations of existing small wind technology limiting deeper
penetration of small wind turbines are:

Low power coefficient:


The most important factors in how much power the wind turbine will produce
are the rotor diameter and height of tower (Figure 4). Betz' law and average
power coefficient of turbines (20-35%) limits the turbine output very much.
The smaller in size the wind turbine is the higher power coefficient is
needed for achievement of required output and in cost-efficient way: each
square metre of rotor area costs money, so it is necessary to harvest
whatever energy is possible for pushing the costs per kWh down.

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(a)

(b)

Figure 4: (a) Theoretical power production for small wind turbines when
the wind speed is 10 m/s; (b) Wind speeds increase with height6

The wind turbine rotor is the most complicated, important and almost always
the only component unique in the wind turbines system. The rotor's blades
control all the energy capture and almost all the loads, and are therefore a
primary target of R&D efforts. The challenge is to create the knowledge and
engineering tools that enable blade designers to squeeze the most
performance throughout a range of wind speeds sites that previously were
considered as not cost effective.

Power coefficient dependence form the wind speed (Figure 5) is also a very
limiting parameter of the overall performance and cost-efficiency of wind
turbine.

S. Clarke - Engineer, Rural Environment/OMAFRA. Electricity Generation Using Small Wind Turbines At Your
Home Or Farm. 2003

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0.20

10

15

20

m/s

Figure 5: Power coefficient dependence on the wind of typical Danish wind


turbine per square metre of rotor area

Low efficiency of wind turbines in low speed wind sites leads to higher cost
of energy generation (and longer pay-back period), Figure 6.7 The average
annual wind speed is 4-4.5 m/s with wind resources level at 50 m above
ground varying and depending on topographic conditions (5-9 m/s in open
area, 7-11.5 hills and ridges; 2-6 sheltered terrain - Weibull distribution).8
Hence, quite a big share of time the wind turbine would operate not at the
rate wind speed and with low power coefficient.

Figure 6: Calculated costs per kWh wind power as a function of the wind
regime at the chosen site (number of full load hours)

Wind enerdy THE FACTS. Volume 2: Costs & Prices, 2004

http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wres/euromap.htm

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Very few small wind turbines have any blade pitch adjustment which means
that they commonly experience very large angles of attack leading to slow
rotor acceleration. Passive control of turbine performance: passive control
(furling or stalling) leads to a lower share of the energy in the wind will be
running through the rotor area, hence this additionally limits the overall
turbine efficiency.

Blade rotational speed typically increases with decreasing size which results
in the blade loading being dominated by centrifugal forces. Furthermore, the
small blades can be difficult to make with high tolerances. When designing a
wind turbine it is extremely important to calculate in advance how the
different components will vibrate, both individually, and jointly. It is also
important to calculate the forces involved in each bending or stretching of a
component. Therefore the reliability and maintenance of the system are very
important parameters, as the average annual maintenance costs of the
typical wind turbine is around 2% of the original turbine investment, pushing
up the costs of generated kWh.

Sound pressure will increase with the fifth power of the speed of the blades
relative to the surrounding air. The fast rotation common for small wind
turbines generate noise pollution and what is much worse infrasound
vibrations (both affecting public health), what makes their sitting complex
and highly inhibits penetration of the urban and industrial areas. Undesirable
flickering is also mostly dependent on speed of rotor rotation.

Big challenge with wind turbines has always been to convert a highly
variable input the wind impinging on the rotor into a rock-steady
alternating current output suitable for grid connection. Present, for the large
turbines, the answer is to regulate blade pitch and power off-take so that
the generator works at fixed speed in synchronism with the grid. But this is
a waste available wind energy, and there is a need for variable speed drives
when the generator/ turbine is allowed to be driven at varying speed, in line
with the wind, and power electronics are used to render the alternating
current output of the generator to direct current without efficiency losses.

Emerging small wind technology


Magnus effect
Magnus effect, as known as the movements of spinning balls in sport, especially
tennis, golf, baseball, association football and cricket, is the physical phenomenon
whereby an object's rotation affects its path through a fluid, in particular, air. It is
a product of various phenomena including the Bernoulli effect and the formation of
boundary layers in the medium around moving objects. In the runup to elucidation
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of Magnus effect, side-force effect of the rotating bodies was noticed first time by
an eminent English scientist Benjamin Roberts in 1742 during his investigations of
spinning artillery projectiles using the swirling arm device. In the century later,
German scientist Gustav Magnus explained this phenomenon as an aerodynamic
effect. Further contribution came from Prandtl and his modification of KuttaJukowski theorem for bodies of rotation. Applied to aeronautics in experimental
wingforms, the Magnus Theory states that if air is directed against smooth,
revolving cylinder, whose circumferential speed is greater than that of the air
current, a force is directed against one side of the cylinder - air compressed on one
side and vacuum formed on the other - creating lift (Figure 7).

Figure 7: Schematic explanation of Magnus effect

The first qualitative explanation of lift force experienced by an aerodynamic shape


was made possible by using KuttaJukowski theorem that assumes a specific flow
behaviour in the near vicinity of the body with a sharp trailing edge. For an airfoil
(the quintessential crosssection of a flying wing), the accepted solution is given by
an application of this theorem that forces the flow to stagnate at the trailing edge.
This theorem is not applicable for flow past bodies without sharp trailing edges
as in the case of a rotating cylinder. L. Prandtl explained the flow past a rotating
cylinder heuristically by considering the flow to be inviscid and irrotational.

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Figure 8: Inviscid irrotational flow past a rotating cylinder for (a) zero, (b)
subcritical, (c) critical and (d) supercritical rotation rates9

The maximum lift a rotating cylinder experiences when the rotation rate is
increased beyond a critical limit. This can be readily explained with the help of
Figure 8. If one defines a nondimensional rotation rate by = *D/2U, where
the cylinder of diameter D rotates at * while being placed in a uniform stream of
velocity U, then one can define a non-dimensional number, called the Reynolds
number, by Re = UD/ for this flow field. In Figure 8 a, the steady inviscid
irrotational flow field is depicted when the cylinder does not rotate and one can
note a top-down and fore-aft symmetry of the flow field. In Figure 8 b, a case is
depicted for < 2, where both the front and rear stagnation points (halfsaddle
points) are deflected downwards, causing the flow to exert an upward force on the
cylinder. With increase of to 2, these stagnation points move towards each other
and merge at the lowermost point on the cylinder, as shown in Figure 8 c. For this
location of stagnation point, it is easy to show that the corresponding
nondimensional lift value is given by the coefficient CLmax = 4. Prandtl
heuristically reasoned this lift as maximum, because with further increase in , the
half-saddle point of Figure 8 c would move in the flow as a full saddle-point on a
closed streamline that demarcates the flow field into two parts, as shown in Figure

Tapan K. Sengupta and Srikanth B. Talla. RobinsMagnus effect: A continuing saga. CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL.
86, NO. 7, 10 APRIL 2004

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8 d. The region inside the closed streamline is insulated from the region outside
permanently for steady inviscid flow. This fixes the vorticity at the critical rotation
rate for the case of Figure 8 c. In a real flow, vorticity created at the solid wall is
convected and diffused according to the governing NavierStokes equation. A
steady flow model, presupposes equilibrium between the creation of vorticity and
its viscous diffusion for all rotation rates. It was argued by Prandtl that the
equilibrium at = 2, decides the lift value when the rotation rate is increased
further. This model appeared realistic in the absence of any counter-examples and
is used in textbooks to explain lift generation and limiting mechanism. However,
some recent experimental and numerical observations provide counter-examples
where lift is found to exceed Prandtls maximum (810). Tokumaru and Dimotakis
have observed that the maximum lift limit was violated by 20% for Re = 3800 and
= 10. The authors considered diffusion, unsteady flow processes as the main
contributor in violating the maximum limit, while three-dimensional end-effects will
tend to reduce the mean spanwise lift. For > 2, the vorticity will be generated at
a larger rate at the solid wall than it is dissipated by viscous action, thereby
showing a monotonic increase in lift value, if the vorticity remains confined within
the recirculating streamline. The role of diffusion is thus to peg the net circulation
at a lower level. However, the viscous diffusion also plays a subtle role in
supporting enhanced lift when it interferes with physical instability processes. This
is clearly seen in computations that use excessive numerical dissipation to stabilize
computations. It should be noted that for super-critical rotation rates,
threedimensionality of the flow is suppressed due to Coriolis force predominating
over convection and viscous diffusion. Thus, it is instructive to compute the flow by
solving time dependent two-dimensional NavierStokes equation. The numerical
results apart from validating experimental observation, also provide detailed time
accurate account of the physical events, that is otherwise difficult to track
experimentally. In doing so, the computational results also revealed a new physical
instability that limits the monotonically increasing lift in an aperiodic manner.
The experimental observations for this flow are visual: in one case for the
instability and uses an analytical model in the other case to arrive at the supposed
violation of maximum lift. In contrast, the computational evidences are based on
the full governing equations and show the instability and violation of maximum lift
at high Reynolds number and high rotation rates, simultaneously. The physical
instabilities in real flows are triggered by ambient noise. It shows the need to
study and develop models for the actual background noise that is present in
experiments. A realistic noise model with very high accuracy computational
algorithms that preserves fundamental physical principles would provide
conclusive evidence of this and many other problems of instabilities.

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Magnus type wind turbine


Magnus wind turbine (Figure 9) can be described as a wind turbine equipped with
cylinders, which consist of rotating end and non-rotating root parts and additional
structures turbulators. Rotation of the wheel is provided by Magnus force, which
arises on the rotating cylinders with presence of the wind. Additional structures
(spirals) create the driving force, which ensures an aerodynamic self-starting of
the wheel and wind turbine operation at high and storm velocities of the wind
exceeding permissible ones for the traditional blade wind turbines.

Figure 9: Magnus wind turbine: rotating cylinders (1), end plates (2), rotor body
(3), tower (4), F is the rotor driving force10

Magnus type wind turbines can overcome most of limitations of traditional blade
turbines which are presently in use. The major of them is their low efficiency at the
most repeatable wind velocities V < 6 to 7 m/s that is due to small lift coefficient
of a blade. Under such conditions, the power coefficient of wind turbines drops
rapidly to zero at about V = 4 m/s (Figure 5). On the other hand, the Magnus wind
turbines can be exploited in a wide range of wind velocities, that is, from 2 to 40
m/s instead of 5 to 25 m/s acceptable for the blade turbines. A reduced rotation
velocity of the Magnus cylinder-rotor which is 2 3 times lower comparing to the
blade one ensures its high ecological and operational safety. Also, an advantage of
the Magnus wind turbine is aerodynamic self-regulation of the cylinder-rotor
rotation preventing from its excessive spinup and destruction due to centrifugal
forces. In particular, at wind velocities higher than about 35 m/s, the selfregulation results in diminution of the Magnus force with the cylinder-rotor selfbraking.

10

N.M. Bychkov, A.V. Dovgal, V.V Kozlov. Magnus wind turbines as an alternative to the blade ones. Journal of
Physics: Conference Series 75 (2007) 012004

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Review: Patents on Magnus type wind turbine


The possibility to employ Magnus effect for the increase of wind turbine efficiency and cost-effectiveness, as revealed the
patent search (Table 4), is known from the end of last century, although the working wind turbine prototypes making
only the first steps.
Table 4: Patents related to Magnus type wind turbines
Title
Magnus type wind
power generator
Magnus wind
turbine device

Patent Number Inventor/assignee

Date
Issued

US 2007/0046029 Nobuhiro Murakami, 1 March


A1
Akita (Japan)
2007

WO/2007/017930

2008TheAppliedResearchInstituteforProspectiveTechnologies

Short description
A Magnus type wind power
generator (A) comprising a
horizontal rotary shaft (3) for
transmitting torque to a power
generating
mechanism
(2),
rotary column (5) disposed
radially of the horizontal rotary
shaft, driving motors (15) for
rotatively driving the respective
action between rotation of each
rotary column and wind produces Magnus lift, which rotates
the horizontal rotary shaft so as to drive power generation
mechanism, wherein an air flow means (6) is installed for
producing air flows on the outer peripheral surfaces of rotary
columns so as to increase the Magnus lift.

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Magnus effect
horizontal axis
wind turbine

Magnus effect wind


turbine

Wind generator
using Magnuseffects

US6.375.424 B1

Paolo Scarpa (Rome, 23 April


Italy)
2002

16 June
2004

EP0886728

WO 02/42640 A1

David Terracina
(Italy)

2008TheAppliedResearchInstituteforProspectiveTechnologies

30 May
2002

A turbine and method which


employ
kinetic
and
potential
energy
of
fluid
to
obtain
mechanical and/or electric energy,
is founded on the use of bulb
shaped
rotating
blades
that
interact with a fluid, such as water
or air. Each rotating blade rotates
around its own axis and in the
radial direction of fluid itself.
This invention concerns a wind
generator to obtain mechanical
energy, and particularly alsi its use
for the propulsion of naval means,
characterized in that it provides at
least two blades (2), rotating about
their own axis, and provided also of
rotation about their own axis
perpendicular to their own axis, and
provided also of rotation about their
own axis, each one of said blases (2) providing, on a
substantially distal part (3), a plurality of projecting fins (4),
said fins having suitable profile and inclination in function of
the specific use.

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Motor

JP19980317602
19981109

Kawai Hiroyoshi
(Japan)

2008TheAppliedResearchInstituteforProspectiveTechnologies

26 May
2000

To
improve
the
power
generation efficiency without
an intense flow by arranging a
means for increasing the flow
velocity or a flow rate of fluid
butting a rotor in a motor
including the rotor rotated by
receiving the fluid and a
generator
converting
the
rotating force of the rotary
vane into an electric energy.
When an introduced wind is
blown in from a take-in
window in front of a take-in
box, a fan 2 is rotated and the shaft of the fan 2 penetrated
through a partition board 18 and connected to a drum 1
rotates a hollow drum 1. When the introduction wind is blown
from the take-in window in front of the take-in box 8, it acts on
the rotating drum 1 to accelerate the flow velocity of the
introduction wind in the lower part of the drum 1 by Magnus
effect and causes a pressure reducing phenomenon. On the
other hand, a suction wind is energetically sucked from a
bottom suction hole in the bottom of the take-in box 8 to blow
therethrough as an exhaust wind. The suction wind applies a
rotating force to a rotor in the entrance of the suction wind
duct linked with the bottom of the take-in box 8 and converts
it into an electric energy by the interlinked motor.

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Magnus air turbine US4366386


system

Thomas F. Hanson
(US)

2008TheAppliedResearchInstituteforProspectiveTechnologies

28
December
1982

A Magnus effect windmill for


generating
electrical
power
is
disclosed.
A
large
nacelle-hub
mounted pivotally (in Azimuth) atop
a support tower carries, in the
example disclosed, three elongated
barrels arranged in a vertical plane
and
extending
symmetrically
radially outwardly from the nacelle.
The system provides spin energy to
the barrels by internal mechanical
coupling in the proper sense to cause, in reaction to an
incident wind, a rotational torque of a predetermined sense on
the hub. The rotating hub carries a set of power take-off rollers
which ride on a stationary circular track in the nacelle. Shafts
carry the power, given to the rollers by the wind driven hub, to
a central collector or accumulator gear assembly whose output
is divided to drive the spin mechanism for the Magnus barrels
and the main electric generator. A planetary gear assembly is
interposed between the collector gears and the spin
mechanism functioning as a differential which is also connected
to an auxiliary electric motor whereby power to the spin
mechanism may selectively be provided by the motor.
Generally, the motor provides initial spin to the barrels for
start-up after which the motor is broken and the spin
mechanism is driven as though by a fixed ratio coupling from
the rotor hub. During high wind or other unusual conditions,
the auxiliary motor may be unbroken and excess spin power
may be used to operate the motor as a generator of additional
electrical output. Interposed between the collector gears of the
rotating hub and the main electric generator is a novel variable
20

WorkingPaperNo7(2008)

EmergingSmallWindTechnology

speed drive-fly wheel system which is driven by the variable


speed of the wind driven rotor and which, in turn, drives the
main electric generator at constant angular speed. Reference is
made to the complete specification for disclosure of other novel
aspects of the system such as, for example, the aerodynamic
and structural aspects of the novel Magnus barrels as well as
novel gearing and other power coupling combination apparatus
of the invention. A reading of the complete specification is
recommended for a full understanding of the principles and
features of the disclosed system.
Wind turbine
WO/1981/000435
having a shaft
arranged
perpendicularly
with respect to the
wind direction on a
vertical axis and
Flettener rotors
parallel to the shaft

2008TheAppliedResearchInstituteforProspectiveTechnologies

19 February The wind turbine comprises a


1981
shaft (1) arranged perpendicularly
with respect to the wind direction
according to a vertical, horizontal
or inclined axis. Flettner rotors (2)
are fixed on the spokes (3) or
along the periphery (4) of wind
turbines. These Flettner rotors
transform
from
transverse
generated by the Magnus effect into a rotation force of the
wind turbine. The Flettner rotors which are provided preferably
with end disks, are driven by electrical motors or by Savonius
rotors. On the leeward of the wind turbine, the Magnus effect
is eliminated by stopping the rotation of Flettner rotors or by
taking them away from the action of the wind by mask (5) or
by other means. Thereby is provided a wind turbine which may
operate with small wind speeds of which the number of
revolutions is easily adjustable to a large extent and which has
a high efficiency due to the magnitute of the Magnus effect.

21