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Phys 211 Vibration and Waves

Main Lecture:

MWF 10:10-11:00 Sharp 100 John Clem Office SHL 201, Hrs 11-12 MWF

Labs:

(Starts on the 20th)

F 10:10-11:00 Sharp 114

There will be a lecture this Friday.

http://www.bartol.udel.edu/~clem/phys211spr15/Phys211Spring2015.htm

syllabus

Link is posted on Sakai

This course is on Waves and Vibrations

Oscillations and Periodic Events

Periodic Phenomena

– Heart beat – Breathing – Blinking – Daily routines – Eating – Sleeping – Going to Classes

– Stream of liquid while Drinking

– Water waves – Bouncing Buoy

– Motion of electrons and atoms

– Seasons – Orbits of planets

– Visible light and radio

– sound

2

When I talk my vocal cords vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the lungs

When I talk my vocal cords vibrate, modulating the flow of air being expelled from the

Sound waves causes the ear drums to vibrate and sends an electrical signal to the brain

Oscillations about Equilibrium F F The basic cause of oscillations is the fact that when an

Oscillations about Equilibrium

Oscillations about Equilibrium F F The basic cause of oscillations is the fact that when an

F

Oscillations about Equilibrium F F The basic cause of oscillations is the fact that when an
Oscillations about Equilibrium F F The basic cause of oscillations is the fact that when an

F

The basic cause of oscillations is the fact that when an object is displaced from a position of stable equilibrium it experiences a restoring force that is directed back toward the equilibrium position.

Parameters

Period T : time required for one cycle of periodic motion Frequency f : number of oscillations per unit time Angular Frequency ω: number of radians per unit time

Parameters Period T : time required for one cycle of periodic motion Frequency f : number
Parameters Period T : time required for one cycle of periodic motion Frequency f : number

If you run around a track six times in one hour at a constant speed, how long did it take you to complete just one lap?

Six cycles per hour is the frequency and one sixth of an hour (or ten minutes) is the period.

Simple harmonic motion occurs when the restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium. For example the spring

Simple harmonic motion occurs when the restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium. For
Simple harmonic motion occurs when the restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium. For
Simple harmonic motion occurs when the restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium. For
Simple harmonic motion occurs when the restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium. For

We can not use our kinematic equations since acceleration is not constant

So what is this motion?

Rotating wheel with a rod attached near the edge

r y
r
y

Demonstration But what is ω ?

y = r sinθ θ = ωt y = r sin ωt

ω angular frequency

Rotating wheel with a rod attached near the edge r y Demonstration But what is ω

7

IN SHM, the amplitude A is the maximum displacement from equilibrium.

Position as a function of time:

• IN SHM, the amplitude A is the maximum displacement from equilibrium. • Position as a
• IN SHM, the amplitude A is the maximum displacement from equilibrium. • Position as a

Velocity as a function of time:

• IN SHM, the amplitude A is the maximum displacement from equilibrium. • Position as a
• IN SHM, the amplitude A is the maximum displacement from equilibrium. • Position as a

Acceleration as a function of time:

• IN SHM, the amplitude A is the maximum displacement from equilibrium. • Position as a
• IN SHM, the amplitude A is the maximum displacement from equilibrium. • Position as a
• IN SHM, the amplitude A is the maximum displacement from equilibrium. • Position as a

8

The angular frequency of a Mass on a Spring

Since the force on a mass on a spring is proportional to the displacement, and also to

the acceleration, we find that

The angular frequency of a Mass on a Spring Since the force on a mass on

. Substituting the time dependencies of a and x gives

The angular frequency of a Mass on a Spring Since the force on a mass on
The angular frequency of a Mass on a Spring Since the force on a mass on
The angular frequency of a Mass on a Spring Since the force on a mass on

9

Math Review

Up to this point the trigonometry utilized in 207 involved the basic sine and cosine function definitions applied to fixed triangles.

Review of graphs of sine and cosine functions

Math Review Up to this point the trigonometry utilized in 207 involved the basic sine and
Math Review Up to this point the trigonometry utilized in 207 involved the basic sine and

10

range amplitude = a period = 11
range amplitude = a period = 11
range amplitude = a period = 11

range

range amplitude = a period = 11

amplitude = a

period =

range amplitude = a period = 11

A buoy oscillates up and down as waves go past. The buoy moves a total of 4.0 feet from its low point to its high point, and then returns to its high point every 6 seconds.

A buoy oscillates up and down as waves go past. The buoy moves a total of

Write an equation that gives the buoy’s vertical position y at time t if the buoy is at its highest point when t =0.

A buoy oscillates up and down as waves go past. The buoy moves a total of
A buoy oscillates up and down as waves go past. The buoy moves a total of
x=A x=0 x=A 13
x=A x=0 x=A
x=A
x=0
x=A
x=A x=0 x=A 13
x=A x=0 x=A 13
x=A x=0 x=A 13

13

A = amplitude, the largest displacement from equilibrium period frequency 14

A = amplitude, the largest displacement from equilibrium

A = amplitude, the largest displacement from equilibrium period frequency 14
A = amplitude, the largest displacement from equilibrium period frequency 14

period

frequency

x=A x=0 x=A 15

x=A

x=0

x=A

x=A x=0 x=A 15
x=A x=0 x=A 15
x=A x=0 x=A 15
x=A x=0 x=A 15
x=A x=0 x=A 15

15

The force needed to stretch a spring an amount x is F = kx. Therefore, the work done in stretching

Area of a triangle with sides kx and x

the spring is

The force needed to stretch a spring an amount x is F = kx . Therefore,
The force needed to stretch a spring an amount x is F = kx . Therefore,
The force needed to stretch a spring an amount x is F = kx . Therefore,
The force needed to stretch a spring an amount x is F = kx . Therefore,