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Orissan Temple Architecture:

Symbols of Cultural Heritage
Anish Kundu

Fig No. 1

Tracing the evolutionary

history of Temple
Architecture in Orissa.

32 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People July 2009

he Hindu Temple is a fusion of

archetypes consciously combined and skillfully crafted into
structures of abstract geometry and
specific numbers. It is a grand synthesis
which solves architectural problems
using concepts from the characteristically Hindu religious vision of Cosmic
Order. There are a number of symbolisms combined in the Hindu temple.
The temple is a visible sign of a
mystery, an access point designed to
solve lifes problems. In the superstruc-

ture of the Hindu Temple, perhaps its

most characteristic feature, the identification of the temple with the mountain is specific and the superstructure
itself is known as a mountain peak or
crest (shikhara)as shown in Fig no. 1).
The curved contours of a temples
superstructures and its tiered arrangements suggests the visual effect of a
mountain peak.
The architecture of the Hindu
Temple symbolically represents the
quest for moksha (ultimate spiritual lib-

Fig 2

eration, the realization of oneness) by

setting out to dissolve the boundaries
between man and the divine. For this
purpose, certain notions are associated
with the very forms and materials of the
building. Paramount is the identification of the divinity with the form of the
temple or in other words, the identification of the form of the universe with
that of the temple. Such an identification is achieved through the form and
meaning of those architectural elements that are considered fundamental
to the temple.
The form of the temple is based
on the core idea of submission with
folded hand. Every out line depict
the form which people believe connecting to the God. (Fig no. 2)

The Indian temples, in general are

divided into three categories based on
their geographical location and peculiar features:
- Temples of North India Nagara style
- Temples of Deccan - Vesara style
- Temples of South India - Dravidian
Orissa has a long history during
which Jainism, Buddhism, and
Hinduism, all flourished for extended
periods. Buddhist and Jain temples and
caves predate Hindu architecture. The
classic period for the Hindu Temple in
Orissa is from perhaps the beginning of
8th century to around the middle of
13th century.
Orissan Temple corresponds to an
altogether different category. Their

unique representations are called

Kalingan style of temple architecture.
Though broadly they come under the
Northern or Nagara style, but they have
certain special features which are
uniquely of their own. Out of the five
different types of architecture, that is:
devotional, memorial, civil, military
and domestic, one mainly come across
the devotional type of architecture in
Orissa. Others have disappeared with
the ravages of time and power.
The Orissan Temple consists of four
structures (as shown in fig 3 & 4) namely:
(a) The Vimana or Bada Deula
(b) The Jagamohan or Mukhasala
(c) The Natamandir (audience hall)
(d) The Bhogamandap (hall for resid-

Fig No: 3 Typical Orissan Temple plan.

July 2009 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People 33

Fig No: 4 Typical Orissan Temple Elevation

uary offerings) built in a row in an

axial alignment
Due to separate regional development, some parts of the East Indian
Temple use a different terminology than
what is used elsewhere in India. For
example, the part of the temple that
contains the shrine is called a Deula in
Orissa, but a Vimana everywhere else.

Fig No: 5 Ananta Basudeba Temple.

34 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People July 2009

Most of the Orissan Temple consists

of a Vimana or Bada Deula and a
Jagamohana or Mukhasala. The temples resolve themselves into three
broad orders, known to local terminology as Rekha, Pida and Khakhara. In a
typical Orissa Temple, the first two go
almost side by side and form two component parts of one architectural

scheme. So, in Orissa the sanctum and

the porch have almost become synonymous with the Rekha and Pidha temples respectively (as shown in Fig 7).
The Deula is the sanctum, containing the principal image of the
temple surmounted by a curvilinear
spire. One approaches the temple
from the front structure, which is a

Fig No: 6 Terminology of Nagar Temple Orissa

Fig No: 7 Mukteswar Temple, Bhubaneswar

July 2009 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People 35

Fig no: 8 Terminologies, Rekha Deula

Fig no: 9 Typical Bada detail

prayer hall called pidha deula or jagamohana. Behind this structure is the
Vimana, which is comprised of the
sanctum of the temple (called garbha
griha or womb-house) that contains
the idol of the deity surmounted by a
tower. This tower is called a shikhara
and in Orissa, the structure is called
the rekha deula.
The elevation, of the temples
show interesting features. Both
sanctum (Bada/ Rekha Deula) and
porch (Jagamohana) have four-fold
vertical divisions.
36 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People July 2009

portion of Khura has been decorated

The Pitha (pedestal),
with Vanalata designs and other types
The Bada (wall),
of scroll work. The Kumbha is
The Gandi (trunk) and
designed like a pitcher. The Kani is
The Mastaka (the head).
The architects per- plain, but the Pata and the Basanta
ceived the temple in the are richly carved.
form of a human male fig- The lower Jangha has Khakhramundis (miniature temples of Khakhra
ure or purusha. From botorder) replica of small temple
tom to top each part of the
temple has a special name The Bandhana consists of three
mouldings joined together at differcorresponding to that of
ent places by vertical bands decolimbs of the human body.
rated with standing figures of
The temple stands on a
Kanyas (maidens) joining the lower
high pedestal known as
jangha and the upper jangha. It
Pitha though in many
shows 5 divisions: Barani (khura),
cases a major portion of it
noli (kani), pata, noli, basanta.
is buried in the ground.
The visible portion shows The upper Jangha depicts Pidhamundis (miniature temples of Pidha
three mouldings, which
order) containing various deities.
are richly carved.
There is a close similarity in the decThe Bada or the vertical
orative plan between lower and
wall portion of the temple is
upper Jangha, except in the nature
divisible into pabhaga, jangof the Mundis and of the figures in
ha and baranda. This type of
the recesses.
Trianga bada is found in Baranda the waist portion, over
the upper Jangha forming the top
early temples. In later temmost part of the bada has a set of
ples bada has five elements
mouldings, starting with one
(Panchanga type known) (as
moulding in the early phase proshown in Fig no.9).
gressing into seven and ten
i) Pabhaga (foot),
mouldings in the later which are
ii) lower Jangha (shin),
khura, feni, noli, khura, pata, noli,
iii) Bandhana (bond),
pata, noli, basanta.
iv) Upper Jangha and
The Gandi (or the torso) of deula
v) Baranda.

The Pabhaga consists of five has a hyperbolic super structure upto

mouldings which are connected a flat top (as shown Fig. 11) The
with vertical bands in
each Paga of the Bada.
These five mouldings
are Khura, Kumbha,
Pata, Kani and Basanta
in ascending order as
shown in Fig no.10.
The Khura is shaped like
a horse hoof and contains
inverted leaf designs with
dotted borders. The lower Fig no: 9 Typical Bada detail

Fig no: 12 Gainthala /(Sandhisthala)

Fig no:11 Typical Terminology of Gandi

Orissan Temples are distinguished by

vertical offset projections called
rathas (on plan) or pagas (on elevation). Depending on the number of
rathas, the temples are classified into
triratha, pancharatha, saptaratha and
navaratha. The kanak rathas are the
corner rathas, the Anuraha rathas are
the intermediate rathas, and Raha
rathas are the central.
The vertical ribs of the tower is
divided into horizontal courses called
bhumi or storeys separated by amalas
which are topped by smaller versions of
the amalaka or amla. In general bhumi
are 3, 5,7,10 in numbers. At the Kanaka

Paga of each Bhumi, there is a Bhumi

Amla connected with Bhumi Barandis
(courses of stone).
The Raha Paga contains niches for
the Parsva-devatas (side God) on different sides. The recesses between the
Pagas contain figures of Kanyas in different postures.
In some temples the Anuraha Paga
of each side is filled with
Angasikharas, miniature Rekha replicas with rich carvings. Vajramastaka
seen in Raha Paga is the usual feature
in most of the Orissan Temples. It is
believed that temple is a place where
the union or marriage between the

believer and the divine god whom

one love and believe takes place. It
has been stated that the Rekha temple
is the male and the Bhadra or Pidha is
(Sandhisthala) is called Gainthala, (as
shown in which is a knot
tied in the garments of the bride and
bridegroom at the time of marriage
surmounted with a projecting
Gajakranta, i.e., lion-on- elephant.
The mastaka (the head) is connected to Gandi by a recessed cylindrical portion known as beki (neck). Beki
is connected to the mastak by a three
fold member known as Tripati.
Mastaka consists of Amalaka sila
(ribbed circular stone, resembling the
amla fruit an Indian fruit of the same
name a little flattened), or amla,
Khapuri (skull), Kalasa (auspicious pot)
symbolizing a state of plenty or bounty and Ayudha (weapon of the
enshrined deity i.e., Chakra) in succession. In the Beki, are inserted four figures of Dopichha lions at each corner,
The interior of the sanctum or
Garbhagriha is generally smaller and
darker than that of the porch. In the
middle of the room there is the
simhasana on which the images of
worship have been installed. It is used
for a glimpse of the sacred image or
July 2009 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People 37

Fig No: 13 Mastaka

rituals or individual worship under the

watchful eye of the priest with path for
circumambulating the throne. There is
only one door leading to Jagamohan.
The porch is more public and used for
group celebration, dancing, meditation, or reading.
The Jagamohan or Mukhasala is a
Pidha temple, a structure with pyramidal roof laid in courses called pidha
(also spelled pida). It consists of
Pidhas or horizontal platforms receding in size as they go up-wards. The
Jagamohana stands on a Pitha or platform like the Vimana, but its traces are
not visible in many temples owing to

Fig No: 14 Jagamohana

38 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People July 2009

later constructions. The Bada is generally triratha or Pancharatha in plan and

consists of five elements of Vimana,
which are richly carved with Mundis or
miniature temples. The Gandi is made
of pidhas arranged in two potalas or
tiers diminishing in size as these proceed from bottom to top. The Kanthi
recess inbetween the Potalas is also
known as Para ghara (pigeon nest)
decorated with Pidha-mundis, pilasters
and images of Mandiracharini. The
Mastaka of the Pidha deula has the
same features except for the addition
of ghanta (bell). It consists of the usual
elements of Beki, Ghanta (bell,
named after its shape), Amla Beki,
Amalaka, Kalasa and Ayudha, which is
a disc. The horizontal cross- section of
the Bada and Gandi in both the Rekha
and the Pidha deula are square, while
the Mastaka is circular. Amalaka sila is
supported by Deula charinis or seated
divinities and Dopicha simhas being
set in the beki.
Natamandir appears to be a relatively later structure. It is also a Pidha
deula of pillared structure. Its roof is
flat consisting of layers of stone slabs.
The interior of the hall is well decorat-

ed with different types of stucco

images and paintings. This area was
intended for performing dances by
the debdasis.
The Bhogamandap generally is a
Pidha deula with a high pedestal but
the elements do not conform to the
specifications given in the architectural texts of Orissa. The projections in
the Bada portion are not quite prominent, but its profuse ornamentation
adds to the grandeur of the structure.
The Gandi is of Pidha order with
Potalas. The Potalas consist of Pidhas
figures of projecting lions in each
Potal. The Gandi is like that of
Jagamohana. The Mastaka is composed of the usual elements, except
that a brazen pot is placed on the top
of fit. The structure generally stands
on four pillars and the interior is left
entirely undecorated in contrast to the
exterior decoratations.
As temple is the adobe of God, for
different day to day activity various
interesting elements are seen in the
bigger temple complexes. The temple
enclosure consists of the kitchen, the
Ananda Bazar or the market for the
Mahaprasada, and gardens including
the Koili Vaikuntha, Niladri Vihara along
with few essential structures like
Snana Vedi (bathing platform) and few
subsidiary shrines as well. Devotees
circumambulate the temple and seek
Darsan of the minor deities in a prescribed manner. In case of Jagannath
Temple Puri, a gangway connecting
the kitchen with the Jagamohana via
the Bhogamandap and Natamandir, to
facilitate carrying of food offerings for
the deities.
The Khakhara Deula is altogether
a different style of architecture closely appearing similar to the Dravidian
Gopuram design. The word is derived
from kakharu (pumpkin, gourd) as the
crown looks like a barrel-vaulted

Fig No: 16 Parsurameswar temple

Fig No: 15 Khakhara Deula, Gauri temple

elongated roof. The Gouri temple of

Bhubaneswar is a glaring example of
Khakhara temple (Refer Fig no 15).

The classic period for the Hindu Temple
in Orissa is from the beginning of 8th
century to around the middle of 13th
century .The temples of Orissa portray a
picture of organic evolution from
Parasurameswara to Lingaraj through
Muktesvara and Vaital, which is ultimately culminated in Puri and with the
gigantic Konarak. The evolution can be
classified into four distinctive phases of

temple building, i) Formative phase,

ii) Transitional phase, iii) Mature phase,
iv) Phase of decadence.
i) Formative Phase: (6th century to
the first half of the 9th century)
During this period there were only
two structures of temples, Vimana
or Bada Deula and Jagamohana
or Mukhasala. Parsurameswar (7th
century) is the best preserved
specimen of the early phase.
Vimana of Triratha has a rekha
sikhara. The Jagamohana is a rectangular pillared hall with a terraced roof sloping in two tiers,
with elevation Bada as tribhanga

(with three divisions) Pabhaga

and the foot portion consisting of
three mouldings of khura, kumbha
and pata. Gandi became a gradual
curvature and started from the
sikhara without any angasikhara.
The temples are of small and moderate height. Baranda is terminating in a recessed kanthi. Hence,
over a period of time, the Oriya
architects began to invent new
forms of structure.
ii) Transitional Phase: (2nd half of the
9th century to the first quarter of the
11th century)
The notable feature of the period
was the introduction of rampant
erotic sculptures due to the influence of Vajrayana philosophy.
Mukteswar at Bhubaneswar which
is considered as the gem of Orissan
architecture was the last monument of the period. Mukhasala or
the Jagamohana became an inseparable element with a perfect and
natural joining of the Vimana with
Jagamohana without the crude
July 2009 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People 39

Fig No: 17 Mukteswar Temple

overlapping of the sanctum decoration conceived as a uniform complex in the original plan. Towards
the end, the plan and elevation of
the Mukhasala transformed from a
rectangular flat roof to a square

Fig No: 18 Rajarani & Lingaraj Temple

40 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People July 2009

hall with a pyramidal superstructure. Parsvadevata images are

carved out of single stones unlike
the earlier tradition of blocks of
stones that constituted a part of
the temple wall.

iii) Mature Phase: (from middle of the

11th century till the 13th century)
The building activity attained
its maturity during this period
which can be traced through a
series of temples like Rajarani,
Brahmeswar and finally the Lingaraj
that presents the Orissan temple
style at its best. The building tradition was continued by the Gangas
who are credited with the construction of the great Jagannath Temple
at Puri and the magnificent Konarak
Temple, Puri.
In this phase Bada is divided
into five segments, Pabhaga has
five mouldings; Gandi is embellished with Angasikharas (miniature
temples) of diminishing size as they
rise upwards. The Pagas projections
are fully developed and prominently articulated. Amlaka sila is supported by Deula charinis or seated
divinities and Dopicha simhas
being set in the Beki. Introduction
of the structural motifs like pidhamundi, khakharamundi and
vajramundi are in the Jangha portion. The sculptures of this period
are excellent in their plasticity and
even includes non-iconic female
figures. In the iconography of the
cult deities, new elements were
introduced with profusion of

example, on the prayer hall

(Jagamohana), there was a trend
toward an increasing number of
roof layers (Pidhas). Some earlier
temples in the fourth and fifth centuries have a single roof slab. The
Parasurameshwara Temple, perhaps
of the seventh century, has three
roof layers. The Lingaraj Temple
built in the eleventh century there
are 15 pidhas, and finally, 17 pidhas
comprise the roof of the prayer hall
of the Sun temple at Konarak.
Another change was reflected in the prayer halls crowning
elements. Earlier period the
Jagamohana was crowned only
with a kalasha (or vase of plenty). Near the end of the period,
the disk-shaped Amalaka and the
Kalasha were both present (as on

Fig No: 19 Kotiteertha Temple

female figures, projected lions

(udyota simha) on the Rahapaga.
Pista and platform became a regular feature. Natamandap and
Bhogamandap were added to the
Jagamohan. Subsidiary shrines in
front of the Parsvadevata niche
were introduced.
iv) Phase of decadence: (14th to
16th century)
The temple building activities
that started during the 6th century
reached its climax during the Ganga
Period started declining during the
Gajapati.. The great period of
Orissan Temple Architecture came
to halt with the crowning achieve-

ment at Konark. Pidha deula

became the choice for both Vimana
and the Jagamohana. The walls of
the temple are devoid of sculptural
embellishment and decoration.
Such insolvency was also noticed in
the decoration of door jambs,
which also largely remained plain.
The temple building activities
entered into a phase of decadence.
The most important factors for the
decline of temple building activities
was the lack of royal patronage and
decline of Hindu power.
Orissan Temple Architecture
observed several trends that progressed over the centuries. For

Fig No: 20 Transformations of pidhas,

Parasurameshwara (2), Lingaraj (15), Konarak (17)
July 2009 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People 41

the shikhara). Another trend was

that of the steady increase in the
number of vertical ribs (bhumis)
on the walls of the tower or
shikhara. Although its ground
plan originally was, and remained
basically square, the tower
became augmented with so many
projections that it appeared
increasingly to be circular.

Temple designs are governed by specifications laid down by Silpasastra, the
canon of the ancient codes of town
planning and architecture is concerned
with the natural geometric laws of the
Universe. In Hindu philosophy geometry is seen to exist everywhere in creation. As such, geometry is symbolized
as a sacred language normally hidden
in the Gods own design work of the
natural world.
Looking at Hindu Temples, it is not
very easy to distinguish that they are
composed of one repeating unit - the
square. For Gods own abode, the
form had to be perfect and this limited the choice of shapes to the circular
form without beginning and end, or
the square - perfect for its symmetry.
The circle was perceived to be too
dynamic a form for the resting place
of the Gods. For the Hindus, their
Gods had to be installed in buildings
symbolizing unity, inertia and permanence. The square, thus, was chosen
for these qualities.
This was the origin of the square
Mandala (the best translation of this in
english is divine chart). The Mandala was
further subdivided into smaller squares in
a grid, those containing 64 or 81 being
the most common. Each of these smaller
squares was then invested with a resident
deity, each with his own special attributes
and powers. The distance of the deities
42 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People July 2009

Fig No: 21 Vastu Purusha

Fig No: 22 Vastu Purusha Mandala

Fig No: 23 Basic Unit Remain Square

from the center was according to their

power and perceived importance. Thus
Brahma, the creator, occupied place in
the center and lesser gods were relegated to the edges. A humanistic facade was
given to the square by showing it to be
able to accommodate an figure in a intricate Yogic posture.
Thus, having acquired magical and
theological properties, the Vastu
Purusha Mandala (Refer Fig No. 22) was fit
to be the basis of temple construction,
with many permutations and combinations being used to achieve the final

form. The central square used for the

Garba-griha, while the surrounding grid
formed the pradakshina-path and so on.
By increasing in complexity this system
of proportion could spawn the most
complex of forms with their basic unit
remaining the square (Refer Fig No. 23). It
was by manipulation of this basic grid
that the Indian architect created the
greatest temples of India.

The internal plan of both Deula and
Jagamohana is square. The inside of the

Fig No: 24 Method of carrying stones

Deula also has several distinctive features. The basic technique of structure is
that of corbelling. Heavy slabs are laid
on top of one another so that they gradually close off the inner space at the top.
But there is an inherent weakness in this
design, which can be seen by the numbers of spires that have collapsed inward
over the centuries. To counteract such a
possibility, a system of false ceilings to
span the inner space of the sanctum was
devised. Opposite walls were joined by
massive slabs that formed ceilings.
In all the temples, there is one of
these ceilings directly above the Cella,
known as the Garbha-Munda. Moreover,
in the larger temples, the hollow chamber created by the Garbha-Munda was in
turn roofed off by a second ceiling. The
taller the temple, the more such hollow
chambers were made. They not only
ensured structural stability within the
corbelling system but also provided hidden chambers in which the most esoteric rites of the temple were performed
and also valuables were stored. Access
to these secret chambers was often
through an opening above the lintel of
the sanctum doorway.
Nearly all the temples were built of
sandstone around and inner core of
laterite, which is also the material generally, used for compound walls. The
sandstone was quarried in the nearby
Khandagiri and Udayagiri Hills. On the
evidence of contemporary sculpted
panels, it seemed that the stones were
brought to the building by wooden

ramps which were supported on

wooden posts to form an adjustable
type of scaffolding. (Refer Fig No. 24)
The stones were carried slung in
ropes from poles. They were then laid
with great precision into place on top
of one another and kept in position by
their weight and the use of iron dowels
and clamps. The complete structure has
been assembled using these wedge
joints. There is no use of concrete
binder. Stones have been stacked and
joined / held together using such
wedge joints. (Refer Fig No. 25)
From the ground, the Vimana rises
vertically to a height and then
becomes curvilinear at the top. From
the base to the Gandi or trunk portion the rise is perpendicular and
then the temple slowly inclines
inward in a critical manner till the
four reclining walls join together at
the Beki or neck. In a pyramidal Pidha
type of temple, curvilinear Vimana is
not there. The Gandi or trunk rises
from the ground perpendicularly up

Fig No: 25 Wedge joints in stones

to a point and then the pyramidal

roof is constructed on the four walls
that looks much like the shape of a
thatched house from a distance.
The Orissan curvilinear spires
have in-built elements that allow
application of a combination of linear
arithmetic geometry for elevation.
Khapuri amla (Ka) and Bhumi amla
(Ba) are two such elements which are
exclusive to the Kalingiya School.
Using these elements the height can
be estimated in any units without
physically measuring any elevation,
without using any instrument.
Curvilinear spire celebrates ancient
science and may have been used as a
model for instruction of computational subjects pertaining to elevation, altitude, etc. Adherence to curvilinear type of architecture having
prominent vertical lines in such historical geography makes it as the
home grown school, called as the
Kalingiya Bakrakar Rekha Deula (KBRD)
(Kalingan curvilinear line temples). In
Orissa, high rise structures of all historical periods are KBRD.


It is the craft mans expression love for
life in all respect. As the sculptor/ workers of the temple are away from their
home for so many days, even years, to
fulfill their desire to create such figures
on the walls of the temple.
It is believed that erotic
sculptures are helpful in warding off the anger of natural
calamities and protects the
structure from thunder lighting act as earthing. It is also
said that these erotic figures
are regarded as specimens of
perverse taste.
The basic needs of Human
satisfaction are food, sleep and
July 2009 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People 43

Fig No: 26 Sculpture in temple wall

physical desire. In case of starvation of

any one of the three, he forgets the rest
of two. On top human being forget
everything in search of physical desire,
Divine pleasure of believer is most
important then the rest of three when
one enters the temple. To get define
perfection he has to keep away the carnal side of love at the out side of the

1. Who designed pyramid entrance to
the Louvre?

A l ex a n d e r

A l varo Siza

R . B u ckminster

I.M. P i e

2. Who designed La Basilica di Vicenza?

A n d r e a Palladio

Antoni Gaudi

J o h n U t zo n

A l var Aalto

3. Who designed the

Falling Water?

Adolf Loos

Fra n k O. G e h ry

Frank Llyo d W right

Philip Johnson
Answers: 1. I.M. Pie 2. Andrea Palladio 3. Frank Llyod Wright

44 ARCHITECTURE - Time Space & People July 2009

temple then only one can achieve the

divine pleasure
It is also described that the obscene
sculptures were meant to rouse in the
minds of the visitors, a sense of what is
sensual, therefore, avoidable and a
sense of what is spiritual therefore
desirable, before he was entitled to
worship the god. It is noticeable that as
one proceeds towards the Garbha griha
of the temple, the walls get bare and
simple. The riot of activity on the outer
wall of the temple is in stark contrast to
the serene inner sanctum, where the
only figure is that of the God. This is to
encourage one-pointedness in the
mind of the devotee as one approach
the constant, the truth (or God) and
move away from what is worldly and
away from the bindings of Maya. In this
there is a conscious attempt to lead us
from the numerous outward activities
to the focused inner spirit; from a fluid
facade to a stable, inner aspect.

Temple stands with its varied manner to
feed the scholars of both art and science. It is not only a monument of historical or archaeological importance, as
it seems, it has every potential to feed
the scholars of any school such as
Science, Mathematics, Astronomy,
Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Engineering
and also to the Artists, poets, lovers of
folk lore and antiquity. Interpretation of
any scholar fail on the face of the stones
of the temple. Therefore the numerous
questions of the visitors remain unanswered even to a small piece of stone. In
the words of Rabindranath Tagore - The
Language of Man is here defeated by
the Language of stone at Konark

Anish Kundu is an Architect/

Urban Planner working in
Engineers India Ltd., New Delhi.
Photographs: Courtesy the