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University of Anbar

College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Stresses in a Soil Mass


Topics
Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane
Stress distribution in soils
Stress Caused by a Point Load
Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load
Geostatic
Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load
Stress
Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading
Vertical Stress below the Center of a uniformly Loaded Circular Area
Vertical Stress at any Point below a uniformly Loaded Circular Area
Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area
Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure (Newmark Chart)
Approximate methods
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

Added Stress

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College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane


Y>

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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From geometry for the free body diagram EBF


EB

EF cos

FB

EF sin

Summing forces in N and T direction, we have


n

( EF ) sin 2

( EF )

( EF ) cos 2

cos 2

xy

sin 2

xy

( EF ) sin cos

..

.(1)
Again
n ( EF )

x ( EF ) sin cos

y
n

sin 2

Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

xy

cos 2

y ( EF ) sin cos

2
(
EF
)
cos
xy

2
(
EF
)
sin
xy

(2)
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

If

n=

0 then

tan 2

xy

.(3)

This eq. gives 2 values of that are 90o apart, this means that
there are 2 planes that are right angles to each other on which
shear stress = 0, such planes are called principle planes and the
normal stress that act on the principle planes are to as principle
stresses.

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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To find the principle stress substitute eq.3 into eq.1, we get


2
y
n

xy

major principle stress

xy

min or principle stress

2
y
n

These stresses on any plane can be found using Mohrs circle

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Mohrs circle

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Refer to the element shown in Fig. above

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Pole Method

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Added

Stress Distribution in Soils


Geostatic

Geostatic stresses
Total Stress
Effective Stress
Pore Water Pressure

Total Stress= Effective Stress+ Pore Water


Pressure

Added Stresses (Point, line, strip, triangular, circular, rectangular)

Westergaards Method
Bossinisque Equations

Point Load
Line Load
Strip Load
Triangular Load
Circular Load
Rectangular Load

Approximate Method
x
y
xy

Stress Bulbs
Influence Charts

Newmark Charts

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Geostatic stresses
The vertical geostatic stress at point X will be computed as following

homogenous soils

n
V

hi

stratified soils

dz

v
0

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density varies continuously with depth


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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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The horizontal geostatic stress can be computed as following


K v
h
where K is the coefficient of lateral stress or lateral stress
ratio

h
v

Geostatic stress are principle stresses ( 1, 2 and 3 major,


intermediate and minor principle stresses) and hence the
horizontal and vertical planes through any point are
principle planes.
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Isotropic

The largest shear stress will found on plane lying at 45o to the
horizontal
K
K

1
1

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v
max

(1

max
v
max

K)

(K

1)
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Stress Caused by a Point Load


Boussinesqs Equation
z

= (3P/2

(Z3/L5)

GROUND
SURFACE

Using Influence Factor Tablebelow


z

= (P/Z2) Ip

L=(x2+y2+z2)1/2=(r2+z2)1/2

Principal

r=(x2+y2)1/2

Stresses

General
v

Stresses
h

Z
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Civil Engineering Department
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load

q (Load/Unit Length)

q (Load/Unit Length)
X

WALL

= {2 q Z3/

General

Using Influence Factor Table below


z

= (q/Z) IL

Principal

Stresses
h

Stresses

Z
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Civil Engineering Department
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load

q (Load/Unit Area)

Strip footing

X
Using Influence Factor Tablebelow
z

= (q/Z) IB

General
z

Stresses

Principal
h

Stresses

Z
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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265

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Vertical Stress Due to Embankment Loading


z

= q/

2)]

q= H

Using Influence Factor fig.(9.11-pp238)


z

1(radians)=tan

= qI2

2=tan

B2

B1

B1

-1

{(B1+B2)/z}-tan-1(B1/z)

-1

(B1/z)

B2

H
X
Z

Highway embankment

General
v

EMBANKMENT
h

Principal
Z
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Civil Engineering Department
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Vertical Stress below the Center of a uniformly Loaded Circular Area

Qo
X

GROUND

SURFACE

X
Z
z=

q { 1- 1/[(R/Z)2 + 1 ]3/2 }

Using Influence Factorfrom table.


z = qIc
Principle

Z
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Vertical Stress at any Point below a uniformly Loaded Circular Area

Qo
X

GROUND
SURFACE

X
Z
z=

q (A/+B/)
/

Z
General

Where (A &B ) are functions of z/R and r/R


z

from tables
r

Stresses

Or we can use the stress bulb charts


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269

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

qs
X/R

0.95
0.90
0.80
0.70

0.60
0.50
0.40

xy

Z/R
0.30

1
xy

0.20
x

2
x

x=

0.15

3
1/qs

0.10

4
Circular Load: (Major Principal Stress)/(Surface Stress)
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

qs
1

X/R

0.40
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.60
0.55
0.50

0.45
0.40
0.35

Z/R

0.30

0.25

0.20
x

x=

0.15

3
1

3)/qs

0.10

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271

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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qs
1

X/R

0.90
0.80
0.70

1 0.60
0.50
0.40

Z/R

0.30

2
0.20
x

x=

0.15

3
z/qs

0.10

0.05

4
Circular Load: (Vertical Stress)/(Surface

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area


P = q IR
IR = 1/4 {[ (2. m.n (m2 + n2 + 1)1/2 ) / (m2 + n2 + m2. n2 + 1) ] [(m2 + n2 + 2)/(m2 + n2 + 1)] +tan-1
(2.m .n (m2 + n2 + 1)1/2 / (m2 + n2 - m2 . n2 + 1)}

IR = f (m,n)

L
B

q = Load /Area
Loaded Area
Foundation Level

Corner of the Building

m = B/Z

m & n from Charts or tables

n = L/Z

v
h

from tables or one can use the charts below


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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Calculation of Stress below an interior point of the loaded area


z

q[ I (OXAY )

I (OYBZ )

I (OZCT )

C
O

I (OTDX )

Q = q x Area
Plan

Elevation
z
O P o in t o f in t e r e s t
F ig . 1 0 s tr e s s in c r e a s e a t a p o in t b e lo w a lo a d e d r e c ta n g u la r r e g io n

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Calculation of Stress below a point outside of the loaded area


z

q[ I ( ABCD) I (TYBZ ) I ( XZCD) I (OZCT )


D

O P o in t o f in t e r e s t
F ig . 1 0 s t r e s s in c r e a s e a t a p o in t b e l o w a l o a d e d r e c t a n g u l a r r e g i o n

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure (Newmark Chart)


Stresses due to foundation loads of arbitrary shape applied at
the ground surface
Newmarks chart provides a graphical method for calculating
the stress increase due to a uniformly loaded region, of arbitrary
shape resting on a deep homogeneous isotropic elastic region.
Newmarks chart is given in the data sheets and is reproduced in
part in Fig 15. The procedure for its use is outlined below
1.The scale for this procedure is determined by the depth z at
which the stress is to be evaluated, thus z is equal to the
distance OQ shown on the chart.
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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2.Draw the loaded area to scale so that the point of interest


(more correctly its vertical projection on the surface) is at the
origin of the chart, the orientation of the drawing does not
matter
3.Count the number of squares (N) within the loaded area, if
more than half the square is in count the square otherwise
neglect it.
4.The vertical stress increase z = N [scale factor(0.001)]
[surface stress (p)]

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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4m
O

Loaded
Area

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Approximate Methods
Equivalent Point Load Method
In dividing the loaded area into smaller units, we have to
remember to do it such that
z/B 3; that is to say, in relation to the specified depth, the size
of any unit area should not be greater than one-third of the
depth.

Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

Qi
I
2 pi
z
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
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Each Q is the resultant of the uniform load on


the unit area acts at the center of it and treated
as a point load

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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2:1 Method
z

(B

Q
Z )( L

Z)

Q
(B Z )2

Rectangular area
Square area

Q
z

(D

Z )2

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Circular area

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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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Examples (1-3)

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College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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285

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Iraq-Ramadi

Example 4
A rectangular foundation 6 x 3m carries a uniform pressure of 300 kN/m2 near the
surface of a soil mass. Determine the vertical stress at a depth of 3m below a point
(A) on the centre line 1.5m outside a long edge of the foundation using influence
factors

Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

m=1

m=1

n =1.5

n=0.5

I = 0.193

I=0.120

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Example 5
Determine the stress increase under the embankment at points A1 and A2

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Civil Engineering Department
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University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
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289