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AXIAL SKELETON

- consists of 80 bones
Consists of 3 MAJOR
REGIONS

Sk ull

SKULL (29)
8 cranial bones
+ 14 facial bones
+ 6 auditory ossicles
+ 1 hyoid
VERTEBRAL
COLUMN (26)
7 cervical
+ 12 thoracic
+ 5 lumbar vertebrae
+ 1 sacrum
+ 1 coccyx

T hora c ic c a ge
(ribs and
sternum)
Ve r t e bra l
c olum n

Sacrum

THORACIC CAGE (25)


1 sternum
+ 24 ribs

Cranium
F i l bones
Facial
b
Clavicle
Scapula
Sternum
Rib
Humerus
Vertebra
Radius
Ul
Ulna
Carpals

Upper
Limb

Phalanges
Metacarpals
Femur
Patella
Tibia
Fibula
Lower Limb

(a ) Ant e rior vie w


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Tarsals
Metatarsals
Phalanges
Figure 7.1a

Bones of cranium (cranial vault)

Coronal
suture

CRANIAL BONES
- Enclose BRAIN in
CRANIAL CAVITY
(Cranial vault =
calvaria)
(Cranial base =
anterior,
middle, and posterior
cranial fossae)
- Provides SITES of
ATTACHMENT for
head and neck
muscles

Squamous
suture
t

Lambdoid
suture

Facial
bones

Cra nia l a nd fa c ia l divisions of t he sk ull


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FACIAL BONES
- framework of the
face
- CAVITIES for
special sense
organs for sight,
taste, and smell
- OPENINGS for air
and food passage
- SITES of
ATTACHMENT for
teeth and muscles
of facial expression

FRONTAL BONE Anterior portion of cranium

Forms most of ANTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA


Forms superior wall of ORBITS
Contains air-filled FRONTAL SINUS

Anterior cranial
fossa
Middle cranial
fossa

Posterior cranial
fossa
Supe rior vie w of t he c ra nia l fossa e
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Cranial Bones
Frontal bone
Parietal bones (2)
Occipital
O i it l bone
b
Temporal
p
bones ((2))
Sphenoid bone
Ethmoid bone

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Front a l bone
Glabella
Frontonasal suture
Supraorbital foramen
(notch)
Supraorbital margin
Superior orbital
fissure
Optic canal
Inferior orbital
fissure
Middle nasal
concha
Et hm oid
Perpendicular bone
plate
I nfe rior na sa l c oncha
Vom e r

Pa rie t a l bone
Squamous part
of frontal bone
N a sa l bone
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Te m pora l bone
Et hm oid bone
La c rim a l bone
Z ygom at ic bone
Infraorbital foramen
M a x illa
M a ndible
Mental
foramen
(a ) Ant e rior vie w
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Mandibular symphysis
Figure 7.4a

Cranial

Coronal suture

Front a l bone

Pa rie t a l bone

S h noid
Sphe
id b
bone
(greater wing)
Et hm oid bone

Te m pora l bone

La c rim a l bone
Lacrimal fossa

Lambdoid
suture
Squamous
suture
Oc c ipit a l
bone
Zygomatic
process
Occipitomastoid
suture
External acoustic
meatus
Mastoid process
Styloid process

N a sa l bone
Z ygom at ic
bone
M a x illa

Alveolar
margins
Mandibular condyle
Mandibular notch

M a ndible
Mental foramen

Mandibular ramus
Coronoid process

Mandibular angle
(a ) Ex t e r na l a nat om y of t he right side of t he sk ull

Facial
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Figure 7.5a

Parietal Bones and Major Associated


Sutures

Superior and lateral aspects of cranial vault

Four sutures mark the articulations of parietal


bones with frontal, occipital, and temporal bones:
1 C
1.
Coronall suturebetween
t
b t
parietal
i t lb
bones and
d ffrontal
t l
bone
2 Sagittal suturebetween
2.
suture between right and left parietal bones
3. Lambdoid suturebetween parietal bones and
occipital bone
4. Squamous (squamosal) suturesbetween parietal
and temporal bones on each side of skull

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Occipital Bone
- Forms most of skull's POSTERIOR WALL and POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA
- Articulates with 1st VERTEBRA (ATLAS)
Sagittal suture
- SITES of ATTACHMENT for the LIGAMENTUM NUCHAE
and many neck and back muscles

Pa rie t a l
bone
Sutural
bone
Lambdoid
suture
Oc c ipit a l bone
Superior nuchal line
External
occipital
protuberance
Occipitomastoid
suture
(b) Post e rior vie w
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External
occipital
crest

Occipital
condyle

Mastoid
process
Inferior
nuchal
li
line

Figure 7.4b

M a x illa
(palatine process)
(p
p
)
H d
Hard
Pa lat ine bone
palate
(horizontal plate)
Z ygom at ic bone
Te m pora l bone
(zygomatic process)
Vom e r
Mandibular
fossa
Styloid process
Mastoid process
Te m pora l bone
(petrous part)
Pharyngeal tubercle
of basilar region of
the occipital bone
Pa rie t a l bone
External occipital crest
E t
External
l occipital
i it l
protuberance
(a ) I nfe rior vie w of t he sk ull (m a ndible re m ove d)
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Incisive fossa
y suture
Intermaxillary
Median palatine suture
Infraorbital foramen
M a x illa
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
External acoustic meatus
Stylomastoid
foramen
Jugular foramen
Occipital condyle
Inferior nuchal line
Superior nuchal line
Foramen magnum

Figure 7.6a

Temporal Bones (2)


- Forms inferolateral aspects of skull and parts
of CRANIAL FLOOR

External
acoustic
t
meatus
Mastoid
region

Squamous
region

- 4 MAJOR REGIONS:
- SQUAMOUS
- TYMPANIC
- MASTOID
- PETROUS

PETROUS region

Z
Zygomatic
ti process
Mandibular fossa

Mastoid
process

Tympanic
y p
region
g

Styloid process

Articular tubercle

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Figure 7.8

M a x illa
(palatine process)
(p
p
)
H d
Hard
Pa lat ine bone
palate
(horizontal plate)
Z ygom at ic bone
Te m pora l bone
(zygomatic process)
Vom e r
Mandibular
fossa
Styloid process
Mastoid process
Te m pora l bone
(petrous part)
Pharyngeal tubercle
of basilar region of
the occipital bone
Pa rie t a l bone
External occipital crest
E t
External
l occipital
i it l
protuberance
(a ) I nfe rior vie w of t he sk ull (m a ndible re m ove d)
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Incisive fossa
y suture
Intermaxillary
Median palatine suture
Infraorbital foramen
M a x illa
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
External acoustic meatus
Stylomastoid
foramen
Jugular foramen
Occipital condyle
Inferior nuchal line
Superior nuchal line
Foramen magnum

Figure 7.6a

Et hm oid
b
bone

Cribriform plate
Crista galli

Anterior cranial fossa

Front a l bone
Olfactory foramina
Optic canal

Sphe noid

Lesser wing
Greater wing

Hypophyseal fossa
of sella turcica
Middle cranial
fossa
Te m pora l bone
(petrous part)

Foramen rotundum
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Internal acoustic
meatus
Jugular foramen
Hypoglossal canal

Posterior
cranial fossa

Foramen magnum
View

Pa rie t a l bone
Oc c ipit a l bone
(a ) Supe rior vie w of t he sk ull, c a lva ria re m ove d
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Figure 7.7a

SPHENOID BONE
- Complex, bat-shaped bone
- KEYSTONE BONE: articulates with all other cranial bones

Optic
p canal
Greater
wing
Hypophyseal
fossa of
sella turcica

Body of sphenoid

Lesser wing
Superior
orbital fissure
Foramen
rotundum
Foramen
ovale
Foramen
spinosum

3 pairs of processes:
- GREATER WINGS
- LESSER WINGS
- PTERYGOID PROCESSES

(a ) Supe rior vie w


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Figure 7.9a

Body of sphenoid
Greater
wing
g

Lesser
wing
Superior
orbital
fissure
Pterygoid
process

(b) Post e rior vie w


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Figure 7.9b

ETHMOID BONE

- Deepest skull bone


- Superior part of NASAL SEPTUM
- Roof of NASAL CAVITIES
- Contributes to MEDIAL WALL of
ORBITS

Olfactory
foramina

Orbital
plate

Crista galli
Cribriform
plate

Left lateral mass

Ethmoidal
air cells
Perpendicular
plate
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Middle nasal concha


Figure 7.10

Front a l bone
Glabella
Frontonasal suture
Supraorbital foramen
(notch)
Supraorbital margin
Superior orbital
fissure
Optic canal
Inferior orbital
fissure
Middle nasal
concha
Et hm oid
Perpendicular bone
plate
I nfe rior na sa l c oncha
Vom e r

Pa rie t a l bone
Squamous part
of frontal bone
N a sa l bone
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Te m pora l bone
Et hm oid bone
La c rim a l bone
Z ygom at ic bone
Infraorbital foramen
M a x illa
M a ndible
Mental
foramen
(a ) Ant e rior vie w
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Mandibular symphysis
Figure 7.4a

Et hm oid
b
bone

Cribriform plate
Crista galli

Anterior cranial fossa

Front a l bone
Olfactory foramina
Optic canal

Sphe noid

Lesser wing
Greater wing

Hypophyseal fossa
of sella turcica
Middle cranial
fossa
Te m pora l bone
(petrous part)

Foramen rotundum
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Internal acoustic
meatus
Jugular foramen
Hypoglossal canal

Posterior
cranial fossa

Foramen magnum
View

Pa rie t a l bone
Oc c ipit a l bone
(a ) Supe rior vie w of t he sk ull, c a lva ria re m ove d
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Figure 7.7a

Sutural bones = tiny, irregularly shaped bones that appear within sutures

Sagittal suture
Pa rie t a l
bone
Sutural
bone
Lambdoid
suture
Oc c ipit a l bone
Superior nuchal line
External
occipital
protuberance
Occipitomastoid
suture
(b) Post e rior vie w
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External
occipital
crest

Occipital
condyle

Mastoid
process
Inferior
nuchal
li
line

Figure 7.4b

Facial Bones
Mandible

Lacrimal bones (2)

Maxillary bones
(maxillae) (2)

Palatine bones (2)

Zygomatic bones (2)


asa bones
bo es ((2))
Nasal

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Vomer
Inferior nasal conchae
((2))

MANDIBLE

- lower jaw
- largest, strongest facial bone

only freely moveable joint in skull

Temporomandibular
joint
Mandibular notch
Mandibular
condyle

Mandibular fossa
of temporal bone
Coronoid
process
Mandibular foramen

Ramus
of
mandible

Alveolar
margin
Mental
foramen

Mandibular
angle

Body of mandible
(a ) M a ndible , right lat e ra l vie w
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Figure 7.11a

MAXILLARY BONES
- medially fused to form upper jaw and central portion of facial skeleton
- KEYSTONE BONES: articulate with all other facial bones, except mandible

Articulates with
f
frontal
t l bone
b
Frontal process

Orbital
surface
Zygomatic
process
(cut)

Infraorbital
foramen
A t i nasall
Anterior
spine
Alveolar
margin

(b) M a x illa , right lat e ra l vie w


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Figure 7.11b

MAXILLARY BONES
Front a l bone
Glabella
Frontonasal suture
Supraorbital foramen
(notch)
Supraorbital margin
Superior orbital
fissure
Optic canal
Inferior orbital
fissure
Middle nasal
concha
Et hm oid
Perpendicular bone
plate
I nfe rior na sa l c oncha
Vom e r

Pa rie t a l bone
Squamous part
of frontal bone
N a sa l bone
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Te m pora l bone
Et hm oid bone
La c rim a l bone
Z ygom at ic bone
Infraorbital foramen
M a x illa
M a ndible
Mental
foramen
(a ) Ant e rior vie w
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Mandibular symphysis
Figure 7.4a

MAXILLARY BONES
M a x illa
(palatine process)
(p
p
)
H d
Hard
Pa lat ine bone
palate
(horizontal plate)
Z ygom at ic bone
Te m pora l bone
(zygomatic process)
Vom e r
Mandibular
fossa
Styloid process
Mastoid process
Te m pora l bone
(petrous part)
Pharyngeal tubercle
of basilar region of
the occipital bone
Pa rie t a l bone
External occipital crest
E t
External
l occipital
i it l
protuberance
(a ) I nfe rior vie w of t he sk ull (m a ndible re m ove d)
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Incisive fossa
y suture
Intermaxillary
Median palatine suture
Infraorbital foramen
M a x illa
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
External acoustic meatus
Stylomastoid
foramen
Jugular foramen
Occipital condyle
Inferior nuchal line
Superior nuchal line
Foramen magnum

Figure 7.6a

ZYGOMATIC BONES

- cheekbones
- INFEROLATERAL margins of ORBITS
Front a l bone
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Et hm oid bone

Coronal suture
Pa rie t a l bone
Te m pora l bone

La c rim a l bone
Lacrimal fossa

Lambdoid
suture
Squamous
suture
Oc c ipit a l
bone
Zygomatic
process
Occipitomastoid
p
suture
External acoustic
meatus
Mastoid process
Styloid process

N a sa l bone
b
Z ygom at ic
bone
M a x illa

Alveolar
margins
Mandibular condyle
Mandibular notch

M a ndible
Mental foramen

Mandibular ramus
Mandibular angle

Coronoid process

(a ) Ex t e r na l a nat om y of t he right side of t he sk ull


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Figure 7.5a

NASAL BONES
- form the BRIDGE of the NOSE

LACRIMAL BONES
- in MEDIAL WALLS of ORBITS
- LACRIMONAL FOSSA houses the LACRIMAL SAC

Front a l bone
Glabella
Frontonasal suture
Supraorbital foramen
(notch)
Supraorbital margin
Superior orbital
fissure
Optic canal
Inferior orbital
fissure
Middle nasal
concha
Et hm oid
Perpendicular bone
plate
I nfe rior na sa l c oncha
Vom e r

Pa rie t a l bone
Squamous part
of frontal bone
N a sa l bone
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Te m pora l bone
Et hm oid bone
La c rim a l bone
Z ygom at ic bone
Infraorbital foramen
M a x illa
M a ndible
Mental
foramen
(a ) Ant e rior vie w
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Mandibular symphysis
Figure 7.4a

PALANTINE BONES

- forms posterior third of HARD PALATE


- forms POSTEROLATERAL WALLS of NASAL CAVITY
- small part of the ORBITS
M a x illa
(palatine process)
(p
p
)
H d
Hard
Pa lat ine bone
palate
(horizontal plate)

VOMER

- plow-shaped
- forms lower part of SEPTUM

Z ygom at ic bone
Te m pora l bone
(zygomatic process)
Vom e r
Mandibular
fossa
Styloid process
Mastoid process
Te m pora l bone
(petrous part)
Pharyngeal tubercle
of basilar region of
the occipital bone
Pa rie t a l bone
External occipital crest
E t
External
l occipital
i it l
protuberance
(a ) I nfe rior vie w of t he sk ull (m a ndible re m ove d)
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Incisive fossa
y suture
Intermaxillary
Median palatine suture
Infraorbital foramen
M a x illa
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Foramen ovale
Foramen spinosum
Foramen lacerum
Carotid canal
External acoustic meatus
Stylomastoid
foramen
Jugular foramen
Occipital condyle
Inferior nuchal line
Superior nuchal line
Foramen magnum

Figure 7.6a

Front a l bone
Glabella
Frontonasal suture
Supraorbital foramen
(notch)
Supraorbital margin
Superior orbital
fissure
Optic canal
Inferior orbital
fissure
Middle nasal
concha
Et hm oid
Perpendicular bone
plate
I nfe rior na sa l c oncha
Vom e r

Pa rie t a l bone
Squamous part
of frontal bone
N a sa l bone
Sphe noid bone
(greater wing)
Te m pora l bone
Et hm oid bone
La c rim a l bone
Z ygom at ic bone
Infraorbital foramen
M a x illa
M a ndible
Mental
foramen
(a ) Ant e rior vie w
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(2) - form part of LATERAL


WALLS of NASAL CAVITY

Mandibular symphysis
Figure 7.4a

Frontal sinus
Superior, middle
Superior
middle, and
inferior meatus

Superior
nasal concha Et hm oid
Middle
bone
nasal concha
I nfe rior na sa l
c oncha
N a sa l bone
bo e

Sphenoid
Sphe noid sinus
Pterygoid
bone
process
Pa lat ine bone
(perpendicular plate)

Anterior
te o nasal
asa sp
spine
e
M a x illa r y bone
(palatine process)

Pa lat ine bone


(horizontal plate)

(a ) Bone s for m ing t he le ft lat e ra l w a ll of t he na sa l c avit y


(na sa l se pt um re m ove d)
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Figure 7.14a

ORBITS

- encase EYES and LACRIMAL GLANDS


- SITES of ATTACHMENT for EYE MUSCLES
- formed by parts of 7 BONES

Roof of orbit

Supraorbital notch

ETHMOID, SPHENOID, FRONTAL,


LACRIMAL, NASAL, PALATINE,
ZYGOMATIC, MAXILLA

Superior
orbital fissure

O ti canall
Optic

Lesser wing of
sphenoid bone
Orbital plate of
f
frontal
t lb
bone

M e dia l w a ll
Sphenoid body

Lat e ra l w a ll of orbit

Orbital plate
of ethmoid bone

Zygomatic process
of frontal bone

Frontal process
of maxilla

Greater wing of
sphenoid bone

Lacrimal bone

Orbital surface of
zygomatic bone

Nasal bone
Floor of orbit

Inferior orbital fissure

Orbital process of
palatine bone

Infraorbital groove
Zygomatic bone

Orbital surface of
maxillary bone
I f
Infraorbital
bit l foramen
f

Zygomatic bone
(b) Cont ribut ion of e a ch of t he seve n bone s for m ing t he right orbit
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Figure 7.13a

NASAL CAVITY

Et hm oid
bone

Crista galli
Cribriform
plate

Sella turcica

Sphenoid
S
h
id
sinus

Frontal
sinus
N a sa l bone
Perpendicular
plate of
ethmoid bone
Septal cartilage

Pa lat ine
bone
Hard Palatine process
palate of maxilla

Vomer
Alveolar margin
of maxilla

(b) N a sa l c avit y w it h se pt um in pla c e show ing t he c ont ribut ions


anterior
of t he e t hm oid bone , t he vom e r, a nd se pt a l c a r t ila ge
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Figure 7.14b

PARANASAL SINUSES

- mucosa-lined, air-filled SPACES


- LIGHTEN the skull
- enhance the RESONANCE
- found in FRONTAL
SPHENOID
ETHMOID
and MAXILLARY BONES

Frontal
sinus
Ethmoidal
air cells
(sinus)
Sphenoid
sinus
Maxillary
sinus

(a ) Ant e rior a spe c t

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Frontal
sinus
Ethmoidal
air cells
Sphenoid
sinus
Maxillary
sinus

(b) M e dia l a spe c t

Figure 7.15

HYOID BONE

- not a bone of the skull


- does not articulate directly with another bone
- SITE of ATTACMENT for mucsles of swallowing and speech

Greater horn
Lesser horn

Body
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Figure 7.12

Developmental Aspects: Fetal Skull


Infant skull has more bones than the adult skull
Skull bones such as the mandible and frontal bones
are unfused
At birth,
birth skull
sk ll bones are connected b
by fontanelles
Fontanelles
Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes
between fetal skull bones
Four fontanelles
Anterior,
Anterior posterior,
posterior mastoid,
mastoid and sphenoid
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Developmental Aspects: Spinal Curvature


Thoracic and sacral curvatures are obvious at
birth
These p
primary
y curvatures g
give the spine
p
aC
shape
Convex posteriorly

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Developmental Aspects: Spinal Curvature


Secondary curvatures
Cervical and lumbarconvex anteriorly
Appear as child develops (e
(e.g.,
g lifts head
head,
learns to walk)

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Developmental Aspects: Old Age


Intervertebral discs become thin, less hydrated,
and less elastic
Risk of disc herniation increases
Loss of stature by several centimeters is
common by age 55
Costal cartilages ossify, causing the thorax to
become rigid
All bones lose mass

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