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# Example 1: A single effect evaporator is to be used to concentrate a food

solution containing 15% (by mass)dissolved solids to 50% solids. The feed
stream enters the evaporator at 291 K with a feed rate of 1.0 kg s 1. Steam is
available at a pressure of 2.4 bar and an absolute pressure of 0.07 bar is
maintained in the evaporator. Assuming that the properties of the solution
are the same as those of water, and taking the overall heat transfer
coefficient to be 2300 W m 2K1, calculate the rate of steam consumption
and the necessary heat transfer surface area. Working in units of kg s 1, the
overall material balance becomes
1.0 = V + L
Substituting into the component material balance for x F = 0.15 and xL = 0.50
gives
0.15 1.0 = 0.50 L

=>

L = 0.3kg s1 , V = 0.7kg s1

from steam tables: (If the steam and condensate remain saturated at 2.40
bar)
hS = 2715kJ kg1 and hC = 530kJ kg1
The feed enthalpy is determined by its temperature. Assuming the feed to be
pure water, hF is equal to hf at 291 K and therefore hF = 75.5kJ kg1.
The enthalpies of the vapour and liquor streams are a function of the
pressure within the evaporator:
hV = 2572 kJ kg1 (hg at 0.07 bar) and hL =
163kJ kg1 (hf at 0.07 bar). The enthalpy balance:
S(2715 530) = (0.70 2572) + (0.30 163) (1.0 75.5)
S = 0.812 kg s1 and

## The temperature of steam at 2.4 bar is TS = 126.1C and the temperature of

saturated liquid water at the evaporator pressure of 0.07 bar is T E = 39.0C.
Thus, from the rate equation, the heat transfer area is

## Example 2: An aqueous solution at 15.5C, and containing 4% solids, is

concentrated to 20% solids. A single effect evaporator with a heat transfer
surface area of 37.2 m2 and an overall heat transfer coefficient of 2000 W
1

## m2 K1 is to be used. The calandria contains dry saturated steam at a

pressure of 200 kPa and the evaporator operates under a vacuum of 81.3
kPa. If the boiling point rise is 5 K, calculate the evaporator capacity.

At 200 kPa the steam and condensate enthalpies are h S = 2707 kJ kg1, hC =
505 kJ kg1, Ts=120.2C.
The pressure within the evaporator is 101.3 81.3 = 20.0 kPa at which the
boiling point of water is 60.1C. The evaporator temperature is now 60.1C
plus the boiling point elevation and therefore TE = 65.1C.

=> S = 1.862 kg s1
From steam tables, the feed enthalpy at 15.5C is hF = 65 kJ kg1.
Vapour enthalpy: hV = 2609 kJ kg1 (hg at 0.20 bar) + (1.91 5) kJ kg 1 =
2618.6 kJ kg1
Cp (water vapour at 60.1C)= 1.91 kJ kg1 K1
The enthalpy of the concentrated liquor stream at the evaporator
temperature is hL = 272 kJ kg1 (hf at 65.1C). The component balance
becomes
0.04F = 0.20L => F = 5L , V = 4L
S(hS hC) = 4LhV + LhL 5LhF
1.862(2707 505) = (4L 2618.55) + 272L 325L
L = 0.393 kg s1 and the evaporator capacity is F = 1.97 kg s1

## EXAMPLE 3. Single effect evaporator: steam usage and heat transfer

surface
A single effect evaporator is required to concentrate a solution from 10%
solids to 30% solids at the rate of 250 kg of feed per hour. If the pressure in
the evaporator is 77 kPa absolute, and if steam is available at 200 kPa
gauge, calculate the quantity of steam required per hour and the area of
heat transfer surface if the overall heat transfer coefficient is 1700 J m-2 s-1
C-1.
2

Assume that the temperature of the feed is 18C and that the boiling point of
the solution under the pressure of 77 kPa absolute is 91C. Assume, also,
that the specific heat of the solution is the same as for water, that is 4.186 x
103 J kg-1C-1, and the latent heat of vaporization of the solution is the same
as that for water under the same conditions.
From steam tables, the condensing temperature of steam at 200 kPa (gauge)
[300 kPa absolute] is 134C and latent heat 2164 kJ kg-1; the condensing
temperature at 77 kPa (abs.) is 91C and latent heat is 2281 kJ kg-1.
Mass balance (kg h-1)
Solids

Liquids

Total

Feed

25

225

250

Product

25

58

83

Evaporation

167

Heat balance
Heat available per kg of steam
= latent heat + sensible heat in cooling to 91C
= 2.164 x 106 + 4.186 x 103(134 - 91)
= 2.164 x 106 + 1.8 x 105
= 2.34 x 106 J
Heat required by the solution
= latent heat + sensible heat in heating from 18C
to 91C
= 2281 x 103 x 167 + 250 x 4.186 x 103 x (91 - 18)
= 3.81 x 108 + 7.6 x 107
= 4.57 x 108 Kg J h-1
Now, heat from steam
= heat required by the solution,
Therefore quantity of steam required per hour = (4.57 x 108)/(2.34 x 106)
= 195 kg h-1
Quantity of steam/kg of water evaporated = 195/167
= 1.17 kg steam/kg water.
Heat-transfer area
Temperature of condensing steam = 134C.
Temperature difference across the evaporator = (134 - 91) = 43C.
Writing the heat transfer equation for q in joules/sec,
q = UA DT
(4.57 x 108)/3600 = 1700 x A x 43
A = 1.74 m2
3

## Area of heat transfer surface = 1.74 m2

(It has been assumed that the sensible heat in the condensed (cooling from
134C to 91C) steam is recovered, and this might in practice be done in a
feed heater. If it is not recovered usefully, then the sensible heat component,
about 8%, should be omitted from the heat available, and the remainder of

## EXAMPLE 4. Concentration of tomato juice in a climbing film evaporator

Tomato juice is to be concentrated from 12% solids to 28% solids in a climbing
film evaporator, 3 m high and 4 cm diameter. The maximum allowable
temperature for tomato juice is 57C. The juice is fed to the evaporator at 57C
and at this temperature the latent heat of vaporization is 2366 kJ kg-1.
Steam is used in the jacket of the evaporator at a pressure of 170 kPa (abs). If
the overall heat-transfer coefficient is 6000 J m-2 s-1 C-1, estimate the quantity of
tomato juice feed per hour. Take heating surface as 3 m long x 0.04 m diameter.
Mass balance: basis 100-kg feed
Solids

Liquids

Total

Feed

12

88

100

Product

12

31

43

Evaporation

57

Heat balance
Area of evaporator tube pDHL
= p x 0.04 x 3
= 0.38 m2
Condensing steam temperature at 170 kPa (abs) = 115C from Steam Tables.
Making a heat balance across the evaporator
q = UA DT
= 6000 x 0.38 x (115 - 57)
= 1.32 x 105 J s-1
Heat required per kg of feed for evaporation
= 0.57 x 2366 x 103
= 1.34 x 106 J

## Rate of evaporation = (1.32 x 105)/ 1.34 x 106)

= 0.1 kg s-1
Rate of evaporation = 360 kg h-1
Quantity of tomato juice feed per hour = 360 kg

## Problem 1. A single-effect evaporator is used to concentrate 7 kg/s of a

solution from 10 to 50 per cent of solids. Steam is available at 205 kN/m2
and evaporation takes place at 13.5 kN/m2. If the overall heat transfer
coefficient is 3 kW/m2 K, calculate the heating surface required and the
amount of steam used if the feed to the evaporator is at 294 K and the
condensate leaves the heating space at 352.7 K. The specific heat capacity
of a 10 per cent solution is 3.76 kJ/kgK, the specific heat capacity of a 50 per
cent solution is 3.14 kJ/kg K.
Problem 2. 1.9 kg/s of a liquid containing 10 per cent by mass of dissolved
solids is fed at 338 K to a forward-feed double-effect evaporator. The product
consists of 25 per cent by mass of solids and a mother liquor containing 25
per cent by mass of dissolved solids. The steam fed to the first effect is dry
and saturated at 240 kN/m2 and the pressure in the second effect is 20
kN/m2. The specific heat capacity of the solid may be taken as 2.5 kJ/kg K,
both in solid form and in solution, and the heat of solution may be neglected.
The mother liquor exhibits a boiling point rise of 6 deg K. If the two effects
are identical, what area is required if the heat transfer coefficients in the first
and second effects are 1.7 and 1.1 kW/m2 K respectively?
Problem 3. An evaporator, working at atmospheric pressure, is used to
concentrate a solution from 5 per cent to 20 per cent solids at the rate of
1.25 kg/s. The solution, which has a specific heat capacity of 4.18 kJ/kg K, is
fed to the evaporator at 295 K and boils at 380 K. Dry saturated steam at
240 kN/m2 is fed to the calandria, and the condensate leaves at the
temperature of the condensing stream. If the heat transfer coefficient is 2.3
kW/m2 K, what is the required area of heat transfer surface and how much
steam is required? The latent heat of vaporisation of the solution may be
taken as being the same as that of water.

## Problem 4. A liquid with no appreciable elevation of boiling-point is

concentrated in a triple-effect evaporator. If the temperature of the steam to
the first effect is 395 K and vacuum is applied to the third effect so that the
5

## boiling-point is 325 K, what are the approximate boiling-points in the three

effects? The overall transfer coefficients may be taken as 3.1, 2.3, and 1.1
kW/m2 K in the three effects respectively.

## Problem 5. A single-effect evaporator with a heating surface area of 10 m2

is used to concentrate a NaOH solution flowing at 0.38 kg/s from 10 per cent
to 33.3 per cent. The feed enters at 338 K and its specific heat capacity is
3.2 kJ/kg K. The pressure in the vapour space is 13.5 kN/m2 and 0.3 kg/s of
steam is used from a supply at 375 K. Calculate:
(a) The apparent overall heat transfer coefficient.
(b) The coefficient corrected for boiling point rise of dissolved solids.
(c) The corrected coefficient if the depth of liquid is 1.5 m.

## Problem 6. A triple-effect backward-feed evaporator concentrates 5 kg/s of

liquor from 10 per cent to 50 per cent solids. Steam is available at 375
kN/m2 and the condenser operates at 13.5 kN/m2. What is the area required
in each effect, assumed identical, and the economy of the unit?
The specific heat capacity is 4.18 kJ/kgK at all concentrations and that there
is no boiling-point rise. The overall heat transfer coefficients are 2.3, 2.0 and
1.7 kW/m2 K respectively in the three effects, and the feed enters the third
effect at 300 K.
Problem 7. A single-effect evaporator is to produce a 35% solids tomato
concentrate from a 6% solids raw juice entering at 18C. The pressure in the
evaporator is 20 kPa(absolute) and steam is available at 100 kPa gauge. The
overall heat-transfer coefficient is 440 J m-2 s-1 C-1, the boiling temperature of
the tomato juice under the conditions in the evaporator is 60C, and the area
of the heat-transfer surface of the evaporator is 12 m 2. Estimate the rate of
raw juice feed that is required to supply the evaporator.
[ 536 kgh-1 ]
Problem 8. Estimate (a) the evaporating temperature in each effect, (b) the
reirements of steam, and (c) the area of heat transfer surface for a two effect
evaporator. Steam is available at 100 kPa gauge pressure and the pressure in
the second effect is 20 kPa absolute. Assume an overall heat-transfer
6

coefficient of 600 and 450 J m-2 s-1 C-1 in the first and second effects
respectively. The evaporator is to concentrate 15,000 kg h -1 of raw milk from
9.5 % solids to 35% solids.Assume the sensible heat effects can be ignored,
and that there is no boiling-point elevation.
[ (a) 1st. effect 94C, 2nd. effect 60C, (b) 5,746 kgh -1, 0.53 kg steam/kg
water (c) 450 m2 ]

## STEAM TABLE - SATURATED STEAM

Temperature

Pressure(Absolute)

(C)

(kPa)

Enthalpy
(sat. vap.)
(kJ kg-1)

Latent heat

Specific volume

(kJ kg-1)

(m3 kg-1)

2501
2499

206
193

Temperature Table
0
1

0.611
0.66

2501
2503

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
150
160
180
200

0.71
0.81
0.93
1.07
1.23
1.40
1.60
1.82
2.06
2.34
2.65
2.99
3.36
3.78
4.25
7.38
12.3
19.9
31.2
47.4
70.1
101.4
120.8
143.3
169.1
198.5
232.1
270.1
313.0
361.3
475.8
617.8
1002
1554

2505
2509
2512
2516
2520
2523
2527
2531
2534
2538
2542
2545
2549
2553
2556
2574
2592
2610
2627
2644
2660
2676
2684
2692
2699
2706
2714
2721
2727
2734
2747
2758
2778
2793

2497
2492
2487
2483
2478
2473
2468
2464
2459
2454
2449
2445
2440
2435
2431
2407
2383
2359
2334
2309
2283
2257
2244
2230
2217
2203
2189
2174
2160
2145
2114
2083
2015
1941

180
157
138
121
106
93.9
82.8
73.3
65.0
57.8
51.4
45.9
40.0
36.6
32.9
19.5
12.0
7.67
5.04
3.41
2.36
1.67
1.42
1.21
1.04
0.892
0.771
0.669
0.582
0.509
0.393
0.307
0.194
0.127

2485
2479
2473
2468
2464
2460
2452

129
109
93.9
82.8
74.0
67.0
54.3

Pressure Table
7.0
9.7
12.0
14.0
15.8
17.5
21.1

1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.5

2514
2519
2523
2527
2531
2534
2540

24.1
29.0
32.9
40.3
45.8
60.1
75.9
93.5
99.6
102.3
104.8
107.1
109.3
111.4
113.3
115.2
116.9
118.6
120.2
127.4
133.6
138.9
143.6
147.9
151.6
167.8
179.9

3.0
4.0
5.0
7.5
10.0
20.0
40.0
80.0
100
119
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
750
1000

2546
2554
2562
2575
2585
2610
2637
2666
2676
2680
2684
2687
2690
2694
2696
2699
2702
2704
2707
2717
2725
2732
2739
2744
2749
2766
2778

2445
2433
2424
2406
2393
2358
2319
2274
2258
2251
2244
2238
2232
2227
2221
2216
2211
2207
2202
2182
2164
2148
2134
2121
2109
2057
2015

45.7
34.8
28.2
19.2
14.7
7.65
3.99
2.09
1.69
1.55
1.43
1.33
1.24
1.16
1.09
1.03
0.978
0.929
0.886
0.719
0.606
0.524
0.463
0.414
0.375
0.256
0.194