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Section 3 The High Middle Ages: Secular Civilization

I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

VI.

Agriculture and population Growth


a. After Norse and Magyar inroads stopped, Europe came to more security
and Farmers were able to start planting and building houses.
b. Before 1000 the heavy plow invented which cut deeper furrows.
c. Harnessing horsed found horse collar.
d. Windmills developed new source of power
e. More results by efforts with labor saving devices. These inventions with
influence from Christian clergy a disappearance of slavery happened in
Europe and replaced by serfdom
f. Populations increased and work more productive and groups of people
began to be less isolatedCommunications improved.
g. Roads poor and nonexistent
i. But bridges across Rivers existed which helped habitation
h. Europe rural population clustered in village communities
i. The Nucleated village gave more security more contact and readier
access to essentials and made communal agriculture
Three Field System
a. Every region where cereal crops were staple
b. Divided fields into three parts and crop rotation followed.
i. Soil exhaustion was avoided
Feudalism
a. Intricate and diverse, means of carrying on some kind of government on a
local basis where no organized state existed.
b. After Charlemagnes collapse power in counts
i. Count was most important man of region
ii. To be strong tried to maintain control and peace over lesser lords
iii. Lesser lords accepted his protectoipn and became his vassals
c. Lord and vassal reciprocated duties
Capatian Kings
a. Lords vassals of Dukes
b. 987 Hugh Capet as king and lords became his vassals
c. Similarly magnates of Germany did the same creating the HRE
Normans in England
a. England no elections of kings.
b. 1066 conquered by William, Duke of Normandy
c. The Normans imposed upon England centralization and efficient
feudalism
d. Thus institutions develop with little disorder.
e. Under feudalism no one was sovereign. Joined in contract.
f. King supposed to act with the advice of vassals who formed court.
g. Always hierarchical lead way to constitutional government
h. Applied to strict sense in military and noble class.
i. Peasantry below feudal world
Manor Serfs

VII.

a. Village with people and farmlands was a monor the estae of a lord
b. Workers Serfs
c. Bound to the soil
i. Could not leave without permission
ii. He owed them protection; they worked his fields and gave him
produce. No money changed hands.
d. Supported ruling class and church
e. Framework for communal living
f. Surplus created new sense of markets and revenue.
Long Distance Trade.