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How to Configure Static Routing

Protocol

By

Apex TG India Pvt Ltd


http://www.apextgi.in

Routing Types

Static Route Operation

Hoboken#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
S
172.16.1.0/24 [1/0] is directly connected, Serial0
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

ip route command
RTR(config)# ip route prefix mask {address | interface}
[distance] [tag tag] [permanent]

prefix IP route prefix for the destination.

mask Prefix mask for the destination.

address
IP address of the next hop that can be used to reach that
network.

interface Network interface to use (exit-interface)

distance (Optional) An administrative distance.

tag tag (Optional) Tag value that can be used as a "match" value for
controlling redistribution via route maps. (CCNP Advanced Routing)

Permanent (Optional) Specifies that the route will not be removed, even if
the interface shuts down. (CCNP Advanced Routing)

Static Route Operation

If the exit interface (gateway) is down the static route will


not be put in the routing table.
5

Static Route Operation

If the router cannot reach the outgoing interface that is being used in the route, the
route will not be installed in the routing table.
This means if that interface is down, the route will not be placed in the routing table.
6

Administrative Distance and Metric


Hoboken#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
S
172.16.1.0/24 [1/0] is directly connected, Serial0
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

[ administrative distance / routing metric (or


cost) ]
The cost for all static routes is 0
The default administrative distance for static
routes is 1
7

Administrative Distance

Administrative Distance is the trustworthiness of the routing information.


Lower the administrative distance the more trustworthy the information.
If the router hears about a route to the same network from more than one source it will
use the administrative distance to decide which route to put in the routing table.
8

Examples from the curriculum

Examples from the curriculum

Two choices.
We will see the differences in a moment.
10

Examples from the curriculum

The network 0.0.0.0 and mask 0.0.0.0 are known as a


default route
Can be written 0.0.0.0/0
Known as a quad zero route
More later

11

Static Routing

Some extra information on static routing


that is not in the curriculum

12

Static Routing

Router(config)#ip route destination-prefix destination-prefix-mask


{address | interface} [distance] [tag tag] [permanent]

13

Static Routing
192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

Configuring static routes

Routers do not need to configure static routes for their own directly connected
networks.

We need to configure static routes for networks this router needs to reach.

We will need to configure static routes for the other routers as well, as routing
information about a path from one network to another does not provide routing
information about the reverse, or return path.

Convergence When all the routers in the network (AS) have accurate and consistent
information, so that proper routing and packet forwarding can take place.

Convergence will not happen until all the routers have complete and accurate routing
information, meaning we must configure static routes on all the routers before packets
will be correctly delivered.

14

Static Routing
192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

10.1.0.0/16

s1

s1

.1

.2

RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2

Network/subnet route
Intermediate-Address
(usually next-hop)

RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Serial0
S
192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Basic static route example

Be sure to use the proper subnet mask!


15

Static Routing
192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2


RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Serial0
S
192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0
Basic static route example (continued)

[1/0] [ Administrative Distance / Metric ]

Administrative Distance This is the trustworthiness of the routing information. The default
administrative distance of static routes is 1.

The Administrative Distance of a directly connected route is 0.

Lower the AD the more trustworthy.

If the router learns about a route to a network from more than one source, it will install the route
16
with the lower administrative distance in the routing table.

Static Routing
192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2


RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Serial0
S
192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Basic static route example (continued)

[1/0] [ Administrative Distance / Metric ]

Metric This is the cost of getting to this route, I.e. how far away this network is.

The lower the cost, the closer the network.

Static routes always show a cost of 0 even if it was configured with the intermediate address is
multiple-hops away.

Much more later.


17

Static Routing
192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2

2
1

RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Serial0
S
192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Recursive Lookup

The router knows it can get to 192.168.1.0/24 network by forwarding the packets to the router at
the ip address of 172.16.0.2
How does the router know how to get to the ip address 172.16.0.2?
It does a recursive lookup first (1) by looking up the 192.168.1.0/24 network and finding it
needs to forward the packet to 172.16.0.2 the router then (2) looks up the 172.16.0.0 network
and sees it can forward it out the interface Serial 0.
18

Static Routing
192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA#debug ip routing
IP routing debugging is on
RTA#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2
05:53:48: RT: add 192.168.1.0/24 via 172.16.0.2, static metric [1/0]
RTA(config)#ip route 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 172.16.0.2
05:54:38: RT: add 10.1.0.0/16 via 172.16.0.2, static metric [1/0]
RTA(config)#undebug all

Static Routes and the Routing Table Process

Notice that the static route is entered into the routing table by the routing table process (debug ip routing) with
a metric of 0.
19

Static Routing
192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2


RTA(config)#ip route 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 172.16.0.2
RTB(config)#ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.1
RTB(config)#ip route 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.2
RTC(config)#ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.1
RTC(config)#ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.1

Configuring all of the static routes

Notice that the intermediate-address is always the next-hop ip address.


This does not always have to be the case, and we will look at other options in the presentation
on Static Routes- Additional Information
Good idea to do a copy running-config startup-config if everything is working right.
To verify the routes are in there, you can do a:
Router# show running-config

20

Static Routing
192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2


RTA(config)#ip route 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 172.16.0.2
RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Serial0
10.0.0.0/16 is subnetted, 1 subnets
S
10.1.0.0 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2
S
192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0
RTA#ping 10.1.0.1
!!!!!
RTA#ping 192.168.1.2
!!!!!
RTA#ping 192.168.1.1
!!!!!
21

Static Routing Recursive Lookups


192.168.2.0/24
e0

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

.1

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2

2
1

RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Serial0
S
192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Recursive Lookup

The router knows it can get to 192.168.1.0/24 network by forwarding the packets to the router at
the ip address of 172.16.0.2
How does the router know how to get to the ip address 172.16.0.2?
It does a recursive lookup first (1) by looking up the 192.168.1.0/24 network and finding it
needs to forward the packet to 172.16.0.2 the router then (2) looks up the 172.16.0.0 network
and sees it can forward it out the interface Serial 0.
22

Static Routing Recursive Lookups


192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.2

3
2
1

RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Serial0
S
192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2
S
10.1.0.0/16 [1/0] via 192.168.1.2
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Recursive Lookup (continued)

We can take this even further.


One route can be used to resolve the route of another.
It doesnt matter how the routes are resolved, whether they are directly connected, static or
dynamic.
Note: If an intermediate address cannot be resolved, that route and any routes it affects are not
23
installed in the routing table.

Static Routing Recursive Lookups


Note regarding recursive route lookups

Every route that does not reference an exit-interface must finally be resolved via a
route with an interface descriptor reference in the corresponding path descriptor a
route with an exit-interface.
Static routes cannot be recursively resolved and will not be in the routing table.
Consider these three static routes:
Route1:
Route2:
Route3:

ip route 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 20.1.1.1


ip route 20.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 30.1.1.1
ip route 30.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 10.1.1.1

Route1 is resolved by Route2 which is resolved by Route3.


None of these routes are finally resolved via a route with an exit-interface.
This leads to endless recursion.
The routing table process will not permit these static routes to be entered in the routing
table.
Note: Static default routes (coming soon) can never be resolved via another default
route. (later)
24

Static Routing Routing Table


Process
192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA#debug ip routing
IP routing debugging is on
RTA#conf t
Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z.
RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2
05:53:48: RT: add 192.168.1.0/24 via 172.16.0.2, static metric [1/0]
RTA(config)#ip route 10.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 172.16.0.2
05:54:38: RT: add 10.1.0.0/16 via 172.16.0.2, static metric [1/0]
RTA(config)#undebug all

Static Routes and the Routing Table Process

Notice that the static route is entered into the routing table by the routing table process
(debug ip routing) with a metric of 0.
25

Static Routing Point-to-Point Links


192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 serial 0


RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Serial0
S
192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Need only to use only an exit interface.


For point-to-point serial interfaces, the next-hop address in the routing table is never
used by the packet-delivery procedure, so it is not needed. (It could even reference a
bogus IP address.)
Notice that the static route appears in the routing table as directly connected, however
it is still a static route with an administrative distance of 1.
26

Static Routing Point-to-Point Links


192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

s0

s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.2

2
1

RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Serial0
S
192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Using an intermediate address instead of an exit-interface:

If an intermediate address is used on a static route via a point-to-point link, it is only


used to find the exit-interface,

This recursive lookup is unnecessary and takes extra processing.


27

Static Routing Ethernet interfaces


192.168.2.0/24
e0
.1

172.16.0.0/16
RTA

e1
s0

e0
s0

.1

.2

192.168.1.0/24
RTB

s1

s1

.1

.2

10.1.0.0/16
RTC

e0
.1

RTA(config)#ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 eth 1 172.16.0.2


RTA#show ip route
Codes: C - connected, S - static,
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Ethernet1
S
192.168.1.0/24 [1/0] via 172.16.0.2 Ethernet1
C
192.168.2.0/24 is directly connected, Ethernet0

Using both an intermediate address instead and an exit-interface:

Notice we changed 172.16.0.0 to an Ethernet link.

Static routes via broadcast links, it is best to use both an exit interface and intermediate
address.

This saves the router from having to do a recursive route lookup for the intermediate
address of 172.16.0.2, knowing the exit interface is Ethernet 0.
28

Static Route Rule of Thumb


Static routes via point-to-point links

It is best to configure static routes with only the exit interface.

For point-to-point serial interfaces, the next-hop address in the routing table is never
used by the packet-delivery procedure, so it is not needed. (It could even reference a
bogus IP address.)
Static routes via broadcast networks such as Ethernet

It is best to configure static routes with both the next-hop address and the exitinterface.
Using only an intermediate address

What about static routes referencing only intermediate network address? In short, try
to avoid using them. The reason is that these static routes are not bound to any
interface, rely on intermediate address resolvability, and thus converge more slowly.
They can also create unexpected routing loops. Alex Zinin, Cisco IP Routing
NOTE: Most of our examples in this course do not follow either of these rules-of-thumb
but you may want to use it on your network.

29

Common uses for Static Routes

Static routes in the real-world

Soon we will learn about dynamic routing protocols (RIP, etc.), where routers can learn
automatically about networks, without the manual configuration of static routes.
Does this mean that static routes are never used in the real-world?
No! Static routes are used in conjunction with dynamic routing protocols.
It is common to use a static route where using a dynamic routing protocols would have
disadvantages or where it just not needed.

30

Common uses for Static Routes

ISP

ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 10.1.1.2

10.1.1.1/24

10.1.1.2/24

Cabrillo
College
172.16.0.0/16
Static routes in the real-world (continued)

In the example above, there is only one route, link, between Cabrillo Colleges network and the
ISP.

When there is only a single route to a network, this is known as a stub network.

It is very common for the ISP to have a static route pointing to its customers networks, in this
case Cabrillo College.
31

Common uses for Static Routes


Default
ISP

10.1.1.1/24

ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 10.1.1.2

10.1.1.2/24

Cabrillo
College
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.1.1.1

172.16.0.0/16

Static routes in the real-world (continued)

What about Cabrillo College and sending packets to the ISP packets going to the Internet?
It is also common for customer networks to use a special kind of static route, known as a default static route.
Of course we will examine this later throughout the rest of this course, but for now we specify the network and
mask as 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 (pronounced quad-zero).
This tells the router to forward all packets to this next-hop address (or exit interface) that do not have an explicit
route in the routing table.
32

Common uses for Static Routes


Default
ISP

10.1.1.1/24

ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 10.1.1.2

10.1.1.2/24

Cabrillo
College
ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.1.1.1

172.16.0.0/16

RTB#show ip route
Gateway of last resort is 10.1.1.1 to network 0.0.0.0
C
172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Ethernet0
10.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets
C
10.1.1.0 is directly connected, Serial1
S*
0.0.0.0/0 [1/0] via 10.1.1.1

Any packets not matching the routes 172.16.0.0/16 or 10.1.1.0/24 are sent to the router 10.1.1.1 33

where it is now their problem.

Summarizing static
routes

There are many times when a


single static route can replace
several static routes.
In other words, summarizing
several static routes into a single
static route.

Host 1

172.16.1.0/24
Hub
.1 E0

172.16.0.0/24
172.16.2.0/24

.2

SanJose1
S0

S1

.2

192.168.1.0/24

.1
SanJose2
E0

.1
S0

S0

.1

.1

172.16.3.0/24
Hub

Baypointe
E0

192.168.2.0/24
Hub

34
Host 2

Host 3

Summarizing static routes


Host 1

172.16.1.0/24
Hub
.1 E0

172.16.0.0/24
172.16.2.0/24

.2

SanJose1
S0

S1

.2

192.168.1.0/24

.1
SanJose2
E0

.1
S0

S0

.1

.1

172.16.3.0/24
Hub

Baypointe
E0

192.168.2.0/24
Hub

Host 2
Host 3
Baypointe

Lets configure three static routes on Baypointe using either an intermediate-address or exit interface:
Baypointe(config)# ip route 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.2
Baypointe(config)# ip route 172.16.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.2
Baypointe(config)# ip route 172.16.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.2

35

Summarizing static routes


Baypointe

The three static routes can be summarized into a single route:


Baypointe(config)# ip route 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.2
Baypointe(config)# ip route 172.16.2.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.2
Baypointe(config)# ip route 172.16.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.1.2

Summarized route:
Baypointe(config)# ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.2

The summarized route will now include all three subnets!


Be sure to use the proper mask 255.255.0.0!
Using a 255.255.255.0 mask will only route for 172.16.0.0/24 subnet and not
172.16.1.0/24, 172.16.2.0/24 or 172.16.3.0/24.

36

Summarizing static routes


Host 1

172.16.1.0/24

172.16.0.0/24

Hub
.1 E0
.2

SanJose1
S0

S1

.2

192.168.1.0/24

172.16.2.0/24

.1

.1
S0

S0

SanJose2
E0

.1

.1

172.16.3.0/24

Baypointe

Baypointe
E0

192.168.2.0/24

Hub

Hub

Host 2

Host 3

Summarized route:
Baypointe(config)# ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.1.2

Advantages:

Fewer routes in the routing table faster routing table lookup.

Subnets can be added and deleted on 172.16.0.0 network without having to change static
route on Baypointe router.
37

Verify static routes


Copy running-config startup-config

38

Ping and Traceroute to troubleshoot

39

Thanks
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