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# University of Anbar

College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Stresses in a Soil Mass

Topics
Normal and Shear Stresses on a Plane
Stress distribution in soils
Stress Caused by a Point Load
Vertical Stress Caused by a Line Load
Geostatic
Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load
Stress
Vertical Stress below the Center of a uniformly Loaded Circular Area
Vertical Stress at any Point below a uniformly Loaded Circular Area
Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area
Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure (Newmark Chart)
Approximate methods
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

248

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Y>

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

249

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

EB

EF cos

FB

EF sin

n

( EF ) sin 2

( EF )

( EF ) cos 2

cos 2

xy

sin 2

xy

( EF ) sin cos

..

.(1)
Again
n ( EF )

x ( EF ) sin cos

y
n

sin 2

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

xy

cos 2

y ( EF ) sin cos

2
(
EF
)
cos
xy

2
(
EF
)
sin
xy

(2)
250

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

If

n=

0 then

tan 2

xy

.(3)

This eq. gives 2 values of that are 90o apart, this means that
there are 2 planes that are right angles to each other on which
shear stress = 0, such planes are called principle planes and the
normal stress that act on the principle planes are to as principle
stresses.

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

251

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

2
y
n

xy

xy

2
y
n

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

252

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Mohrs circle

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

253

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

254

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Pole Method

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

255

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Stress Distribution in Soils

Geostatic

Geostatic stresses
Total Stress
Effective Stress
Pore Water Pressure

Pressure

## Added Stresses (Point, line, strip, triangular, circular, rectangular)

Westergaards Method
Bossinisque Equations

Approximate Method
x
y
xy

Stress Bulbs
Influence Charts

Newmark Charts

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

256

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Geostatic stresses
The vertical geostatic stress at point X will be computed as following

homogenous soils

n
V

hi

stratified soils

dz

v
0

## density varies continuously with depth

257

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## The horizontal geostatic stress can be computed as following

K v
h
where K is the coefficient of lateral stress or lateral stress
ratio

h
v

## Geostatic stress are principle stresses ( 1, 2 and 3 major,

intermediate and minor principle stresses) and hence the
horizontal and vertical planes through any point are
principle planes.
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

258

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Isotropic

The largest shear stress will found on plane lying at 45o to the
horizontal
K
K

1
1

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

v
max

(1

max
v
max

K)

(K

1)
259

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Stress Caused by a Point Load

Boussinesqs Equation
z

= (3P/2

(Z3/L5)

GROUND
SURFACE

## Using Influence Factor Tablebelow

z

= (P/Z2) Ip

L=(x2+y2+z2)1/2=(r2+z2)1/2

Principal

r=(x2+y2)1/2

Stresses

General
v

Stresses
h

Z
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

260

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

261

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

X

WALL

= {2 q Z3/

General

## Using Influence Factor Table below

z

= (q/Z) IL

Principal

Stresses
h

Stresses

Z
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

262

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

263

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Vertical Stress Caused by a Strip Load

Strip footing

X
Using Influence Factor Tablebelow
z

= (q/Z) IB

General
z

Stresses

Principal
h

Stresses

Z
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

264

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

265

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

z

= q/

2)]

q= H

## Using Influence Factor fig.(9.11-pp238)

z

= qI2

2=tan

B2

B1

B1

-1

{(B1+B2)/z}-tan-1(B1/z)

-1

(B1/z)

B2

H
X
Z

Highway embankment

General
v

EMBANKMENT
h

Principal
Z
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

266

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

267

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Vertical Stress below the Center of a uniformly Loaded Circular Area

Qo
X

GROUND

SURFACE

X
Z
z=

q { 1- 1/[(R/Z)2 + 1 ]3/2 }

## Using Influence Factorfrom table.

z = qIc
Principle

Z
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

268

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Qo
X

GROUND
SURFACE

X
Z
z=

q (A/+B/)
/

Z
General

z

from tables
r

Stresses

## Or we can use the stress bulb charts

Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

269

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

qs
X/R

0.95
0.90
0.80
0.70

0.60
0.50
0.40

xy

Z/R
0.30

1
xy

0.20
x

2
x

x=

0.15

3
1/qs

0.10

4
Circular Load: (Major Principal Stress)/(Surface Stress)
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

270

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

qs
1

X/R

0.40
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.60
0.55
0.50

0.45
0.40
0.35

Z/R

0.30

0.25

0.20
x

x=

0.15

3
1

3)/qs

0.10

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

271

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

qs
1

X/R

0.90
0.80
0.70

1 0.60
0.50
0.40

Z/R

0.30

2
0.20
x

x=

0.15

3
z/qs

0.10

0.05

4

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

272

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area

P = q IR
IR = 1/4 {[ (2. m.n (m2 + n2 + 1)1/2 ) / (m2 + n2 + m2. n2 + 1) ] [(m2 + n2 + 2)/(m2 + n2 + 1)] +tan-1
(2.m .n (m2 + n2 + 1)1/2 / (m2 + n2 - m2 . n2 + 1)}

IR = f (m,n)

L
B

Foundation Level

m = B/Z

n = L/Z

v
h

## from tables or one can use the charts below

Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

273

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

274

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Calculation of Stress below an interior point of the loaded area

z

q[ I (OXAY )

I (OYBZ )

I (OZCT )

C
O

I (OTDX )

Q = q x Area
Plan

Elevation
z
O P o in t o f in t e r e s t
F ig . 1 0 s tr e s s in c r e a s e a t a p o in t b e lo w a lo a d e d r e c ta n g u la r r e g io n

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

275

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

z

## q[ I ( ABCD) I (TYBZ ) I ( XZCD) I (OZCT )

D

O P o in t o f in t e r e s t
F ig . 1 0 s t r e s s in c r e a s e a t a p o in t b e l o w a l o a d e d r e c t a n g u l a r r e g i o n

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

276

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Influence Chart for Vertical Pressure (Newmark Chart)

Stresses due to foundation loads of arbitrary shape applied at
the ground surface
Newmarks chart provides a graphical method for calculating
the stress increase due to a uniformly loaded region, of arbitrary
shape resting on a deep homogeneous isotropic elastic region.
Newmarks chart is given in the data sheets and is reproduced in
part in Fig 15. The procedure for its use is outlined below
1.The scale for this procedure is determined by the depth z at
which the stress is to be evaluated, thus z is equal to the
distance OQ shown on the chart.
Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

277

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## 2.Draw the loaded area to scale so that the point of interest

(more correctly its vertical projection on the surface) is at the
origin of the chart, the orientation of the drawing does not
matter
3.Count the number of squares (N) within the loaded area, if
more than half the square is in count the square otherwise
neglect it.
4.The vertical stress increase z = N [scale factor(0.001)]
[surface stress (p)]

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

278

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

4m
O

Area

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

279

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Approximate Methods
In dividing the loaded area into smaller units, we have to
remember to do it such that
z/B 3; that is to say, in relation to the specified depth, the size
of any unit area should not be greater than one-third of the
depth.

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

Qi
I
2 pi
z
280

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Each Q is the resultant of the uniform load on

the unit area acts at the center of it and treated

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

281

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

2:1 Method
z

(B

Q
Z )( L

Z)

Q
(B Z )2

Rectangular area
Square area

Q
z

(D

Z )2

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

Circular area

282

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Examples (1-3)

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

283

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

284

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

285

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Example 4
A rectangular foundation 6 x 3m carries a uniform pressure of 300 kN/m2 near the
surface of a soil mass. Determine the vertical stress at a depth of 3m below a point
(A) on the centre line 1.5m outside a long edge of the foundation using influence
factors

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

m=1

m=1

n =1.5

n=0.5

I = 0.193

I=0.120

286

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College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department

Example 5
Determine the stress increase under the embankment at points A1 and A2

## Asst. Prof. Khalid R. Mahmood (PhD.)

287

University of Anbar
College of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department