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STI0903 - PSD Postprocessing

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Sheldon Imaoka

Memo Number: STI0903

ANSYS Release: 11.0

March 7, 2009

Introduction

PSD users may wish to determine the relative 1 results between two points.

This memo covers three methods to perform this operation, in hopes that

it will give users more familiarity with PSD postprocessing in ANSYS.

Background

there, output results are statistical, so they cannot be manipulated in a

vectorial sense.

If a user wishes to determine the relative 1 displacements between two

points, one of three methods should be used:

Statistically subtract 1 results

Add a massless node with constraint equations (CE) to measure the

relative displacements

Generate a response PSD based on the difference of the two points

(easiest and recommended approach)

It is important to keep in mind that PSD results should be interpreted in

the solution coordinate system (RSYS,SOLU). In the General Postprocessor

/POST1, the user should issue RSYS,SOLU prior to postprocessing stresses

will be interpreted in the element coordinate system while displacements

will be in the nodal coordinate system.1 In the Time-History Postprocessor

1

system RSYS,SOLU. Also, at 12.0, results should automatically be displayed in RSYS,SOLU

for PSD postprocessing.

so no special action needs to be taken.

Figure 1 shows a simple shell model that will be used to demonstrate the

techniques outlined in this memo. Two beam-like structures are joined at

the midspan. The base (right side) is fixed and will have a base excitation

with two different PSD tables. The relative displacement of the tips of the

beams will be of interest.

1

ELEMENTS

TYPE NUM

U

ROT

Z

X

Y

x1 and x2 , vectorial addition will be used:

x12 = Ax1 + Bx2

(1)

However, since PSD output deals with statistical quantities (Gaussian

distribution with zero mean), the relative displacement should be added in

a statistical manner. Mean values are added directly, so the difference in

displacements would result in a mean value of zero as well. The variance 2

is determined as follows:

2 (Ax1 + Bx2 ) = A2 2 (x1 ) + B 2 2 (x2 ) + 2ABcov(x1 , x2 )

2

(2)

The standard deviaton is simply the square root of the variance 2 . From

the above, if A = 1 and B = 1, one can see that the variances are additive,

and the covariance becomes negative. In laymans terms, if two points are

fully-correlated, they would most likely move together, so the variance of the

relative displacement would decrease, thus explaining the negative term.

The first example input file, psd relative1.inp, uses this approach

to determine the relative displacement between the deflection of the two

tips. The variance and covariance are retrieved in /POST26 using the CVAR

command. The 1 relative displacement in the z-direction is found to be

0.1724.

Note that the 1 results of displacement in load step 3 of /POST1 are

obtained from closed-form integration, so the square of this value should give

the same value as the CVAR command output.2 One can, however, obtain

the variance by using numerical integration of the response PSD; this is

also demonstrated in the input file as parameter RESULT UZ1, which gives a

result of 0.1725, very close to the target value of 0.1724. The value obtained

by closed-form integration (CVAR command) should compare well with the

numerically-integrated value (RPSD and INT1 commands), as demonstrated

by this example if not, check the input PSD with the PSDGRAPH command,

or increase the number of data points with STORE,PSD.

in the input file psd relative2.inp. Here, a MASS21 element with negligible

mass is tied to the two tips with constraint equations the CE command

defines the deflection of the MASS21 element as the difference between the

deflections of the tips. In this manner, the relative displacements of the two

tips is built into the model as long as the constraint equations are defined

correctly, where the MASS21 elements DOF is the dependent (eliminated)

DOF, this should not influence the behavior of the model in any way.

By querying the displacement at the MASS21 element in /POST1, one

obtains 0.1724, which is the same as the value obtained in Section 3.

Because the user must create the MASS21 element with appropriate constraint equations prior to solution, this method is not a recommended approach. However, it is covered here for illustrative purposes only.

2

In this example, compare parameters POST1DISP1 with VAR1 to see that they are the

same.

the relative displacements between two points. As demonstrated earlier in

Section 5, numerical integration of the response PSD allows one to determine

the variance and standard deviation of the quantity of interest.3

A user may define the two nodal points of interest with the NSOL command. The difference of the two points can be obtained with the ADD command. This result is then taken for the RPSD calculations. The standard deviation in this example is 0.1725, which matches the numerically-integrated

value covered in Section 3.

Because this approach requires the least amount of effort, the author

recommends using this method to determine the 1 relative displacement

between two points of interest.

Miscellaneous Topics

Although not directly part of the discussion on determining relative displacements in a PSD analysis, the author has provided some additional

miscellaneous topics related to PSD analyses.

6.1

The COVAL and QDVAL commands are available to define cospectral and quadspectral input. Equation 17-175 of Reference [1] describes these cross terms

in detail. If two input PSDs n and m are fully-correlated, the user should

input cospectral Cnm and quadspectral Qnm values such that the following

relationship holds:

|Cnm iQnm |2 = Sn Sm

(3)

For example, the supplied three examples deal with two flat PSD input

spectra. One table is 1g 2 /Hz while the other is 10g 2 /Hz. To define these

tables as fully-correlated, the cospectra is sqrt(10) while the quadspectra is

left blank.

To confirm that this definition leads to a fully-correlated condition between the two input PSD tables, the psd relative4.inp input file is provided, which uses a single table. The results are shown to be the same

between both cases.

3

Section 19.13 of Reference [1] discusses the calculation of the response PSD.

6.2

In ANSYS, arrays may be filled with the *VFILL command with a Gaussian distribution and specified mean and standard deviation. When using

this approach, no correlation can be specified between arrays, so the result

will neglect the correlation coefficient x1 ,x2 , which is defined in Equation (4):

x1 ,x2 =

cov(x1 , x2 )

(x1 )(x2 )

(4)

For a million samples, the input file psd relative4.inp gives a standard

deviation of 0.573, which matches well with 0.570 that is obtained by direct

manipulation of the standard deviation, neglecting covariance. If the two

points were fully-independent, this result would be correct however, in

this case, there is correlation between the two points (due to the material

joining the two beams), so use of arrays without considering correlation leads

to incorrect results.

The Probabilistic Design System (PDS) component of ANSYS can also

be used to perform direct sampling studies. Moreover, correlation can be

specified between input variables. The companion files pds input.inp and

pds setup.mac are used in psd relative4.inp. By specifying the correct

correlation via the PDCORR command, one finds the relative displacement has

a standard deviation of 0.1741 for 1,000 samples, which is not too far from

the target value of 0.1724.4

While direct sampling methods are usually more computationally expensive than the other methods proposed in this memo, it provides a useful,

academic comparison.

Conclusion

analysis requires dealing with statistical output. Consequently, users should

not directly subtract 1 values but use any of the methods outlined in this

memo. The intent of the memo is to remind the user of special considerations

in PSD postprocessing.

4

1,000 samples for a Monte Carlo simulation is quite low, but it should run relatively

fast for this simple example. The user may modify the input files to run more iterations,

if desired.

References

[1] ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for ANSYS and ANSYS Workbench 11.0,

2007.

[2] Sheldon Imaoka. PSD Postprocessing. ansys.net Tips and Tricks,

http://ansys.net/collection/916, June 2004.

General Information

Sheldons ansys.net Tips and Tricks are available at the following URL:

http://ansys.net/sheldon tips/

Please remember that, with each release of ANSYS, new features and techniques may be introduced, so please refer to the ANSYS documentation as

well as your local ANSYS support office to verify that these tips are the

most up-to-date method of performing tasks.

Disclaimer: the author has made attempts to ensure that the information contained in this memo is accurate. However, the author assumes no

liability for any use (or misuse) of the information presented in this document or accompanying files. Please refer to ansys.net for the latest version

of this document. Also, this memo and any accompanying input files are

not official ANSYS, Inc. documentation.

ANSYS Training

ANSYS, Inc. as well as ANSYS Channel Partners provide training classes

for ANSYS, Workbench, CFX, FLUENT, ANSYS LS-DYNA, AUTODYN,

ASAS, AQWA, TAS, and ICEM CFD products. Information on training

classes and schedules can be found on the following page:

http://www.ansys.com/services/ts-courses.asp

Customers on active maintenance (TECS) can register for a user account

and access the ANSYS Customer Portal. Here, browsing documentation,

downloading software (including service packs), and submitting technical

support incidents are possible: http://www1.ansys.com/customer/

The XANSYS mailing list is a forum for exchanging ideas, providing and

receiving assistance from other users, and general discussions related to

ANSYS and Workbench. (Note that it is recommended to contact your

local ANSYS support office for technical support.) You can obtain more

information by visiting the following URL: http://www.xansys.org/

7

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