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Perancangan Strategi Industri

SALEMBA

PENGANTAR (review)
I. Strategi
II. Strategic Management
III. Key strategic issues
IV. Strategic imperatives
V. Beberapa faktor kunci perubahan
VI. Corporate Strategy
VII. Strategic management models
Kuliah 1:
Jumat, 10 April 2015
Strategi/Kuiah 1/yad/10 April-2015

Thoughts .

We must plan for the future, because people who stay


in the present will remain in the past.
- Abraham Lincoln -

Thoughts

Without a strategy, an organization is like a ship


without a rubber, going around in circles. Its like a
tramp it has no place to go.

- Joel Ross and Michael Kami -

I. Strategi

Strategi adalah langkah-langkah besar yang harus dilakukan


untuk mencapai sasaran jangka panjang (Fred R. David).

Strategi menggambarkan arahan umum dari suatu


organisasi untuk mencapai tujuannya. (Robert Anthony).

Strategi adalah rencana besar, dan rencana penting.

Setiap organisasi, apakah organisasi penghasil produk, jasa,


pemerintah, atau bahkan organisasi olah raga, harus
membangun dan melaksanakan strategi yang baik untuk bisa
menjadi pemenang.

Developing strategies that use strengths


to capitalize on opportunities could be
considered an offense, whereas
strategies designed to improve upon
weaknesses while avoiding threats could
be termed defensive.

Sasaran jangka panjang (strategic objectives)

Profitabilitas (laba bersih)


Efisiensi (menekan biaya, dll)
Pertumbuhan/growth (peningkatan total assets, sales, dll)
Shareholder wealth (dividends plus stock price appreciation)
Pemanfaatan sumberdaya (ROI, ROE, dll)
Reputasi (dianggap sebagai perusahaan terkemuka)
Kontribusi pada karyawan (gaji, upah, security, dll)
Kontribusi pada masyarakat (pajak , partisipasi dalam kegiatan
sosial, CSR, penyediaan produk dan jasa bagi masyarakat, dll).
Kepemimpinan pasar (pangsa pasar, dll)
Kepemimpinan teknologi (inovasi, kreativitas, dll)
Survival (bertahan dari kebangkrutan)
Diversifikasi, integrasi, dll.

Keywords
Kejelasan strategic vision
Fokus terhadap masalah strategis
Pemahaman terhadap perubahan lingkungan yang
cepat.

II. Strategic Management


Strategic management adalah sekumpulan keputusan dan
tindakan manajerial yang menentukan kinerja jangka panjang
suatu perusahaan. (Wheelen & Hunger)
Selanjutnya, keputusan strategis diformulasikan dalam
kebijakan bisnis yang mengatur berbagai fungsi perusahaan
dalam menyelesaikan dan mencapai tujuan strategis.
Manfaat strategic management secara umum adalah untuk
memastikan perusahaan dalam a clear sense of strategic
vision dan fokus yang tajam dalam apa yang dilihat sebagai
penting secara strategis, dan pemahaman pada perubahan
lingkungan yang cepat.

A few simple strategic questions

Dimana kita sekarang ini? (Bukan apa yang kita harapkan)


Lakukan SWOT analysis:
Apa kekuatan (strengths) dan kelemahan (weaknesses) kita
sekarang ini?
Apa ancaman (threats) dan peluang (opportunities) untuk 1
sampai 20 tahun yang akan datang?
Bila tidak ada perubahan, dimana posisi kita 1 tahun? 2
tahun? 5 tahun? 10 tahun? yang akan datang.................... Apa
bisa diterima?
Bila jawabannya tidak bisa diterima, apa tindakan spesifik
yang perlu dilakukan manajemen? Apa risiko dan dihadapi?

Secepat pertanyaan tersebut dijawab, barulah organisasi siap


untuk bergerak dengan suatu rencana strategis (strategic plan).

III. Key Strategic Issues..!


Strategi berbeda untuk setiap organisasi:
Beda dalam prioritas, KSFs, skills, technology,
perspektif, perilaku, dan budaya perusahaan.

Kerancuan dalam level of strategies:


- Corporate level strategies
- Business level strategies
- Functional level strategies.

Key Strategic Matrix Questions..*)


Strategy Level

Key Strategic Issues

Generic Strategic Options

Corporate level

Are we in the right mix of

Single business

business?
What set of businesses
industries should be we in?

Related

Business Unit level What should be the mission


of the business unit?
How should the business
unit compete to realize its
mission?

diversification
Unrelated
diversification
Build, hold, harvest,

divest
Low cost or

differentiation

*) Functional level strategy: Operations, Marketing, Financial, etc

Beberapa opsi Corporate Strategy


Single business
firm

Related
diversified firm

Unrelated diversified
firm

Competes in one
business

Sharing core
competencies

Autonomous business in
different markets

Apple Computer
McDonalds Corp.
Wrigley
Maytag
Texas Air
Ford Motor
Purdue Farms

P&G
Emerson Electric
Philip Morris
Dow-Corning
Johnson & Johnson
Du Pont
Gilette

ITT
Rockwell
GE
LTV
Textron
Litton

IV. Strategic Imperatives


5 Keharusan Strategis:
Inovasi, Kualitas, Continuous Improvement (CI), Speed,
dan Fleksibilitas.

Inovasi
- Contoh: 50 % produk Hewlett-Packard (HP)
belum diproduksi 2 tahun yang lalu.
- Contoh lain: Process innovation oleh Intel, 3M,
GE, Merck, Apple, Unilever, CitiBank, dll.

2. Kualitas
- Kualitas yang tinggi jadi bagian game of business
(sejak 90-an).
- Tanpa kualitas, produk/jasa tidak diperhitungkan.
3. Continuous Improvement (CI)
- CI produk dan proses dilakukan dengan TQM dan Kaizen
- Hasilnya: Strategi differensiasi dan biaya yang rendah
pada perusahaan Jepang.
4. Kecepatan (Speed) - Makin cepat produk mencapai pasar, makin
cepat perusahaan mendapatkan market share-nya.
5. Fleksibilitas - Perubahan lingkungan yang cepat membutuhkan
strategi yang fleksibel. Misal: fleksibilitas desain.

V. Beberapa Faktor Kunci Perubahan


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

Globalization
E-commerce
Core competence
Learning organization
Greatest management decisions.

1). Globalization
Globalization the internationalization of markets and
corporations. It has changed modern corporations do
business.
Examples Economies of scale to achieve low costs:
- Nike and Reebok, manufacture their athletic shoes in
Asia.
- GE moved R&D lab for its medical systems division
from Japan to China to learn more about developing
new products for developing economies.
- US and Western Europe are outsourcing their
manufacturing, software development, or customer
service, etc to companies in China, Eastern Europe, or
India.
Whatever China develops is rolled out to the rest of the
world . (Wilbur Chung Wharton professor)

2). Electronic Commerce


Electronic commerce, refers to the use of Internet to conduct
business transactions.

Example the net B2B marketplace:


- Trading exchange platforms such as VerticalNet and i2
Technologies Trade Matrix, to support trading
communities in multiple markets.
- Net market makers, such as e-Steel, NECX, and
BuildPoint, which focus on a specific industrys
value chain or business processes to mediate multiple
transactions among businesses.
Pertamina uses E-Reverse Auction, and now developed new
divisions Integrated Supply Chain using MySAP.

3). Core Competence


Core competence is a bundle of skills and technologies that
enables a company to provide a particular benefit to
customers.
Example:
Sony benefit is pocketability
core competence is miniaturization
Federal Express benefit is on time delivery
core competence is logistics management
Motorolabenefit is untethered communication
core competence is wireless communication.

4). Learning Organization

A learning organization an organization skilled at creating,


acquiring, and transferring knowledge and at modifying its
behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights.

Examples:
- Hewlett-Packard (HP) - uses an extensive network
of informal committees to transfer knowledge among
its cross-functional teams and to help spread new
sources of knowledge quickly.
- Motorola - developed an action learning in which peple
from marketing, product development, and manufacturing
meet to argue and reach agreement about the need of
the market, the best new product, and the schedules of
each group producing it.

5). Greatest Management Decisions


Greatest decisions change things:
1950: Frank McNamara came up with the idea of the Diners Club Card.
1952: The Wilson family opened the first Holiday Inn in Memphis.
1959: Honda bravely changed direction and transformed the motorbike
business overnight.

1980: Ted Turner launched the Cable News Network (CNN). No one
thought a 24-hour news network would work.
1980: Akito Morita developed Walkman. There was no need for market
research, because The public does not know what is possible. We do.

1982: J&J pulled Tylenol from store shelves after capsules were found to be
poisoned. The company put customer safety before corporate profit.
And it provided a lesson in media openness.
1984: Michael Dell decided to sell PCs direct and built to order.

VI. Corporate Strategy


Kasus: Corporate Strategy

Kellogs
Corn flakes dan selamanya tetap di breakfast industry.
- Kellogs bertahan dengan status quo
- Strategi Kellogs : Stability Strategy
Wall-Mart
Retail industry, dan berkembang sangat cepat
- Wall-Mart senantiasa melakukan expansion,
develop new business, dan globalizing.
- Strategi Wall-Mart : Growth Strategy
Westinghouse
Produsen heavy industrial products.
- Sales turun, uncertainty, dan menjual assets.
- Strategi : Retrenchment Strategy

Corporate Strategy (cont)


Valuable
Strengths
Firm
Status

Critical
Weaknesses

Corporate
Growth
Strategies

Corporate
Stability
Strategies

Corporate
Stability
Strategies

Corporate
Retrenchment
Strategies

Abundant
Environmental
Opportunities

Environmental
Status

Critical
Environment
Threats

VII. Strategic Management Models

A Comprehensive Strategic Management


Model (Fred R. David)
Strategic Management Model (Wheelen &
Hunger)

A Comprehensive Strategic Management Model


Feedback

Perform
External
Audit

Establish
Longterm
Objectives

Develop
Mission
Statement

Generate,
Evaluate,
and
Select
Strategies

Establish
Policies and
Annual
Objectives

Allocate
Resources

Measure
and
Evaluate
Performance

Perform
Internal
Audit

Strategy Formulation

Strategy Implementation

24

Strategy Evaluation

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