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MUSLIMS IN SPAIN AFTER THE FALL OF GRANADA: SUPPRESSION, RESISTANCE, ECLIPSE, AND

RE-EMERGENCE
Author(s): M. ALI KETTANI
Source: Islamic Studies, Vol. 36, No. 4 (Winter 1997), pp. 613-631
Published by: Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23076032
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Islamic

Studies

36:4

MUSLIMS

(1997)

IN SPAIN

SUPPRESSION,
EMERGENCE

AFTER

THE

FALL

OF GRANADA:
AND
RE
ECLIPSE,

RESISTANCE,

M. ALI KETTANI

INTRODUCTION
The genocide to which the Andalusian Muslims were subjected in the 16th and
17th centuries is a sordid tragedy of colossal magnitude which has left its scars
on

the memory

both

of the Muslims,

the descendants

those

especially

of the Andalusians

and

of the Western

others.

It is sad

Mediterranean,

to note

that the two

main perpetrators of this genocide against the Andalusians, the so-called Catholic
were

rulers,
moral

by the Vatican.

glorified

of the Vatican

prestige
We

shall

in

attempt

It would

to have
the

have

been

excommunicated

following

more

conducive

to the

relate

tragic

them.
to

pages

briefly

the

developments which not only put an end to the last vestiges of Muslim political
in the

power

Iberian

but

Peninsula,

also

the extraordinary

describe

persecution

which made it virtually impossible for the Andalusian Muslims to live openly as
Muslims.

The

to an

came

present

faithful

to Islam.

in

hearts.

their

from
to

their

of

fact

after

During

Andalusian

phenomenon

of Islamic

THE

FALL

OF GRANADA

After

a series

of agonising

and

Aragonese

forces

their

that

observance

the public

Andalusians

generation

the

ancestors

were

the twentieth

century

nationalism,

which

revival

on

while

of

populace

Generation

memory.

rise

the

Muslim

The

that

argues

paper

the

end,

tried

Andalusians
Muslims

has

Islam

to remain
Islam

kept
was

a number

of

its best

never

alive
erased

of developments

paved

the

led
for

way

the

in Islam.

wars,
January

Granada
2,

was
1492,

taken
twenty

over
three

by the united
days

Castellan

before

the

date

agreed upon between them and its last Nasrid ruler, Abu 'Abd Allah. The
capitulations comprised 47 articles in which the victorious Catholic monarch
guaranteed

the protection

of the

Islamic

faith,

its institutions

such

as

mosques

and madrasahs,, imams and qds, and Islamic laws. They also guaranteed
freedom of religion and protection of the Arabic language.

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in Spain

m. ali kettani/Muslims

614

After the Fall of Granada

Granada, however, was not the firstMuslim city to fall to the Christian
forces.

since

Indeed,

cities such as Toledo


had

Muslims

fallen

11th

the

12th

centuries

and

ce) and Saragossa

(1085

under

and

the Christian

the

of other

Islamic

ce), large numbers of

(1118

control.

fall

were

they

Although

subjected

to much persecution, they were allowed to keep their Islamic faith. The Muslims
who were thus subjugated and called Mudejars, were organized into jam'ats
with their mosques, their madrasahs and theirfuqah'. They even developed a
literature in the Spanish language written in Arabic script, called Aljamiado. In
the beginning of the 16th century, a quarter of the population of Arayon (its
capital is Saragossa) and one third of the population of the Pais Valenciano (its
capital is Valencia) were Muslims.
After the collapse of their resistance, the Muslims of the Kingdom of
Granada

feared

that

be

would

they

that the Catholic

showed

rulers

did

like

treated

not

the

their

respect

Mudejars.

commitments,

Later

events

and

that the

Catholic Church exceeded all limits of propriety in their effort to destroy all
traces

of Islam

from

Spain,

no

sparing

whatsoever.

atrocities

AND THEIR FORCED


OF THE ANDALUSIAN
MUSLIMS
OPPRESSION
CHRISTIANIZATION
(1492-1568)
After the fall of Granada, the Catholic rulers appointed Count de Tenda as the
of the conquered

Governor

of Granada,

Kingdom

and

Herando

de

Talevera

as

its Bishop. As for the general population, several members of Muslim


aristocracy decided to emigrate to Muslim countries because of their lack of
faith in the promises of the Catholic rulers. Some of them, including a few
princes, even succumbed to professing Catholicism, but the masses remained
loyal to Islam and decided to resist all external pressures in order to protect their
faith.2

The

first act of betrayal

when

century

and

Church

the

Great

converted

to pressurize

zealots

Mosque
into

witnessed

was

a cathedral.

the Muslims

even

Granada

of

was

Then,

to convert

the

before
taken

the end
over

priests

by

organised

of the
the

15th

Catholic
parties

of

to Christianity.3

In 1499, the Catholic rulers invited Cardenal de Cisneros to Granada

in

order

to

increase

the

pressure

upon

Muslims

so

that

they

might

accept

Christianity. The Cardinal seized most of the mosques and changed them into
churches.

He

concentrated

his

efforts

on

the

Andalusian

elite

such

as

the

'ulama', pressurizing them to convert to Christianity. This led to a revolt under


the leadership of Ibrahim ibn Umayyah in the popular quarters of Albaicin in
Granada which spread to the Alpujaras Mountains in 1500. The rebellion was
put down by a relentless use of force. The mujhidn were virtually exterminated
and their families sold into slavery. The same happened in 1501 in Almeria and
Ronda.4

In 1500, the Spanish State and the Catholic Church launched forcible
baptization of the Muslims on a mass scale. In 1501, all the remaining mosques
were converted into churches. On October 12, 1501 a royal decree was issued
ordering all books written in Arabic to be put to the fire. Piles of books were

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Islamic

Studies

thus

615

36:4(1997)

at many

together

brought

reduced

Andalus

and

against

learning

and

in the

places

to ashes.

This

was

that can

culture

different

be

hardly

and

cities

of the several

one

The

forgotten.

towns

crimes

of

al

perpetrated

next

was

step

to

prohibit the use of Arabic language, a prohibition whose violation invited the
penalty of death. The Muslims of al-Andalus solicited help from abroad but
these

had

pleas

little

effect

Sultan

on

Allah

'Abd

Abu

of

or

Morocco,

the

Ottoman Sultan Bayezid, or Sultan al-Ashraf of Egypt. In due time the Catholic
established

Church
trace
means,

howsoever

passed

harshest

in order

Inquisitions

sentences
whom

confiscated

against

the corrupt

by

the

rarely

flimsy

his properties

of these

victims

Many

priest-judges.

no
They

most

and

no

spared
faith.

the

on

death

escaped

remained

Christian

them

basing

people,
seize,

there
tribunals

Inquisition

to profess

people

they could

that

to ensure
The

Peninsula.

to force

cruel,

Anyone

grounds.
were

the

left in the Iberian

of Islam

tribunals

were burnt alive along with their families in groups of "auto da fes" in great
feasts

which

people.
had

were

witnessed

gleefully

Many

of the

victims

good

fortune

of

the

alive

them

burning

As
their cries

could

the Granadan

they

Muslims

their

gave

burnt

being
deaths

and
but

alive,

before

the

the common
of them

many

end

outrageous

of

them.5

to the Muslim

for help

stratagem:

befall

avert

natural

dying

the nobles

by the King,

could

no

could
lands

went

tormentors

the

put

longer
unheeded,

up

had

they

and

a different

followed

that

impression

resistance

open

they

accepted

Christianity. In strict secrecy, however, they did their best to maintain their
Islamic faith and practice. They were called Moriscos or New Christians and
were

to merciless

subjected
In

were

the

on

imposed

decree

forbade

Moriscos.

books

of Muslim

burning

persecution.

a royal

1508,

and

In

the

1511,

forbade

Islamic

dress.

In

another

royal

decree

animals

slaughtering

new

1510,

taxes
the

ordered

to Islamic

according

rules, etc. Similar decrees continued to be issued until the death of the Catholic
in

Ferdinand

King

Granadan

Ferdinand's

1516.
with

Muslims

son,

a degree

of leniency.

Moriscos

complained

Carlos
But

V,
in

treated

initially
he

1523,

issued

the

a royal

decree ordering the baptism of all the remaining Muslims. All those who refused
were

to be

The

enslaved.

to the King

the unfairness

about

of the decree, pointing out that they had never truly embraced Christianity, but
they

had

been

to Granada
Moriscos

Muslims

to
were

investigate

upon
the

true Christians

whom
truth
and

Christianity
of the

that they

was

statement
should

imposed.
only

obey

Carlos

to conclude

the laws

came

that

the

of the Catholic

Church. The Moriscos collected 80,000 gold ducats and paid it to the King in
exchange for exercising leniency in the implementation of his decrees. The King
promised to grant the Moriscos a reprieve of 40 years during which period they
were to become assimilated to Christianity. A special annual cess was imposed
on

the Moriscos

as

a fee

for keeping

these

harsh

laws

in abeyance.6

Carlos V died in 1555. He was succeeded by his son, Philip II, a


fanatic

who

was

a weak

monarch

and

was,

therefore,

completely

controlled

by

the Catholic priests. In 1566, at the end of the 40 years period decreed by his
father, Philip II decided to implement the de-Islamizing laws intending to force

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m ali kettani/Muslims

616

people

from

away

those

laws

with

Islam

with

full force.

imprisonment,

As

in Spain

a result

After the Fall of Granada

he punished

confiscation

expulsion,

the violators
and

of property

of

burning

people to death. This decree was read by the judges of the Inquisition tribunals
in processions

across

escape
fledged

GREAT

Some

Muslim

valiantly

themselves

fled

groups

a police

children

in the churches

to

the lines

formed

that Morisco

they

from

force

would

towards

the

started

the

of

and

be

Granada

and

of a full

Valencia

of the enemy.

As

the new

including

to implement

raised

In such

circumstances,

end

1567.

of

them

helped

in terms

(1568-1570)

mountains

be seized

to think

this nightmare.7

of communication

as Christians.

in Albaicin

no effort of the Moriscos

As

OF GRANADA

REVOLT

breaching

of Granada

cities.

of this decree,

to free

uprising

THE

met

and

towns

the implementation

laws,

under

the care

a group
made

They

after

the Governor
the law

of the priests

of Muslim

leaders

to rise

plans

in revolt.

After making due preparation both within the country and outside, they did rise
in

revolt.

These
from

seeking
received
sent

revolutionaries

their

rulers

in return

secret

were

before

money

all

of those

and

Algiers

starting

Within

virtually

the numbers

to

delegations

promises.

to Muslims

estimated

they

and

generous

delegations

returned,

sent

arms

the

they

organizers

the country.

When

the revolt

to join

ready

All

the

al-Andalus,

across

Morocco,

revolt.

they

at 45,000.

They found only the Muslims of the provinces of Granada, Malaga and Almeria
who

effectively
did

Aragon
succeed.
come

it for

support

they

somehow

and

help

rescue

of Murcia,

feared

the hope

the organizers

Subsequently,

the Muslims

strongly

they entertained

Moreover,
to their

But

the revolt.

supported

not

that

the

that eventualy
from

their

of the Revolt

them

met

Valencia

revolt

and

would

the Ottomans

not
would

state.8

present

for the second

in

time

Albaicin, studied the reports of the delegate that had visited differentparts of al
Andalus

as well

as Morocco

and

and

Algiers,

to start the revolt

decided

in April

1568. This date had to be postponed as the Christian authorities got wind of the
revolt
held

and
in

started

elected

1568
de

Fernando

immediately

took

a new

January

date,

started

actually

the

arresting

September

1,

Muslim

Cordoba

Muslim
1569,

December

23,

the

start

1568.

The

the

third

the

leaders

of

as

Sultan

the

Muhammad

name,
for

In

leaders.
26

Albaicin,

Valor

up his

on

in

of

the

reason

ibn

was

of

got
and

The

revolt

that a group

was

together,

al-Andalus.

Umayyah,

revolt.

that

meeting

revolt

He
decided

however
of Spanish

soldiers started committing excesses against the people of Cadiar in Alpujaras.


Enraged by these acts, a group of Muslim mujhidn reacted violently
whereupon Muhammad ibn Umayyah left Granada and reached the Alpujaras
Mountains where people renewed their oath of fealty to him on December 29,
1568.

Ibn

Umayyah

appointed

the

commanders

of

the

making it the temporary capital of al-Andalus.

Laujar,
governors

to the provinces.

Thereafter

he launched

army

and

settled

in

He also appointed

the struggle

with

a two-fold

aim: (1) to expel the Christian army and priests and to convert the churches
back into mosques, to restore the Islamic identityof the Andalusians by reviving
their Muslim names and dress and establishing Muslim public prayers; and (2)

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Studies

Islamic

to seek

36:4

(1997)

from

support
In

the

beginning

the

two

armies

disorganized.

Then,

in

and

East,
from

support

from

and

Empire

of Morocco

the rulers

Spanish

that

army

in

launched

old

men

left

the

the

West.

were

Murcia

the

by sending

1569

in

the

The

with

8,

January

massacred

solicited
army
The

ferocity.
2400

Muslim

in

Jubiles.

The

earth

policy'

and

night
the

and

Murcia

Spanish

great
when

one

'scorch

slow

from
Spain

it received.

population

followed

was

rebels

Subsequently,

which

on

State

Spanish

to attack

the civilian

was

and

of
formed

of Europe

to attack

attack

women

children,

were

states

started

atrocious

reaction

Granada

the Christian

that left Granada


most

the Ottoman

abroad.

delegations

the

617

destroyed the families of the mujhidin whom they found on their way, killed
all of them,

almost
into

slavery.

the tactics

to follow

the honour

violated

In the course

of time

of what

of the women

the mujhidin

is presently

and

were

called

sold

the few

left no

other

the guerilla

warfare

survivors
option

but

against

the

Spanish army.
hordes

The
hand

in the revolt.

leaders

of the Muslims.

went

that

on

all

confiscated
This

mujhidin,

on March
were

along.

and

thereby

of whether
further

from

the rulers

arrived.

The

Ottomans

problem

of Cyprus,

they

whereas

the

the North

of

and

those

awaited

Africa

never

with

occupied

to use

the

joined

much

of North

seemed

Africans

ibn

or not.
men

the

too

of death

of the Muslims

more

were

they

no
150

Muhammad

the revolt

revolt:

had

gathered

properties

However,

Empire
that

pleaded

brother

All

insurrection.

of the Ottoman
first

and

who

in an orgy

mercy

supported

inflamed

the

the authorities

without

spared.

those

even

spare

1569,

father

were

reinforcing

support

the

Only

cruelty

not

17,

all killed

Francisco,

regardless
brazen

did

Reconquesta

They

night

Antonio

Umayyah,
were

of the
In Granada,

the

the Andalusians

simply as a pawn in their game of international politics.


In due
which
were

was

to

able

extended

by
expel

their

the Christians

the King

course

led

his

the

the large

a new

Juan

soldiers

to Almeria

with

formed

brother,

Christian

operations
only

of Spain

illegitimate

de

from

in the East

and

more

most
and

powerful

But

Austria.
of

the

mountains,

in the West,

Ronda

army

the mujhidin
and
leaving

cities.

As the Christians feared a revolt in the city of Granada in May 1569,


they expelled its Muslim population and dispersed them in Castilla. Then the
Juan

of

army

Mountains.
led

the

de

But

on

Christians

Austria

moved

from

this occasion
to

resort

to

the

coast

the mujhidn
a

ruse.

to

put up

They

spread

the

reconquer
a fierce
the

Alpujaras

resistance.

This

that

Sultan

rumours

Muhammad ibn Umayyah, was ready to yield to the enemy to rescue his father
and brother. Thus they succeeded in dividing the ranks of the mujhidin, which
led to the assassination of Sultan Muhammad ibn Umayyah in October 1569 in
Laujar. Thereupon the mujhidin chose Muhammad ibn Abbou as the new
Sultan.

The

latter
He

commanders.
Mountains,

and

the

reorganized
was

extended

able

to

army

liberate

the areas

of

the

Orgiva,

of the liberated

mujhidin
the

capital

and
of

appointed
the

new

Alpujaras

territories.

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m. au kettanl/Muslims

618

The
its

of

under
was

the

orders

over

sprinkled
The

weakened.

dated

unheeded.

Sultan

armies

put

difficult

Day

when

11,

for help,

the

last

Muslims

letter

concluded
If we

nor

power

the

Ibn

he entreated
these

be

the

and

salt

today.
gradually

of North

Abbou

Africa

to the Mufti

for his intercession

words:

of

and

1570,

invaders

"We

in the coming
on

will

which

a resistance

February
even

avail

of

with

are

facing

two

battle,

Allah

will

of Judgement;

Day

any

of
the

by

exterminated

the rulers

of Sultan

Sultan

pretext

After

in ruins

and

defeated

to the Ottoman

questions
neither

was

against

with

are

in

city

remains

in which

1570,

of the enemy.

that

held

of Galera

women.

its population

the number

territory

the conquest

to the Ottomans

The

its efforts,

Muslim

Galera

by

up

for help

February

the Ottoman
strong

cries

largely

Istanbul

land.

put

was

entered

After the Fall of Granada

the

reconquer

inlcuding

Austrian

the whole

doubled

events

army

the

resistance

Their

remained

Christian

of Juan

to

grievous

by Muslims,

the

months,

then

it began

of the most

defended

strongly
three

the Austrian

and

increased,
One

mujhidln.
was

of Juan

army

soldiers

in Spain

to

him

on

the

from

His

judgement".9
Under
defeat.

But

these

circumstances

continued

they

it was

to battle

as

natural

small

for the Andalusians


of mujhidln,

groups

to suffer
to

preferring

die fighting rather than surrender. In March 1571, Sultan Ibn Abbou was killed
by

an

enemy

even

and

after

THE

his

was

body

of the city.

gate

death

until

DISPERSION

main

The

when

1573

OF

to Granada,

brought

in the

decapitated

at the main

display

His

agent.

in procession

Muslim

it was

THE

carried

His

square.

dead

resistance,

completely

MUSLIMS

across

the city

was

body

on

put

continued

however,

overpowered.10

AFTER

THE

REVOLT

as a result

of enforcing

(1570-1608)
After

the expulsion
decree

the royal

of the people
of March

of the city of Granada


a new

1570,

the people

befell

tragedy

of al-Andalus.

The Christian authorities decided to punish the entire population of the former
of Granada

Kingdom

and

properties
totally

them

dispersing
reduce

them,

uproot

them

by expelling
all

them

from

across

their

Spain.

to utter

homes,

The

poverty,

was

purpose

and

all

confiscating

scatter

their
to

obviously

them

among

the

Christians so that they lose their Islamic identify."


After the expulsion of about 7,000 Moriscos from the city of Granada
to other parts of Spain in compliance with the royal decree of March 1570
the expulsion

ordering

of Moriscos

from

the remaining

parts

of Granada,

these

Moriscos too were dispersed all over Spain. Thus about 50,000 Moriscos were
brought

together

and

were

Cordoba,

Sevilla

and

La

forced

by
and

Mancha,

the

to walk

army

from

there

in groups

to other

to

Toledo,

More

places.

than

17,000 died of exhaustion on the way. The Christian army persisted in its effort
to disperse the Moriscos to different towns and villages of the country till the
end of 1570. Subsequently a new decree was issued in November 1571 ordering
the dispersal
80,000
over

of more

Andalusian
Spain

and

Granadan
Muslims

reduced

Moriscos.
had

been

to a terrible

Thus,
driven

state

by the end
out

of

of poverty,

their

of 1571,
homes,

misery,

and

more
scattered

sickness.

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than
all

Islamic

Studies

36:4

The

Spanish

banished.

time

many

also

continued

619

and

over

gave
this

However,

Granadans

home

resistance

up

however,

kept

presence

of

the homes
effort

and

into
who

failed

in the countryside
to expel

in the

since

Christians

many

orders

issuing

Christians

of the Muslims

50,000

brought

to them

colonization

returned

to put

Government,

then

government

of Granada

Kingdom
been

(1 997)

left.

and

course

of

Muslims

Many

the

Muslims

the
had

mountains.

from

The

Granada

until

1585.
The
feelings
State
coming

no

more

what

etc.
the

forbidding
Aragon

and

victims

and

undermine

Church

had

would

lost

men

them

Moriscos
other
provide

to

or

Muslims

the

But

to

third

was

where

demographic

ships

their

another

Muslims

of

of their

this

them

on

the

often

all

from

failed

to

abandon

the

Ottomans

landed

on

their

to eradicate

men

the Catholic
Muslims

of

the following:

(1)

savage

to muster
(2)

gradually;

of time

that they

into

to Islam.

allegiance

solutions

course

France,

oppressors.

and

be exterminated

so

of

these

their

solutions,
upon

lands. The

Catholic
State

who

the shores

Protestants

to convert

in the due

would

by
not

separating
be

able

to

Spain.

increasing

of 'Christian'

by the prospect

But

support.

souls,

all evidence

despite

the

against

they would

castrating

gained

with

able

decided

or

strength

of

number
all

make

the Spanish

be

able

instantly

solution

Christians

both

drastic

quarters

the loss

worried

be

consider

them

them

would

They

by

kept

after

the

the

who

scared

decree

contact

focussed

contact

problem.

to banish

about

to be

hand,

were

with

would

either
or

women,
or (3)

worried

one

torment.

Ottoman

16th century,

to

therefore,

The
was

and

increased

Moriscos,

them.

that they

or that they

to special

from

Islamic

Church

freed.12

hands

of the

to the Muslim

procreate;

revived

that the

Ottomans;

and

also

greater

maintained

join

the hope

true Christians,

to exterminate

the

sea

Castilla

of the

issued

they

Moriscos

with

also

By the end

began,

with

the

even

of the
be

the

scared

Inquisitions

to

would

contact

Aragon

hoping

all Moriscos

near

The

contacts

was

carrying away hundreds of families to Muslim

that they

nature,

live

of

hopes

of al-Andalus,

They

panic

to

faith

they

in close

of

of

religions
day

The

their

in

result

were

They

of

them

subjected

Muslims
The

state

etc.

Valencia,

that one

Moriscos

Moriscos

the

remained

In

Granadan

Muslims.
to do.

scared

together;

proselytism,

hope

Mudejar

among

knew

the

the

the Catholic

as they continued
to the contrary.

The

the Muslims

of banishing

to the Mediterranean

Muslim

Church

to consider
State,

the

on

the

for this might

states.13

THE

GREAT EXPULSION
(1608-1613)
In November 1608, the Spanish government decided to banish all the Moriscos

of

Spain.

leave

The

the country

decision
with

was

kept

secret

their possessions.

as

they

did

At the same

not
time

want
due

the

Moriscos

preparations

to
were

made to banish first of all the Muslims of the Pais Valenciano. In November
1609, the Spanish King signed the order to banish all Mariscos, men, women
and children, of Valencia to North Africa within three days after which all those
who

had

failed

to leave

would

be

imprisoned

and

those

who

resisted

expulsion

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

m. ali kettani/Muslims

620

be killed.

would

the officers
take

The

Moriscos

of the State.

with

them

more

were

Those
than

what

to stay

required

who

were

in Spain

thus

could

they

After the Fall of Granada

in their homes,

banished

were

personally

to

permitted

All

carry.

for

waiting

not

those

who

destroyed or hid their belongings were to be punished by death. The properties


left behind

by these

were

persons

handed

over

to the Christians.

Children

under

the age of six were handed over to Christian families to be raised

as

Christians.14
Muslims

Many

chose

They

exterminated.

Others

found

accept

cruel

to willy

nilly

Alicante,

Denia,

who

away

took

between
were
North

Many

on board

a decree

the

the dead

brought

After
the

Moriscos

the

Muslims

Moriscos

were

and
to

a slave,

and

ports

coasts

of

belongings

of

the

In May

1611,

a Muslim

brought

gold

Thus,
Muslims

the

in the sea.

30

as

mobs

carrying.
on

the

to whoever

pounds

as

such

Valenciano

dumped

steal

but

option

by Christian

130,000

creatures

than

from

1609,

these

of

to whoever

pounds

King

in April

them

were

They

Extramadura

Andalusia,

issued

61,000

condition.

In December

expelled

were

orders

More

harrowing
of

gold

attacked

that they were

in ships

hapless

Region,

Aragon.

of Catalogna.

Moriscos
of

the Valencia

under

transported

no other

saw

in different

high
were

they

of a Muslim.

body

of

him

of keeping

and

about

preferred

those

of 60

they

1610,

of Spain

dump

until

were

the

against

mountains

herded

belongings

owners

a prize

right

They

January

ship

were

their way,

out

and

announced

with

and

resistance

the

overpowered

the meagre

transported

Africa.

passengers

them

armed

up
in

themselves

On

1609

put

fighting

orders.

Valencia.

September

forcibly

alive

kept

from

to

on

handedness.

followed

and

Murcia.
In

forcibly

about

by

4,000

the expulsion
about

Thus,

December

to banish

then

111 ordered

Philip

provinces.

1610

were

1609

52,000

something

similar happened in Castilla. The Spanish King ordered the expulsion of the
Muslims

of Castilla,

whereafter

about

estimated

that

50,000

Muslims

were

from

expelled

that

region.
it is

Thus,
Muslims

were

circumstances,

banished

from
with

carrying

between

them

no

1609

under

Spain

more

and

the
than

330,000

and

tragic

bodies.

their

about

1614,

most

In

inhuman

March

King Philip III walked at the head of a long procession of Leaders,


thanks

to God

for purging

the country

of its Muslim

1611,

giving

populace.

Of the expelled Andalusian Muslims, about 60,000 settled in Morocco,


160,000 in the Ottoman Empire including about 65,000 in Algeria and 55,000
in Tunisia, and many in Izmir, Istanbul and Bosnia. About 10,000 Andalusian
Muslims settled in the Christian states of Europe and America. About 70,000
were

killed,

having

been

drowned

in the sea

and

30,000

managed

to return

to

Spain.15

Spanish history books claim that this great expulsion purged Spain of
Muslims and that the places which the Muslims left were resettled by Christian
immigrants.

However,

historical

evidence

shows

that the percentage

of those

of

Muslim origin in Spain amounted in the beginning of the 17th century to about
35 per cent of the population, or about 2,000,000 people. Of these, only few

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Islamic

Studies

Muslims

from

left

Spain

In

1614,

provinces

asking

Expulsion

was

They

were

have

returned

THE

The

only

to be

required

found

was

was

on.

with

even

considered

They
less

dead

in

it?16

stop

an

order

the Great

to the

hidden

to be put to death

and

since

the

who

if they

the

governors

to their

homes.

ordering

of returning

governors

those

of

Expulsion
of

Moriscos

to this were

decrees

guility

of Spain.

to stay

men,

with

not

exceptions

banished

Royal

against
were

did

seeking

stop

allowed

and

Aragon

17TH CENTURY
issued

King

to

from
population

and
Islam

But

years.

in Spain

Spanish
them

over.

who

Moriscos

900

those

hence

women

purposes,

practical

DURING

the

and

children,

of about

of

of the Muslim

20%

Christians,

all

of Muslims

number

great

than

slaves,

For

a presence

persecution

1609.

less

good
as

IN SPAIN

ISLAM
The

considered

of Islam.

after

and
i.e.

leaderless,

knowledge

621

expelled,

rest were

were

(1997)

Andalusia,

were

Valencia
The

36:4

had

the

Great

returned.

were
to

all

found

to
the

pursue

King Philip III died in 1621. His son King Philip IV received a report
in 1621 from the Inspector of Royal Properties in Catalogna, informing him that
a large

number

country,

and
that

home,
Inspector
did

an

the

1623,

on

advised

were

to take

action

In

tribunals

been

Valencia

against

had

had

banished

not left the

in fact

by

powerful

those

Moriscos,

protected

declared
had

stop

much

and

returned
The

persons.

but the King

new

accepting
made

the King

the King

was

no

to issue

been
to put

a royal

for a decree,

need

of

denunciations

about

had

injustice

requested

requested

felt that there

to be

continued

that

returned

the Cortes

King

to

however,

Complaints,

who

1624,

The

the question.
the

Cortes

Spanish

the Moriscos

against

to the chapter.

end

had

to respond.

In

decree

and

Catalogna

who
and

in peace

the King

requested

committed

of those

many
lived

they

care

not

in Aragon,

of Moriscos
that

the Moriscos

but

Moriscos.

in Castilla

and

Andalusia.
In 1625, the City of Seville published a report stating that a large
number
and

of Muslims,

both

them

Muslims.

raised

1626

in

which
in the

remained

as
he

slaves
But

ordered
as

country

and

that

"no

long

as

had

freemen,

the

King
harm
they

kidnapped
decided

finally

be

should
lived

away

Christian

done
from

to
the

children

a decree

to issue

Moriscos
coast".

in
who

But

the

Spanish State did not forget the Moriscos, as in 1634 an official report from
Murcia claimed that it was full of Moriscos. The King ordered that they should
be

and

watched

checked

whether

were

they

good

Christians

or not.

As for the Inquisitions, they continued to persecute Muslims in the 17th


century. In 1616, this infamous tribunal in Denia and Valencia inquired as to
what should be done with the enslaved Andalusians who were planning to flee
to Muslim lands. In 1620 and 1625, the same tribunals condemned Moriscos
accused

of witchcraft.

In

1625,

the

tribunal

of

Seville

executed

a Morisco

in

front of a crowd of Christians, and in 1625 the tribunal condemned an enslaved


Morisco

to

100

lashes,

to hard

labour

on

the

boats

for

four

years

and

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then

m. ali kettani/Muslims

622

in Spain

After the Fall of Granada

imprisonment for the rest of his life. All this was merely because of writing
Muslim

on

slogans
In

the gate

of a church.

the Inquisition

1633,

tribunal

of Cuenca

for two

persecuted

years

Muslim and his family who had returned from exile on flimsy grounds. In 1667,
the Inquisition tribunal of Almadn condemned a Morisco to lashing for joking
about
in

rituals.

Christian

front

of

In

a man

1680,
as

crowd,

huge

he

from

was

Cadiz

was

accused

of

burnt

in Madrid

alive

converted

having

from

Christianity to Islam. In 1689, the Inquisition tribunal of Cordoba expelled from


the

a group

city

of

slaves

tribunals

Inquisition
and

to Islam

fled

who

of Spain

to Muslim

were

accused

after they

lands

of

at least

persecuted

Muslims.

being
177

were

In

Christians

somehow

who

in wars

caught

the

fact,

converted
with

Spain.17
Another
continuous

hope

the State

1624,

and

Cuellars
of being

of Muslim

proof
of many
Council

Muslims

secretly
In

who

1641,

But

Estepona.
since

1644

distributed

them

and

1650,

many

in bands

torture.

five

that

to the

These

the

Granada,

accused

of North
by an

Africa.

Andalusian

seized

revolt

was

after being
of

of which

themselves

organized

caravans,

descendants

notable

In

yoke.

were

They
led

have

of them

four
the

from

Muslims

of a popular

plan

of

the most

Muslims

Government

executed,

revolts

popular

with

is the

century

Thir al-Horr died in battle near

the

the

The

poor.

the century,

throughout

attacked

were

leaders

of

families

in Andalusia,

was discovered.

descendants

17th

the Christian

industry.

contacts

for a revolt

from

two

the silk

of having

a conspiracy

prince, Thir al-Horr,

on

controlled

and

in the

for freedom

a report

presented

the.Madrids

in Spain

presence

communities

and
in

to cruel

subjected

the

Muslims

the revolts

being

spoils

discovered

persisted
of especially

Cordoba and Seville.18


visitors

Many
kept

their

'Abd

Islam

al-Whid

to Andalusia

a secret.

The

in the

most

an Ambassador

al-Ghassnl,

made an official visit to Andalusia


informed

officials,

him

17th

known

that they

secret

met

them

among
of Sultan

in 1690.

were

century

Muslims

was

Isma'Tl

who

Muhammad
of Morocco,

Many Andalusians,

had
Ibn
who

including

Muslims.19

ISLAM IN SPAIN IN THE I8TH CENTURY


The fact that Muslims survived in Spain in the 18th century is evident from the
decisions made by the State Council on September 20, 1712 ordering the
"expulsion of Muslims to North Africa". The order, however, remained
It was

unimplemented.
century

after

the Great

The
every

trace

Inquisition
of

Andalusians

Muslims.

accused

the

last

decree
of

Expulsion

of

tribunals,

however,

In

these

being

1724,

the

against

more

Moriscos,

than

one

1609.

Muslims.

continued

their

tribunals

expelled

In

they

1726

task

a large

prosecuted

to

eradicate

number

of

in Granada

alone no less than 1,800 persons (360 families) who were accused of professing
Islam

secretly.

All

this

proves

the

existence

of Islam

on

a large

scale

in Spain

in that period.

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Studies

Islamic

36:4

Similar
in

Granada

fanatic

623

element

In

held
46

1728,

May

Islam

were

of the city

its Muslim

were

prosecutions

1727.

professing

persons
of

(1997)

As

and

their

late

as

in

October

Islam
28

1728,
to purify

to the King

a secret

of

in

other

confiscated.

their properties

request

1769

accused

people

and

persons

condemned

renewed

population.

against

was

mosque

The

Granada

discovered

in

Cartagena in the province of Murcia, indicating that Muslims were secretly


organized their.
In fact several
presence

of Islam

secretly.

He

also

Alicante.

He

travellers

in that land,

to Spain

in the

in secrecy.

albeit

18th century

reported

In

1768

1766

and

about

the
of

the Sultan

Morocco sent his ambassador to Spain, Ahmad Ibn al-MahdT al-Ghazl, himself
an Andalusian who originally hailed from Malaga, met many persons among the
people and officials in the provinces that he visited were Muslims, albeit
and

visited

several

observed

cities

about

such

the

as

Seville,

of Loja

people

Jaen,
(a

Murcia

Granada,

of Granada):

province

"They are similar to the people of Granada in their attraction of Muslim origin,
and

women

men,
others

say

In the years
and

Andalusia
In

families.

make

the

that

had

he
of

Sultan

'Uthmn

ibn
of Muslims

all

in Loja

that a judge

and

in the

live

of the

that

believe

people

Muslims

secret

signs

of belonging

to Islam,

sent
He

Swinburne

Henry

Granada

Muslim

ambassador

another
that

reported

visited

secret

many
he

to

had

met

Spain,
a

great

another British traveller, Joseph Towsend,

Muslims

mountains,

in

Granada.21

Inquisition

Both

traveller

met

Morocco

al-MaknasI.

Finally, in 1786-1787,
reported

some

the British

1775-1776,

informed

1779,

Mohammed
number

some

children,

it openly".20

and

tribunal

told

of Granada

and

Jews

are

numerous

most

Jews

are

in large

him:

"Today,

in Spain.

Most

Both

cities.

keep

their faith completely secret". This was confirmed by another British traveller,
George

Barrow,

in 1787.22

Furthermore,

a large

number

of Muslims,

joined

the bands

of gypsies

in order to avoid anything similar to the Great Expulsion of 1609. This explains
the great Muslim influence on the culture of the Spanish gypsies of today.23
BIRTH
THE
CENTURY
In the

19th

OF

century,

ANDALUSIAN
several

travellers

NATIONALISM
who

visited

Andalusia,

IN
such

THE

19TH

as a Britisher

who visited the town of Alhamara in 1809, the writer Miniano who visited
Alpujaras in 1828, and the English traveller Ford who also visited Alpujaras in
1848. They all reported the presence of a diluted Islam in Andalusia.
The feeling of being differentfrom the Christians, of being oppressed
alien
identity which imposed itself on them by force grew in the whole
by an
country, especially its southern part after the invasion of Spain by the armies of
Napoleon in 1808. For the first time the enemy of the Andalusians had been
defeated by foreign forces. The Andalusians rose against the French invaders,
not as Spaniards,
The

French

for the first time

but as Andalusians,

marines

surrendered

on

July

14,

1808

since

to the

the fall of Granada.


Andalusians,

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and

the

m- ali kettani/Muslims

624

French
1808.

was

army
In

1818

19, 1812,

defeated

by their

armies

formed

the Andalusians

in Spain

at Bailen

a secret

After the Fall of Granada

in Seville

a new constitution in Cadiz,

they proclaimed

on

of Jaen)

(province

government

on

July

March

called the Cadiz

Constitution.
This

Constitution

with

monarchy

limited

that

first time

visualized

powers

was

Spain

made

Spain

as

to the Church

and

of several

up

democratic

the King.

nations

constitutional

It declared
not

(and

one

for the
the

nation),

Andalusian nation being one of them. This Constitution visualized a federal


system for Spain with the underlying principle of equality between the nations
that constitute
in

the

it. The

context

of

Andalusian

its

of course,

nationality,
Islamic

historical

can

be understood

only

The

background.

Cadiz

Constitution

remained the basis of all the liberation movements in Spain throughout the 19th
century.
After
the
Cadiz

the French

forces

were

September

1812.

He,

in

country
and

his

re-established

own

driven

out

despotic

the King

of Spain

however,

abrogated
as

authority

returned

to

the

Constitution

of

as

the authority

of

well

the Catholic Church. On January 1820, the people of Seville rose in rebellion
and

demanded

to the

whole

rebels.

At

Cadiz

the

and

The

Andalusia.

same

time
on

Constitution

revolted

of the Cadiz

the establishment
of

attacked

he

and

for help

appealed

October

The

1823.

3,

down

burned

to accept

pretended

King

The

Constitution.

the

from

France

people

of

the Inquisition

rebellion

spread

demands

of

and

abrogated

Andalusia

the
the

thereupon

the symbols

tribunals,

of

their oppression.
On

March

of

province
Cadiz.

and
he

However,
in

rebelled
established

was

for

and

expelled

the

administration

local

cities
The
The

followed

latter

set

was

the confiscation

re-establishment
executed.

until
up

then

on

an

Then

the

the
army

forced

of the property

in

of

rebellion

to accept

the
of

Constitution

the

people

the

Government,

of

of

Constitution

which

in

Algesiras

the

of

representative

based

Malaga

Andalusians

rebelled

Torrijos

the

defeated

1835,

Government.
including

called

March

Andalusian
Andalusia.

General

1831,

28,

Cadiz

spread
defeated

the

conditions
Church.

and
Other

Cadiz.
to

the

of the Catholic

Malaga

parts

of

army

all

of

the

of the

rebels

But

the rebels

formed in Andujar in the province of Jaen a "Higher Council of the Revolution"


which wrote the Constitution of Andujar in which Andalusia was to have local
autonomy. This Council was disbanded on October 19, 1835, but remained
important in forging the Andalusian identity. Spain was back again to its former
it lay

condition:

at the tender

mercy

of the state

and

the church

which

have

for

long kept it under subjugation and oppression.


On

June

6,

1857,

Andalusian

farmers

launched

an

insurrection

in

Seville demanding the return of the lands which had been confiscated from their
Muslim
rebellion

ancestors
was

and

crushed

had

been

after

the death

given

to the church
of 25

of their

and
leaders

the nobility.
and

But

the execution

their
in

cold blood of 25 others. In 1861, the farmers of Malaga and Granada also rose
in rebellion, but they were also crushed by the army.

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Islamic

Studies

Queen

and

36:4

on

Again
the

and
with

(1 997)

the Spanish

Andalusians
for

as state
returned
On

basis

19th century
nation

was

with

a well-

to give
defined

to France,

a federal

republic

disestablishment
of the country

of

again

Republic

a concrete

established

on the

movement

of the

to the idea

expression

Andalusian

was

Party

the Andalusian

Thus,

This

territory.

of an Andalusian

movement

was

openly

anti-Catholic and struggled to rehabilitate the Islamic past of Andalusia.


was

Bias

who

provided

born

Infante,

on

to the Andalusians

leadership
of Andalusian

philosophy

in Caceres

1885

5,

July

and

1883.

of Antequera.

able

control

the

against

fled

Queen
into

demanded

took

the Federal

1884,

rebelled

The

of Spain

also

the army
3,

January

10,

January

Andalusians

Cordoba.

They

But

religion.

of the Constitution

near

the conversion

Andalusia.

on

the

1868,

army

demanded

autonomy

the Queen

8,

September

defeated

Catholicism

625

and

in the

But it

of Malaga,

the basic

developed

in the beginning

Nationalism

Province

and

concept

of the 20th

century.24

BLAS INFANTE
AND HIS MISSION
Bias Infante was bom in a typical Andalusian family. In 1897, at the age of 11,
he

moved

to

Archidona

studies

secondary

in

certificate

the

of

province

in 1900.

He

Cordoba

where

returned

to work

then

he

his

received

with

his

father

in Caceres before joining the Faculty of Law in the University of Granada from
where

he graduated
In

with

Granada

of Andalusia.

history
matter

of race,

honours

Infante
He

but

came

rather

in

had

1906.
time

ample

to realize

a matter

to

familiarize

himself

that the Andalusian

of history

and

culture.

identity
In

with
was

the
not

he moved

1907,

a
to

Seville and in 1910 he was nominated a judge in Cantillana in the province of


Seville. He lived in Seville and commuted from there to his place of work.
In Seville, Infante was influenced by Andalusian thinkers. He joined
their circle and quickly became one of their leaders, especially after he was
in the Council

accepted

of Lawyers

in November

the Ateneo of Seville over the 'Andalusian


became

the basis
In

followed

by

work

1916,

Infante

other

similar

a review

al-Andalus,
and

of his

the Andalusian
In January

on

'Andalusian

established
centres

the

in other

that represented
nationalist
1918,

a meeting

and

Ideology'

his

after

in

speech

in March 1914. This

Nationalism'.
first

Andalusian

Andalusian

the point

movement

1913

of view

headed

of the Council

Centre

cities.

by

He

also

in

Seville,

published

of the Andalusian
Bias

Infante

of Andalusian

centres

himself.
Provinces

was

held in Ronda in the province of Malaga, in which the participants gathered to


work

out

the programme

the following

1.

two

To recognize Andalusia
antonomous

2.

of Andalusian

Nationalism.

That

programme

included

demands:

as a country, a nation, and a democratic

region.

To adopt the white and green flag, (which, in fact, was the Muslim
flag), as the flag of the Andalusian people.

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ali kettani/Muslims

626

Infante

Blas
of Nations

and

Jose

Andres

Pasques

the Andalusian

to recognize

in Spain

presented

After the Fall of Granada

a request

to the League

Nation.

By 1921, Bias Infante had started linking up with Andalusians all over
the

world,

1923,

entered

Andalusian
the

in the

especially

Spain

a long

Centres

and

State.

Bias

Spanish

and

Maghreb

accused

in South

The

the Andalusian

Infante

America.

of dictatorship.

period

maintained

On

January

13,

Government

closed

the

nationalists
a

low

of working
and

profile

against

moved

to

the

of Huelva.

Province

On September 15, 1923, and during the war of liberation of al-Arriir


Muhammed ibn 'Abd al-Karlm al-KhattabT in the Rif mountains, Bias Infante
went

to Morocco.
where

Aghmat
Arab

He
he

movements
In

province
with

now

declared

his

Islam.

the dictatorship
He

Seville.
strong

of Al-Mu'tamid

the tomb

He

then

ibn

tried

'Abbd

to contact

of Seville

the

Islamic

in
and

the world.

around

1930,

of

visited

was

renewed

Islamic

emphasis,

history,

culture

Andalusian

land,

stranglehold

of the Catholic

activism
as

Church

and

removed,

his

for

Infante

Infante

moved

Andalusian
demanded

and

identity

from

the lives

and

back

to the

nationalism,

but

the

restoration

removal

the

of

of

the

of the Andalusians.

By 1936, however, the Civil War broke out in Spain, on August 2,


the
militia of General Franco kidnapped Bias Infante and on Monday
1936,
10,

August

"Long

slogan:

shot

1936,
live

free

him

to death

in a street

of Seville.

He

died

the

shouting

Andalusia".25

THE

FIRST MUSLIM
ORGANIZATIONS
Since the great expulsion of 1609, it looked as if Islam had ceased to exist in
Spain. The persecution of Muslims continued and the Catholic Inquisition
its sinister

continued
immigration,
By

the

1990,

which

250,000

These
a new

law

task

was

until

from

especially
number

of

included
Muslim

the

Muslims

about

in 1964

in

Spain

World

increased,
had

reached

War

especially
the

II,

Muslim

after

1960.

of

about

figure

Moroccans.

were

which

After

century.
slowly

140,000

immigrants

enacted

19th

Morocco,

able

allowed

to organize

themselves

for the existence

only

after

of non-Catholic

religious organisations. In 1967 a new law was enacted which permitted a


slightly greater degree of religious freedom. Arab students, mostly from the
Greater Syria region, established the first Islamic Students Association in
Granada in 1966, which seems to have been a direct sequel of the visit of
Shaykh Ab'l Hasan 'All al-NadawT of India to Spain in 1963. This association

was officially registered only in 1971 under the name of "The Islamic
Association in Spain". After 1974, this association opened branches in Madrid,
Oviedo, Saragoza, Valencia, Santander, Santiago and Malaga in addition to its
headquarters

in Granada.

Until 1978, the "Islamic Association in Spain" remained basically a


campus

association.

Later

on

it moved

to

the

community

but

split

into

two

groups after the establishment of "The Islamic Centre in Spain". The latter had

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Islamic

Studies

36:4

its headquarters
and

(1997)

627

in Madrid

with

branches

in Barcelona,

Palmas,

Seville

Granada,

Malaga.

Later on in 1981, Prince Salman, the Governor of Riyadh, Saudi


built
a mosque near his palace in Marbela in the province of Malaga.
Arabia,
In the 1990s

another

province
construction

of

In

the

World

Muslim

was

mosque

of Malaga.

Islamic

built

by the Saudis

the Kingdom

1990,

Centre

of

in nearby

of Saudi

Arabia

which

Madrid,

is

the

completed

administered

the

by

League.

In 1990,

the number

of mosques

and

of prayer

places

established

immigrant Muslims increased dramatically throughout Spain,


Andalusia, Madrid, Valencia and Catalugna.
Until
to emigrate

in the

Fuengirola
also

the Andalusian

1960,

to a Muslim

country,

Muslims

had

usually

their

kept

in

especially

Islam

or had

secret,

But after the death

Morocco.

by the

of Franco

in 1975, Spain changed completely as it became, for the firsttime since the fall
a multicultural

of Granada,
three

year,

young

and

England

decentralized
from

people

became

Muslims

democratic

Puertollano
at the hands

country.

that same

During

(Province

of Ciudad

Real)

went

of a Scottish

Muslim,

Sheikh

Abd

to
al

Qdir al-Sufi (now al-Murbit). They were followed by others, and in 1977,
their

Sheikh

ordered

them

to move

to Cordoba

and

start an

Islamic

movement.

This group did not remain for long time in Seville, and then in Huelva,
moved

they
the

to Granada

Return

1980

of Islam

under

the name

This

Spain".

of

an organization

It was

became

it. However,
of

its name

his

very

(from

the

for

of Justice

in

for the Propagation

of Islam

in

hundreds

and

Sufi

names

to
to

of Andalusians

of its Scottish

personality

(from

above

"Association

the Ministry

strong

the strong
direction

the

called
with

registered

Association

"Religious

changes

and

Murbit)

formed

soon

through

continuous

the

of

association

Islam

joined

and

to Spain".

to

DarqawT
"Islamic

leader,
to

Mlikl,

Association

in

Spain" to "al-Murbitn") led to the division of this association into a multitude


of

most

associations,

of

them

centred

in

the

of

province

most

Granada,

specifically in the city of Granada and mostly in the old quarters of Albaicin.26
this association

Although

has,

over

the course

ceased

of years,

to have

a leading role in Islamic activities, it played an important role in the beginning


and

a strong

provided

drive

to

seems

be

push.
its

lack

One
of

of the

reasons

major

appreciation

of

the

why

this

historical

lost

group

dimension

its
of

Andalusia.
DE AL-ANDALUS
Y AM A A ISLAMICA
(YIA)
In 1980, the Spanish Courts approved a law guaranteeing freedom of religion.
In the same year, Andalusia with its eight provinces, and with Seville as its

THE

was

capital,
recognized

the

adopted

the

granted
Bias

Infante

political

status

programme

national anthem of the Region.


kilometres
created

and

a population

a favourable

of

as its founder

climate

of about

of

an
and
Bias

Autonomous
all the political
Infante,

Regipn.

This

elements

unanimously

inlcuding

the

flag

region
and

The Region has an area of 87,268


seven

for the rivival

million

people.

of Islam

This

development

in Andalusia.

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the

square
has

m. ali kettani/Muslims

628

The

first

Islamic

established

organization

After the Fall of Granada

in Spain

Andalusians

by

was

the

Islamic Association of Cordoba in 1980. The City of Cordoba then offered the
Islamic Association the mosque of Cadi Abu Othman which then lay in ruins.
This

had

mosque

been

converted
The

of Cordoba.

conquest
to have

the original

into

the

Convent

Church

Catholic

of the mosque

position

of

resisted

Santa

restored.

the

of the Muslims

Muslim

The

after

Clara

the efforts

efforts

could

not succeed owing to the stiffopposition put up by the Church. In fact by 1983
even

the

Islamic

Association

the three

during

At

the

of

the

Cordoba

of its existence

years

the

present

Islamic

to

ceased
Andalusians

many

exist.

which

organization

Nevertheless,

embraced

Islam.
carries

mainly

the

Andalusian Islamic tradition is the "Yamaa Islamica de Al-Andalus" (YIA). It


was established in Seville in 1982 by a group of young Andalusians who had
become Muslims around 1981. This organization spread very quickly from
to all

Seville

the provinces

of many

attack

Arab

trend

the Islamic

New

were

who

the beginning

indicating

centres

It had

of Andalusia.

nationalists

of the

Yamaa

to face,

from

happy

to see

not

however,

the

the

to Andalusia.

in Granada,

opened

of

emergence

of Islam

of the return

were,

the beginning,

Jerez

and Malaga in 1983, and in other cities. Later in 1986, the Yamaa established
itself in Cordoba by buying a house which it converted into an Islamic centre
with

the result

that the entire

centre

community's

of gravity

moved

from

Seville

to Cordova.

In October 1983, the Yamaa organized its firstpublic activity in Seville


in memory of al-Mu'tamid Ibn 'Abbd. It was a great success which is evident
the

from
started
river

more

The

where

organized
the

In January

protest

1984,

of Granada
manner

unseemly

were

on

Andalusian

celebration
near

in congregation

in an old

palace

1983,

in Malaga

Culture"

the

in the quarter

to the audience

explained

In November-December

started

the Yamaa

by the Church

and
the

the

Yamaa

in co-operation

most

of

the

at the celebration

which

the officialdom

and

and

its protest

a celebration

by the Christians,

momentum

gained

to an end

of Islam

The

participants.

prayers

Maghrib

came

recited.

Week

thousand

of Malaga.

University

conquest

function

were

"Cultural

four

of the

the teachings

of al-Mu'tamid

poems

than

the performance

Guadalquivir.

of Triana

with

of

presence

with

was

of the Spanish

citizens

of

Granada

of the

conducted

in an

State.

The

demanded

the

abolition of this celebration and its replacement by acts which signify fraternal
the

towards

feelings

Muslims.

In

July

the

1984,

Yamaa

organised

camp

seminar in Collogos Vega near Granada where 200 Andalusian Muslims stayed
for several

together

in a truly

days

Islamic

In July 1985 the Yamaa


in

Muslims

Seville
the

discovering

in

worth

an

effort

of

Islam

atmosphere.

organized the First Congress of European


to

co-ordinate

in different

the
parts

work
of

of

Europe.

those

who

were

Representatives

arrived from Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Britain, Cyprus and
many

other

countries.

In December
established

centre

in

1987, the Yamaa organized a conference in its newly


Cordoba

as

the

headquarters

of

the

Andalusian

Muslim

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Islamic

Studies

36:4

In

community.

had

deep

In September
in

held

Castellar

la

in

THE

AVERROES

From

the very

acute.

The

centres.

spoke

Spanish

prove

adequate

thus

This

of the Muslim

in

too

Arabia,
created

from

after

community

their

who

sending

young

of

young

Morocco,
since
did

others

return

very
Islam

not always

Dozens

problems
and

did

started

Tunisia,

Algeria,

was

the Moroccans

countries.

shock,

a new

to teach

this solution
Yamaa

certain

cultural

as

Muslims

countries

barrier,

the

part.
Islam

extent.27

Spanish

Muslim

Muslim

was

congress,

UNIVERSITY

However,

Hence,

Arabic

this

took

to a great

ISLAMIC
from

In

to establish

the language

reasons.

suffered

as

of Andalusians

Cadiz.

the world

made

of educating

teachers

sent to Saudi

Malaysia.

abroad

the work

around
was

as teachers.

and

of

in this effort

overcome

several

Islam

study

and

went

to bring

preferred

for

were

Pakistan

successful

To

Islam

recognized

Congress

province

effort

the problem

tried

were

Andalusians

the

diaspora

vigorous

beginning,

Yamaa

Spain

International

in

INTERNATIONAL

in its different

who

the First

It was

of

roots.

Frontera

1980s,

in Andalusia.

people

Government

of the Andalusian

Thus,

to

the

Spanish
1989,

de

representatives

reality

629

1989

July

which

religion

(1997)

to their

Jordan,
students

many

not contribute

to

homeland.

Thus, the idea of establishing an Islamic University in Cordoba was


born.

The

March

first

1989.

house

was

Andalusian
house

followed
near

bought
It was

cathedral).

to plan

meeting

It was

the

renovated

architectural

and

this

was

by other
Great

the

tradition.

in the

result

The

Cordoba

that

forms

in Cordoba

mosque

Madrid

of time
a

(presently

it became

Mosque

of

University

in the course

and

of

Mosque

with

is the first regular

held

meetings

of

this

the conquest

after

Catholic

conformable

part

in

an old

to the
renovated

of that city

in 1236. The building was inaugurated in October 1994 and classes were started
in October

1995
The

International
including

with

25

official
Averroes

de

The

General

of

International

Board

of instruction

and

This

the

from

Amadou

as

its

chairman.
to provide
of teachers

is meant

University

Muhtar

to serve

is from

members,

and

several

Muslim

M'Bow,

the former

Director

assistance
and

Islamica

of 30

Europe,

were

Agreements

as

Spain.

"Universidad

by a Board

Andalusia,

Mr

for exchange

is

It is headed

Al-Andalus".

Universities

of whom

University

elected

UNESCO,
Islamic

of

Muslims

distinguished

countries.

the majority

students,

name

in drawing

reached

with

up the courses

students.
the centre

of

Islamic

scholarship

in Andalusia. Most of its teachers and students are Andalusians. Uptil now it has
been

well

received

by the Andalusian

THE

ANDALUSIAN

Since

the fall of Granada,

of

Andalusian

community

at large.

DIASPORA

emigrants

and
who

even
fled

before
from

that there
their

has

homeland

been

a continuous
to

owing

the

flow
brutal

oppression to which they were subjected. They especially emigrated to the coasts
of

the

Muslim

Andalusians

countries

during

16th,

on

the

Mediterranean.

17th

and

18th

centuries

Thus,

left Andalusia

great

number

to settle

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All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions

of

down

AL| KETTANi/Muslims

630

in

Algeria

and

of these

three

Morocco,

populations
Most

of

the

but

Tunis),

Tetuan,

Testour,
The

countries.

them

in
led

continued

many
Muslim

of

of culture

as

of

the

origin.
Tlemcen,

settlements

(Rabat,

the

African

and

since

these

also

economy.

became

European

of the effort

to ensure

of

Many

and

invasion,

against

the security

of

them.
the

to

Lebanon,

North

regions

Andalusians

culture

to subjugate

are

to

coastal

locals.

countries

emigrated

emigration

the

than

the vanguard

Turkey,

this

cent

per

Marrakech,
new

culture

in politics,

especially

Andalusians

Bosnia-Herzegovina.

(Fes,

the

Arabicizing

the efforts

against

Other

Traces

to

of the Maghrebi

to serve

lands

10

of Andalusian

established

Andalusian

brought

fields,

many

about

considered

cities

even

After the Fall of Granada

etc.).

level

the defence

that

so

be

existing

them

contributed

a higher

much

could

in

of

Andalusians

had

leaders

some

Soliman,

They

refugees

countries

settled

emigrants

Algiers,

so

Tunisia,

in Spain

Syria,

Ottoman
Egypt

even

observable

State,

and

in

today

the

including

the Arabian
the

Peninsula.

name

of

many

families.
not

However,
to move

opportunity

of reaching

in the hope
many

of

Islam

and

them

were

of

"New
but

America,
were

it was

fled
from

not

always

in the

of them

Mountains

the Appalachian
The

also

Christians"

Some

With

Andalusians

who

America.

to

easy

embraced

America
their

Islam

in Andalusia

territories

conquered

As

prohibition.

were

where

forbade

state

this

to be

but

memory.

Inquisitions

to North

or the other

Christianized

Spanish

implement

World,

believed

The

the

Switzerland

reason

their

to the newly

moving

New

fled

are

to

and

were

they
from

had

country

to France
for one

but

time

erased

their

fled
fled

lands,

so.

not completely

discovered

them.

persecute

Some

Ottoman

to do

were

who

Andalusians
countries.

Muslim

Andalusians

so-called

Muslims

the

unable

al-Andalus
Many

these

all

to Muslim

established

to

the Melungeons

in

descendants.
in recent

years

were

very eager from the beginning to establish links with this Andalusian diaspora.
This

was

of

one

Andalusian

the

reasons

the

underlying

in Castellar

Conference

of

holding

de la Frontera

the

First

International

of Cadiz)

(Province

in 1989.28

CONCLUSION
It is quite evident that the Andalusians did not leave Islam of their free will. On
the contrary,
for

they were

several

almost

culture,

subjected

centuries.
their

to the most

Eventually,
roots

and

their

atrocious

became

they

But

identity.

continuously

persecution,

deprived
a

of

flicker

their
of

names,

love

for

their
Islam

always remained in their hearts. More specifically, the feeling of being different
from

the rest of Spain


Blas

was
the

Intante,

never

quite

obliterated.

man

who

developed

the

theory

of

Andalusian

nationalism, based it on its Islamic roots. He paid for this effort with his life.
His 'crime' lay in telling the Andalusians that they were different from other
Spaniards.
the death

But

Infante's

of Franco

in

efforts
1975,

enabled

which

soon

the
led

return

of

Islam

to the restoration

to Andalusia
of democracy

Spain.

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after
in

Islamic

Studies

36:4

In 1980,

have

there

63 1

was

At the present,

associations.
of which

Spain

(1 997)

been

50

are

the

in 1996,

in Andalusia

established
At

not a single

Islam

are

180

Of those

alone.

by the Andalusian

pesent

in Spain

mosque
there

as

a few

only
and

mosques

Islamic
in

halls

prayer

in Andalusia,

returnees

is recognized

and

more

than

half

to Islam.

a religion

in Spain.

With

effect

from 1996-97, Islamic education will be imparted in public schools to Muslim


children. The Islamic Commission of Spain, representing all the Muslims of the
country,

has

been

established

to negotiate

with

the State

as regards

guaranteeing

Muslims their rights.


as the Muslims

Thus,
century,
than

felt until

they

forward

have

they

to a bright

two

in Spain

reasons

good

decades

future

when

stand

to feel
ago.

For

the tragic

at the threshold

much

more

good
rupture

of the twenty-first

at home

reason

they

between

in their
have

Islam

homeland
to look

begun
and

Spain

will,

in all likelihood, become a relic of the past.

'.A.

1969).
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de Baeza, Las Coses de Granada, ed. M. Muller (Gottingen: 1863).
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^Hernando
'Luis

Revista de Occidente,
"A. Domnguez

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Historia

de tos Moriscos

(Madrid:

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Occidente,

1978).
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Los Moriscos

del Reino de Granada

(Madrid:

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'ibid.
1lbid.
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al-Wahhb
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'Abd

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(Beirut:

fi Iftikk al-Asr",

wa'l-Jihd,

ed. Ism'TI

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"Joseph Towsend, A Journey Through Spain in the Years 1786 and 1887,
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3 volumes.

MJuan Anstonio Lacomba

Contemporanea

2lHenry Swinburne,

Abellan, Regionalismo

y Autonomia en la Andaluca

(Granada:
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(1835-1936)
!5Manuel Ruiz Lagos, Blas Infante (Fondation Blas Infante, 1984).
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of the Institute of

op. cit.
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"Kettani,

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