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Cold Rolling Design

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U.S. Dixit*, P.S. Robi, D.K. Sarma

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781 039, India

Abstract

This paper presents a systematic design procedure for the design of a laboratory cold rolling mill. In order to arrive at proper decisions at

various stages of the design, the concepts of fuzzy sets and priority decision tables were employed. The design process starts from deciding

specications and gradually reaches the detailed design phase. Specications were xed by trading-off various conicting goals using the

fuzzy set-based methodology. The various factors to be considered for deciding the roll diameter are presented. The roll diameter and motor

power are chosen using the fuzzy set-based technique. Three possible arrangements for transmitting the power to rolls were conceived. The

best among these three design alternatives was chosen by preparing a priority decision table. After the conceptual and embodiment stages of

the design, the detailed design was carried out in a conventional way. The present paper gives more emphasis to a systematic design

procedure for the conceptual and embodiment stages in the design process. # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Rolling; Fuzzy set; Priority decision table; Design methodology

1. Introduction

Design of a rolling mill is a complex task requiring

thorough understanding of the process as well as good

decision-making capability for satisfying various conicting

goals. Numerous investigations have been carried out for the

analysis of the rolling process. For a brief review of representative papers, one can refer to the paper by Dixit and

Dixit [1]. However, to make use of these ndings of rolling

process analysis in design is not an easy task. In the process

of rolling mill design, the mill designer chooses appropriate

analytical tools, searches for empirical relations if analytical

methods are not fully developed or analysis time is a

constraint, makes use of his experience and then keeps

taking decisions at various stages of the design.

The design process starts from deciding the specication

of the product. In the beginning, the specications are

allowed to have a certain amount of exibility and they

gradually crystallize to crisp form as the design progresses.

Three important stages of the design are: conceptual design,

embodiment design and detailed design. Conceptual design

takes the problem statement and generates broad solutions

for it in the form of design concepts. In the context of a

rolling mill, it is the stage where the designer decides about

the type of roll arrangements, suitable roll-drive mechanism,

motor type, etc. At the embodiment stage, the concepts are

converted into bodily form. This is also called preliminary

*

Corresponding author.

rolling parameters, layout of the mill with several sets of

general drawings and specications. At this stage, a nal

check is made on function, spatial compatibility, design

aesthetics and economics. Finally, detailed design is carried

out. The outcome of this stage is a set of drawings obtained

as a result of rigorous design calculations.

Although the detailed design is carried out in a systematic

manner, most of the time, the earlier stages of the design are

based on intuition, experience and judgment of the designer

and rarely do they follow a formal procedure. Various

researchers of the design methodology have suggested systematic decision-making procedures for early stages of the

design. A review of these methodologies has been nicely

carried out in [2]. The paper describes the use of utility

theory, optimization, matrix methods, necessity methods,

probability methods and fuzzy set-based methods in the

design procedure. The authors discussed the benets of a

formal procedure in the early phases of design. In their

words: ``Formalizing the combination of attributes permits

trade-off strategies that are determined informally or implicitly to be decided rationally and explicitly. A formal trade-off

method also permits design decisions to be clearly understood and recorded for later retrieval and examination. When

a question regarding a particular design trade-off arises at a

later stage in the design process, a formal method can provide

a clear and complete picture of how the decision was reached.

Moreover, the trade-off can be repeated with revised information, thus conrming or refuting the original decision''.

0924-0136/02/$ see front matter # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 9 2 4 - 0 1 3 6 ( 0 1 ) 0 1 2 0 1 - 8

70

U.S. Dixit et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 121 (2002) 6976

During the last three decades, fuzzy set theory has been

nding wide applications in various elds of engineering

including decision-making in design. It was introduced by

Zadeh [3] to model real complex systems which are difcult

to model with conventional set theory. In the conventional

crisp set, a member either belongs to, or does not belong to,

a set. On the other hand, in the fuzzy set, the individual may

be a member of the set to varying degrees. The degree to

which that individual is compatible with the concept represented by the fuzzy set is called its membership grade in the

set and is usually represented by a real number value

between 0 and 1, 0 indicating full non-membership and 1

indicating full membership. Wood and Antonsson [4,5]

presented a fuzzy set-based method (called method of

imprecision, MoI). The MoI uses the concept of fuzzy set

theory to represent the designer and customer preferences in

the form of a fuzzy set. Thruston and Carnahan [6] have

prescribed the use of fuzzy set and utility analysis techniques for evaluation of multiple attributes in the preliminary

design stages.

Considering that the material parameters and friction

coefcient in the rolling process are uncertain, Dixit and

Dixit [1] treated them as fuzzy numbers. A fuzzy number is a

special type of fuzzy set dened on the set of real numbers

whose membership function is piecewise continuous. It is a

generalization of interval number in which the number may

lie in different intervals to varying degrees. The authors also

proposed the method to access the reliability of design. The

subsequent paper by the authors employed fuzzy set theory

in the scheduling of a tandem rolling mill [7].

The aim of the present paper is to describe a systematic

methodology for the design of a cold rolling mill, giving

more emphasis to the preliminary phases of the design, i.e.

the conceptual and embodiment phases. A vast amount of

literature is available on the detailed design aspects of

rolling mills [8]. In this work, a guideline has been presented

to apply the existing knowledge in a systematic and formal

way to arrive at the design, taking as an example the design

of a laboratory rolling mill which has been fabricated at the

Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati.

2. Design methodology

Arriving at the design specication is the rst task in the

design process. After that the conceptual, embodiment and

detailed design stages follow. Quite often the decisions taken

at one stage are revised after getting more information about

the design in subsequent stages. The following subsections

describe the salient features of the design methodology

adopted for the cold rolling mill.

2.1. Decision regarding design specification

In arriving at a decision regarding the design specications, the following are the minimum required parameters:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Width of the strip to be rolled.

Inlet thickness and outlet thickness of the strip.

Roll radius.

Coefficient of friction.

Roll velocity.

is decided, depending on the requirement. Here, a range of

210 mm was chosen. It is known that if the width is about

10 times the thickness, the process can be considered as

plane strain. Since the objective of the laboratory rolling mill

might be to study the plane strain rolling of large thickness

strip, a strip of width 100 mm was chosen.

The outlet thickness decides the percentage reduction.

This is a very important parameter inuencing roll power

and roll separating force. A designer would like to see the

capability of maximum reduction and high rolling speed, but

would be constrained by motor power and roll separating

force. The motor power and roll separating force directly

inuence the cost of the rolling mill. A rough estimate of the

rolling power P is giving by [8]:

P s0 bh1

1

1

r

h1

1 r

1

v ln s0 bh1

v ln

0:5r

1 0:5r

1 r

h2

(1)

h1 the inlet thickness of the strip, h2 the outlet thickness of

the strip, r the reduction and v the roll velocity.

The average ow stress of the material was taken as

550 MPa, so that a wide variety of steel materials may be

rolled. As already discussed, the maximum strip width (b)

is 100 mm and minimum inlet thickness (h1) is 2 mm.

Considering these values of b and h1 as crisp, the parameters v, r and P were treated as fuzzy. To construct the

membership function for these parameters, the following

procedure was adopted. The combination of rolling speed

equal to 1 m/s, reduction equal to 40% and power less than

10 kW was considered ideal design at a brainstorming

session of three designers. In other words, a best design

will allow a 100 mm wide and 2 mm thick strip to be rolled

up to 40% reduction in one pass, at rolling speed of 1 m/s

in less than 10 kW power. Thus, a membership grade of 1

is assigned to v 1 m/s, r 40% and P 10 kW. It was

expected that these goals could not be met simultaneously.

So, it was decided that, in proportion to deviation from the

ideal values, membership grades be reduced. Thus, a

membership grade mv of 0 is taken for v 0, and

between v 0 and 1 m/s, the membership function varies

in a linear fashion, as shown in Fig. 1(a). Similarly for 0%

reduction the membership grade (mr) of 0 is taken, and

between 0 and 40% reduction, the membership grade varies

as shown in Fig. 1(b). Since 10 kW is the ideal power,

20 kW power (100% more) is assigned a zero membership

grade (mp). Between 10 and 20 kW, the membership grade

varies in a straight-line manner, as shown in Fig. 1(c). For

each particular combination of v and r, a particular power

U.S. Dixit et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 121 (2002) 6976

71

Fig. 1. Membership function of desired: (a) velocity, (b) reduction and (c) power.

may be found from Fig. 1(c). This gure basically represents a fuzzy set of low power. Since the cost of the overall

mill is directly dependent on power, which was of prime

low power was used in the decision-making process, which

was obtained by squaring the membership function of low

power. This is a widely used practice for obtaining a fuzzy

72

U.S. Dixit et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 121 (2002) 6976

low.

A particular design may obtain different membership

grades in different aspects of the design. However, the goal

is to maximize overall preference of the designer/customer. In

the fuzzy set-based optimization procedure, the overall preference is expressed in the form of overall membership grade.

For obtaining the overall membership grade m0, two types of

strategies are commonly employed, a compensating trade-off

and a non-compensating trade-off. In a compensating tradeoff strategy, the aspects that perform well can compensate for

aspects that perform poorly. For example, low cost of the mill

may compensate for less maximum possible reduction,

because a customer may be ready to have a low cost mill,

even if the maximum possible reduction is lowered to some

extent. A non-compensating strategy will produce an overall

measure of a design alternative that is limited by the most

poorly performing aspect. For example, designing one shaft

stronger in the power transmission system cannot compensate

for the weakest shaft in the transmission line. Relevant to the

present problem, a suitable compensating trade-off function is

m0 mv mr m2p 1=3 and a non-compensating trade-off function

is m0 minmr ; mv ; m2p [2]. In most cases, one may adopt a

combination of these two strategies. Hence, a generalized

strategy is to dene an overall membership grade as

q

m0 a 3 mv mr m2p 1 a minmr ; mv ; m2p

(2)

that reduces to pure compensating strategy for a 1 and pure

non-compensating strategy for a 0. In this work, a 0 was

chosen, based on the discussions of designers. Computations

provided the overall membership grade of 0.539, which gives

r 21:56%, v 0:539 m=s and P 12:656 kW. Based on

this, it was decided to have nominal values of velocity as

0.5 m/s and reduction as 20%. The corresponding power is

10.9 kW. For this power, the estimated reduction possible in a

10 mm thick and 100 mm wide strip is approximately 4%,

which was acceptable to the design team.

2.2. Conceptual design: selection of the drive arrangement

After the specications have been nalized, various possible options were conceived. The most crucial design

decision was regarding the arrangement for power transmission from the gear box to the rolls. In the rolling mill, the

lower roll position was xed and the upper roll has to move

up and down for proper roll gap adjustment. At a meeting of

the designers at the concept phase of design, three possible

arrangements were conceived.

First arrangement (bevel gear drive arrangement) consists

of three pairs of bevel gears. First pair of bevel gears

transmits the power from a horizontal shaft of the main

motor to a vertical shaft. Second pair of bevel gears transmits

power from the vertical shaft to the xed lower roll. The last

pair of bevel gears transmits power from the vertical shaft to

the upper roll. This pair is connected to the vertical shaft

through a key and key-way arrangement so that it can slide

vertically along the shaft as the upper roll is displaced for

adjusting the roll gap.

The second arrangement (spur gear arrangement) consists

of four spur gears for transmitting power from the main shaft

to the rolls. The rst spur gear transmits power directly to the

xed lower roll. The same spur gear also transmits power to

the fourth gear attached to the upper roll. In between the rst

and fourth gears, there are two spur gears whose centres can

be moved along circular paths. This way, the upper roll can

easily be moved up and down for roll gap adjustment.

The third arrangement (universal joint drive arrangement)

consists of transmitting power to two working rolls by means

of universal joints and telescopic shafts. The telescopic shaft

consists of two parts. One part of the telescopic shaft consists

of internal splines through which the other part of the shaft

containing external splines can slide. This arrangement takes

care of the increase in the shaft length as the upper roll

moves during roll gap adjustment.

A priority decision table [9] was constructed to consider

the best among the three possible arrangements, as shown in

Table 1. First, various design criteria were chosen and their

importance was decided on a scale of 010, 0 indicating low

and 10 indicating high. For each criterion, the three design

alternatives were assigned a rating on the same scale as was

used in assigning importance. This was done in a brainstorming session of the designers. For each alternative, its

criteria rating was multiplied by the respective importance

factors, and all the resulting parts were added. Table 1 shows

the maximum score is achieved by the universal joints drive

Table 1

A priority decision table for choosing one amongst three design alternatives

Sl. No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

Total score

Alternatives

Criteria

Importance (I)

Ratings (Ra)

Design simplicity

Economy

Ease of assembly

Ease of maintenance

Efficiency of power transmission

Reliability

10

9

8

8

9

9

7

8

6

7

8

8

Ra I

70

72

48

56

72

72

390

Ratings (Ra)

7

9

6

8

8

8

Ra I

70

81

48

64

72

72

407

Ratings (Ra)

Ra I

10

9

8

8

8

9

100

81

64

64

72

81

462

U.S. Dixit et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 121 (2002) 6976

universal joint drive.

2.3. Embodiment design

At the embodiment stage, the design is given a bodily

form. At this stage, most of the decisions regarding roll

diameter, motor power and overall approximate dimensions

of the mill are taken. The output of the embodiment stage of

the design is a set of general layout drawings, which will be

the input to the detailed design stage. The design methodology for deciding roll diameter and motor power is described

in Sections 2.3.1 and 2.3.2.

2.3.1. Decision regarding roll diameter

The selection of roll diameter is an important decision for

rolling mill design. It is generally selected on the basis of

strip thickness, the type of material to be rolled, maximum

reduction to be given to the strip, the coefcient of friction,

mill speed, etc. Large diameter rolls provide better rigidity

and better cooling. On the other hand, small diameter rolls

require small rolling force and are less sensitive to the effects

of changes in the rolling lubricant. For the same reduction in

the pass, the larger is the diameter of the work rolls, the

greater is the spread, i.e. increase in the width of the strip [8].

This is because, with very large roll diameters, the metal

encounters relatively more resistance to ow along the

rolling direction and tries to ow sideways. Another important consideration for deciding the roll diameter is the

prevention of the split ends and central burst defects. Split

end defect initiates as a crack, forming along the central

plane of the deformed material. As the rolling proceeds, the

two ``halves'' of the material separate from each other and

split end defect (alligatoring) occurs. The central burst

defect is caused by internal void formation. As mentioned

in the paper by Avitzur et al. [10], central burst tends to be

promoted by

73

Large initial thickness of the sheet or strip;

Small percentage reduction;

Tensile traction on either the front or the back of the strip.

prevention of split ends. According to this criterion, spilt

ends are expected if

h1

h1

> 1:81

1

(3)

R

h2

where R is the roll radius. Avitzur et al. [10] have given a

criterion for the prevention of central burst also. It is seen

that if spilt ends are prevented, central burst should also not

occur. Because an objective equation is available for finding

the roll radius, the radius is found from Eq. (3). The above

equation provides different values of roll radius depending

on the inlet strip thickness and reduction. This mill is

expected to have a minimum reduction of 2%. If the inlet

strip thickness is 10 mm, the minimum roll radius will come

out to be 271 mm. However, this is based on the extreme

conditions to which mill may be subjected once in a while.

At other conditions, the roll radius will not be required to be

so high. Hence, it was decided to make a membership

function of the desired roll radius. This has been achieved

in the following way. Assume, that the low reduction cases

are from 2 to 5%, and inlet thickness is from 2 to 10 mm. The

membership grade for a roll radius is equal to the fraction of

times in which the process is safe from alligatoring to the

total number of possible conditions. The membership grade

of roll diameter, from the point of view of a defect free

process, is depicted in Fig. 2.

Another simple equation for obtaining minimum roll

radius is [8]:

r

1 h1 r

mm

(4)

2 2R

Fig. 2. Membership functions of roll diameter from the viewpoints of low power and defect-free rolling process.

74

U.S. Dixit et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 121 (2002) 6976

equation has been derived by considering the equilibrium

of forces acting at the strip and taking the roll diameter as

double the actual roll diameter to take into account the roll

flattening effect. If the coefficient of friction is less than the

value given by Eq. (4), the rolls will skid over the strip

surface and the strip will not be drawn. This provides,

R

h1 r

8m2m

(5)

friction equal to 0.04 based on Table 6.10 in [8], provides

R > 31:24 mm.

Heat transfer consideration also provides an expression

for roll radius. If it is assumed that the entire rolling power is

dissipated as convective heat, a simple equation can be

written, as follows:

P 2pRlhtR

t0

(6)

coefficient, and tR and t0 are the temperatures of roll surface

and surroundings, respectively. Since the laboratory mill

would not be required to work continuously and sufficient

time would be available for cooling, this equation was not

used in the present design. However, if the maximum allowed

roll surface temperature is known as a fuzzy number, the

desired roll radius from the effective heat transfer consideration can be obtained as a fuzzy number using Eq. (6).

A simplied analysis of the rolling process shows that

rolling power is approximately proportional to the square

root of roll radius [8]. This equation suggests that roll radius

should be kept as small as possible. But as suggested by

Eq. (5), in order to avoid skidding, the minimum roll radius

should be at least 30 mm approximately. Hence, the roll

radius of 30 mm may be assigned a membership grade of 1

and for roll radius values greater than 30 mm, the membership grade may be taken as inversely proportional to the

square root of the roll radius. Hence, the membership grade,

from the point of view of low power, is given by

8 r

< 30

for R 30;

m

(7)

: R

1

for R < 30

Fig. 2 depicts the membership grade. Using non-compensating trade-off between the twin objectives of low power and a

defect-free process, the roll radius is obtained at the intersection of the two membership functions in Fig. 2. This

basically maximizes the minimum of the membership grades

of the two objectives. If there are more than two objectives

(e.g., if Eq. (6) were to be considered), the procedures

remains same, i.e. one would have to select a roll radius

for which the minimum of the membership grades from

different objectives gets maximized. This radius is 98 mm

and the overall membership grade is 0.55. A nominal roll

radius of 100 mm is very close to 98 mm. Hence, the roll

radius was fixed at 100 mm. The barrel length of the mill rolls

rolled, the mill width usually being a few inches greater than

maximum strip width. Here, the barrel length was taken as

300 mm. With 200 mm diameter and 300 mm length, the

estimated maximum deflection is of the order of 10 2 mm.

2.3.2. Motor selection

In view of cost and availability, it was decided to use an

AC induction motor. The motor was the costliest item in the

present design. Hence, its power had to be decided judiciously. By now, most of the parameters had been decided

and hence, it became possible to compute power more

accurately, using nite element analysis with fuzzy parameters, following the method presented in [1]. Details

regarding that analysis are not discussed here. In that

analysis, strain-hardening behaviour of the material is modelled by the following equation:

~e n

sy sy 0 1

(8)

b

where sy, (sy)0, b, n and ~e are the flow stress, uni-axial yield

stress, hardening coefficient, hardening exponent and

equivalent strain, respectively. In the present work, (sy)0,

b, n and coefficient of friction f were considered as four

fuzzy parameters. A triangular membership function was

considered to represent each fuzzy parameter, based on the

most likely (m), low (l) and high (h) estimates of the

parameter. A typical triangular membership function is

shown in Fig. 3. Note that the value of m is 0.5 at x l

(low estimate) as well as at x h (high estimate) and 1 at

x m (most likely estimate). The values of the lower and

upper bounds of the parameter at membership grade 0 can be

called extreme low and extreme high values, respectively. In

case the extreme low value becomes negative as a result of

constructing the membership grade in this fashion, the

extreme low value can be taken as 0 and a modified

straight-line can be drawn by joining this point to the vertex

of the triangle. However, in the present case, that situation

U.S. Dixit et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 121 (2002) 6976

75

did not arise. The low, most likely and high estimates of

these parameters were taken as follows:

b : l 0:0416; m 0:052; h 0:062;

n : l 0:236; m 0:295; h 0:354;

f : l 0:100; m 0:150; h 0:200:

provides the roll torque as a fuzzy number as shown in Fig. 4.

As roll velocity is specied, the power requirement at

different membership grades may also be found. Selecting

a higher power motor will give more reliability to design, but

will increase the mill cost. The reliability value associated

with each power can be calculated using the method in [1],

which is explained below.

Having obtained the roll torque as a fuzzy number, we

have to give some measure of ``trustworthiness'' to different

design torques. In a probabilistic approach, a measure to

compare different designs is ``reliability'' that is dened as

the probability of not failing the element. Here, a measure

called ``fuzzy reliability'' is proposed. The method is based

on the concept of entropy. The term entropy is normally used

to describe the degree of uncertainty about an event. For an

event consisting of q discrete random variables, the Shannon

entropy, H, is dened as [12]:

q

X

1

H

pi log2

(9)

pi

i1

where pi is the probability of an event. Analogous to the

definition of Shannon entropy, the entropy associated with a

particular membership grade may be defined as [13]:

m log2 m 1 mlog2 1 m for 0 < m < 1;

dm

0

for m 0; 1

(10)

m 0:5, when the uncertainty is maximum. It is to be noted

that De Luca and Termini [13] used the natural logarithm in

the entropy expression. Here the base has been taken as 2 to

bound the entropy value between 0 and 1. Now, (1 dm)

becomes a measure of certainty.

Suppose TR(m) and TL(m) are the right and left limits of the

roll torque at the membership grade m, respectively (see

Fig. 4), then the possibility index, PI, is dened as

8

TL m

< T

if T < TR m;

PIm; T TR m TL m

(11)

:

1

otherwise

In the above equation T is the torque for which the

reliability is needed. The reliability index is defined as

bm; T PIm; T 1

dm

(12)

obtained. To make the definition of reliability independent

of m, the area under the bm graph is taken as the measure of

reliability. The maximum value of the area corresponds to

the case when PI 1 for all m. So it is taken as 100%

reliability. Thus, the reliability is defined as

R1

bm; T dm

Re % R 10:5

100

(13)

dm dm

0:5 1

Fig. 5 shows the reliability for different torques. It is seen

that 100% reliability is achieved at a torque value of

3.28 kN m, which will be a worst-case design. At a torque

value of 2.8 kN m, 99% reliability is achieved, which was

considered sufficient for the present design. The corresponding motor power came to 14 kW. The worst-case design

would have selected a torque value of 3.33 kN m, resulting

in approximately 19% higher power. Considering the frictional losses during power transmission and the availability

76

U.S. Dixit et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 121 (2002) 6976

capacity motor.

2.4. Detailed design

The detailed design was carried out using conventional

machine design practice. The nite element code provided

an accurate estimation of roll separating force and roll

torque. Appropriate safety factors were chosen for the

design of various elements and structure. The detailed

assembly and component designs were prepared using standard CAD packages.

3. Conclusions

The present paper describes a systematic design procedure for a rolling mill designed by the authors. A formal

method of design was used even at the conceptual and

embodiment phases of the design. The fuzzy set-based

methodology could easily consider many attributes concurrently, while deciding the specications of the rolling mill.

An optimum roll radius was arrived at by considering two

conicting objectives. The methodology can be easily

extended to a situation involving diverse conicting objectives. The priority decision table provided an objective and

crisp method to choose among three possible designs,

whereas the conventional design methodology would have

chosen any one of them in an intuitive and subjective

manner. The motor power was decided considering the

uncertainties and imprecision present in the process parameters.

The rolling mill has been fabricated and is functioning in

the Manufacturing Laboratory of the institute. The performance of the mill is quite satisfactory. Since the design

be examined and appropriately modied to give a revised

design in a different situation. It is expected that the guidelines presented here can form a basis for industrial design of

metal forming equipment in general and rolling mills in

particular.

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