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Antebellum-Reconstruction Review

Western Migration Manifest Destiny (what it was, which


CA Gold Rush, male Chinese immigrants president)
Polk, 1844 (1830s-40s)
Argument over Texas God given right to expand from “sea to shining sea”
Union refused to allow TX to join  slavery John Winthrop’s “city upon the hill”
imbalance
President Jackson – fear of dangerous sectional Crittenden Compromise (did what to prevent
controversy & war with MX Civil War)
TX  independent nation as “Lone Star Republic” for Constitutional amendment – guarantee permanent
9 years existence of slavery in South
Failed in House of Representatives
Discovery of Gold (49ers) Last effort to prevent Civil War
James Marshall – 1/24/1848 at Sierra, Nevada
49ers: Californian migrants Empasario Program
Abandoned farms, jobs, homes 1824 Colonization Law: Mexican attracted Americans
Society: fluid and volatile by promising cheap land & 4-yr exemption from
taxes
54°40’ or Fight Requirements: 1) became MX citizens, 2) became
Oregon Territory dispute with Britain Catholics, 3) no slavery
Resolved at 49th Parallel at Treaty of 1846
Symbolized good relationship between U.S. and Brit. Ostend Manifesto
Offered to buy Cuba from Spain as new slave state
Compromise of 1850 (who, what)
Henry Clay Wilmot Proviso
– California is free state Antislavery Democrat
– Popular Sovereignty to decide issue of slavery in Introduced amendment to the appropriation bill
states prohibiting slavery in territories acquired from
– Abolish slave trade, not slavery, in D.C. Mexico
– New fugitive laws: a crime to hide slaves & police
must return runaway slaves Popular Sovereignty (what it was, who
Daniel Webster proposed it)
– Secession is impractical & impossible Let the people of each new state decide whether
– Must keep Union together they wanted to be admitted into the Union as free or
John Calhoun slave state
– Southern side Stephen A. Douglas
– State rights
– Fugitive slave laws Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
– Want CA Let the territories decide as free or slave state
– Threaten to secede (popular sovereignty)
Divided into 2 territories
Causes and Results of Mexican American War Kansas – opened slavery in return for RR from North
Long-term Causes Destroyed Whig, created Republican Party
– Manifesto Destiny
– California (Polk wanted Pacific Ocean; West = Bleeding Kansas
cotton; trade with China) Over slavery issue in Kansas ‘cos of popular
Immediate Causes sovereignty
– Texas Annexation 1845 1st battles of Civil War 1856 over 10 yrs
– Failure of Slidell Mission Tried by VA court for treason
– Border Dispute – southern border at Rio Grande
vs. Nueces River Gadsden Purchase
Effects James Gadsden, sent by Jefferson Davis
– Thoreau’s Civil Disobedience Paid $10 million to Mexican government for a strip of
– Mexican Cession land now known as AZ & NM
Railroad for South to Pacific Coast
– Slavery Imbalance  Civil War
Formation of Republican Party (who, when)
Results of Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Stop expansion of slavery
Ended Mexican War – Polk sent Nicholas Trist Created after Kansas-Nebraska Act / death of Whig
Feb. 2nd, 1848: Mexican ceded CA, NM, UT, NV Know-Nothings, Abolitionist, National Republican,
Acknowledge TX border line at Rio Grande Free Soil, Whig, Northern Democrats
U.S. paid $15 million to Mexico
Sumner-Brooks
Argument Against the Mexican War Abolitionist Sumner delivered speech attacking
Whig – war is unjust Butler
Butler’s nephew, Brooks attacked Sumner with a
Slidell Mission cane  hero in S, martyr in N
Mexican recognition of Rio Grande as border
between MX and TX Dred Scott
American forgiveness of U.S. citizens against MX Slaves can’t sue – property, not citizen
government Legalized slavery – Congress can’t control property
Purchase of New Mexico for $5 million (5th Amendment)
Purchase of California
Failed, refused by Mexican government Harper’s Ferry (John Brown)
Anti-slavery
Seized control of U.S. arsenal
Antebellum-Reconstruction Review

Received no support from the local – 1st Union victory  Emancipation Proclamation
Tried to get slaves to revolt Battle of Gettysburg (7/1-3/1863)
Surrendered by U.S. army  hanged – Turning point of war, combined with victory of
Vicksburg = bloodiest battle (NOT single day)
Uncle Tom’s Cabin (who, effect)
Harriet Beecher Stowe – George Meade vs. Lee  Conf got defeated,
Portrayed evilness of slavery ended chances to invade North
Enraged the southerners Battle of Vicksburg (1862-1863)
– Union gained control of Mississippi River, splitting
Northern Abolitionists (white & black) the Conf. at Vicksburg
Frederick Douglas Battle of Appomattox Courthouse (4/9/1865)
Harriet Tubman Lee surrendered to Ulysses Grant
William Lloyd Garrison
Emancipation Proclamation (why issued, what
Major Causes of Civil War (economic, political, it actually did)
societal) Addressed to Europe  turned Civil War into war
Long-term over slavery = stop Eur. support for South
Weakened South, support Union cause
– 2nd Great Awakening Not Union-occupied Conf. states to prevent inside
– Slavery controversy rebellions
– Social class based on slavery Irish in North upset: free slaves = economic
– State rights vs. federal power competitions
Immediate Abolitionists happy
– John Brown’s raids
– Lincoln’s election Economic effects of the War on North and
– Fort Sumter South
– Uncle Tom’s Cabin North – industries, workforce = increased
– Dred Scott South – ended slaver = decreased
– Bleedy Kansas
– Compromise of 1850 Morrill Act
– Popular sovereignty Transfer land to state government use for public
education, aka colleges
Fort Sumter
North surrendered by South Homestead Act
Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina joined Citizen claimed 160 acres of land
Conf = total 11 Allowed to buy after 5 years
Civil War begun @ Charleston, SC – 4/12/1861 Encouraged Northerners to West
Advantages / Disadvantages of North and Pacific Railway Act
South (military, economic, political) Begun construction of transcontinental RR in South
North
– Transportation Enrollment Act
– Industries Enrollment of every male citizens for more
– Population 21 million manpower in Union Army
– Money (CA – gold; NV – silver)
South Impact of War on Women and Northern Blacks
– Better generals – Robert E. Lee Women: nursing, cooking, cleaning; challenged the
– Homefield dominance of men in work force
Keep families together; maintain agricultural
Anaconda Plan production; school teacher, nurse; outnumber men
“Great Snake” Map
Invade Mississippi River and split the Confederates Draft Riots in North (who, why)
Block Southern port cities, stop trades with Europe Irish, didn’t want to fight for blacks
for goods and support = naval blockage Free blacks = compete jobs with Irish
Invade capital at Richmond, VA
Substitutes and Avoiding the Draft
Presidents of the Confederacy and Union Hired poor as substitutes
Conf. – Jefferson Davis; capital at Richmond, VA Financial aid and support
Uni. – Abraham Lincoln
End of the War
Border States 4/9/1865 @ Battle of Appomattox Courthouse
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, West
Virginia Role of Black Soldiers in North
Minor jobs, stayed in back, lower paid
Impact of Technology on the War
Mini ball bullets, repeating rifles Sherman’s March to the Sea
Union deprived Conf. of war materials and
“Total War” communication
1st modern trench warfare Captured port of Savannah
Society vs. society: economic, telegraph/railroad, Example of “total war”
submarines
Aimed to destroy other society’s ability to wage war Lincoln’s 10% Lenient Plan
10% pledge allegiance
4 Major Battles: Set up govt. remake Constitution with no slavery
Battle of Antietam (9/17/1862) No Conf. officials, can’t vote
– “Bloodiest Single-Day Battle”
Antebellum-Reconstruction Review

However did industrialize South, although still poor


Wade Davis Bill and behind
50% ironclad oath
South must apologize & swear an oath  otherwise, Grant’s Administration Scandals
lost honor Credit Mobilier – govt. accept bribery from
President could impose govt.  “pocket vetoed” transcontinental RR company
Whiskey Ring – bribery, cheat on taxes of whiskey
Congressional Reconstruction
Andrew Johnson The Slaughterhouse Cases
Went with Lincoln’s 10% Plan Restricted 14th Amendment to federal laws – state
Must ask for President’s pardon rights argument

Radical Republicans / Abolitionists (who, what Election of 1876 & Compromise of 1877 (what
did they want, economic & societal goal) it did)
Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, Frederick Tilden vs. Hayes – Tilden let Hayes won presidency in
Douglas Compromise of 1877:
Freedman’s Bureau – help blacks Removal of all federal troops from Conf. states
13th Amendment Appoint at least 1 Southern Democrat to Hayes’
Industrialize South cabinet (Davis Key)
Construction of RR – TX to Pacific
Freedman’s Bureau (what it did) Industrialize South
Provided blacks money, food, education, but NOT
land Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
Separate but equal
Black Codes
restricting blacks freedom – no votes, jury trials, Jim Crow Laws (what they did)
testify against whites following the Civil War Laws reinforced segregation

KKK & Enforcement Acts Lynching


1867, kept people from voting Punishment carried out by a mob, e.g. public hanging
Burn crosses, kidnap, kill
Hated carpetbaggers, scalawags, freedmen Loss of Voting Rights for Blacks
Enforcement Acts – suppressed KKK, federal crimes, Poll Tax – pay to vote
sent troops to South, use violence to protect civil Grandfather Clause – grandpa voted, you vote
rights and ex-slaves in South Literacy Test – must read/write

Andrew Johnson & Impeachment (why, why it Booker T. Washington & Atlanta Compromise
failed) Education, rights, and privileges of citizenship for
Johnson fired Secretary of War Stanton  violated blacks, but they must struggle for econ. gains & self-
Tenure of Office Act improvement
Short 1 vote, didn’t otherwise could weaken
presidency power Seward’s Folly
House brings charges, Senate decides Purchase of Alaska 1867; criticized ‘cos Rocky Mt.
hadn’t been filled yet
Sharecropping & the Crop-Lien System
Share: crops for land & supply from land-owners Post-War Industrialization in the South
Crop-Lien: crops for credits/cash from merchants Iron/steel – Birmingham
Railroads
13th Amendment – 1865 abolished slavery Textile mills
14th Amendment – citizenship to everyone born in Still capital-poor, least developing place in nation
U.S., equal protection = define citizenship
15th Amendment – universal male suffrage Lincoln’s Assassination
John W. Booth
Redeemers 4/14/1865
Powerful, wealthy class in South tried to return South
to antebellum Internal problems during Civil War
Draft – people didn’t want to fight
Carpetbaggers Inflation – Panic of 1863
Northern Republicans sent to reconstruct South
Argument b/w North and South
Scalawags Over the route for transcontinental railroad
Poor white southerners who helped with
reconstruction; tried to overturn social status

Exodusters
Slaves who went to Kansas ‘cos of Homestead Act

Why Ex-slaves Did Not Move Far After the War


Be with family, not wanted in North, no money

End of Reconstruction (when it ended, was it


successful, why / why not)
Compromise of 1877
Failed to resolve issue of race