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FORCES & PRESSURE

3.1 PRESSURE
1. Question 3: Teknik 07
Diagram 3.1 shows a man weight of
500 N sitting on 800 nails and feels no
pain although the nails exerted pressure
to him. Diagram 3.2 shows the surface
area of the tip of the nail

DIAGRAM 3.1

DIAGRAM 3.2

(a) State the SI unit of pressure?


..............................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Calculate the pressure exerted on
the man in Diagram 3.1

[3 marks]
(c) Its easier to cut through a loaf of bread
using a sharp knife than a blunt knife.
Explain this situation.

..............................................................
..............................................................
[2 marks]

2. Question 5: Kelantan 09
Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two
balloons A and B exerted with the same
force.

(a) What is meant by pressure?


...............................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram
5.2,
(i) Which balloon will burst easily?
...............................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Compare the pressure exerted on
the balloon.
...............................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) Compare the surface area of
finger and needle which in contact
with the balloon.
..........................................................
[1 mark]
(iv) Relate the pressure exerted on the
balloon with the surface area
...........................................................
[1 mark]
(v) What happens to the pressure on
the balloon if force exerted is
increased?
...........................................................
[1 mark]

3. Question 6: Johor 07
A farmer has two vehicles with the same
mass and the same number of wheels.

Diagram 6.1

Diagram 6.2

(d) A manufacturer of car wheels


estimates that the area of a car
wheel in contact with the road is
about the same as the area of a
persons shoe in contact with the
ground. A car weighs 10 000 N and a
driver weighs 500 N.
(i) Calculate the ratio pressure of car
on ground : pressure of driver on
ground. The car has 4 tyres and a
driver has 2 feet)

(a) Based in the Diagram 6.1 and


Diagram 6.2:
(i) compare the contact area between
the wheels in the Diagram 6.1 and
Diagram 6.2.
...............................................................
................................................................
[1 mark]

[2 marks]
(ii) Suggest why it might be a good
idea to reduce the pressure of the
air in car tyres if the car is to be
driven over soft sand.

(ii) compare the weight of the


vehicle 1 and vehicle 2.

......................................................................

...............................................................

......................................................................
[1 mark]

................................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Which vehicle should the farmer use
when driving across his fields when
the ground is very soft? Give your
reasons.

3.2 LIQUID PRESSURE


4. Question 5: SBP 07
Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two
dams with different shapes.

......................................................................
......................................................................
[2 marks]
(c) Name the physics concept involved.
...............................................................
[1 mark]

Diagram 5.1

Diagram 5.2

(a) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram


5.2
(i) Compare the dams in Diagram
5.1 and Diagram 5.2.
...........................................................
...........................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Compare the pressure at point
A and point B in the lake.
...........................................................
..........................................................
...........................................................
[1 mark]

(b) (i) Based on the answer in (a)(ii),


which dam is stronger?

Diagram 5.3
(i) Name the apparatus shown in
diagram 5.3.
.....................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Give a reason why water flows
from the beaker to the cylinder
as shown in Diagram 5.3.

........................................................

.....................................................

........................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Explain the reasons for your
answer in (b)(i).

.....................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) In Diagram 5.4, mark the
water level in the cylinder
when water stops flowing
from the beaker to the
cylinder.

........................................................
.......................................................
[ 2 marks ]
(c) Diagram 5.3 shows an apparatus
used to remove water from a beaker
to a cylinder.

[1 mark]

5.
Question 7: SBP 09
Diagram 7.1 shows a concrete water
tank filled with water.

(i) What is the factor that causes


the water to flow from the
concrete tank to the
..............................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) The flow of water from the
concrete tank to the house
will stop at level P.
Explain why the supply
stops?

Diagram 7.1
(a) State a factor that affects the water
pressure in the tank.
..............................................................
[1 mark]
(b)(i) Compare the water pressure at P
and Q
..........................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Calculate the water pressure at Q.
-3
(Density of water = 1000 kg m )

..............................................................
..............................................................
[2 mark]
(d) (i) Suggest two modifications
that can be done to ensure the
water flow continously to the
house water tank.
..............................................................
..............................................................
[2 mark]
(ii) Draw a water tank that can
withstand high water
pressure .

[2 marks]
(c)

Diagram 7.2 shows water flows


from the concrete tank to the house
water tank.

Diagram 7.2

[1 mark]

3.3 TEKANAN ATMOSFERA


6. Soalan 5: Melaka 09
Rajah 5.1 dan rajah 5.2 menunjukkan
dua manometer merkuri dalam sebuah
makmal. Bekalan gas dalam rajah 5.1
adalah kurang daripada rajah 5.2

[2marks]
(iii) Berapa jumlah tekanan
pada titik W?
[1 mark]
(iii) state the relationship between
pressure at W and the gas
pressure
[1 mark]
(b) Based on the answers in 5(a)(ii)
and 5(a)(iii), write words equation
that relate between the
atmospheric pressure, mercury
pressure and the gas pre ssure.

[1
mark]
(c) (i) Bekalan gas dialihkan.
Nyatakan perubahan ketinggian
merkuri bagi kedua-dua rajah.

(a) Berdasarkan Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah


5.2
(i) Nyatakan persamaan
magnitude dan arah bagi
tekanan.
Magnitude :
Arah :

[1 mark]
(ii) Berikan satu sebab bagi jawapan
pada (c)(i).

[1 mark]

3.4 PRINSIP PASCAL


7. Soalan 2: Melaka Trial 08
Rajah 2 sistem brek hidraulik sebuah
kereta. Luas kawasan silinder utama
-4
2
dan silinder kecil adalah 5 x 10 m
-4
2
dan 6.0 x 10 m

8. Soalan 3: Kedah 08
Rajah 3.1 menunjukkan model jek
hidraulik. Daya F1 yang dikenakan pada
piston kecil R berupaya mengangkat
dua beban yang diletakkan pada piston
S dan T.

Rajah 2
(a) Nyatakan Prinsip fizik yang
terlibat dalam Rajah 2.
..........................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Pada Rajah 2, tunjukkan arah
pergerakan bagi silinder utama
dan silinder kecil.

(a) Namakan prinsip yang


digunakan pada jek
hidraulik.
..
[1 mark]
(b) (i) Sekiranya F1 = 5.0 N, hitung
tekanan yang ditindakkan
pada piston R.

[1 mark]
(c) Nyatakan hubungan diantara
tekanan cecair pada silinder
utama dan silinder kecil.
...........................................................
[1 mark]

[1 mark] (ii) Bandingkan tekanan cecair


pada S dan T kepada tekanan R.
.
[1 mark]
(iii) Tentukan magnitude pada daya
F2
[2 marks]

(d) Pedal brek ditekan dengan daya 15N.


Hitungkan daya yang dikenakan
pada silinder kecil.

[2 marks]

(c) Berikan satu sebab kenapa adalah lebih


sesuai menggunakan cecair daripada
udara sebagai fluid.

[2 marks]

........................................................
[1 mark]
3.5 ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE
9. Question 3: MRSM 09
Diagram 3.1 shows a freely floating
hydrometer in water.
Diagram 3.2
(c) Diagram 3.2 shows an object
which has a weight of 0.25 N fully
immersed in water. Its apparent
weight is 0.22 N. [Density of water
-3
= 1000 kg m ]
(i)
What is the buoyant force
on the object?
[1 mark]
(ii)

Determine the volume of the


object.

Diagram 3.1
A principle states that:
When a body is immersed wholly or
partially in a fluid, the buoyant forces
acting on the body is equal to the weight
of the fluid it displaces.
(a) (i) Name the principle above.

[2 marks]

10. Question 3: Kedah 09


Diagram 3 shows a block of concrete
being lowered to the bottoms of a lake.
3

......
[1 mark]
(ii) Mark on Diagram 3.1 the
direction of the two forces acting on the
hyrdrometer.
[1 mark]
(b) The hydrometer is removed from
water, dried and then placed in oil.
(i) Predict the length of the
hydrometer that is submerged in
oil, compared to length in water
........................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Give a reason for your answer in
3(b)(i).

The volume of the block is 2.5 m and its


weight is 125 000 N. The density of the
-3

water in the lake is 1 010 kgm .

Diagram 3
(a) State the SI unit for pressure.
......................................................
[1 mark]

(b) State one factor that affects the


pressure at a point below the
surface of a liquid.
(c) (i) Calculate the weight of the
water displaced by the block.

[ 1 mark ]
(iii) compare the weight of water
displaced by sphere A and sphere
B
...........................................................
[ 1 mark ]

[2 marks]

(iv) relate the weight of sphere and


the weight of water displaced
(ii) Calculate the tension, T, in the
cable.

...........................................................
[ 1 mark ]

[2 marks]
(v) relate the weight of water
displaced and upthrust
11. Question 5: SBP 08
Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show two
solid spheres A and B with different
density place in the water.

.........................................................
[ 1 mark ]
(c)

Name the physics principle


involved in Diagram 5.1 and
Diagram 5.2.
............................................................
[ 1 mark ]

(c)
(a) What is meant by density?
............................................................
[ 1 mark ]

State one application of physics


principle in 5 (c).
..............................................................
[ 1 mark ]
12. Question 5: Mid Melaka 09

Diagram 5.1 shows three boxes with


different density at stationary state.

(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram


5.1,
(i) compare the density of sphere A
and sphere B
...........................................................
[ 1 mark ]
(ii) compare the weight of sphere A
and sphere B
...........................................................

Diagram 5.1

Diagram 5.2 shows the boxes float still


when placed in a liquid.

(c) Based on the answer in 5(b)(ii),


name the physics concept
involve.
[1 mark]
13. Question 5: Trengganu 07
A fisherman finds that his boat is at
different levels in the sea and in the
river, although the
boat carries
the same load. The density of sea water
-3
and river water is 1025 kg m and 1000
-3
kg m respectively.

Diagram 5.2
(a) Based on the situation in Diagram
5.1 and the situation in Diagram
5.2,
(i) State similarities about the
volume and the net force of the
boxes.
Volume: ................................
Net force of the boxes:
...............................................
[2 marks]
(ii) Compare the weight of the boxes
in ascending order.

[1 mark]
(b) Observe Diagram 5.2
(i)
Describe the position of the
boxes in the liquid
[2 marks]

(ii)

Explain your answer in


5(b)(i).
[2 marks]

Diagram 5.1(a)

Diagram 5.1(b)

Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 illustrate


the situation of the boat in the sea and
in the river.
(a)

What is meant by density?

..............................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram
5.2 :
(i) Compare the level of the boat
in the sea water and in the river
water.
.....................................................
.....................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Compare the volume of water
displaced by the boat in the
sea and in the river
.....................................................
.....................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) Compare th density of sea
water and river water.

.....................................................
.....................................................
[1 mark]
(c)(i) Relate the volume of water
displaced to the density of water.
..............................................................
..............................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) Deduce relationship between
weight of the boat and the weight
of the water displaced.
...........................................................

(i)

(ii)

...........................................................
[1 mark]
(d) Name the physics principle that
explains the situation above.

State one func ion of plimsoll


line?
........................................................
What is the buoyant force acts
on the boat.
.......................................................
[1 mark]

(iii) In the Diagram 7.2, mark the

..............................................................
[1 mark]

level of water when the boat


enter the river Mouth.
[1 mark]

(e) A submarine can sail on the sea


surface and under the sea by using
the principle stated in (d).
How a submarine on the surface of
the sea can submerge?
..............................................................
.............................................................
[1 mark]
14. Question 7: N9 08

(a) Diagram 7.1 show a boat made from


steel floating at the sea. The mass of
the boat is 7500 kg.

(iv)

Explain your answer in (a)(iii).

.....................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Diagram 7.3 shows a hot air
balloon floating stationary in the
air.

(a) (i) Name the science principle


involved in the insecticide
sprayer.
...........................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Which region experiences low
pressure?
In the box below, tick the
correct answer.
X
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

State the relationship between


the weight of air balloon and
the upthrust.
.....................................................
[1 mark]
What will happen to the air
balloon if the load is dropped?
.....................................................
[1 mark]
Explain your answer in (b) (ii).
.....................................................
.....................................................
[2 mark]

3.6 BERNOULLIS PRINCIPLE


15. Question 2: Melaka 08
Diagram 2.1 shows an insecticide
sprayer.

Y
X
[1 mark]

(b) State one reason for your answer


in 2 (a) (ii).
..........................................................
[1 mark]
(c) Describe how the instrument
produced a fine spray liquid?
...........................................................
[1 mark]
16. Question 3: SBP 08
Diagram 3.1 shows a horizontal tube AB
with both of it ends are closed with
rubber stoppers. The tube is also fixed
with three vertical tubes X,Y and Z.
Water is then poured into the horizontal
tube AB.

(i)

Mark the water level in the


vertical tube X,Y and Z.
[1 mark]

(ii) State one physical quantity that


affected the water level in the
above diagram.
...........................................................
[1 mark]

Diagram 3.2
(c) A ventury tube AB now is replaced
with the ventury tube shown in
diagram 3.2. Water flows uniformly
from end A to end B of the tube and
it is found that the water level of
tube P is at Z. (Density of water =
-3
1000 kgm )

17. Question 5: Perak 07


The Diagram 5.1 shows before and when
air flow through tube.
The Diagram 5.2 shows the situation of
the roof of a house before and when
high wind blows.

(i) Compare the water level in the


vertical tube P,Q and R.
..........................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Name the principal involve in b(i).

Before air flows

When air flows

Diagram 5.1

...........................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) By neglecting atmospheric
pressure, calculate the pressure
caused by the water column at
point X.
Before air flows

When air flows

Diagram 5.2
[2 marks]

(a) What is meant by speed?


..........................................................
[1 mark]
(b) Based on Diagram 5.1 and
Diagram 5.2:
(i) State two similarities for the
situations in Diagram 5.1 and
Diagram 5.2.
1. ..............................................
.............................................
2. ..............................................

In Diagram 5.3,
(i) Compare the speed of air at Q
and at R.
....................................................
[1 mark]
(ii) Compare air the pressure at Q
and R.
.....................................................
[1 mark]

..............................................
[2 marks]
(ii) Compare the air pressure
above the roof and below the
roof in Diagram 5.2.
....................................................
[1 mark]
(iii) Relate the speed of the air and
the pressure of the air.
....................................................
[1 mark]

18. Conceptual: Kedah 07


Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2 show how
water spurts out from its container when
the valve is opened.

(c) Name the principle involved in 5


(b)(iii).
...........................................................
[1 mark]
Diagram 9.1

(d) Diagram 5.3 shows an instrument


use to spray an insecticide.

Diagram 9.2

When a liquid is held in a container, it


exerts pressure on the container.
(a) What is meant by pressure?
[1 mark]
(b) With reference to Diagram 9.1 and
Diagram 9.2, compare the depth of
the water in both containers, the rate
at which water spurts out and the
distance travelled by the water that
spurts out.

Relate the distance travelled by the


water that spurts out to the depth of
the water. Hence make a conclusion
regarding the relationship between
the pressure and the depth of the
water.
[5 marks]

(ii) Explain why places at high altitude


the temperature is colder compare to
places at low altitude which is more
warmer.
[4 marks]
22. Understanding: SBP 07

19. Understanding: Kedah 07


A small bubble of air is released from
the bottom of a lake.
(i) Explain what happens to the size of
bubble as it rises to the surface of
the water.
[2 marks]
(ii) Explain how this change affects the
upward motion of the bubble.
[2 marks]

20. Understanding: Trengganu 07


Diagram 9.2 shows the toothpaste flows
out of its tube while squeezing at the
bottom end.

Diagram 11.2
Diagram 11.2 shows rod A and rod B of
different densities are immersed in
water. Explain why the rods float in
water and why B sinks deeper than A.
[4 marks]
23. Understanding: Trengganu 07
Diagram 11.1 shows a small aircraft.
Diagram 11.2 shows a cross section of
the aircrafts wings.

DIAGRAM 9.2
Explain how the toothpaste flows out
and name a physics principle related to
it.
[4 marks]

Diagram 11.1

]
21. Understanding: Perak 07
(i) What is meant by pressure?
[1 mark]

Diagram 11.2
(a) Name the shape of the cross
sectional of the aircraft wings.
[1 mark]
(b) The aircraft obtains its lift when
flying due to a difference in
pressure of the air between the
upper and bottom sides of the
wings.
(i) Explain how this difference in
pressure is produced.
[3 marks]
(i) Name the principle involved in
your answer to(b)(i)
[1 mark]

DIAGRAM 11.1
(i)

What is the meaning of buoyant


force ?
[1 mark ]

(ii)

Explain why the balloon and the


load float ?
[4 marks ]

(c) If the mooring rope cut off, the


balloons will rise up.
24. Teknik 07
Diagram 11.1 shows a gas balloon,
moored with a load at the Book Festival.
The mass of the balloon is 5 kg. The
balloon and the load float at a certain
height and the buoyant force acting on
the balloon is 250 N

(i) Calculate the resultant force of the


balloon
(ii) Calculate the initial acceleration of
the balloon
(iii) what is your assumption in your
calculation in c(ii)
[5 marks]
Table 11.2 shows the characteristics of
four sets, A, B , C and D of balloons,
ropes and loads .
Set

Type of gas
filled and
density

Mass of
loads
/kg

Helium
-3
(0.17 kg m )

Maximum
Tension
allowed /
N
300

Hydrogen
3
(0.09 kg/m )
Helium
-3
(0.17 kg m )
Nitrogen
3
(1.25 kg/m )

C
D

20

250

20

300

100

system

As a supervisor , you are assigned to


investigate the characteristics of set
balloons, ropes and loads that could
be used for the purpose.
Base on the table 11.2;
(i) Explain the suitable
characteristics of the balloons,
ropes and loads so that it can be
used
(ii) Decide which set is most suitable
to be used at the festival.
(iii) Explain why the others set is not
suitable
[10 marks]
25. Making decision problem: Perak
07
You are asked to investigate the
characteristics of tractors and choose a
tractor that can do heavy works, an
example of a tractor is shown in
Diagram 11.2.

Large

Liquid

Large

Large

Low

Large

Liquid

Large

Large

High

Large

Gas

Large

Small

High

Mediu
m

Liquid

Large

Mediu
m

Low

Large

Liquid

Large

Mediu
m

High

(i)
(ii)

Explain the suitability of the


characteristics of the tractors
used to do heavy works.
Determine the most suitable
tractor and give reasons for
you choice.
[10 marks]

26. Making decision: SBP 07


Diagram 11.1 shows an apparatus which
is used to determine the density of a
liquid. These apparatus is an application
of Archimedes Principle.

Diagram 11.2
Type
of
tract
or

Characteristics of tractors
Size of
tyre

Physic
al state
of
fluids
used in
hydrau
lic

Mass

Base
area

Cent
re of
gravi
ty

Diagram 11.1

You are required to build a hydrometer


that can be used to measure densities of
concentrated acids.
Table 11.1 shows the characteristics of 4
types of hydrometers L, M, N and O.

Diameter of
bottom
bulb/ cm

Density of
shots/ kgm-

0.5
2.0
0.5
2.0

Plastic
Plastic
Glass
Glass

Diameter of
capillary
tube/ cm

Type of
material of
hydroeter

Hydrometer

L
M
N
O

1000
1300
9800
8000

1.0
3.0
3.0
1.0

Based on the table 11.1;


(ii) Explain the suitable
characteristics of the
hydrometer so that it can be
used to measure different
densities of acids.
(iii) Decide which hydrometer is
most suitable and give reasons.
[10 marks]

27. Making Descision: Trengganu


07 (a) Table 11 shows characteristic
of four design of the aircraft wings.

You are requested to choose a suitable


wing to be installed with the body of the
aircraft.
By referring to the information given in
Table 11, explain the suitability of each
characteristic and suggest the most
suitable wing to be installed with the
body of the aircraft.
[10 marks]
(b) An aircraft installation department
chooses wing P to be installed
with its aircrafts which has
maximum mass 800 kg.
(i) If the air pressure below the wing is
more than the air pressure above
-2
the wing by 500 N m , calculate the
force that exerted from below of the
wing.
[2 marks]
(ii)

Determine the resultant force and


its direction that exerted to the wing
of the aircraft.
[2 marks]

(iii) Calculate the vertical acceleration


of the aircraft.
[1 mark]

28. Qualitative problem: Kedah 07

Diagram 9.3 and Diagram 9.4 show the side


view of two different models of a dam made
from bricks and concrete.

Diagram 9.3

Diagram 9.4

[10 marks]
30. Quantitative problem: Perak 07
Diagram 11.1 is used to study the effect
of altitude on the magnitude of
atmospheric. The atmospheric pressure
can be measured by a Fortin barometer.
The density of the mercury used in the
-3
Fortin barometer is 13 600 kg m .

(i) Which model is preferable? Explain your


answer.
[2 marks]
(ii) Suggest two uses of the water in the
dam.
[2 marks]
(iii) Explain the modifications that need to be
made to the dam to enable it to store
more water safely.
[6 marks]

29. Qualitative problem : Trengganu 07


Diagram 9.3 shows a hidraulic jack
which can lift up a maximum mass of 1
metric tonne.

Diagram 11.1
What is the
(i)
atmospheric pressure at the
sea level in pascal (Pa)?
(ii)

atmospheric pressure
experienced by the aircraft in
pascal (Pa)?

(iii)

atmospheric pressure
experienced by the satellite in
pascal (Pa)?
[5 marks]

DIAGRAM 9.3
Using suitable physics concepts,
explain the modification that needs to be
done to the:
i.
size of the piston,
ii. material of the body,
iii. type of liquid used,
iv. handle and
v. ability to reset the piston position
easily of the hidraulic jack to enable
it to lift mass of greater quantity.

31. Section B: SBP 08


Diagram 9.1 shows a hot air balloon
carry up the loads at a certain height in
the morning and diagram 9.2 shows the
same hot air balloon carry up the loads
at a certain height in the afternoon. This
hot air balloon used helium gas at the
same temperature in both situation.
In the morning

In the afternoon

By considering the ship in Diagram


9.3, give some suggestion how you
would design a submarine that can
submerge in a deep sea. In your
explanation, emphasise on the
following aspects
( i ) the shape of the submarine.
( ii ) material used for its body.
(a) (i) What is meant by density?
[1 mark]
(ii) Using diagrams 9.1 and 9.2,
compare the density of the air, the
load that can be carry up by the
hot air balloon and the height of
the hot air balloon from the
ground.
Relate the buoyant force with the
density of the air to make a
deduction regarding the
relationship between the density
of the air and the weight of the
load carry up by the hot air
balloon.
[5 marks]
(b) Why does an iron nail sink in water
but a cargo ship with a huge mass
floats?
[4 marks]
(c) Diagram 9.3 shows a ship.

( iii) additional component to


control its buoyant force and
to observe the sea
surroundings.
( iv) safety features for the crew
of the submarine.
[10 marks]
32. Section B: Trengganu 08
(a) Diagram 9.1(a), Diagram 9.2(b) and
Diagram 9.2(c) show a rock hung on a
spring balance in air, immersed in water
and cooking oil respectively. The
reading of the spring balance for
each situation is as shown in Diagram
9.1.

(i) What is meant by weight?


[1 mark]
(ii) Using Diagram 9.1(a), Diagram 9.1(b)
and Diagram 9.1(c), compare the
spring balance reading, the weight
lost of the rock and the density of the
water and the cooking oil.
Relating the weight lost and the
density, deduce a relevant physics
concept.
[4 marks]
(iii) Name the physics principle that
explains the above situations.
[1 mark]

Using suitable physics concepts,


explain the required modification
needed in designing a barge that can
carry more and heavier goods, move
faster and safe in fresh and salt water.
You can emphasise on the following
aspects in your modification;
i.
material used
ii.

plimsoll line

iii.

shape and size of the barge


[10 marks]

33. Section C: Kelantan 08


Diagram 11.1 shows two boats of the
same weights floating on the surface of
water in the sea and in the river.

(b) Diagram 9.2 shows a copper block and


a bowl shape copper sheet of same
mass.
Explain why the copper block sink in
water but the bowl shape copper sheet
floats on water.
[4 marks]

(c)

Diagram 9.3 shows a barge used to


transport goods from fresh water port
to the ship anchored away from the
seaside.

(a)(i) What is meant by weight?


[1 mark]
(iii)Explain why the boat is able to
float?
[1 mark]
(iv)Explain why the sinking levels of
the boats are difference in the
river and in the sea.
[3 marks]
(a) If the volume of the boat that
3
sinks in sea water is 250 mm and
the density of sea water is 1 080
-3
kgm , calculate
(i)
Up thrust which acts on the
boat.
[3 marks]
(ii)
The volume of water
displaced when the boat is
in the river. [density of river
-3
water = 1 000 kgm ]
[2 marks]

(b) Diagram 11.2 shows the


specifications of four hydrometers
P, Q, R and S

Long and small


stem
Glass wall
Bulb of diameter
6 cm
Lead shoots

long and small


stem
Plastics wall
Bulb of diameter
3 cm
vacuum

(ii)

Determine the most suitable


hydrometer to be used to
measure the density of an acid
solution.
[10 marks]
34. Section C: N9 08
Diagram 11.1 shows a machine
controlled by a worker to dump soil.
A hydraulic system helps to move the
bucket containing soil.

(a) What is meant by pressure?


[1 mark ]
(b) Using a concept of pressure in
liquid, explain why the hydraulic
system in this machine is known
as a force multiplier.
[4 marks]

Short and small


Stem
Glass wall
Bulb of diameter
6 cm
Vacuum

short and small


stem
Aluminium wall
Bulb of diameter
3 cm
Lead shoots

You are asked to measure the density of


an acid solution.
(i)
Study hydrometers P, Q,R and
S in diagram 11.2 and explain
the suitability of each features
to determine the density of
acid solution

(c) Diagram 11.2 shows a hydraulic jack


lifting the back portion of the car.

Table 11.3 shows four type of liquid, K,


L, M, and N, with different

specifications. You are required to


determine the most suitable liquid that
can be used as a hydraulic fluid in the
hydraulic jack. Study the specifications
of all the four types of liqiud from the
following aspects:
i) Boiling point of the liquid
ii) Specific heat capacity of liquid
iii) Density of liquid
iv) Rate of vaporation of liquid
[10 marks]
(d)

A man of mass 60 kg walks on


snow wearing snow shoes. His feet
will sink into the snow if the
pressure exerted exceeds 500 Pa.
(i) What is the weight of the man?
(ii) Calculate the minimum area of
each snow shoe so that he will
not sink into the snow.
[5 marks]

35. Section C: Kedah


08
(a) (i) State Archimedess principle.
[1 mark]
with
(ii) Explain why a balloon filled .
helium gas rises up in the
ks]
air
[4 marent
(b) Diagram 11.1 shows four hot air
balloon, P,Q, R and S with differ air
textures. You are required to ree
determine the most suitable hot e in
balloon which is able to carry th
or four people to a higher altitud
a shorter time. Study the features of
all the four hot air balloons from the
following aspects:
- The size of the balloon
- The number of the burners
- The type of the fabric of the the
balloon
- The temperature of the air in ects.
balloon.
Explain the suitability of the asp
Justify your choice.

Hot air balloon P


Small balloon,
3
volume = 800 m

Features
- Type of
ballon fabric:
Synthetic
nylon
- Temperature
of flame: 100C

Hot air balloon Q


Large balloon
3
Volume: 2500 m

Features
- Type of
ballon fabric:
Synthetic
nylon
- Temperature
of flame: 120C

Hot air balloon R


Large balloon
3
Volume: 2500 m

Features
- Type of
ballon fabric:
Canvas
- Temperature
of flame: 60C

Hot air balloon S


Small balloon
3
Volume: 800 m

Features
- Type of
ballon fabric:
Canvas
- Temperature
of flame: 80C

[10 marks]
(c) Diagram 11.3 shows a cylindrical glass
tube of uniform cross sectional area of
2
2 cm . The glass tube contains lead
shots and floats upright in water.

36. Quatitative problem: SBP 07


Diagram 11.3 shows a boat which has a
safety limit line, L. The volume of the
3
boat under the line L is 4 m . The mass
of the boat is 250 kg.
-3
[density of water : 1000 kgm ]

Diagram
(i) Calculate the volume of water
displaced by the boat.
-3

The density of water is 1 g cm


(i)
Calculate the total mass of the
glass tube and the lead shots.
(ii)
The tube is then placed in
another liquid of different
density. Determine the
minimum density of liquid for
the tube to float in it.
[5 marks]

(ii) What is the maximum load that can


be carried safely by the boat?
[ 5 marks]

[
5
m
a
r