(b) 750 mJ
(c) 1.13 k
(g) 39 pA
(h) 49 k
(i) 11.73 pA
10 March 2006
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1. (a)
(a) 1 MW
(b) 12.35 mm
(c) 47. kW
(d) 5.46 mA
(e) 33 J
(f) 5.33 nW
(g) 1 ns
(h) 5.555 MW
(i) 32 mm
10 March 2006
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2.
kW
(e) 285.41015 s =
285.4 fs
kJ
25.4 mm
1055 J
(d) ( 67 Btu )
= 70.69
1 Btu
(c) 2.54 cm =
12 in 2.54 cm 1 m
(b) 12 ft = (12 ft)
= 3.658 m
1 ft 1 in 100 cm
( 400 Hp )
745.7 W
= 298.3
1 hp
10 March 2006
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3. (a)
10 March 2006
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4.
10 March 2006
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5.
10 March 2006
20
P = 400103/20109 = 20 MW.
400
Energy (mJ)
t (ns)
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Then
6.
10 March 2006
75
Energy (mJ)
t (fs)
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Then
7.
10
5
7
17
24
P (W)
t (min)
10 March 2006
The power drawn from the battery is (not quite drawn to scale):
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8.
10 March 2006
10 2
10
300
= 1.5 kJ
300 s
The total energy transferred during the last five minutes is given by
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9.
20
10
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
10 March 2006
0.5
1.5
tim e (s )
2.5
(a)
150
100
50
50
0.5
1.5
i (A )
2.5
(b)
f irst and
(a) q(2 s) = 40 C.
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q (C)
10. Total
tim e (t)
10 March 2006
= 33.91 C
= 2t e5t
5
0.8
5 t
0.8 2 + 3e dt
i (t )dt
0.1
0.8 1
3t
0.1
2 + 3e3t dt
( 2t + e )
0.1
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q(t)
(d) The total charge passed left to right in the interval 0. 8 < t < 0.1 s is
(c) To determine the instants at which i1 = 0, we must consider t < 0 and t > 0 separately:
Thus,
t<0
t>0
 2 + 3e 5t A,
i1 (t ) =
3t
 2 + 3e A,
11.
= 800 mA
12
16
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
10 March 2006
16
t(s)
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16
8
q (C)
qtotal =
(b) The total charge transferred over the interval 1 < t < 12 s is
12.
3 pJ
1.602 1019 C
=
=
2 pJ
1.602 1019 C
0
1.602 1019 C
18.73 MV
12.48 MV
10 March 2006
Hence,
VDB =
1 pJ
= 6.242 MV.
1.602 1019 C
(c) VDC =
(b) VED =
VBA =
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13. (a)
Voltmeter
Voltmeter
V2
+
+
V1
10 March 2006
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14.
(b)
10 March 2006
= +12.11 W
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15. (a)
0.01655 W = 16.55 nW
t = 5 ms
]
W
Pabs dt
3t (6 600t ) e 200t dt
x n e ax dx
n!
a n +1
= 18/(200)2  1800/(200)3
= 0
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16.
t = 8 ms
t = 8 ms
t = 8 ms
t = 8 ms
10 March 2006
= 72.68 W
= 27.63 W
=  36.34 W
360 e 100t
t
= 90e 100t 3e 100t dt + 60e 100t
0
t
(c) Pabs = 30 idt + 20 3e 100t
0
di
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17.
10 March 2006
(c) We see that th e maximum current corres ponds to zero voltage , and likewise, the
maximum voltage occu rs at zero curren t. The m aximum power point, therefore,
occurs somewhere between these two points. By trial and error,
Reading from the graph, this corresponds to roughly 0.4875 V, estimating the curve as
hitting the xaxis 1 mm behind the 0.5 V mark.
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18.
= 0 mW
10 March 2006
P next 30 minutes = ( ? V )( 0 A )
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19. (a)
10 March 2006
Absorbed Power
(2 V)(2 A)
(8 V)(2 A)
(10 V)[(4 A)]
(10 V)(5 A)
(10 V)[(3 A)]
Source
2 V source
8 V source
4 A source
10 V source
3 A source
40 50 + 30 = 0, as de
Absorbed Power
4W
 16 W
40 W
 50 W
30 W
manded from
Note that in the table below, only th e 4A sou rce and the 3A source are actually
absorbing power; the remaining sources are supplying power to the circuit.
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20.
= (40)( 12) =
P12A supplied
supplied power
= (40)(20)
P40V supplied
Check:
= (40)(16)
P16A supplied
480 W
800 W
640 W
256 W
64 W
40 V
(source of energy)
(source of energy)
(source of energy)
40 V
12 A
20 A
10 March 2006
= (32)(8)
P32V supplied
= (8)(8)
16 A
P8V supplied
8V
32 V
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21.
10 March 2006
yes, the su m of the power supplied = the sum of the power absorbed,
expect from the principle of conservation of energy.
as we
We are told that V x = 1 V, and from Fig. 2.33 w e see that the current flowing through
the dependent source (and hence th rough each element of t he circuit) is 5V x = 5 A.
We will co mpute absorbed power by using the current flowing
into the po sitive
reference terminal of the a ppropriate voltage (p assive sign conven tion), and we will
compute supplied power by using the current flowing out of the pos itive reference
terminal of the appropriate voltage.
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22.
10 March 2006
and so
vs = v1 = 1 mV
We are asked to determine the voltage vs, which is identical to the voltage labeled v1.
The only remaining reference to v1 is in the expression for the current flowing through
the dependent source, 5v1.
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23.
10 March 2006
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24.
10 March 2006
(b) The current through the headlight is equal to the power it absorbs from the battery
divided by the voltage at which the power is supplied, or
(a) The power delivered to the headlight is therefore (460.8 Whr)/(8 hr) = 57.6 W
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25.
10 March 2006
Although 495 W is less than the m aximum po wer allowed, this fuse will provid e
adequate protection for the app lication circuitry. If a faul t occurs and the application
circuitry attempts to draw too m uch power, 1000 W for example, the fuse will blow,
no current will f low, and the application c ircuitry will be p rotected. However, if the
application circuitry tries to draw its maximum rated power (500 W ), the fuse will
also blow. In practice, m ost equipm ent will not draw its m aximum rated powe r
continuouslyalthough to be safe, we typically assume that it will.
If we choose the 4.5A fuse instead, we will hav e a m aximum current of 4.5 A. This
leads to a maximum power of (110)(4.5) = 495 W delivered to the application.
If we choose the 5A fuse, it will allow up to (110 V)(5 A) = 550 W of power to be
delivered to the application (we must assume here that the fuse absorbs zero power, a
reasonable assumption in practice). This exceeds the specified maximum power.
P=VI
The supply voltage is 110 V, and the m aximum dissipated power is 500 W. The fuse s
are specified in te rms of current, so we need to determine the m aximum current th at
can flow through the fuse.
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26.
4.545 mA
imin = 5/ 1100 =
= 22.73 mW
= 27.78 mW
p = v2 / R so
5.556 mA
imax = 5/ 900 =
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(b)
27. (a)
10 March 2006
1.974 mW would be a correct answer, although power ratings are typically expressed
as integers, so 2 mW might be more appropriate.
p = i2 R, so
pmin = (0.002)2 (446.5) = 1.786 mW and (more relevant to our discussion)
pmax = (0.002)2 (493.5) = 1.974 mW
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28.
253.0 mW
8t 1.5 W
keep in mind we
are using radians
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Pabs = v i=
230.9 mW
=
(c)
43.54 mW
= [20e1.2] 2 (1200) W
(b)
29. (a)
10
+10
v (V)
20
40
60
(d) pabs
1 (+10) 2
(10) 2
20
+
20 = 2 W
R
40 R
2
vmax
= (10)2 / 50 = 2 W
R
= 0
t (ms)
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avg
max
(e) pabs
10 March 2006
Its probably best to begin this problem by sketching the voltage waveform:
30.
10 March 2006
VR2 = Vs
Vs =
(R1
Q.E.D.
+ R2 )
R2
(R1 + R2 )
R2
VR2
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so that
Since we know that the total power supplied is equal to the total power absorbed,
we may write:
Vs I = I2R1 + I2R2
or
Vs = I R1 + I R2
Vs = I (R1 + R2)
By Ohms law,
I = VR2 / R2
Since we are inform ed that the same current must flow through each com ponent, we
begin by defining a current I flowing out of the positive reference term inal of the
voltage
source.
31.
1
0.5
0.5
voltage (V )
1.5
2.5
10 March 2006
1.5
1.5
1
0.5
0.5
1.5
1
0.5
0.5
voltage (V )
1.5
2.5
Using the last two points instead, we find Reff = 469 , so that we can state with some
certainty at least that a reasonable estimate of the resistance is approximately 470 .
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(c)
4
1.5
3
2
1
(b) W e see from our answer to part (a ) that this device has a reasonably linear
characteristic (a not unreasonable degree of e xperimental error is evident in the data).
Thus, we choose to estimate the resistance using the two extreme points:
c urrent (m A )
32. (a)
c urrent (m A )
Bottom Right Circuit: I = (5/10) mA = 0.5 mA, and P10k = V2/10 mW = 2.5 mW
Bottom Left Circuit: I = (5/10) mA = 0.5 mA, and P10k = V2/10 mW = 2.5 mW
10 March 2006
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33.
=  v
= 103 v (1000)
vout
=  v =
vout
10 March 2006
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Since
34. The
10 March 2006
(use care to em ploy r adian m ode on your calculator or convert 1.57 radians to
degrees)
vout (t = 0) = 0 V
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35.
10 March 2006
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36.
10 March 2006
Note: This seems like a lot of wire to be washing up on shore. We may find we dont
have enough. In that case, perhaps we shoul d take our cue from Eq. [6], and try to
squash a piece of the wire flat so that it has a very small crosssectional area..
Referring to Table 2.3, 28 AWG wire is 65.3 m /ft at 20 oC, and using the equation
provided we compute
We need to create a 47 0 resistor from 28 AWG wire , knowing that the am bient
perature is 108oF, or 42.22oC.
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37.
tem
10 March 2006
A 3A current flowing through this copper in the direction specified would
lead to the dissipation of
So that
(b) We assume that the conductivity value specified also holds true at 50oC.
so that
and
(a) 50 ft of #18 (18 AWG) copper wire, which has a diameter of 1.024 mm, will have
a resistance of l/( A) ohms, where A = the crosssectional area and l = 50 ft.
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38.
10 March 2006
which is in fact consistent with the representative data for copper in Table 2.3.
= 1.723 .cm
or
A = 0.0804 mm2.
R = 65.3 .
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39.
10 March 2006
(b) The energy is dissipated by the resistor, converted to heat which is transferred to
the air surrounding the resistor. The resistor is unable to store the energy itself.
This last on e requires a few facts to be put together. We have st ated that temperature
can affect resistancein other words, if the temperature changes during operation, the
resistance will not rem ain constant and hence nonlinear behavior will be observed.
Most discrete resistors are rated for up to a sp ecific power in o rder to ensure th at
temperature variation during operation will no t significantly change th e res istance
value. Light bulbs, however, become rather warm when operating and can experience
a significant change in resistance.
(a)
From the text,
(1) Zener diodes,
(2) Fuses, and
(3) Incandescent (as opposed to fluorescent) light bulbs
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40.
106
)
= 0.5619
10 March 2006
cm (1 m/100 cm )(100 m )
(1.7654 10
Thus, R = l / A =
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41.
10 March 2006
Rotating sh ort
wire de
termines length
of long wire
used in circuit.
Copper wire
But this is s omewhat impractical, as the l eads may turn out to have alm ost the sam e
resistance unless we have a very long wi
re, which can also be im practical. One
improvement would be to replace the coppe r wire shown with a coil of insulated
copper wire. A s mall amount of insulation would then need to be removed from
where the moveable wire touches the coil so that electrical connection could be made.
Leads to
connect to
circuit
If we keep fixed by choosing a material, and A fixed by choosing a wire gauge (e.g.
28 AWG), changing l will change the resistance of our device.
We know that for any wire of crosssectional area A and length l , the resistan ce is
given by R = l / A.
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42.
x 10
2
0.7
10
12
14
16
10 March 2006
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
voltage (V )
0.1
0.1
10
10
10
10
10
8
7
6
5
4
0.03
0.04
voltage (V)
0.05
pute the
0.06
I = 514.3 mA
Using a scientific calculator or the triedandtrue trial and error approach, we find that
I = 109 [e39I 1]
0.02
0.01
6
0.07
(a) We need to plot the negative and positive voltage ranges separately, as the positive
voltage range is, after all, exponential!
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Thus,
c urrent (A)
43.
c urrent (A )
10 March 2006
The best (but not the only) choice for a portable application is clear: 28AWG wire!
Would the 28AW G wire weight less? Again referring to T able 2.3, we see that the
crosssectional area of 28AWG wire is 0.0804 mm 2, and that of 12AWG wire is
3.31 mm2. The volume of 12AWG wire required is therefore 6345900 mm 3, and that
of 28AWG wire required is only 3750 mm3.
Using 12AWG wire would require (10 ) / (1.59 m/ft) = 6290 ft.
Using 28AWG wire, the narrowest available, would require
We require a 10 resistor, and are told it is f or a portable application, implying that
size, weight or both would be im portant to consider when selecting a wire gauge. W e
have 10,000 ft of each of the gaug es listed in Table 2.3 w ith which to work. Quick
inspection o f the values listed e liminates 2, 4 a nd 6 AW G w ire as the ir respec tive
resistances are too low for only 10,000 ft of wire.
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44.
10 March 2006
R
A=
contact
100 m
80.1 m
Wafer surface
contact
250 m
(Note: this is som ewhat atypical; in the semiconductor industry contacts are typically
made to the top and/o r bottom surface of a wafer. So, theres more than one solu tion
based on geometry as well as doping level.)
Contact
ND = 1015 cm3
L = 80.1 m
width
= 100 m
(100 )(100
m )(250
m )
= 80.1 m
4
( 3.121 cm ) 10 m/cm
L=
We choose a geometry as shown in the figure; our contact area is arbitrarily chosen as
100 m by 250 m, so that only the length L remains to be specified. Solving,
Since R = L/A, where we know R = 100 and = 3.121 cm for a phosphorus
concentration of 1015 cm3, we need only define the resistor geom etry to complete the
design.
Our target is a 100 resistor. We see from the plot that at ND = 1015 cm3, n ~ 2x103
2
/Vs, yielding a resistivity of 3.121 cm.
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45.
cm
10 March 2006
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1.
10 March 2006
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2.
(a) Four nodes; (b) five branches; (c) path, yes loop, no.
10 March 2006
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3.
10 March 2006
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4.
(c)
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
YES
NO
YES
NO
NO
does not return to starting point
point B is crossed twice
10 March 2006
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5.
2 3 + iZ 5 3 = 0
10 March 2006
R=
3
= 600 m .
(5)
(b) If the leftmost resistor has a value of 1 , then 3 V appears across the parallel
network (the + reference terminal being the bottom node) Thus, the value of the
other resistor is given by
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6.
(c) 0.
(b) 3 A;
(a) 3 A;
10 March 2006
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7.
5 + iy + iz = 3 + ix
(c) 5 + iy + iz = 3 + ix
(b) iy = 3 + ix 5 iz
iy = 2 + 2 2 iy
10 March 2006
5 + ix + ix = 3 + ix so ix = 3 5 = 2A.
(a) ix = 2 + iy + iz = 2 + 2 + 0 = 4 A
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8.
10 March 2006
Focusing our attention next on the top right node, we see that iy = 5 A.
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9.
10 March 2006
I40W = 347.8 mA
We obtain the current each bulb draws by dividing its power rating by the operating
voltage (115 V):
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10.
10 March 2006
The DMM is connected in parallel with the 3 load resistors, across which develops the
voltage we wish to measure. If the DMM appears as a short, then all 5 A flows
through the DMM, and none through the resistors, resulting in a (false) reading of 0 V
for the circuit undergoing testing. If, instead, the DMM has an infinite internal
resistance, then no current is shunted away from the load resistors of the circuit, and a
true voltage reading results.
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11.
10 March 2006
Still, in the parallelconnected case, at least 10 (up to 11) of the other characters will
be lit, so the sign could be read and customers will know the restaurant is open for
business.
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12.
vy = 3(5) 3 = 12 V
10 March 2006
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13.
v1 = 25 V.
10 March 2006
iy = 2.5 A.
(b) From part (a), ix = 2 v1/ 10. Substituting the new value for v1, we find that
Thus,
ix = v2/10 + v2/10 = iy + iy = 5 A
so
2v1 = 50
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14.
10 March 2006
VG = 150 V
So G = 13.5/ 150
or
G = 90 mS
I x = G VG
Ix = 18.5 5 = 13.5 A
By Ohms law,
Then,
KCL provides us with the means to find this current: The current flowing into the +
terminal of the 110V source is 12.5 + 6 = 18.5 A.
Now that we know the voltage across the unknown conductance G, we need only to
find the current flowing through it to find its value by making use of Ohms law.
So
Thus, R = 34 .
We begin by making use of the information given regarding the power generated by
the 5A and the 40V sources. The 5A source supplies 100 W, so it must therefore
have a terminal voltage of 20 V. The 40V source supplies 500 W, so it must therefore
provide a current IX of 12.5 A.
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15.
i = 125 mA
(b) +10 + 1i  2 + 2i + 2 6 + i = 0
Solving,
10 March 2006
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16.
10 March 2006
9 +4i + 4i = 0
Again starting with the bottom node and proceeding in a clockwise direction, we write
the KVL equation
Circuit II.
Which results in i = 0.
+7 5 2 1(i) = 0
Starting at the bottom node and proceeding clockwise, we can write the KVL equation
Circuit I.
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17.
Q.E.D.
so
vS = v1 + v2 = i(R1 + R2)
R1
R2
vS and v2 = R2i =
vS .
R1 + R2
R1 + R2
vS
.
R1 + R2
Thus, v1 = R1i =
and hence i =
vS + v1 + v2 = 0
10 March 2006
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18.
10 March 2006
[1]
Vout = 23.5 V
5 + 570(5/100) + Vout = 0 or
Making use of the fact that no current flows into the input terminals of the op amp,
i1 = i2. Thus, Eq. [2] reduces to
Making use of the fact that in this case Vd = 0, we find that i1 = 5/100 A.
5 + 100i1 + Vd = 0
Begin by defining current i1 flowing right through the 100 resistor, and i2 flowing
right through the 470 resistor.
Given: (1) Vd = 0 and (2) no current flows into either terminal of Vd.
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19.
vx = 6 V.
iin = 23 A
IS = 29.5 A.
10 March 2006
So
IS + 4 vx = 4  vx/4
or
iin = 1 + IS + vx/4 6
so that
(a) By KVL, 2 + vx + 8 = 0
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20.
v1 = 60 V
v2 = 60 V
v3 = 15 V
v4 = 45 V
v5 = 45 V
i1 = 27 A
i2 = 3 A
i3 = 24 A
i4 = 15 A
i5 = 9 A
10 March 2006
= v1i1
= v2i2
= v3i3
= v4i4
= v5i5
= (60)(27)
= (60)(3)
= (15)(24)
= (45)(15)
= (45)(9)
= 1.62 kW
= 180 W
= 360 W
= 675 W
= 405 W
and it is a simple matter to check that these values indeed sum to zero as they should.
p1
p2
p3
p4
p5
(b) It is now a simple matter to compute the power absorbed by each element:
i5 = v5/5 = 45/5 = 9 A
i3 = i4 + i5 = 15 + 9 = 24 A
i1 = i2 + i3 = 3 + 24 = 27
By KVL, 60 + v3 + v5 = 0
v5 = 60 15 = 45 V
v4 = v5 = 45
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21.
10 March 2006
p4 = 82/4 = 16 W
v4 = v14 v2 = 14 6 = 8 V therefore
v1.5 = 4(1.5) = 6 V
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22.
= 8V
= 4 V
= 12 V
= 14 V
= 2V
= 6 V
= 2V
= 10 V
= 18 V
v13 = v43
v23 = v12 v34 = 12 + 8
v24 = v23 + v34 = 4 8
(a) v14 = 0.
10 March 2006
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23.
Therefore,
VGS = VG 2(2) = 1 V.
Therefore,
10 March 2006
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24.
10 March 2006
ix = 500 mA and
px = vx ix = 25 W.
px = vx ix = 24 W
px = vx ix = 16 W.
px = vx ix = 0.8(40)(0.7576)2 = 18.37 W.
px = vx ix = 600 W
100(2) + vx = 100
Thus
To solve further we require specific information about the element X and its
properties.
where vx is defined across the unknown element X, with the + reference on top.
Simplifying, we find that 100ix + vx = 100
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25.
Solving, i1 =  2A.
i1 = 1 A.
where
i1= 1 A.
70 + 70 i1 = 0
or
[1]
10 March 2006
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26.
[1]
10 March 2006
Therefore, none of the conditions specified in (a) to (d) can be met by this circuit.
The 90V source is absorbing (90)(i1) = 157.5 W of power and the dependent source
is absorbing (1.8v3)(i1) = 275.6 W of power.
or i1 = 70/40 = 1.75 A.
v3 = 50i1
v3 = 40i1 + 1.8v3
So that we may write Eq. [1] as
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27.
10 March 2006
In order to determine which of these two values should be used, we must recall that
the idea is to charge the battery, implying that it is absorbing power, or that i as
defined is positive. Thus, we choose i = 2.362 A, and, making use of the expression
developed in part (a), we find that
0.035i2 + 10.5i = 25
(b) The total power delivered to the battery consists of the power absorbed by the
0.035 resistance (0.035i2), and the power absorbed by the 10.5V ideal battery
(10.5i). Thus, we need to solve the quadratic equation
(a) Define the charging current i as flowing clockwise in the circuit provided.
By application of KVL,
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28.
10 March 2006
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29.
10 March 2006
= (40)(i)
= 5i2
= 25i2
= 20i2
= (2v3 + v2)(i) = (40i + 25i)
= (4v1  v2)(i) = (20i  25i)
= 80 W
= 20 W
= 100 W
= 80 W
= 260 W
= 20 W
[1]
and we can easily verify that these quantities indeed sum to zero as expected.
p40V
p5
p25
p20
pdepsrc1
pdepsrc2
so that i = 40/20 = 2 A
Applying KVL about this simple loop circuit (the dependent sources are still linear
elements, by the way, as they depend only upon a sum of voltages)
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30.
12
25 = 2
40 + R
10 March 2006
(c)
R = 0.
which has the solutions R = 82.43 k and R = 2.426 k. Only the latter is a
physical solution, so
R = 2.426 k.
R2 + 80R 200 = 0
or
We want i2 25 = 2
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31.
10 March 2006
Thus,
i = 12/(1 + 2.3 + 48.6) = 231.2 mA
which is certainly not negligible compared to the other resistances in the circuit!
The wire segment is a 3000ft section of 28AWG solid copper wire. Using Table
2.3, we compute its resistance as
By KVL,
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32.
10 March 2006
= 9.940103 cos 5t V
v = 50103 i
vo
= 248.5 cos 5t mV
Thus,
We do not have a value for v, but KVL will allow us to express that in terms of vo,
which we do know:
vo = 1000(gm v)
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33.
3 + 100 ID + VD = 0
10 March 2006
GUESS
0
1
0.5
0.25
0.245
0.248
0.246
RESULT
3
3.6481012
3.308104
0.4001
0.1375
0.1732
0.0377
better
oops
VD = 246.4 mV
3 + 300106(eVD / 2710 1) + VD = 0
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34.
10 March 2006
[1]
3.087 kW
= 2.470 kW
= vx(0.8 iy)
Pdep
963.5 W
= 428.1 W
A quick check shows us that the calculated values sum to 0.3, which is reasonably
close to zero compared to the size of the terms (small roundoff errors accumulated).
= (vx) / 25
P25
240.9 W
= (vx)2 / 100
P100
= 776.0 W
= 5 vx
P5A
[2]
where iy = 5 vx/100
5 vx / 100 vx / 25 + 0.8 iy = 0
A quick check assures us that the calculated values sum to zero, as they should.
Pdep
= (vx) / 25
P25
771.7 W
= (vx)2 / 100
P100
2
= 1.389 kW
= 5 vx
P5A
Solving for vx, we find vx = 277.8 V. It is a simple matter now to compute the power
absorbed by each element:
This represents one equation in two unknowns. A second equation to introduce at this
point is
5 vx / 100 vx / 25 + 0.8 ix = 0
(a) Applying KCL, we sum the currents flowing into the righthand node:
Define a voltage vx, + reference on the right, across the dependent current source.
Note that in fact vx appears across each of the four elements. We first convert the 10
mS conductance into a 100 resistor, and the 40mS conductance into a 25
resistor.
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35.
10 March 2006
i1
=
v/40,000
3 i1 + v/2,000
i1 = 571.4 A
v = 22.86 V
and
[2]
Upon substituting Eq. [2] into Eq. [1], Eq. [1] becomes,
or
i1
This, unfortunately, is one equation in two unknowns, necessitating the search for a
second suitable equation. Returning to the circuit diagram, we observe that
Define a voltage v with the + reference at the top node. Applying KCL and
summing the currents flowing out of the top node,
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36.
10 March 2006
= (vx) / 4
= (vx) / 12
150 W
225 W
75 W
= 210 W
= 240 W
and a quick check verifies that the computed quantities sum to zero, as expected.
P4
P12
= 7 vx
P8A
2
= (vx) / 6
= 8 vx
P6
P8A
Solving, vx = 30 V.
8 vx /6 + 7 vx /12 vx /4 = 0
Define a voltage vx with its + reference at the center node. Applying KCL and
summing the currents into the center node,
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37.
10 March 2006
v = (50103)(4106 / 5103) = 40 V
v = 30 V
Pdep = v 2ix
= 555.8 mW
ix = v/1000
and
Thus, is = 10 mA
80 30 + is = ix = 60
(d) We note that ix = 60/1000 = 60 mA. KCL stipulates that (viewing currents
into and out of the top node)
Thus,
and
so that
where
(c) Once again, we first define a voltage v across the 1k resistor with the +
reference at the top node. Applying KCL at this top node, we find that
and
Solving,
(b) Once again, we first define a voltage v across the 1k resistor with the +
reference at the top node. Applying KCL at this top node, we find that
and
Solving,
(a) Define a voltage v across the 1k resistor with the + reference at the top node.
Applying KCL at this top node, we find that
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38.
10 March 2006
[1]
We are seeking a value for vS such that vS iS = 0. Clearly, setting vS = 0 will achieve
this. From Eq. [1], we also see that setting vS = 50 V will work as well.
50  vS + 103 iS = 0
Summing the currents flowing into the top node and invoking KCL, we find that
(b) Define a current is flowing out of the + reference terminal of the independent
voltage source. Interpret no power to mean zero power.
iS = 50 mA.
(a) To cancel out the effects of both the 80mA and 30mA sources, iS must be set to
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39.
10 March 2006
ix = 3 A.
2 v8 / 8 + 2ix 5 = 0
(b) Again, we apply KCL, this time to the top left node:
5 + 7 = v9 / 3 + v9 / 9
(a) Summing the currents into the righthand node and applying KCL,
Define a voltage v9 across the 9 resistor, with the + reference at the top node.
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40.
10 March 2006
5 + 5(2 vx / 3) vx / 3 vx / 5 = 0
[1]
The power absorbed by the 5 resistor is then simply (vx)2/5 = 638.0 mW.
Define a voltage vx across the 5A source, with the + reference on top.
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41.
10 March 2006
The power absorbed by each resistor is simply v2/5 = 67.22 W for a total of 201.67 W,
which is the total power supplied by all sources. If instead we want the power
supplied by the resistors, we multiply by 1 to obtain 201.67 W. Thus, the sum of
the supplied power of each circuit element is zero, as it should be.
or v = 55/3 = 18.33 V. The power supplied by each source is then computed as:
Summing the currents leaving the top node and applying KCL, we find that
Despite the way it may appear at first glance, this is actually a simple nodepair
circuit. Define a voltage v across the elements, with the + reference at the top node.
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42.
10 March 2006
Vx = 5 = 5(0.5 + Rsegment)
500 m
(65.3 m/ft)(5280 ft/mi)
From Table 2.3, we see that 28AWG solid copper wire has a resistance of 65.3
m/ft. Thus, the total number of miles needed of the wire is
Defining a voltage Vx across the 10A source with the + reference at the top node,
KCL tells us that 10 = 5 + I1, where I1 is defined flowing downward through the
1 resistor.
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43.
10 March 2006
By KCL, 6 + 3 + 1.2 + iS = 0
or
iS = 10.2 A.
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44.
so i = 1 A.
10 March 2006
42+7i = 0
or
i = 9A
(b) Looking at the left part of the circuit, we see 1 + 3 = 4 A flowing into the
unknown current source, which, by virtue of KCL, must therefore be a 4A current
source. Thus, KCL at the node labeled with the + reference of the voltage v gives
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45.
10 March 2006
The new 1A source and the 3A source combine to yield a 4A source in series with
the unknown current source which, by KCL, must be a 4A current source.
(b) We may combine all sources to the right of the 1 resistor into a single 7A
current source. On the left, the two 1A sources in series reduce to a single 1A
source.
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46.
10 March 2006
Thus,
i = 19/5 = 3.8 A.
(b) No current flows through the 6V source, so we may neglect it for this calculation.
The 12V, 10V and 3V sources are connected in series as a result, so we replace
them with a 12 + 10 3 = 19 V source as shown
i = 10/1000 = 10 mA.
(a) Combine the 12V and 2V series connected sources to obtain a new 12 2 = 10 V
source, with the + reference terminal at the top. The result is two 10V sources in
parallel, which is permitted by KVL. Therefore,
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47.
10 March 2006
14.06 W.
abs
= 10(6.875) = 68.75 W
which sum to 0.01 W, close enough to zero compared to the size of the terms
(roundoff error accumulated).
P10V
Thus,
P5V abs = 5(6.875) = 34.38 W
Each resistor draws 15/16 A, so the 5 V and 10 V sources each see a current of
Returning to the original circuit, we see that the 2 A source is in parallel with both 16
resistors, so that it has a voltage of 15 V across it as well (the same goes for the 7 A
source). Thus,
P16 = v2/16 =
we see that v = 15 V (note that we can completely the ignore the 5A source here,
since we have a voltage source directly across the resistor). Thus,
We first combine the 10V and 5V sources into a single 15V source, with the +
reference on top. The 2A and 7A current sources combine into a 7 2 = 5 A current
source (arrow pointing down); although these two current sources may not appear to
be in parallel at first glance, they actually are.
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48.
Therefore
i = 0.
(a) vS = 10 + 10 6 6 = 20 12 = 8
Therefore
i = 8/14 = 571.4 mA.
i = vS/ 14
10 March 2006
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49.
10 March 2006
v1 = 2 + 3 = 5 V.
We first simplify as shown, making use of the fact that we are told ix = 2 A to find the
voltage across the middle and rightmost 1 resistors as labeled.
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50.
10 March 2006
or
v = 515 V.
Returning to the lefthand side of the circuit, and summing currents into the top node,
we find that
vx = 1000(1 3) 103 = 2 V.
We see that to determine the voltage v we will need vx due to the presence of the
dependent current soruce. So, lets begin with the righthand side, where we find that
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51.
10 March 2006
= 2(5)
= (4)(4)
= (9)(3)
= +(5)(6)
= (4)(4)
= (3)(7)
= (12)(3)
= 30 W
= 16 W
= 21 W
= 36 W
= 10 W
= 16 W
= 27 W
(b) We need to change the 4V source such that the voltage across the 5A source
drops to zero. Define Vx across the 5A source such that the + reference terminal is
on the left. Then,
2 + Vx Vneeded = 0
or Vneeded = 2 V.
A quick check assures us that these absorbed powers sum to zero as they should.
P5A
P4A
P3A
P12A
P2V
P4V
P3V
(a) We first label the circuit with a focus on determining the current flowing through
each voltage source:
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52.
10 March 2006
Thus, from the indicated terminals, we only see the single 1k resistor, so that
Req = 1 k.
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53.
(a) We see 1  (1 + 1 )  (1 + 1 + 1 )
= 1  2  3
= 545.5 m
10 March 2006
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54.
(c) 29.5 k = 47 k  47 k + 10 k  10 k + 1 k
(b) 57 333 = 47 k + 10 k + 1 k  1k  1k
(a) 5 k = 10 k  10 k
10 March 2006
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55.
10 March 2006
5
1A
1A
2.917
and then notice that the 0V source is shorting out one of the 5 resistors, so a
further simplification is possible, noting that 5  7 = 2.917 :
0V
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56.
Req
= 5.5 k.
= 1 k + 2 k  2 k + 3 k  3 k + 4 k  4 k
= 1 k + 1 k + 1.5 k + 2 k
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57.
10 March 2006
100
100
100
100
100
100
250
20
14.4
19.85 .
20
30
10
50
50
16.67
15
(c) First combine the 10 and 40 resistors and redraw the circuit:
Req
10
Req
100
(a) Working from right to left, we first see that we may combine several resistors as
100 + 100  100 + 100 = 250 , yielding the following circuit:
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58.
R = 51.79 .
60 .
10 March 2006
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59.
10 March 2006
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60.
10 March 2006
We check our results by verifying that the absorbed powers in fact add to 1000 W.
V20 = V5 = 30 V
P20 = 302/20 = 45 W
V5 = 75 6(7.5) = 30 V
P5 = 302/ 5 = 180 W
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61.
10 March 2006
+
6
vx
14
9A
Also, the 4A, 1A and 6A current sources are in parallel, so they can be combined
into a single 4 + 6 1 = 9 A current source as shown:
To begin with, the 10 and 15 resistors are in parallel ( = 6 ), and so are the
20 and 5 resistors (= 4 ).
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62.
10 March 2006
100 mS
Gin
22.22 mS
13.64 mS
(b) The 50mS and 40mS conductances are in series, equivalent to (50(40)/90 =
22.22 mS. The 30mS and 25mS conductances are also in series, equivalent to 13.64
mS. Redrawing for clarity,
Gin
(a) Working from right to left, and borrowing x  y notation from resistance
calculations to indicate the operation xy/(x + y),
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63.
10 March 2006
To compute P10, consider that since the 10 and 40 resistors are in parallel, the
same voltage Vx (+ reference on the left) appears across both resistors. The current I
= 4.286 A flows into this combination. Thus, Vx = (8)(4.286) = 34.29 V and
P1 = I2 1 = 18.37 W
The bottom four resistors between the 2 resistor and the 30V source are shorted
out. The 10 and 40 resistors are in parallel (= 8 ), as are the 15 and 60
(=12 ) resistors. These combinations are in series.
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64.
10 March 2006
R1i1 R2i2
[1]
=
R3i3 RiR
R1i1 = R2i2
R3i3 = RiR
R
R1 R2
, or R = R2 3 . Q.E.D.
=
R3 R
R1
With the meter being a short circuit and no current flowing through it, we can write
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65.
V47 = 10
V2.2 = 10
47
= 6.267 mV
75
2.2
= 293.3 mV
75
and the voltage dropped across the 47 resistor is
10 March 2006
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66.
10 March 2006
By voltage division, then, and noting that V47k is the same voltage as that across the
19.39 k resistance,
19.39
V47k = 2
= 607.0 mV
10 + 1.5 + 33 + 19.39
We first note that the 4.7 k and 2.2 k resistors can be combined into a single 1.5
k resistor, which is then in series with the 10 k resistor. Next we note that the 33
k / 47 k parallel combination can be replaced by a 19.39 k resistance, which is
in series with the remaining 33 k resistor.
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67.
10 March 2006
571.4/2 = 285.7 mA
(b) The resistor flowing downward through either 134 resistor is simply
I 33
1
100
= 12
= 571.4 mA
1 +1 +1
10 10 100
(a) The current downward through the 33 resistor is calculated more easily if we
first note that 134  134 = 67 , and 67 + 33 = 100 . Then,
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68.
10 March 2006
I15
1
10 + 15
= ( 30 8 )
= 22.12 A
1
1
+
10 + 15 8.479
Finally, we are left with two current sources, the series combination of 10 + 15 ,
and 10  55.75 = 8.479 .
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69.
vS = 2(5.5) = 11 V
R1 = R2 = 1 k.
10 March 2006
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70.
iS = 11 mA
R1 = R2 = 1 k.
10 March 2006
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71.
10 March 2006
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72.
10 March 2006
ix = vx/ 10 mA = 139.1 A
Define vx across the 10 k resistor with its + reference at the top node: then
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73.
10 March 2006
We must now return to the original circuit. The current into the 6 , 13 parallel
combination is 7 iy = 4.147 A. By current division,
We may combine the 12A and 5A current sources into a single 7A current source
with its arrow oriented upwards. The left three resistors may be replaced by a 3 +
6  13 = 7.105 resistor, and the right three resistors may be replaced by a 7 + 20  4
= 10.33 resistor.
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74.
10 March 2006
47
47 + 100  20
0.5(2.5)(47)
47 + 16.67
0.5v1
= 0.9228 V
The controlling voltage v1, needed to obtain the power into the 47k resistor, can be
found separately as that network does not depend on the lefthand network.
The rightmost 2 k resistor can be neglected.
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75.
20
20 + 20
10 March 2006
Voltage division only applies to resistors connected in series, meaning that the same
current must flow through each resistor. In this circuit, i1 0 , so we do not have the
same current flowing through both 20 k resistors.
must be fought!
v1 = 10
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76.
10 March 2006
v
R2
(c) i4 = 1
+
+
R
R
R
R
3
4
1 2
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) R 2
= VS
R 1 [R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )(R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )]
R2
= VS
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )
(b) v1 = VS
R1
R 1 + [R 2  (R 3 + R 4 )]
R1
= VS
R 1 + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 ) (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )
= VS
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )
(a) v2 = VS
R 2  (R 3 + R 4 )
R 1 + [R 2  (R 3 + R 4 )]
R 2 (R 3 + R 4 ) (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )
= VS
R 1 + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 ) (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 )
R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )
= VS
R 1 (R 2 + R 3 + R 4 ) + R 2 (R 3 + R 4 )
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77.
i3 =
500
500 + 3000  6000
400 A
10 March 2006
= 600 A
1/3000
1/ 500 + 1/3000 + 1/6000
( 3 10 )
i2 = ( 3 103 )
=
500
= 8V
500 + 3000  6000
v1 = 40
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78.
10 March 2006
1
1 + (2 + R)
IS = 42 A.
IS
5.25
(c)
vx
IS
5IS 3
5.25 3 + 9
=
= 0.2381
IS
IS 3
= 2.381 A
5.25 3 + 9
(b) Given that IS is now 50 A, the current through the 5 resistor becomes
so that
IS 3
= 2A
5.25 3 + 9
IS
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79.
so
9 =
10 March 2006
or Rx = 2250 W. Thus,
2000
2000 + R x + 750
9 Rx + 24750 = 20 Rx
20 R x
2750 + R x
IRx = 10 10 3
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80.
v5
Thus,
R 3 (R 4 + R 5 )
= VS
R
(R
+
R
+
R
)
+
R
(R
+
R
)
4
5
3
4
5
2 3
= VS
R + R2
R 3 (R 4 + R 5 ) (R 3 + R 4 + R 5 )
= VS
(
)
R
(R
R
)
R
R
R
R
+
+
+
+
5
3
4
5
2
3 4
R5
= vR
R
R
+
5
4
R3 R5
= VS
R 2 (R 3 + R 4 + R 5 ) + R 3 (R 4 + R 5 )
Then vR
10 March 2006
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81.
10 March 2006
(b) I1 = Ix . 45/15 = 36 mA
Define R1 = 10 + 15  30 = 20 and R2 = 5 + 25 = 30 .
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82.
10 March 2006
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83.
therefore
15  3
(15  3) + 0.3
= 2.679 sin 10t V
10 March 2006
vout = 1000gm v
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84.
0.1
0.5
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.4
0
0.4
v1
=
v2
v3
0
4
6
10 March 2006
a)
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0.2
1. (
1
2
0
1
3
4
vA
=
vB
vC
27
16
6
11
2
0
3=
4
16
vA = 19.57
vB = 18.71
vC = 11.29
a)
10 March 2006
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1
2. (
1
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123600/311
ans =
>> a.vx
57200/311
ans =
>> a.v2
82200/311
ans =
10 March 2006
We may solve the matrix equation d irectly using MATLAB, but a be tter check is to
invoke the symbolic processor:
2
0.05 0.115 0.025 v3 2
(b)
to
(a)
3.
10 March 2006
3 =
Node 2:
v2 v2 v1
+
1
3
5v1 2v2 = 6
v1 + 4v2 = 9
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1=
Node 1:
v1 v1 v2
+
2
3
Ref.
4. We select the bottom node as our reference terminal and define two nodal voltages:
10 March 2006
Ref.
VB
[1]
Simplifying,
VB VB VA
[2]
+
8
5
VA VA VB
+
10
5
At node B: (6) =
At node A: 4 =
VA
We begin by selecting the bottom node as the reference term inal, and defining
two nodal voltages V A and V B, as shown. (Note if we cho ose the upp er right
v1 becomes a nodal voltage and falls directly out of the solution.)
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Solving,
node,
5.
10 March 2006
Ref.
2]
VB
[1]
[2]
4VA 3VB = 6
A + 4VB = 6
Note this y ields V A and V B, not v1, due to our choice of reference node. So, we
v1 by KVL: v1 = VA VB.
At node A: 2 =
VA VA VB
[1]
+
3
1
V V V VA
At node B: 2 = B + B + B
6
6
1
VA
We next designate the bottom node as the reference term inal, and define V A and
VB as shown:
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3V
obtain
6.
10 March 2006
NODE 3:
50
[4]
[3]
[2]
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vP = 171.6 V
60v1  20vP
= 8000
v1 + 110 vP  40v2
=0
 vP
+ 6v2  5v3
= 25
200v2 + 210v3 = 6000
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
NODE 2:
Simplifying,
NODE P:
[1]
NODE 1:
The bottom node has the largest number of branch connections, so we choose that as
our reference node. This also m akes vP easier to find, as it will be a nodal voltag e.
Working from left to right, we name our nodes 1, P, 2, and 3.
Solving,
7.
10 March 2006
NODE x:
NODE 2:
[3]
[2]
[1]
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vx = 397.4 V.
Simplifying,
NODE 1:
The logical choice for a reference node is the bottom node, as then vx will
automatically become a nodal voltage.
Solving,
8.
10 March 2006
(b)
v2 = vY 60 =
vY = 124.4 V
vX = 181.5 V and
64.40 V
[2]
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Thus,
Designate the node between the 3 and 6 resistors as node X, and the righthand
node of the 6 resistor as node Y. The bottom node is chosen as the reference node.
Solving,
9.
10 March 2006
[1]
[3]
[4]
[2]
[1]
v1 0.2v3
= 100
v3 + 50 i2 = 0
vx
+ 0.2v3 50 i2 = 0
0.07556vx 0.02v1 0.004v3 0.111i2 = 33.33
Simplifying,
[4]
[3]
v1 = 0.2 v3  100
v3 = 50i2
[2]
i2 = (0.2 v3  vx) / 50
This, however, is one equation in four unknow ns, the other three resulting from the
presence of the dependent sources. Thus, we require three additional equations:
Only one nodal equation is required: At the node where three resistors join,
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10.
10 March 2006
40
+
v1 = 0

10
so that V2 = 28 V.
2 = 96 / 20  V2/ 10
v1 = 0, this simplifies to
At NODE 1:
20
v1 = 0, the dependent source is a short circuit and we may redraw the circuit as:
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Since
11. If
10 March 2006
6
= 24
315
0
3v1 2v=
2
v1 + 19v2 4v3 3v4
35v2 + 71v3 15v4=
42v2 24v3 + 94v4=
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[2]
[3]
[4]
i5 = v3/ 5 = 1.352 A.
NODE 1:
NODE 2:
NODE 3:
NODE 4:
We choose the bottom node as ground to make calculation of i5 easier. The leftmost
node is named 1, the top node is nam ed 2, the central node is nam ed 3 and the
node between the 4 and 6 resistors is named 4.
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12
12.
10 March 2006
7 mA
0.2 v1
+ v1 
10 k
vx
3
[2]
[1]
Solving, we find
and
vx = 8.086 V.
1999 v2 1999 vx = 50
v1 = v2 vx
[3]
The additional equation required by the presence of the dependent source and the fact
that its controlling variable is not one of the nodal voltages:
At NODE x: 510
9V
470
v2
5 mA
We can redraw this circuit and eliminate the 2.2k resistor as no current flows
through it:
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13.
10 March 2006
v = 100 V.
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We find that
14.
We need concern ourselves with the bottom part of this circuit only. W riting a single
nodal
equation,
4 + 2 = v/ 50
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
Node
Node
Node
Node
Node
Node
Node
[1]
[5]
v8 v8 v6 v8 v7
[8]
+
+
6
10
4
v7 v5 v7 v6 v7 v8
[7]
+
+
1
2
4
v6 v6 v7 v6 v8
[6]
+
+
5
2
10
v5 v5 v7
+
2
1
v4 v4 v3 v4 v2
[4]
+
+
6
10
4
v3 v2 v3 v3 v4
[3]
+ +
2
5
10
4v5
3v5
3v1
4v1
8v6
2v6
6v6
2v2
+7v2
5v2
15v2
plifying,
2v7
5v7
+7v7
15v7
2v3
+8v3
6v3
v8
v8
+31v8
v4
v4
+31v4
= 2
= 10
=8
=0
= 4
= 16
= 20
=0
[5]
[6]
to yield
[7]
[8]
[1]
[2]
to yield
[3]
[4]
v5 = 1.685 V
v6 = 3.759 V
v7 = 3.527 V
v8 = 2.434 V
v1 = 3.370 V
v2 = 7.055 V
v3 = 7.518 V
v4 = 4.869 V
10 March 2006
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and
0=
2=
1=
v1 v1 v2
+
2
1
v2 v1 v2 v3 v2 v4
[2]
+
+
1
2
4
1 =
0=
2=
4=
2 =
1:
Sim
Node
15.
10 March 2006
At node D:
= 5
= 150
2500
100 [4]
v4 = 63.06 V.
VC = 150
At node C:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[3]
At the supernode:
[2]
[1]
We choose the center node for our common terminal, since it connects to the largest
number of branches. W e na me the left node A, the top node B, the right node
C, and the bottom node D. We next form a supernode between nodes A and B.
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16.
10 March 2006
At the supernode,
At node 2,
[1]
[2]
[3]
vA = 25.91 V
= 3
= 8
= 0
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[1]
[2]
Choosing the bottom node as the reference terminal and naming the left node 1, the
center node 2 and the right node 3, we next form a supe rnode about nodes 1 and
2, encompassing the dependent voltage source.
17.
10 March 2006
3:
NODE
[1]
[2]
[3]
[3]
[2]
[1]
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Since our choice of r eference ter minal m akes the contr olling var iable of both
dependent sources a nodal voltage, we have no need for an additional equation as we
might have expected.
=5
0
0
v2 = 0.4 v1
2:
NODE 1:
Selecting the bottom node as the reference terminal, we name the left node 1, the
middle node 2 and the right node 3.
NODE
18.
=0
=2
[1]
[2]
10 March 2006
= 3.250
vx = 48
[1]
vx  3 vx = 12 [2]
Our additional constraint is that vy = 0, so we may simplify Eqs. [1] and [2]:
At node x:
At node y:
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14
2k
19.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
[3]
Solving these last two equations, we find that v2 = 727.3 mV. Making use of Eq. [3],
we therefore find that
i1 = 1.636 A.
[1]
[4]
v1 + 2 v2
4 v1 3 v=
2
At the supernode:
Our remaining equations:
and
Choosing the bottom node joining the 4 resistor, the 2A current sourcee and the
4V voltage source as our reference node, we next nam e the other node of the 4
resistor node 1, and the node joining the 2 r esistor and t he 2 A c urrent s ource
node 2. Finally, we create a supernode with nodes 1 and 2.
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20.
10 March 2006
[1]
[3]
v1 v3 = 400 + 4v20
v20 = v3 v4 = v3 200
v1 5 v3 = 400
[3]
50
0
1
20
5
v1
4
v =  400
2
v3
400
v20 = 90.9 V.
1
40
1
Eqs. [1], [3], and [5] are not sufficient, however, as we have four unknowns. At this
point we need to seek an additi onal equation, possibly in terms of v2. Referring to the
circuit,
v1  v2 = 400
[5]
Rewriting as a matrix equation,
Thus, Eq. [1] becomes 6 = v1/ 40 + v2/ 50 + (v3 200)/ 20 or, more simply,
[4]
[2]
v4 = 200
At node 4:
Note that since both ends of the 10 resistor are connected to the supernode, the
related terms cancel each other out, and so could have been ignored.
At the supernode,
We first number the nodes as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 moving left to right. We next select
node 5 as the reference terminal. To simplify the analysis, we form a supernode from
nodes 1, 2, and 3.
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21.
10 March 2006
[2]
v1  v3 = 6
v1 = 4.091 V
v3 = 1.909 V.
v4 = 4.333 V.
[1]
v1 + 10 v3 = 20 + 5 = 15
and
v1 v3 = 6
At node 4:
Our supernode KVL equation:
At the supernode:
By inspection, v2 = 5 V.
[3]
[2]
[1]
We begin by naming the top left node 1, the top right node 2, the bottom node of
the 6V source 3 and the top node of the 2 resistor 4. Th e reference node has
already been selected, and designated using a ground symbol.
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22.
10 March 2006
v1
1V
v4 = 4 V.
4
4V
v4
2 A
2
v5
therefore,
[1]
3V
v5  v6 = 3 [2]
v3 = 3 V.
v6
v1 = 12 V.
or
The power supplied by the 2A source therefore is (v6 v2)(2) = 45.33 W.
v2 = 21 V
4 2 = (v2 3)/ 4
At node 2,
Solving, we find that
4 = v1/ 3
At node 1,
At the supernode,
By KVL, v3 v4 = 1 so v3 = 1 + v4 = 1 + 4
By inspection,
4A
v2
v3
We begin by selecting the bottom node as the reference, naming the nodes as shown
below, and forming a supernode with nodes 5 & 6.
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23.
10 March 2006
v7
v5
4 2 = (v2 v3)/ 4
or
or
0
0
0
2
0
 1
v2 v3 = 24
[2]
[1]
[5]
[6]
v5 + v6 + 2v8 = 4
v2
 24
v
0
3
v4
48
=
v5
4
v
1
6
3
v8
or
The power generated by the 2A source is therefore (v8 v6)(2) = 133.2 W.
[4]
or
v8
Voltages in
volts.
Currents in
amperes.
Resistances
in ohms.
0 0 0
1  1
 6 6
4 4 0
0
0  14 68  42
0
0 1 1
0
0
1 1 0
0
0 0
1
0 0
v3  v4 = 1
v6 v8 = 3
At node 5:
0 = (v5 v4)/ 6 + (v5 4)/ 7 + (v5 v6)/ 2
34 supernode KVL equation:
68 supernode KVL equation:
v6
and v1 = (3)(4) = 12 V.
v4
At node 2:
By inspection, v7 = 4 V
v1
v2
v3
We begin by selecting the bottom node as the reference, naming each node as shown
below, and forming two different supernodes as indicated.
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24.
10 March 2006
[2]
At node 2:
At node 3:
Solving,
Note that we could also have made use of the supernode approach here.
[1]
At node 1:
Since we know that 1 mA flows through the top 2.2k resistor, v5 = 2.2 V.
Also, we see that v4 v5 = 9, so that v4 = 9 2.2 = 6.8 V.
Proceeding with nodal analysis,
With the reference terminal already specified, we name the bottom terminal of the
3mA source node 1, the left term inal of the bottom 2.2k resistor node 2, the
top term inal of the 3mA source node 3, the + reference term inal of the 9V
source node 4, and the  terminal of the 9V source node 5.
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25.
10 March 2006
i2 = 2.846 mA.
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i1 = 5.923 mA and
Solving,
26.
10 March 2006
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7 2 0 i1 10
2 5 0 i = 0 to find that i = 1.613 A, and i = 143.4 mA.
1
y
2
0 2 9 i y 0
27.
(a) Define a clockwise m esh current i1 in th e lef tmost m esh; a clockw ise m esh
curren
t i2 in the central m esh, and note that iy can be used as a m esh current for the
rem
aining mesh.
or 5i1 3i2
= 0
or 3i1 +8i2
= 212
or
5i2 + 8i3 = 122
10 March 2006
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*** Note: since the problem statement did not specify a directi on, only the current
magnitude is relevant, and its sign is arbitrary.
Solving,
28.
10 March 2006
We begin by defining three clockwise m esh currents i1, i2 and i3 in the lef tmost,
central, and rightmost meshes, respectively. Then,
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Thus,
125
Mesh
(a)
29.
Mesh 1:
Mesh 2:
Mesh 3:
10 March 2006
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80 40 30 i1 2
0 i2 = 0
40 70
30 0
70 i3 0
Solving,
30.
10 March 2006
3 i2 + 18 i3 = 80
i2 =
ix = 2.791 A.
Solving this system of three (independent) equations in three unknowns, we find that
MESH 3:
4 i1 + 9 i2  3 i3 = 0
MESH 2:
= 100
12 i1  4 i2
MESH 1:
Moving from left to right, we name the bottom three meshes, mesh 1, mesh 2,
and m esh 3. In each of these th ree meshes we define a clockwise curren t. The
remaining mesh current is clearly 8 A. We may then write:
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31.
10 March 2006
or
= 60
+ 10i4  v4A = 15
+ 4i4
[3]
[2]
[1]
2
0
 2
0
4
0
1
4
6
10
1
0
1
1
i1
60
i
2 = 20
i4
15
4
v 4 A
i2 i4 = 4
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[4]
At this point, we are short an equation. Returning to the circuit diagram, we note that
or 2i1
i3 = 5 A and ia = i4.
By inspection,
We define four clockwise mesh currents. The top mesh current is labeled i4. The
bottom left mesh current is labeled i1, the bottom right m esh current is labeled i3, and
the remaining mesh current is labeled i2. Define a voltage v4A across the 4A current
source with the + reference terminal on the left.
Solving,
i1 = 16.83 A, i2 = 10.58 A, i4 = 6.583 A and v4A = 17.17 V.
Thus, the power dissipated by the 2 resistor is
32.
10 March 2006
i2 = 0.01 v1
50 i3 + 30 i3 30 i2 + 20 i3 20 i1 = 0
20 i1 30 i2 + 100 i3 = 0 [3]
and
[2]
Thus, v1 = 148.1 V, i2 = 1.481 A, and the power generated by the dependent voltage
source is
0.4 v1 (i2 i1) = 383.9 W.
Substituting Eq. [4] into Eq. [2] and then the modified Eq. [2] into Eq. [3], we find
These three equations are insufficient, how ever, to solve for the unknow ns. It would
be nice to be able to express the dependent source cont rolling variable v1 in term s of
the mesh currents. Returning to the diagra m, it can be seen that KVL around m esh 1
will yield
 v1 + 20 i1 20 i3 + 0.4 v1 = 0
or v1 = (20(5)/ 0.6  20 i3/ 0.6 [4]
or
v1 = 20 i1/ 0.6 20 i3/ 0.6
MESH 3:
or
By inspection, i1 = 5 A [1]
We begin our analysis by defining three clockwise mesh currents. We will call the top
mesh current i3, the bottom left mesh current i1, and the bottom right mesh current i2.
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33.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
+ vdep = 20
30 i3 vdep = 25
[2]
[3]
ix = i1 i2 = 8.333 A.
30 0 1 i2
20
0 30  1 i =  25
 0.5  1 0 vdep
 3
In matrix form,
This is only two equations but three unknowns , however, so we require an additional
equation. Returning to the circuit diagram , we note that it is pos sible to express th e
current of the dependent sour ce in term s of m esh currents. (W e might also choose to
obtain an expression for vdep in term s of m esh currents using KVL around m esh 2 or
3.)
30 i2
 vdep + 25 i3 + 5 i3 5(5) = 0
[1]
i4 = 5 A.
At Mesh 3:
and
10 i2  10(2) + 20 i2 + vdep = 0
i1 = 2A
At Mesh 2:
By inspection,
We begin by defining four clockwise mesh currents i1, i2, i3 and i4, in the meshes of
our circuit, starting at the leftm ost m esh. W e also define a voltage vdep acros s th e
dependent current source, with the + on the top.
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34.
10 March 2006
2:
MESH
4:
=
0
9 + 9400 i3 4700 i4
9400 i2 4700 i1 9 = 0
[4]
[3]
[2]
[1]
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Solving,
0
9400  4700  470  4700 i1
i
9
 4700 9400
0
0 2
=
 9
0
0 9400  4700 i3
Referring to the circuit diagram, we see that ix = i2 (easy enough) and that
va = 4700 i3 (also straightforward). Thus, subs tituting these express ions into our
four mesh equations and creating a matrix equation, we arrive at:
The presen ce of the two de pendent sources has led to the in troduction of tw o
additional unknowns (ix and va) besides our four m esh currents. In a perfect world, it
would simplify the solution if we could e xpress these tw o quantities in term s of the
mesh currents.
MESH
MESH 3:
1:
We define a clockwise mesh current i1 in the bottom left mesh, a clockwise mesh
current i2 in the top left mesh, a clockwise mesh current i3 in the top right mesh, and a
clockwise mesh current i4 in the bottom right mesh.
MESH
35.
10 March 2006
[3]
i1 = 1.333 A.
[2]
[1]
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It would help in the solution of Eqs. [2] and [3] if we could express the dependent
source controlling variable vx in term s of m esh curren ts. Referring to the circuit
diagram, we see that vx = (1)( i1) = i1, so Eq. [3] reduces to
i3 = 0.1 vx
2 + 15 i2 12 i3 1.5 = 0
MESH 2:
3:
6 + 6 i1  2 = 0
MESH 1:
We define a clockwise mesh current i3 in the upper right mesh, a clockwise mesh
current i1 in the lower left m esh, and a clockwise m esh current i2 in th e lower right
mesh.
MESH
36.
10 March 2006
R =
5 + 47(1.5)
mA = 1.127 mA
67
9  47(1.5) + 47(1.127)
= 5687 .
1.5 103
i2 =
(b) This value of R is unique; no other value will satisfy both Eqs. [1] and [2].
so
[2]
[1]
(a) Define a mesh current i2 in the second mesh. Then KVL allows us to write:
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and
Given
37.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
[3]
1.189 mW
641.9 W
60.12 W
58.76 W
0
1.317 W
152.0 W
202.7 W
176.3 W
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2
P5k
=
5000 (i=
1)
2
=
2700 (i=
P2.7k
1)
1000 (i1 i2)2 =
P1ktop =
2
= 1000
(i=
P1kmiddle
2)
P1kbottom
= 0
=
=
4400 (i2 i3)2 =
P4.4k
2
3000 (i=
P3ktop =
3)
2
=
4000 (i=
P4k
3)
2
= 3000
(i=
P3kbottom
2)
Solving,
8700 i1 1000 i2
= 4
i1 + 9400 i2 4400 i3 = 0.8
4400 i2 + 11400 i3 = 1.5
Combining terms,
MESH 3:
[3]
MESH 2:
[1]
MESH 1:
Define three clockwise mesh currents i1, i2 and i3. The bottom 1k resistor can be
ignored, as no current flows through it.
1000
38.
[2]
[1]
10 March 2006
= 0
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(c) V s/ I x has units of resistance. It can be t hought of as the resistance seen by the
voltage source Vs. more on this in Chap. 5.
Solving, we find that v = 0, therefore no current flows through the dependent source.
(b) At node :
Ix = 333.3 A.
= 0
= 0
=
= 1
[4]
5000 i1 4700 i2
i1 + 6400 i2 1700 i3
141 i1 + 141 i2 i3
3000 i3 + 3000 i4
Solving, we find that i4 = 333.3 mA, so
Hence,
4700
3000 i4 3000 i3 + 1
where
4:
i3 = 0.03 v [3a]
Since we have a current source on the perimeter of mesh 3, we do not require a KVL
equation for that mesh. Instead, we may simply write
MESH 2:
= 0
MESH 1:
MESH
39.
10 March 2006
Vy 7i1
MESH 4:
3i3 + 10i4 = 0
= 0
7i4 = 0
= Vz
= 0
=  Vx
=  Vy
Vz
0
Vx
Vy
=
=
=
=
0
0
0
0
9i1  2i2
7i4
2i1 + 7i2  5i3
5i2 + 8i3 3i4
7i1 3i3 + 10i4
Vx
Vz + 9i1 2i2
MESH 3:
MESH 2:
MESH 1:
We begin by naming each mesh and the three undefined voltage sources as shown
below:
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Since
40.
10 March 2006
i4 = 0.5i2
MESH 4:
[3]
[2]
[1]
We could either subtitute Eq. [3] into Eq. [2] to reduce the number of equations, or
simply go ahead and solve the system of Eqs. [13]. Either way, we find that
5000 i2 + 1000 i3
= 6
9000 i3 10,000 i4 = 6
+
i4 = 0
0.5 i2
[1]
[2]
[3]
MESH 3:
Reorganising, we find
MESH 2:
The supermesh concept is not required (or helpful) in solving this problem, as there
are no current sources s hared between m eshes. Starting with the leftmost m esh and
moving right, we define four clockwise m esh currents i1, i2, i3 and i4. By inspection,
we see that i1 = 2 mA.
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41.
10 March 2006
3:
MESH
[3]
2.5 iA + 7 i3 3 i2
= 0
[2]
2 i 2 + 3 i 2 + i 2 3 i 3 i1 = 0
[1]
iA
i3
i2
20 + i1 i2 + 2.5 iA = 0
2.5 iA
iA = 1.936 A.
[1]
[2]
[3]
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Solving,
i1 i2 2.5 i3 = 20
 i1 + 6i2 3 i3 = 0
3 i2 + 9.5 i3 = 0
2:
MESH 1:
20 V
i1
This circuit does not require the supermesh technique, as it does not contain any
current sources. Redrawing the circuit so its planar nature and m esh structure are
clear,
MESH
42.
i2
i4
i1
i3
i4  i3 = 2
3 i 4 + 9 i4 9 i1 + 4 i3 4 i2 + 6 i3 + i3 3 = 0
[3]
[2]
[1]
10 March 2006
= 7.2
= 37.5
= 2
[1]
[2]
[3]
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The power supplied by the 2.2V source is then 2.2 (i1 i2) = 3.654 W.
7 i2 4 i3
4 i2 + 11 i3 + 12 i4
 i3 + i4
Simplifying and combining terms, we may rewrite these three equations as:
Superm
SH:
2.2 + 3 i2 + 4 i2 + 5 4 i3 = 0
MESH 2:
By inspection, i1 = 4.5 A.
SUPERME
43.
i4
[6]
i4 i3 = 2103
Solving, we find that i4 = 540.8 mA. Thus, the voltage across the 2mA source is
We can simplify these equations prior to solution in several ways. Choosing to retain
six equations,
2200 i5
= 0
[1]
15,700 i1 + 7900 i2  1000 i3
2200 i6 = 0
[2]
 1000 i2 + 7900 i3 + 15,700 i4
 2200 i2
+ 6900 i5
= 1.7
[3]
[4]
 2200 i3
+ 11,600 i6 = 1.5
3
i2
= 310 [5]
i1
+ i4
= 2103 [6]
 i3
[5]
MESH 6:
i1 i2 = 3103
[3]
MESH 5:
[2]
3, 4 Supermesh:
(4700 + 1000 + 2200) i3 1000 i2 2200 i6 + (4700 + 10,000 + 1000) i4 = 0
[4]
[1]
We form a supermesh with meshes 1 and 2 since they share a current source.
We form a second supermesh with meshes 3 and 4 since th ey also share a curren t
source.
i3
i2
10 March 2006
1, 2 Supermesh:
(4700 + 1000 + 10,000) i1 2200 i5 + (2200 + 1000 + 4700) i2 1000 i3 = 0
i1
i6
i5
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44.
10 March 2006
Solving, we find that i1 = 413.7 mA and the voltage across the 2.5 res istor
(arbitrarily assuming the left terminal is the + reference) is 2.5 i1 = 1.034 V.
2.5 i1 + 7 i2 = 3
i1 + i2 = 0.99
3 + 2.5 i1 + 3 i2 + 4 i2 = 0
Forming one supermesh from the remaining two meshes, we may write:
The leftmost mesh can be analysed separately to determine the controlling voltage va,
as KCL assures us that no current flows through either the 1 or 6 resistor.
We define a mesh current ia in the lefthand mesh, a mesh current i1 in the top right
mesh, and a mesh current i2 in the bottom right mesh (all flowing clockwise).
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45.
10 March 2006
The final mesh current is easily found: i3 = 13103/ (14 + 11.6 + 15) = 320.2 A.
i1 i2 = 100
Thus,
We next create a superm esh from meshes 1 and 2 (note that m esh 3 is independent,
and can be analysed separately).
There are only three meshes in this circuit, as the botton 22m resistor is not
connected connected at its left term inal. Thus, we define three m esh currents, i1, i2,
and i3, beginning with the leftmost mesh.
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46.
= 7
=
=7
[1]
[2]
0
[3]
10 March 2006
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x = (7 + 3 i2 5 i3)/ i3 = 4.498 .
This, unfortunately, is four unknowns but only three equations. However, we have not
yet made use of the fact that we are trying to obtain i2 = 2.273 A. Solving these four
equations, we find that
i1 i2
i1 + 6i2 3i3
3i2 + (5 + x)i3
[1]
[2]
[3]
7 + i1 i2 = 0
i2 i1 + 2i2 + 3i2 3i3 = 0
3i3 3i2 + xi3 +2i3 7 = 0
47.
MESH 1:
MESH
2:
MESH
3:
10 March 2006
i3
i1 i2 = 7 [1]
There is no need for supermesh techniques for this situation, as the only current
source lies on the outside perimeter of a mesh it is not shared between meshes.
(1 + 2 + 3) i2 i1 3(7) = 0 or
MESH 2:
or
7A
7 + i1 i2 = 0
7V
i1
300 m
MESH 1:
y inspection, i3 = 7 A.
i2
We begin by redrawing the circuit as instructed, and define three mesh currents:
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48.
10 March 2006
v1 vx = 22
11(18) = 9 v1 + 2 vx
22 = v1 vx [2]
[1]
[2]
[1]
6 + 9 = vx / 10 + vy/ 20
vy vx = 12
[1]
[2]
[1]
ay
(c) W e are asked for a voltage, but would ha ve to subtract two nodal voltages (not
much harder than invoking Ohm s law). On the other hand, the dependent current
source depends on the desired unknown, whic h would lead to the need for another
equation if invoking mesh analysis. Trying nodal analysis,
At the supernode:
and the KVL Eqn:
Name the top left node x, the top right node y and designate the bottom node as
the reference node. Forming a supernode from nodes x and y,
(b) We are asked for a voltage, and so may suspect that nodal analysis is preferrable;
with two current sources a nd only one voltage source (eas ily dea lt w ith using the
supernode technique), nodal analysis does seem to have an edge over m esh analysis
here.
Solving, vx = 0
11 = v1/ 2 + vx/ 9
At the supernode:
Name the top left node 1 a nd the top right node x; designate the bottom node as
the reference terminal. Next, form a supernode with nodes 1 and x.
a) We are asked for a voltage, and have one current source and one voltage source.
Nodal analysis is probably best then th e nodes can be nam ed so that the desired
voltage is a nodal voltage, or, at worst, we have one supernode equation to solve.
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49. (
v1
Ref.
(a) (b)
10 March 2006
vd vb = 30
vc vd = 9
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v3 = 40 i3 = 189 V.
80 + 10 i1 + 20 i1 20 i2 + 30 i1 30 i3 = 0
20 i2 20 i1 30 + 40 i3 + 30 i3 30 i1 = 0
i2  i3 = 5 i1
i1 20 i2 30 i3 = 80
50 i1 + 20 i2 + 70 i3 = 30
5 i1 i2 + i3 = 0
Solving, i3 = 4.727 A
so
60
Mesh 1:
2, 3 supermesh:
(c) We are now faced with a dependent current source whose value depends on a
mesh current. Mesh analysis in th is situation requires 1 superm esh, 1 KCL equation
and Ohms law. Nodal analysis requires 1 supernode, 1 KVL equation, 1 other nodal
equation, and one equation to express
i1 in term s of nodal voltages. Thus, m esh
analysis has an edg e here. Define th e left m esh as 1, the top m esh as 2, and the
bottom mesh as 3.
and:
At the b, c, d supernode:
(a) We begin by noting that it is a voltage that is required; no current values are
requested. This is a three mesh circuit, or a fournode circuit, depending on your
perspective. Either app roach requires th ree equations. Except that applying the
supernode technique reduces the number of needed equations by one.
At the 1, 3 supernode:
0 = (v1 80)/ 10 + (v1 v3)/ 20 + (v3 v1)/ 20 + v3/ 40 + v3/ 30
v3  v1 = 30
Rewriting,
and:
and
50.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
[3]
i1 = ia = 3.549 A
and i2 = ia ic = 1.686 A.
60 ia 20 ib 30 ic = 80
20 ia + 32 ib 12 ic = 30
30 ia 12 ib + 82 ic = 0
[1]
[2]
[3]
Mesh a:
Mesh b:
Mesh c:
Define three clockwis e m esh currents: ia in the lef tmost m esh, ib in the top r ight
mesh, and ic in the bottom right mesh. Then our mesh equations will be:
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51.
10 March 2006
0.6
[3]
[2]
[1]
i10 = 4 mA.
Solving, we find i2 = 6.6 mA and i3 = 2.6 mA. Since i10 = i3 i2, we find that
plify:
3:
i1 i2 = 0.4 i10
i1 i2 = 0.4(i3 i2)
i1 0.6 i2 0.4 i3 = 0
i1 = 5 mA by inspection
SUPERMESH:
MESH 1:
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Sim
Approaching this problem using nodal analysis would require 3 separate nodal
equations, plus one equation to deal with the dependent source, plus subtraction and
division steps to actua lly find the current i10. Mesh analy sis, on the o ther hand, w ill
require 2 mesh/supermesh equations, 1 KCL equation, and one subtraction step to find
i10. Thus, mesh analys is has a clear edge. Define three clockwise m esh currents: i1 in
the bottom left mesh, i2 in the top mesh, and i3 in the bottom right mesh.
MESH
52.
10 March 2006
 ia + ib = 2
ib + ic = 3 i3 = 3 ia
KCL:
and
Solving,
6 ia + 20 ib + 14 ic 10 id = 100
10 ic + 34 id = 100
 ia + ib
= 2
= 0
3 ia ib + ic
100 + 10 id 10 ic + 24 id = 0
Mesh d:

100 + 6 ia + 20 ib + 4 ic + 10 ic 10 id = 0 [1]
At the a, b, c supermesh:
[3]
[4]
[2]
For this circuit problem, nodal analysis will require 3 simultaneous nodal equations,
then subtraction/ division steps to obtain th e desired curren ts. Mesh analysis requ ires
1 mesh equation, 1 superm esh equation, 2 simple KCL equations and one subtraction
step to dete rmine the currents. If either te chnique has an edge in this situa tion, its
probably mesh analysis. Thus, define four clockwise mesh equations: ia in the bottom
left mesh, ib in the top lef t mesh, ic in the top right m esh, and id in the bottom right
mesh.
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53.
10 March 2006
v5
v2
v4
v1 = 2.84 V.
v2 + v4 = 5.2
Node 5:
KVL equation:
2, 4 Supernode:
2.3103 = (v2 v5)/ 1x103 + (v4 1.3)/ 7.3103 + (v4 v5)/ 1.3103 + v4/ 1.5103
NODE 1:
v1
v3
v6
With 7 nodes in this circuit, nodal analysis will require the solution of three
simultaneous nodal equations (assum ing we make use of the supernode technique)
and one KVL equation. Mesh analysis will require the solution of three simultaneous
mesh equations (one m esh current can be found by inspecti
on), plus several
subtraction and m ultiplication oper ations to f inally de termine the voltage a t th e
central nod e. Either will probab ly requi re a com parable am ount of algebraic
manoeuvres, so we go with nodal analysis, as the desired unknown is a direct result of
solving the simultaneous equations. Define the nodes as:
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54.
10 March 2006
7 i 3 4 i4 = 3
4 i3 + 7 i4 = 5
[3]
[4]
322.6 mA
242.0 mA
182.0 mA
1.424 A
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677.4 mA
677.4 mA
[4]
(4 + 3) i4 4 i3 5 = 0
[2]
Mesh 4:
i2 = 1 A by inspection
(3 + 4) i3 3(1) 4(i4) = 0 [3]
2:
Mesh
0.8ix + (2 + 5) i1 5 i2 = 0 [1]
Mesh 3:
1:
0.8(
Mesh analysis yields current values directly, so use that approach. We therefore
define four clockwise mesh currents, starting with i1 in th e leftmost mesh, then i2, i3
and i4 moving towards the right.
Mesh
55.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
i1 = 1.923 mA and
i2 = 76.92 A.
[1]
[2]
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Thus, the voltage across the 2mA source (+ reference at the top of the source) is
Solving,
2000 i1 + 11000 i2 = 3
i1  1000 i2 = 2
by inspection,
i4 = 1 m A. However, this as well as any equation for mesh
four are unnecessary: w e already have two equations in two unknowns and i1 and i2
are sufficient to enable us to find the voltage across the current source.
Simplifying, we obtain
1000
56.
10 March 2006
ia  ib = 3
ic  id = 2
and
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[2]
[1]
i1 = 350 mA.
Solving, we find ia = 3.35 A, ib = 350 mA, ic = 1.15 A, and id = 850 mA. As i1 = ib,
2 ia + 5 ib 3 ic
= 5
3 ib + 3 ic + 4 id = 1
ia  ib
= 3
ic  id = 2
3 ic 3 ib + 1 + 4 id = 0
At the c, d supermesh:
[3]
[4]
5 + 2 ia + 2 ib + 3 ib 3 ic = 0
At the a, b supermesh:
Nodal analysis will require 2 nodal equations (one being a supernode equation), 1
KVL equation, and subtraction/division operations to obtain the desired current. Mesh
analysis s imply requ ires 2 supermesh equations and 2 KCL equations, with the
desired current being a m esh current. Thus , we define four cl ockwise mesh currents
ia, ib, ic, id starting with the leftmost mesh and proceeding to the right of the circuit.
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57.
10 March 2006
I1 + I2 = (vx v1)/ 6 = 1
Define a voltage vx at the top node of the current source I2, and a clockwise mesh
current ib in the rightmost mesh.
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58.
10 March 2006
[1]
[4]
[2]
[4]
6000 i2
1000 i2 1000 i3
i1 + 17000 i2 + 12000 i3
i1
= 2
= 7
= 7
i4 = 1 mA by inspection
Mesh 4:
2, 3 Supermesh:
2 + (5000 + 5000 + 1000 + 6000) i2 6000 i1 + (3000 + 4000 + 5000) i3 5000 i4
= 0 [2]
[3]
and
i2  i3 = 7103
Mesh 1:
Inserting the new 2V source with + reference at the bottom, and the new 7mA
source with the arrow pointing down, we define four clockwise mesh currents i1, i2, i3,
i4 starting with the leftmost mesh and proceeding towards the right of the circuit.
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6000
8000
59.
10 March 2006
[2]
[3]
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V4 = 2i3 = 1.5 V
V3 = 2 + V4 = 3.5 V
V2 V3 = 2 i1 or V2 = 2 i1 + V3 = 3 V
V1 V2 = 2 ix or V1 = 2 ix + V2 = 5.5 V
i1 + 2i3 = 2
i1 + i3 = 1
First, define clockwise m esh currents ix, i1, i2 and i3 starting from the lef tmost mesh
and moving to the right. Next, com bine the 2 A and 3 A sources tem porarily into a 1
A source, arrow pointing upwards. Th en, define four nodal voltages, V 1, V 2, V 3 and
V4 moving from left to right along the top of the circuit.
This circuit is e asily analyzed by mesh analysis; its planar, and af ter combining the
2A and 3 A sources into a single 1 A source, supermesh analysis is simple.
Solving,
Then,
14
60.
10 March 2006
0.6
[3]
[2]
[1]
i10
Summary: The current entering the righthand node of the 10k resistor R2 is
equal to 4.000 mA. Since this current is i10, i10 = 4.000 mA as found by hand.
i10 = 4 mA.
Solving, we find i2 = 6.6 mA and i3 = 2.6 mA. Since i10 = i3 i2, we find that
plify:
3:
i1 i2 = 0.4 i10
i1 i2 = 0.4(i3 i2)
i1 0.6 i2 0.4 i3 = 0
i1 = 5 mA by inspection
SUPERMESH:
MESH 1:
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Sim
Define three clockwise m esh currents: i1 in the bottom left mesh, i2 in the top m esh,
and i3 in the bottom right mesh.
Hand analysis:
MESH
61.
v5
v2
v4
v6
v1 = 2.84 V.
10 March 2006
v2 + v4 = 5.2
Node 5:
KVL equation:
2, 4 Supernode:
2.3103 = (v2 v5)/ 1x103 + (v4 1.3)/ 7.3103 + (v4 v5)/ 1.3103 + v4/ 1.5103
NODE 1:
v1
v3
Hand analysis:
Define the nodes as:
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62.
[1]
[2]
10 March 2006
i1 = 1.923 mA and
i2 = 76.92 A.
[1]
[2]
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Summary: Again arbitrarily selecting the + reference as the top node of the
2mA current source, we find the voltage across it is 5.846 10 = 15.846 V, in
agreement with our hand calculation.
Thus, the voltage across the 2mA source (+ reference at the top of the source) is
Solving,
2000 i1 + 11000 i2 = 3
i1  1000 i2 = 2
by inspection,
i4 = 1 m A. However, this as well as any equation for mesh
four are unnecessary: w e already have two equations in two unknowns and i1 and i2
are sufficient to enable us to find the voltage across the current source.
Hand analysis:
At the 1,2 supermesh:
and
Simplifying, we obtain
1000
63.
10 March 2006
Summary: We see from the labeled schematic above that our choice for I1, I2 and
V1 lead to 1 A through the 6 resistor, or 6 W dissipated in that resistor, as desired.
I1 + I2 = (vx v1)/ 6 = 1
Hand analysis:
Define a voltage vx at the top node of the current source I2, and a clockwise mesh
current ib in the rightmost mesh.
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64.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
Summary:
ia = 5 i1 = 714.3 mA
ib = 142.9 mA
ic = i1 2 = 2.143 A
id = 3 + ic = 857.1 mA
Defining clockwise m esh currents i a, i b, i c, i d starting with the leftmost m esh and
proceeding right, we may easily determine that
v1 + v2 = 10
v1 + 3 v2 = 2
i1 = (v2 2)/ 2
and,
[3]
Node 2:
[1]
5 i1 = (v1 v2)/ 2
Node 1:
Hand analysis:
Define node 1 as the top left node, and node 2 as the node joining the three 2
resistors. Place the + reference term inal of the 2V source at the righ t. The rightmost 2 resistor has therefore been shorted out. Applying nodal analysis then,
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65.
10 March 2006
v1 + 80 v2 = 15000
2970
[2]
[1]
[2]
[1]
10
20
2 vx
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Summary:
v1 100 v2 = 14750
vx = 5 v1 [3]
At node 2:
50
3A
At node 1:
5V
+ vx
100
(a) One possible circuit configuration of many that would satisfy the requirements:
150
and,
66.
10 March 2006
V1
3.000E+00
.END
V1 1 0 DC 10
I1 0 4 DC 3
R1 1 2 1
R2 2 3 1
R3 2 3 1
R4 2 3 1
R5 3 4 1
R6 3 4 1
R7 3 4 1
.OP
5/3 = 1 + 2/3 = 1 + 1  1  1 + 1  1  1
Choose R so that 3R = 5; then the voltage across the current source will be 5 V, and
so will the voltage across the resistor R.
+ 5V 
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67.
R5
R8
R9
.END
V1 1 0 DC 20
R1 1 2 2
R2 2 0 3
R3 2 3 4
R4 2 4 10
R5 3 0 5
R6 3 4 6
R7 3 5 11
R8 4 0 7
R9 4 5 8
R10 5 0 9
.OP
V1
R2
R10
10 March 2006
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68.
R1
v3
v2
R5
R4
R3
R2
v1
10 March 2006
( 5) 1.0000
( 1) 9.0000 (
2)
NODE VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
VOLTAGE
NODE
R1
R4
R3
R5
R2
NODE
VOLTAGE
NODE
.END
V1 1 0 DC 9
R1 1 2 5
R2 2 3 1
R3 3 4 1
R4 4 5 1
R5 5 0 1
.OP
v1 = 9(4/9) = 4 V
v2 = 9(3/9) = 3 V
v3 = 9(2/9) = 2 V
Verify:
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69.
.END
.AC LIN 1 60 60
.PRINT AC VM(1)IM(V1)
V1 1 0 AC 115 60
R1 1 0 33.22
.OP
(b) In a parallel connected circuit, each bulb sees 115 VAC. Therefore, the
individual bulb current is 1 W / 115 V = 8.696 mA. The resistance of each good
bulb is V/I = 13.22 k . A sim plified, elec tricallyequivalent m odel f or this cir cuit
would be a 115 VAC source connected in parallel to a resistor Req such that
NODE VOLTAGE
NODE VOLTAGE
NODE VOLTAGE
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(c) The in herent serie s res istance of th e wire connection s leads to a voltage dro p
which increases the f urther one is from the voltage source. Thus, th e furthest bulbs
actually have less than 115 VAC across them , so they draw slightly less current and
glow more dimly.
FREQ
VM(1)
IM(V1)
6.000E+01 1.150E+02 3.462E+00
**** AC ANALYSIS
TEMPERATURE = 27.000 DEG C
******************************************************************************
0.000E+00
NODE VOLTAGE
( 1) 0.0000
V1
10 March 2006
(a) If only two bulbs are not lit (and thinking of each bulb as a resistor), the bulbs
must be in parallel otherwise, the burne d out bulbs, acting as short circuits, would
prevent current from flowing to the good bulbs.
70.
1+x
1.001
1.005
1.01
1.05
1.10
1.50
2.00
6.00
ex
1.001
1.005
1.010
1.051
1.105
1.649
2.718
148.4
% error
5105
1103
5103
0.1
0.5
9
26
96
10 March 2006
x
0.001
0.005
0.01
0.05
0.10
0.50
1.00
5.00
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1.
10 March 2006
3.333
= 0.5556 A .
6
2
= 3.333 V
6
(c) i1 = i1 + i2 = 259.3 mA
So that i1 =
10
1.778
= 0.2963 A .
6
2.4
= 1.778 V
3 + 2.4
So that i1 =
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2.
10 March 2006
14.21/7 = 2.03 A.
We may now find the total current flowing downward through the 7 resistor as
To find the total current flowing through the 7 resistor, we first determine the total
voltage v1 by continuing our superposition procedure. The contribution to v1 from the
4 A source is found by first opencircuiting the 1 A source, then noting that current
division yields:
5
20
4
=
= 1.053 A
5 + (5 + 7 + 2) 19
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3.
10 March 2006
= 10
=0
Solving, iy = 0.4222 A.
3 iy + 16i4 = 20
10i1 + 15 iy 3i4 = 0
18i1 10 iy
Solving, iy = 0.6255 A.
3 iy + 16i4 = 0
10i1 + 15 iy 3i4 = 0
18i1 10 iy
We first rename the voltage source as Vx. We next define three clockwise mesh
currents in the bottom three meshes: i1, iy and i4. Finally, we define a clockwise mesh
current i3 in the top mesh, noting that it is equal to 4 A.
One approach to this problem is to write a set of mesh equations, leaving the voltage
source and current source as variables which can be set to zero.
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4.
10 March 2006
We may not change K1 or K2, as only the source voltages may be changed. If we
increase both sources by a factor of 10, then i1 increases by the same amount.
This may be written as i1 = 4K1 + 10K2, where K1 and K2 are constants that depend
on the circuit topology and resistor values.
We may solve this problem without writing circuit equations if we first realise that the
current i1 is composed of two terms: one that depends solely on the 4 V source, and
one that depends solely on the 10 V source.
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5.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
In matrix form,
ix + ix + ix = 12
ix + ix
= 20
ix
+ ix =  5
12
1 1 1 ix
1 1 0 i = 20
x
 5
1 0 1 ix
ix = 20 A
ix = 5 A
ix = 12 A
iA, vB on, vC = 0:
iA, vC on, vB = 0:
iA, vB, vC on :
10 March 2006
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6.
10 March 2006
20
20
= 24
= 10 V
10 + 20 + 45  30
10 + 20 + 18
Finally, the contribution from the 45V source is found by opencircuiting the 2A
source and shorting the 24V source. Defining v30 across the 30 resistor with the
+ reference on top:
10
vx = 20 2
= 8.333 V
10 + 20 + 18
We find the contribution of the 2A source by shorting both voltage sources and
applying current division:
vx = 24
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7.
10 March 2006
50
= 5A
50 + 30
100
= 6.25 A
(50 + 30)  60  30
The contribution of the 60V source is found in a similar way as i3"' = 60/30 = 2 A.
i3" =
The contribution of the voltage sources may be found collectively or individually. The
contribution of the 100V source is found by opencircuiting the 8A source and
shorting the 60V source. Then,
i3' = 8
The contribution of the 8A source is found by shorting out the two voltage sources
and employing simple current division:
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8.
10 March 2006
Check: 60 + 18 + 32 + 20 = +130.
Thus, i2 = i2 + i2 + i2 = 1.3 A
The contribution of the 0.5A source is found by current division once the 1A source
is opencircuited and the voltage source is shorted. Thus,
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9.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
"
30 ia 60 + 30 ia 30 ib = 0 [1]
ib = 0.4 i1" = +0.4 ia
[2]
"
"
Solving, we find that V' = 60 V. Proceeding to the contribution of the 60V source, we
analyse the following circuit after defining a clockwise mesh current ia flowing in the
left mesh and a clockwise mesh current ib flowing in the right mesh.
'
[2]
[1]
'
'
We find the contribution of the 4A source by shorting out the 100V source and
analysing the resulting circuit:
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10.
10 March 2006
iA' = 10 A, iB' = 25 A
iA" = 10 A, iB" = 25 A
iA = 20 A, iB = 10 A
v4' = 100 V
v4" = 50 V
v4 = ?
10 25 a 100
Writing in matrix form,
=
, we can solve to find
25 10 b  50
We can view this in a somewhat abstract form: the currents iA and iB multiply
the same circuit parameters regardless of their value; the result is v4.
(b)
(a) Linearity allows us to consider this by viewing each source as being scaled by
25/ 10. This means that the response (v3) will be scaled by the same factor:
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11.
10 March 2006
Finally, the contribution of the current source to the voltage V across it is:
In a similar fashion, we find that the contribution of the 7V source is:
With the current source opencircuited and the 7V source shorted, we are left with
100k  (22k + 4.7k) = 21.07 k.
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12.
10 March 2006
The total current through the 500k resistor is then i60A + i1.5V = 43.74 A and the
The contribution from the voltage source is found by first noting that 2.7M  5M =
1.753 M. The total current flowing from the voltage source (with the current source
opencircuited) is 1.5/ (3.5  1.753 + 1) A = 0.6919 A. The current flowing
through the 500k resistor due to the voltage source acting alone is then
i60A = 60 10 6
= 43.51 A
0.5 + 3 + 0.6368
The contribution from the current source may be calculated by first noting that
1M  2.7M  5M = 636.8 k. Then,
We must find the current through the 500k resistor using superposition, and then
calculate the dissipated power.
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13.
'
10 March 2006
Vx"
[1]
[2]
maximum positive value is 92 V; past this value, and the resistor will overheat.
V"
Solving, we find I1' = 472.1 mA and Ix' = 205.8 mA, so V' = 17103 (I1'  Ix')
= 4.527 V. We proceed to find the contribution of the current source:
I1'
'
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14.
10 March 2006
Thus,
i =
P2 = i2 . 2 = 76.15 mW
5
2.1
 2
= 195.1 mA
2 + 2.1
2 + 2.1
Simplifying the circuit, we may at least determine the total power dissipated in the
resistor:
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15.
10 March 2006
vx'
V1 V3 = 0.7
[3]
[2]
V1/ 100 + V1/ 17103 + (V1 15)/ 33103 + V3/ 103 = 20 IB [1]
IB
V3
IB
[4]
= 15
= 0.7
[4]
[3]
[2]
[1]
[1]
[2]
Solving, we find that iB' = 798.6 cos 6t mA. Thus, adding our two results, we find the
complete current is
iB = iB' + IB = 31.04 + 798.6 cos 6t A.
To analyse the righthand circuit, we first find the Thvenin equivalent to the left of
the wire marked iB', noting that the 33k and 17k resistors are now in parallel. We
find that VTH = 16.85 cos 6t V by voltage division, and RTH = 100  17k  33k =
99.12 . We may now proceed:
V3 + 21103 IB = 0
V2 + 20103 IB
V1  V3
20 IB + IB = V3/ 1000
Node 2:
and:
1, 3 supernode:
V1
V2
We will analyse this circuit by first considering the combined effect of both dc
sources (left), and then finding the effect of the single ac source acting alone (right).
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16.
10 March 2006
The DC
sweep
results
below
confirm
that Vx' =
1.765 V
9
Vx" = 5 6
= 15.88 V
9 + 8
Next we consider the effect of the 6A source on its own using the right circuit:
Vx' = 5 2
= 1.765 V
3 + 14
We first consider the effect of the 2A source separately, using the left circuit:
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17.
10 March 2006
4Vx =
Vx Vx
+
100 50
The circuit on the right yields the contribution of the 6A source to Vx:
(a) Beginning with the circuit on the left, we find the contribution of the 2V source to
Vx:
Vx Vx 2
4Vx =
+
100
50
which leads to Vx' = 9.926 mV.
'
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18.
10 March 2006
Vx 6 Vx Vx + 5
=0
+
+
1
3
2
so Vx = 1.909 V
Vx 6 Vx Vx + 10
=0
+
+
1
3
2
so Vx = 0.5455 V
Vx 12 Vx Vx + 15
=0
+
+
1
3
2
so Vx = 2.455 V
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19.
10 March 2006
(b) This circuit requires several source transformations. First, we convert the 8 V
source and 3 resistor to an 8/3 A current source in parallel with 3 . This yields a
circuit with a 3 and 10 parallel combination, which may be replaced with a
2.308 resistor. We may now convert the 8/3 A current source and 2.308 resistor
to a (8/3)(2.308) = 6.155 V voltage source in series with a 2.308 resistor. This
modified circuit contains a series combination of 2.308 and 5 ; performing a
source transformation yet again, we obtain a current source with value (6.155)/(2.308
+ 5) = 0.8422 A in parallel with 7.308 and in parallel with the remaining 5
resistor. Since 7.308  5 = 2.969 , our solution is:
(a) We first recognise that the two current sources are in parallel, and hence may be
replaced by a single 7 A source (arrow directed downward). This source is in parallel
with a 10 k resistor. A simple source transformation therefore yields a 10 k
resistor in series with a (7)(10,000) = 70,000 V source (+ reference on top):
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20.
10 March 2006
+
v
(a) First we note the three current sources are in parallel, and may be replaced by a
single current source having value 5 1 + 3 = 7 A, arrow pointing upwards. This
source is in parallel with the 10 resistor and the 6 resistor. Performing a source
transformation on the current source and 6 resistor, we obtain a voltage source
(7)(6) = 42 V in series with a 6 resistor and in series with the 10 resistor:
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21.
(20)(4.5) = 90 V.
(b) 2k  3k + 6k = 7.2 k.
8 k
4.5 k
3.5 k
25
10 March 2006
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22.
10 March 2006
4.7
= 1.343 mA
4.7 + 5.8
(Note that we did not transform either source, but rather drew on the relevant
discussion to understand why the 1k resistor could be omitted.)
The power dissipated by the 5.8k resistor is then i2 . 5.8103 = 10.46 mW.
i = 3 103
We can ignore the 1k resistor, at least when performing a source transformation on
this circuit, as the 1mA source will pump 1 mA through whatever value resistor we
place there. So, we need only combine the 1 and 2 mA sources (which are in parallel
once we replace the 1k resistor with a 0 resistor). The current through the 5.8k resistor is then simply given by voltage division:
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23.
10 March 2006
I = 43/ 15.8 mA = 2.722 mA. Therefore, P5.8 = I2. 5.8103 = 42.97 mW.
We may ignore the 10k and 9.7k resistors, as 3V will appear across them
regardless of their value. Performing a quick source transformation on the 10k
resistor/ 4mA current source combination, we replace them with a 40V source in
series with a 10k resistor:
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24.
183.1
2.197 V
0.6 V
10 March 2006
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25.
10 March 2006
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26.
[1]
and V1 = 2 I
(b)
V1 = 2 I = 12.77 mV
[2]
10 March 2006
34 V1 0.6 + 7 I + 2 I + 17 I = 0
34
(a) (2 V1)(17) = 34 V1
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27.
10 March 2006
473.9 k
10 k
11.793 k
(b)
0.1085 V
17 k
11.08 A
5.249 V
3.938
Ix
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28.
10 March 2006
3.75 M
2.333
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29.
2.222
10 March 2006
The above circuit may not be further simplified using only source transformation
techniques.
15
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30.
10 March 2006
7.25 A
Label the terminal of the 9V source node x and the other terminal node x'. The
9V source will force the voltage across these two terminals to be 9 V regardless of
the value of the current source and resistor to its left. These two components may
therefore be neglected from the perspective of terminals a & b. Thus, we may draw:
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31.
10 March 2006
Thus,
P1M = (978.3109)2 (106) = 957.1 nW.
Instead, define a current I flowing into the bottom terminal of the 1M resistor.
Using superposition to compute this current,
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32.
10 March 2006
Current (mA)
1.6681
6.599
12.763
Solving, Vsrc = 1.568 V and Rs = 811.2 m. It should be noted that depending on the
line fit to the experimental data, these values can change somewhat, particularly the
series resistance value.
We see from the figure that we cannot draw a very good line through all data points
representing currents from 1 mA to 20 mA. We have therefore chosen to perform a
linear fit for the three lower voltages only, as shown. Our model will not be as
accurate at 1 mA; there is no way to know if our model will be accurate at 20 mA,
since that is beyond the range of the experimental data.
Voltage (V)
1.567
1.563
1.558
Lets begin by plotting the experimental results, along with a leastsquares fit to part
of the data:
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33.
10 March 2006
Current (mA)
1.6681
6.599
12.763
Solving, Isrc = 1.933 A and Rs = 811.2 m. It should be noted that depending on the
line fit to the experimental data, these values can change somewhat, particularly the
series resistance value.
We see from the figure that we cannot draw a very good line through all data points
representing currents from 1 mA to 20 mA. We have therefore chosen to perform a
linear fit for the three lower voltages only, as shown. Our model will not be as
accurate at 1 mA; there is no way to know if our model will be accurate at 20 mA,
since that is beyond the range of the experimental data.
Voltage (V)
1.567
1.563
1.558
Lets begin by plotting the experimental results, along with a leastsquares fit to part
of the data:
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34.
10 March 2006
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35.
10 March 2006
2  5
= 0.4167 V.
2  5 + 2
1 V
(1)
To begin, we note that the 5V and 2V sources are in series:
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36.
10 March 2006
(b)
(a) We may omit the 10 resistor from the circuit, as it does not affect the voltage or
current associated with RL since it is in parallel with the voltage source. We are thus
left with an 8 V source in series with a 5 resistor. These may be transformed to an
8/5 A current source in parallel with 5 , in parallel with RL.
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37.
10 March 2006
2(2.857)
= 0.4444 A
2.857 + 10
(c) Neither does. No current flows through the 7 resistor; the 1 resistor is in
parallel with a voltage source and hence cannot affect any other part of the circuit.
(b) We note that PSpice will NOT allow the 7 resistor to be left floating! For both
circuits simulated, we observe 987.6 mW of power dissipated for the 5 resistor,
confirming our analytic solution.
The power dissipated in either of the 5 resistors is then I2R = 987.6 mW.
I=
(a) We may begin by omitting the 7 and 1 resistors. Performing the indicated
source transformations, we find a 6/4 A source in parallel with 4 , and a 5/10 A
source in parallel with 10 . These are both in parallel with the series combination of
the two 5 resistors. Since 4  10 = 2.857 , and 6/4 + 5/10 = 2 A, we may
further simplify the circuit to a single current source (2 A) in parallel with 2.857
and the series combination of two 5 resistors. Simple current division yields the
current flowing through the 5 resistors:
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38.
10 March 2006
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39.
12.5 1
P12.5 = 75
= 112.5 W
12.5 + 12.5 12.5
50 1
P50 = 75
= 72 W
50 + 12.5 50
(b) If Rab = 50 ,
25
15 + 10
VTH = Vab = 50
+ 100
= 75 V.
10 + 15 + 25
15 + 10 + 25
10 March 2006
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40.
10 March 2006
(c)
We see from the PSpice simulation that keeping four significant digits in
calculating the Thvenin equivalent yields at least 3 digits agreement in the results.
P5 = (0.4307)2 . 5 = 927.5 mW
Thus, our Thevenin equivalent is a 9.333 V source in series with a 16.67 resistor,
which is in series with the 5 resistor of interest.
Next, we find VTH by determining VOC (recognising that the rightmost 10 resistor
carries no current, hence we have a simple voltage divider):
10 + 10
VTH = VOC = 14
= 9.333 V
10 + 10 + 10
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41.
10 March 2006
v1 = 120(1)/17 = 7.059 V.
10
v1 = 7 12 = 49.41 V
17
Using the Norton equivalent circuit and a combination of current division and
Ohms law, we find
(c) Using the Thvenin equivalent circuit, we may find v1 using voltage division:
RTH = 2 + 8 = 10 .
Removing the short circuit, and opencircuiting the 15 A source, we see that
ISC = 15 (8)/ 10 = 12 A.
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10 March 2006
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43.
10 March 2006
(c) As we can see from simulating the original circuit simultaneously with its
Thevenin and Norton equivalents, the 1 resistor does in fact dissipate 40 mW, and
either equivalent is equally applicable. Note all three SOURCES provide a different
amount of power in total.
(b) Working with the Thvenin equivalent circuit, I1 = VTH/(RTH + 1) = 200 mA.
Thus, P1 = (0.2)2.1 = 40 mW.
+3=0
4 + 9i1 9i2
=0
9i1 + 34i2 10isc
3
10i2 + 20isc = 0
To continue, we return to the original circuit and replace the 1 resistor with a short
circuit. We define three clockwise mesh currents: i1 in the leftmost mesh, i2 in the
topright mesh, and isc in the bottom right mesh. Writing our three mesh equations,
RTH = (5 + 10)  10 + 10 = 16 .
(a) We begin by shorting both voltage sources, and removing the 1 resistor of
interest. Looking into the terminals where the 1 resistor had been connected, we see
that the 9 resistor is shorted out, so that
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44.
10 March 2006
(b) Removing terminal a, we again find RTH = 6.667 , and only need write a single
nodal equation; in fact, it is identical to that written for the circuit above, and we once
again find that Vb = 4 V. In this case, VTH = Vbc = 4 5 = 1 V, so IN = 1/ 6.667
= 150 mA (arrow pointing upwards).
0.1 =
Vb 2 Vb 5
, which may be solved to
+
12
15
yield Vb = 4 V. Therefore, Vab = VTH = 2 4
= 2 V.
RTH = 12  15 = 6.667 . We may then
calculate IN as IN = VTH/ RTH
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45.
10 March 2006
= 59.52 V
27.27 40
10 + 27.27 20 + 40
Using superposition to determine the voltage Vyy' across the 1A source, we find
(b) Shorting out the 88V source and opencircuiting the 1A source, we see looking
into the terminals y and y' a 40 resistor in parallel with [20 + (10  50 )]:
40
27.27
= 88
+ (1)(8.333)
= 69.27 V
37.27
40 + 20 + 8.333
50  (20 + 40)
40
Vxx' = VTH = 88
+ (1)(50  10)
Using superposition to determine the voltage Vxx' across the 50 resistor, we find
(a) Shorting out the 88V source and opencircuiting the 1A source, we see looking
into the terminals x and x' a 50 resistor in parallel with 10 in parallel with
(20 + 40 ), so
RTH = 50  10  (20 + 40) = 7.317
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46.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
[2]
[4]
(b) Adding a 100 load to the original circuit or our Thvenin equivalent, the
voltage across the load is
100
2
V100 = VTH
= 14.00 V , and so P100 = (V100) / 100 = 1.96 W.
100 + 177.8
Solving Eqs. [1] & [4] then results in Vin = 177.8 V, so that RTH = Vin/ 1 A = 177.8 .
Ref.
1A
Solving, we find that VTH = 38.89 V. To find RTH, we short the voltage source and
inject 1 A into the port:
V Vin V1
V
V1
0 = 1
[1]
+
+ 1
100
40 200
+
Vin V1
1.5 i1 + 1 =
[2]
100
Vin
i1 = V1/ 200
[3]
[2]
[1]
V1 20 V1 VTH
V
+
+ 1
40
100
200
0 =
(a) Select terminal b as the reference terminal, and define a nodal voltage V1 at the
top of the 200 resistor. Then,
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47.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
[1]
[2]
3 V1 2 Vx = 100
0
16 V1 + 5 Vx =
Then,
We inject a current of 1 A into the port (arrow pointing up), select the bottom terminal
as our reference terminal, and define the nodal voltage Vx across the 200 resistor.
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48.
Ref.
vf
[1]
[2]
[3]
[1]
[2]
[3]
10 March 2006
2 vab + 5 vx 4 vf = 0
vab 2 vx + 2 vf = 100
 vf = 0
0.8 vab
Node x:
Supernode:
and:
vx
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49.
10 March 2006
[2]
[1]
Returning to the original circuit, we decide to perform nodal analysis to obtain VTH:
We first find RTH by shorting out the voltage source and opencircuiting the current
source.
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50.
(a) RTH = 4 + 2  2 + 10 = 15 .
(b) same as above: 15 .
10 March 2006
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51.
10 March 2006
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52.
10 March 2006
RTH = 1/ I = 1.333 .
I
+

Connecting a 1V source to the port and measuring the current that flows as a result,
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53.
Vx Voc = 5 ix
[1]
10 March 2006
or
[2]
[2]
Solving, we find that Vab = 237.2 V. Since RTH = Vab/ (1 A), RTH = 237.2 .
[1]
=1
0.98 Vx Voc = 0
and
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54.
10 March 2006
(Assuming RTH 0)
5 Vx + 1 = Vx/ 19
To find RTH, we inject 1 A into the port, noting that RTH = Vx/ 1 A:
5 Vx = Vx/ 19
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55.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
[2]
[1]
vgs
V = 0
1A
Shorting out the voltage source, we redraw the circuit with a 1A source in place of
the 2k resistor:
Ref.
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56.
10 March 2006
1 = V1/ 2106
V2
so V1 = 2106 V.
Ref.
By nodal analysis,
1A
V1
We replace the source vs and the 300 resistor with a 1A source and seek its
voltage:
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57.
10 March 2006
1A
Ref.
Thus,
666.7 + 14.33 r
Solving, we find that V1 = V = 2 106
6
2 10 + 666.7 + 14.33 r
[2]
[1]
We select the bottom node as our reference terminal, and define nodal voltages V1
and V2. Then,
Removing the voltage source and the 300 resistor, we replace them with a 1A
source and seek the voltage that develops across its terminals:
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58.
10 March 2006
vd ( vd vin ) ( vd vo )
+
+
Ri
R1
Rf
[1]
and
vin Ri ( Ro AR f )
Ro
[2]
vd vd ( vd vT )
+
Ri
R1
Rf
[1]
and
1=
Rf
+
vout
Ro
( vT + vd ) + ( vT Avd )
Ro (Ri Rf + R1 Rf + R1 Ri)
Ri Ro + R1 Ro + Ri Rf + R1 Rf + R1 Ri + A R1 Ri
0=
[2]
To find RTH, we short out the independent source vin, and squirt 1 A into the terminal
marked vout, renamed VT. Analyzing the resulting circuit, we write two nodal
equations:
R1 Ro + Ri Ro + R1 R f + Ri R f + R1 Ri + AR1 Ri
approaches Rf/R1.
Thus, VTH =
Rf
( vo + vd ) + ( vo Avd )
0=
Ri vin (Ro + Rf A)
R1 Ro + Ri Ro + R1 Rf + Ri Rf + R1 Ri + A R1 Ri
0=
(a) We first determine vout in terms of vin and the resistor values only; in this case,
VTH = vout. Performing nodal analysis, we write two equations:
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59.
10 March 2006
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60.
10 March 2006
V2 = 2 (6) = 12 V.
+ VTH 
PRLmax
2
VTH
400
=
=
= 6.329 W
4 RL
4(15.8)
Ref.
V2
V1 = 20 8/ 20 = 8 V;
V1
RTH = 12  8 + 5 + 6 = 15.8
We need to find the Thvenin equivalent resistance of the circuit connected to RL, so
we short the 20V source and opencircuit the 2A source; by inspection, then
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61.
Pload =
2
VTH
752
=
= 112.5 W
4 R TH
4 (12.5)
Pload
10 March 2006
25
15 + 10
= 75 V.
+ 100
15 + 10 + 25
50
2
VTH
752
=
=
= 90 W
R TH + R load
12.5 + 50
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62.
10 March 2006
Vx
(b) Pmax =
2
VTH
4 R TH
652
= 70.42 W
4(15)
1A
To find RTH, we opencircuit the 5A source, and connect a 1A source between
terminals a & b:
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63.
10 March 2006
i1 ix = 1
V
= 16
1A
[2]
[2]
Thus, if
0=
VRL = VTH
RL
V
= TH = 5 V
RL + RTH
2
RL = RTH = 16 ,
or VTH = 10 V
5VTH = 50
20 2 40 40
V
V 50
0 = TH + TH
20
80
0 = 4VTH + VTH 50
VTH
Removing the resistor RL from the original circuit, we seek the resulting opencircuit
voltage:
Solving, i1 = 400 mA
and i1 ix = 1
Replacing the resistor RL with a 1A source, we seek the voltage that develops across
its terminals with the independent voltage source shorted:
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(b)
64.
(a)
RN
20
2A
RL = RTH = 80
(c)
20i 2 = 80
i = 2A
10 March 2006
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Pmax =
VTH
2002
=
= 125 W
4 RTH 4 80
2 = 2.5
RN
RN + 20
Solving, RN = RTH = 80
By current division,
I N = 2.5 A
(b)
(a)
65.
[2]
RN
80 + RN
0.5 = I N
RN
; max when RL = 0
RN + RL
vL = 0 V
So iL = 1.7A
iL = iN
If iL is a maximum
VL = I N ( RN RL )
If vL is a maximum
iL = 1.7
33.33
= 850 mA
33.33 + 33.33
vL = 33.33iL = 28.33V
RL = RN = 33.33
If vLiL is a maximum,
10 March 2006
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(c)
(b)
(a)
[1]
RN
R + RN
RN
250 + RN
IR = IN
RN
0.2 = I N
IN
So
By Voltage ,
66.
10 March 2006
There is no conflict with our derivation concerning maximum power. While a dead
short across the battery terminals will indeed result in maximum current draw from
the battery, and power is indeed proportional to i2, the power delivered to the load is
i2RLOAD = i2(0) = 0 watts. This is the minimum, not the maximum, power that the
battery can deliver to a load.
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67.
[2]
80 103
31
70 103
[3]
[3]
0 i1 vs
RE i2 = 0
1 i3 0
10 March 2006
1A
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8 vs 2
21.7 103 RE
P8 = 8 TH =
2
6
3
RTH + 8 7.24 10 + 21.79 10 RE 331.9 RE
331.9 + R
21.7 103 RE
= RE i3 =
vs
7.24 106 + 21.79 103 RE
21.7 103 vs
i3 =
7.24 106 + 21.79 103 RE
So VOC = VTH
We seek i3:
70.3 103
3
70 10
or i3 i2 = 3 10 (10 10 )i2
or i3 i2 = 30i2
or
31i2 + i3 = 0
i3 i2 = 3 10 v
Solving :
and:
[2]
80 103 i2 70 103 i1 + RE i3 = 0
3
[1]
at other node:
V v V v
+
[1]
300
70 103
v
v V
v V
[2]
+
+
0=
3
10 10
300
70 103
68.
10 March 2006
Select R1 = RTH = 8 k.
RTH = 1 k + 7 k = 8 k
So VTH = Vx oc = 280 V
Thvenize the lefthand network, assigning the nodal voltage Vx at the free end of
rightmost 1k resistor.
Vx oc
A single nodal equation: 40 103 =
7 103
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69.
850 M
R1 =
RA RB 106 105
=
= 117.5
D
D
R R
105 850 106
= 99.87 k
R2 = B C =
D
851.1106
RC RA 850 106 106
=
= 998.7 k
R3 =
D
851.1106
1 M
100 k
10 March 2006
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70.
R2
N
= 544.4 m
R3
N
= 4.9
R1
RB =
RC =
= 0.49
N
= 1.225
RA =
R2
N = R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1
R3
R1
10 March 2006
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71.
3.598 6 = 2.249
5 1
1 4
5 4
= 0.5 ,
= 0.4 ,
=2
10
10
10
1.8 + 2 + 0.5 = 4.3
0.3 + 0.6 + 0.4 = 1.3
6 1
63
3 1
= 0.6,
= 1.8 ,
= 0.3
10
10
10
2 : 5 + 1 + 4 = 10
1 : 1 + 6 + 3 = 10
10 March 2006
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72.
96
10 March 2006
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100 25 = 20
4 + 3 + 18 = 25
18
3 = 2.16
25
18
4 = 2.88
25
3
4 = 0.48
25
9.48 2.16 + 9.48 2.88 + 2.88 2.16 = 54 2
54
54
= 18.75
= 5.696
2.88
9.48
54
= 25
2.16
75 18.75 = 15
36
36
36
= 6,
= 18 ,
= 12
6
2
3
12 4 = 3 , 6 12 = 4
6 2 + 2 3 + 3 6 = 36 2
73.
10 March 2006
RB
RC
1.846
= 7.347
D = 6 + 4 + 3 = 13
R R
6 4
= 1.846
R1 = A B =
D
13
R R
43
= 923.1m
R2 = B C =
D
13
R R
3 6
= 1.385
R3 = C A =
D
13
Then network becomes:
RA
1.385
0.9231
We begin by converting the connected network consisting of the 4, 6, and 3
resistors to an equivalent Yconnected network:
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74.
0.5
0.25
0.5
10 March 2006
1+1+ 2 = 4
1 2 1
R1 =
=
4
2
2 1 1
=
R2 =
4
2
1 1
= 0.25
R3 =
4
12 1.458
= 5.454 V
1.75 + 1.458
= 0.25 + 1.458 1.75
RTH
= 1.045
Voc =
1.458
0.25
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1.75
After this procedure, we have a 3.5 resistor in parallel with the 2.5 resistor. Replacing
them with a 1.458 resistor, we may redraw the circuit:
RA =
3.5
= 7
0.5
3.5
= 1.75
RB =
2
3.5
= 3.5
RC =
1
75.
10 March 2006
R1 =
0.75 3
= 0.3333
6.75
3 3
= 1.333
R2 =
6.75
3 0.75
= 0.3333
R3 =
6.75
0.75 + 3 + 3 = 6.75
I N = I SC = 1
1/ 3
1/ 3 + 1 + 1/ 3
1
1
=
=
1+ 3 +1 5
= 0.2 A
= 200 mA
= 1.667
RN = 1.333 + 0.3333
1A
Next, we note that 1 3 = 0.75 , and hence have a simple network. This is easily
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76.
10 March 2006
RTH = 10 +
10 +
10  20 = 26.67 .
To determine RTH, we first recognise that with the 1V source shorted, I1 = 0 and
hence the dependent current source is dead. Thus, we may write RTH from inspection:
We next find that VTH = Vab = 10(0.5) + 10(ia 0.5) + 10(0.5) = 13 V.
0.5 A
Since 1 V appears across the resistor associated with I1, we know that I1 = 1 V/ 10
= 100 mA. From the perspective of the open terminals, the 10 resistor in parallel
with the voltage source has no influence if we replace the dependent source with a
fixed 0.5A source:
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77.
10 March 2006
89/ 17 = 5.236 k;
89/4 = 22.25 k
233.6 k
27.49 k
27.49 k
3.912 k
(b)
21.33 k
3.068 k
312.6
Noting that 178 k  27.49 k = 23.81 k and 27.49  3.912 = 3.425 k, we are left
with a simple connected network. To convert this to the requested Ynetwork,
178 k
Following this conversion, we find that we have two 5.235 k resistors in parallel,
and a 178k resistor in parallel with the 4k resistor. Noting that 5.235 k  5.235 k
= 2.618 k and 178 k  4 k = 3.912 k, we may draw the circuit as:
89/0.5 = 178 k;
(a) We begin by splitting the 1k resistor into two 500 resistors in series. We then
have two related Yconnected networks, each with a 500 resistor as a leg.
Converting those networks into connected networks,
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78.
10 March 2006
(a) Although this network may be simplified, it is not possible to replace it with a
threeresistor equivalent.
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79.
10 March 2006
2.609 V
13.04 k
IB =
= 376.4 A
2.609 0.7
= 1.505 A
13.04 103 + 251 5000
I C = 250 I B = 3.764 104 A
Analysing the new circuit to find IB, we note that IC = 250 IB:
Redraw:
RTH
VTH = 20
15
= 2.609 V
100 + 15
= 100k 15k = 13.04 k
First, replace network to left of the 0.7V source with its Thvenin equivalent:
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80.
10 March 2006
[2]
[3]
[1]
[2]
PSpice verification.
The lamp current does not exceed 36 mA in the range of operation allowed
(i.e. a load power of < 1 W.) The simulation result shows that the load will dissipate
slightly more than 1 W for a source current magnitude of 224 mA, as predicted by
hand analysis.
(b)
Substituting V2 max = 31.62 V into Eq. [2] then yields V1 = 38.35 V, so that
7 V1 = 1200 IS
5000 V1 + 6063.6 V2 = 0
Substituting Eq. [3] into Eqs. [1] and [2], we find that
or Vx = V1/ 6
[1]
then V2 max = 31.62 V . This corresponds to a load resistor (and hence lamp) current
(a) Define a nodal voltage V1 at the top of the current source IS, and a nodal voltage
V2 at the top of the load resistor RL. Since the load resistor can safely dissipate 1 W,
and we know that
V22
PRL =
1000
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81.
10 March 2006
[1]
[2]
[3]
[1]
[2]
[3]
We may now compute the power delivered to each of the three 8 speakers:
608 iA 300 iB
=
0
300 iA + 316 iB 8 iC = 0
8 iB + 322 iC = 8 cos 104 t
Next, short out all but the source operating at 103 rad/s, and define three clockwise
mesh currents iA, iB, and iC starting with the leftmost mesh. Then
608 ia 300 ib
= 7 sin 200t [1]
300 ia + 316 ib 8 ic = 7 sin 200t [2]
[3]
8 ib + 322 ic = 0
Next, short out all but the 7 sin 200t V source, and and define three clockwise mesh
currents ia, ib, and ic starting with the leftmost mesh. Then
608 i1 300 i2
= 3.5 cos 104 t
300 i1 + 316 i2 8 i3 = 0
8 i2 + 322 i3 = 0
Short out all but the source operating at 104 rad/s, and define three clockwise mesh
currents i1, i2, and i3 starting with the leftmost mesh. Then
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p1 = 8[i1 + ia + iA]2 = 8[10.84103 cos 104 t 1.084103 sin 200t 584.5106 cos 103 t]2
p2 = 8[i2 + ib + iB]2 = 8[10.29103 cos 104 t +21.14103 sin 200t 1.185103 cos 103 t]2
p3 = 8[i3 + ic + iC]2 = 8[255.7106 cos 104 t +525.1106 sin 200t 24.87103 cos 103 t]2
82.
10 March 2006
[2]
[2]
[1]
Solving, we find that Vin = 1.429 V; in other words, the DMM sees 1.429 V across its
terminals in response to the known current of 1 A its supplying. It therefore thinks
that it is connected to a resistance of 1.429 .
[1]
and
Vin
1A
Replacing the DMM with a possible Norton equivalent (a 1M resistor in parallel
with a 1A source):
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83.
10 March 2006
Thus, if we are in fact delivering the maximum possible power to the resistor from the
120V source, the resistance of the cylinder must be zero.
120
PR = 10 i = 10
Rcylinder + 10
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84.
10 March 2006
Note: construct the 18V source from 12 1.5V batteries in series, and the two 400
resistors can be fabricated by soldering 400 1 resistors in series, although theres
probably a much better alternative
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85.
10 March 2006
213.3
60 Rs + 213.3
320
= 30
Solving, we find that we require Rs = 106.65 , as confirmed by the PSpice
simulation below, which shows that both wiring configurations lead to one lamp with
80V across it, and two lamps with 40 V across each.
213.3
120 Rs + 213.3
+2
320
In other words,
There are several ways to accomplish this, but the simplest may be to just use one
120Vac source connected to the left port in series with a resistor whose value is
chosen to obtain 30 W delivered to the three lamps.
In the original wiring scheme, Lamps 1 & 2 draw (40)2 / 320 = 5 W of power each,
and Lamp 3 draws (80)2 / 320 = 20 W of power. Therefore, none of the lamps is
running at its maximum rating of 45 W. We require a circuit which will deliver the
same intensity after the lamps are reconnected in a configuration. Thus, we need a
total of 30 W from the new network of lamps.
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86.
10 March 2006
Rlimiting = 220 .
to obtain Rlimiting 210.1 to ensure an LED current of less than 35 mA. This is not a
standard resistor value, however, so we select
The maximum value of this current will occur at the minimum LED resistance, 47 .
Thus, we solve
9
35103 =
R limiting + 47
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87.
100
3 = 30V
10
1M
=
2.5 = 2.5V
1M
4.7
=
1 = 1.42V
3.3
c) Vout
b) Vout
a) Vout =
So:
Rf
Vin
10 March 2006
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1.
10 March 2006
b) Vout
c) Vout
a) Vout =
47
1.5 = 7.05V
10
= 9V
= 680mV
This is also an inverting amplifier. The loading resistance Rs only affects the output
current drawn from the opamp. Therefore,
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2.
5
10
15
20
25
2 / 5
4 /5
2 / 5
4 /5
6 / 5
8 / 5
8 / 5
15 V
10 V
5 V
10k
vin = 10vin . Therefore,
1k
10 March 2006
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16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
6 / 5
25
20
15
10
3.
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
1.5
1
0.5
0.5
1.5
/2
/2
R1
Rf
3 / 2
1.9 V
1.5 V
1.1 V
3 / 2
10 March 2006
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4.
10 March 2006
R in
Rf
V out
9
=
V in
5
Rf
V in
R in
V out =
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5.
10 March 2006
One possible solution is by using an inverting amplifier design, and a 5V input to
give a positive output voltage:
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6.
10 March 2006
To get a positive output that is smaller than the input, the easiest way is to use
inverting amplifier with an inverted voltage supply to give a negative voltage:
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7.
10 March 2006
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8.
47
) 300m = 1.71 V
10
1M
= (1 +
) 1.5 = 3 V
1M
4.7
= (1 +
) 1 = 2.42 V
3.3
c) Vout
b) Vout
a) Vout = (1 +
So:
R1
Rf
)Vin
10 March 2006
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9.
10 March 2006
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10.
10 March 2006
4 /5
2 / 5
4 /5
2 / 5
6 / 5
6 / 5
8 / 5
8 / 5
1.5 V
2V
2.5 V
1
vout = (1 + )vin = 2vin for this non inverting amplifier circuit, therefore:
1
a) vout = 2vin = 8 sin 10t
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1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.2
2.4
2.6
10
8
6
4
2
10
11.
Rin
Rf
/2
/2
5.5 V
6V
7.5 V
10 March 2006
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vout = (1 +
4
3
2
1
12.
10 March 2006
Then, vout =
2200
(0.15) =  2.2 V
150
The first step is to perform a simple source transformation, so that a 0.15V source in
series with a 150 resistor is connected to the inverting pin of the ideal op amp.
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13.
10 March 2006
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14.
10 March 2006
One possible solution of many: a noninverting op amp circuit with the microphone
connected to the noninverting input terminal, the switch connected between the op
amp output pin and ground, a feedback resistor Rf = 133 , and a resistor R1 = 1 .
Since the 670 switch requires 100 mA to activate, the voltage delivered to it by our
op amp circuit must be (670)(0.1) = 67 V. The microphone acts as the input to the
circuit, and provides 0.5 V. Thus, an amplifier circuit having a gain = 67/0.5 = 134 is
required.
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15.
10 March 2006
Solving,
or
0 =
0 =
vout = 220 vS
 vS
 vout
+
100
22000
(v  vS )
(v  v )
+  out
100
22000
We begin by labeling the nodal voltages v and v+ at the inverting and noninverting
input terminals, respectively. Since no current can flow into the noninverting input,
no current flows through the 40k resistor; hence, v+ = 0. Therefore, we know that
v = 0 as well.
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16.
10 March 2006
4  3 4  Vo
+
1000 17000
Solving, we find that Vo = 21 V. Since no current can flow through the 300k
resistor, V1 = 21 as well.
0 =
We first label the nodal voltage at the output pin Vo. Then, writing a single nodal
equation at the inverting input terminal of the op amp,
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17.
10 March 2006
V2
Thus,
V2 = 38.14(3.975) = 151.6 V.
This is now a simple inverting amplifier with gain Rf/ R1 = 75.33/ 1.975 = 38.14.
A source transformation and some series combinations are well worthwhile prior to
launching into the analysis. With 5 k  3 k = 1.875 k and (1 mA)(1.875 k) =
1.875 V, we may redraw the circuit as
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18.
vout =
 2000
(2 + 2 sin 3t ) =  4(1 + sin 3t ) V
1000
10 March 2006
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vout(t = 3 s) = 5.648 V.
19.
10 March 2006
vin = 5.856 V.
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20.
10 March 2006
This is a simple noninverting amplifier circuit, and so it has a gain of 1 + Rf/ R1.
We want vout = 23.7 cos 500t V when the input is 0.1 cos 500t V, so a gain of 23.7/0.1
= 237 is required.
One possible solution of many: Rf = 236 k and R1 = 1 k.
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21.
10 March 2006
0 =
VV V
+  out
R6
R7
vout =
[2]
R7
(4.5)  4.5 =  4.5 R 7 + 1 V
R6
R6
Define a nodal voltage V at the inverting input, and a nodal voltage V+ at the noninverting input. Then,
V+
At the noninverting input: 3106 =
[1]
1.5 106
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22.
10 March 2006
(c) A is the inverting input since it has the feedback connection to the output pin.
(a) B must be the noninverting input: that yields a gain of 1 + 70/10 = 8 and an
output of 8 V for a 1V input.
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23.
2V
2 k
V+
V
13 k
vout
10 March 2006
0 =
2  3 2  vout
+
1000 13000
Since no current can flow into the noninverting input pin, we know that V+ = 2 V,
and therefore also that V = 2 V. A single nodal equation at the inverting input yields:
3V
1 k
(1 mA)(2 k) = 2 V.
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24.
1000 vS
= 9 vS
1100
vout
10 March 2006
which is simply a classic inverting op amp circuit with gain of 100/3.3 = 30.3.
9 vS
3.3 k
100 k
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25.
10 March 2006
1.8 k
6 V
370
vout
Solving,
vout = 1.826 V
23.899 103
23.899 103  vout
+
0 =
500
37.7 103
Since no current flows through the 1.8 k resistor, V+ = 23.899 mV and hence
V = 23.899 mV as well. A single nodal equation at the inverting input terminal yields
23.899 mV
500
37.7 k
We first combine the 4.7 M and 1.3 k resistors: 4.7 M  1.3 k = 1.30 k.
Next, a source transformation yields (3106)(1300) = 3.899 mV which appears in
series with the 20 mV source and the 500 resistor. Thus, we may redraw the circuit
as
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26.
10 March 2006
55.1 mV
500
1.8 k
37.7 k
6 V
370
vout
We first combine the 4.7 M and 1.3 k resistors: 4.7 M  1.3 k = 1.30 k.
Next, a source transformation yields (27106)(1300) = 35.1 mV which appears in
series with the 20 mV source and the 500 resistor. Thus, we may redraw the circuit
as
vout = 4.21 V
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Solving,
55.1 103
55.1 103  vout
+
0 =
500
37.7 103
Since no current flows through the 1.8 k resistor, V+ = 55.1 mV and hence
V = 55.1 mV as well. A single nodal equation at the inverting input terminal yields
27.
10 March 2006
 vout
RIGH OPAMP
= 14.29 + 50 = 64.29 V.
100
= 14.29 V
21
100
=  (5)
=  50 V
10
=  (3)
LEFTOPAMP
RIGH OPAMP
vout
vx = vout
LEFTOPAMP
vout
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28.
v2
vN
R2
RN
vb
va
Rf
va vout
v v
v v
v vN
+ a 1 + a 2 + ... + a
Rf
R1
R2
RN
vout
10 March 2006
Thus,
1
R
f
or simply
vout
Rf
i =1
vi
v1
v
v
+ 2 + ... + N
R1
R2
RN
vout =  R f
v1 N
v2 N
vN N
v
R
=
R
+
R
+
...
+
Ri
i
i
i out
R
R
R
i =1
i
=
i
=
i
=
1
1
1
N
2
1
Simplifying and making use of the fact that va = 0, we may write this as
0 =
1. va = vb = 0
2. A single nodal equation at the inverting input leads to:
v1
R1
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29.
v2
R2
R3
R4
and hence
vout = 
R2 + R3
(R f + R1 )R 3 v
Rf
R R + R1
v2
v1 + 3 f
R1
R1 R 2 + R 3
R 1 vout = R f v1
R3
v2
R2 + R3
[2]
(R2 + R3) vb = R3 v2
From Eqn. [2], we have vb =
[1]
vout
v1
R1
10 March 2006
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30.
10 March 2006
(R1 in k).
Our design requirement (using the standard inverting op amp circuit shown) is that the
voltage across the load is 1.5 V at 2 candela, and less than 1.5 V for intensities greater
than 2 candela.
In total darkness, the CdS cell has a resistance of 100 k, and at a light intensity L of
6 candela it has a resistance of 6 k. Thus, we may compute the lightdependent
resistance (assuming a linear response in the range between 0 and 6 candela) as RCdS =
15L + 100 .
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31.
10 March 2006
vocals
microphone
instruments
microphone
Rinstruments = 2
Rvocal = 1
Rf = 2
vout
We want Rf/ Rinstrument = 2K, and Rf/ Rvocal = 1K, where K is a constant not specified.
Assuming K = 1, one possible solution of many is:
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32.
vS
2V
1 k
vout
10 March 2006
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33.
10 March 2006
v1 + v 2 + v 3
R
vout =
R f 2 R f1 v1 + v2 + v3
R4
R
v1 + v2 + v3 v1 + v2 + v3
=
3
R
I.e. Rx/R = 3. Therefore, the circuit can be completed with R1 = R2= R3 = 30 k and
Rf2 = Rf1 = R4 = 10 k
vout = Rx
For simplicity, we can take Rf2 = Rf1 = R4= Rx, then, to give a voltage average,
Or,
vout vo R f1 v1 + v2 + v3
=
=
Rf2
R4
R4
R
Using the nodal equation at the inverting input of the second opamp, we have:
v 0 = R f1
The nodal equation at the inverting input of the first opamp gives
v1 v2 v3 vo
+
+
=
R1 R2 R3 R f1
v1 + v2 + v3
. This voltage stays
3
positive and therefore a one stage summing circuit (which inverts the voltage) is not
sufficient. Using the cascade setup as shown figure 6.15 and modified for three inputs
we have:
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34.
10 March 2006
R f 2 R f1 v1 + v2 + v3 + v4
Rin
R
Therefore, to get the sum of the voltages v1 to v4, we only need to set all resistances to
be equal, so setting Rf2 = Rf1 = Rin = R =10 k would give an output that is
proportional to the total weight of the items
vout =
The output voltage of the differential amps from each of the scale, V1 V4 (now gives
the weight of the items only), is then added by using a two stage summing amplifier:
The resistance of R can be arbitary as long as they resistances of each resistor is the
same and the current rating is not exceeded. A good choice would be R = 10 k.
The first stage is to subtract each voltage signal from the scale by the voltage
corresponding to the weight of the pallet (Vtare). This can be done by using a
differential amplifier:
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35.
10 March 2006
Rin
Rf
)vin = 1.609vin
vout = (1 +
b) To convert to kph (km per hour) from mph (miles per hour), it is noted that 1 mph
= 1.609 kph. Therefore, the voltage output from each device must be multiplied by
1.609. This can be done by using a noninverting amplifier, which has an output given
by:
Again, R can be arbitary as long as they are equal and doesnt give an excessive
current. 10 k is a good choice here.
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36.
10 March 2006
Note: in reality, the output voltage will be limited to a value less than that used to
power the op amps.
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37.
10 March 2006
Vout = Vout
Stage 1
R
R3
= f + 1
V2
R1
R2 + R3
1 R3
1 R3
 V1 +
 Vout
V2
V2
R f R 2 + R 3
R 1 R 2 + R 3
0 =
Rf
V1
R1
Stage 1
and this is the voltage at the inverting input terminal also. Thus, we may write a
single nodal equation at the inverting input of the first op amp:
R3
V2
R2 + R3
We have a difference amplifier as the first amplifier stage, and a simple voltage
follower as the second stage. We therefore need only to find the output voltage of the
first stage: vout will track this voltage. Using voltage division, then, we find that the
voltage at the noninverting input pin of the first op amp is:
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38.
10 March 2006
47
0  Vout
stage 1
02
03
+
which leads to Vout
1
7
steage 1
= 114.1 V
Thus, the output of the circuit is 156.7(1141) = 178.8 kV, which is completely and
utterly ridiculous.
This voltage appears at the input of the second op amp stage, which has a gain of
3/ 0.3 = 10. Thus, the output of the second op amp stage is 10(114.1) = 1141 V.
This voltage appears at the input of the final op amp stage, which has a gain of
47/ 0.3 = 156.7.
0 =
The output of the first op amp stage may be found by realising that the voltage at the
noninverting input (and hence the voltage at the inverting input) is 0, and writing a
ingle nodal equation at the inverting input:
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39.
R
( 5 10 15) = 10
100
Vout =
These three voltages are the input to a summing amplifier such that
10 March 2006
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40.
10 March 2006
50
= 1.667 V
100 + 50
vout = 1.667 V.
Stage 1 is configured as a voltage follower: the output voltage will be equal to the
input voltage. Using voltage division, the voltage at the noninverting input (and
hence at the inverting input, as well), is
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41.
10 March 2006
It can be seen that all voltage values are very close to what was calculated. The
voltage output V3 is 9.88Vinstead of 9.87 V. This can be explained by the fact that the
operating voltage is slightly higher than the breakdown voltage, and also the nonideal
characteristics of the opamp.
4.7 V3 4.7
=
1k
1.1k
a) Since the voltage supply is higher than the Zener voltage of the diode, the diode is
operating in the breakdown region. This means V2 = 4.7 V, and assuming ideal opamp, V1 = V2= 4.7 V. This gives a nodal equation at the inverting input:
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42.
V1 = V2 = Vdiode
Rf
)V1
Rin
10 March 2006
R2 =
Vs Vdiode
I ref
At a voltage of 5.1 V, the current is 76 mA, as described in the problem. This gives
R2 51 using standard resistor values.
Since the diode voltage is 5.1 V, and the desired output voltage is 5.1 V, we have
Rf/Rin = 0. In other words, a voltage follower is needed with Rf = 0, and Rin can be
arbitary Rin =100 k would be sufficient.
And
V3 = (1 +
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43.
10 March 2006
Rin
Rf
Vin
Here, the input voltage is the diode voltage = 10 V, and the desired output voltage is 2.5 V. This gives Rf/Rin = 25 / 100 = 50 / 200, or Rf = 51 k and Rin = 200 k using
standard values. Note that large values are chosen so that most current flow through
the Zener diode to provide sufficient current for breakdown condition.
Vout =
For the Zener diode to operate in the breakdown region, a voltage supply greater than
the breakdown voltage, in this case 10 V is needed. With only 9 V batteries, the
easiest way is the stack two battery to give a 18 V power supply. Also, as the input is
inverted, an inverting amplifier would be needed. Hence we have the following
circuit:
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44.
10 March 2006
The resistance R is then given by R = (20  27) V / 12.5 mA = 560 using standard
resistor values.
In this circuit, the diode is flipped but so is the power supply, therefore keeping the
diode in the breakdown region, giving Vin = 20 V. Then, using the inverting amp
equation, we have Rf / Rin = 12/20 giving Rf = 120 k and Rin = 200 k using
standard resistor values.
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45.
10 March 2006
b) To give a voltage output of +2.2 V instead, the same setup can be used, with supply
and diode inverted:
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46.
Is
10 March 2006
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47.
Is
10 March 2006
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48.
10 March 2006
Is
Now look at the range of possible loads. The maximum output voltage is
approximately equal to the supply voltage, i.e. 15 V. Therefore, the minimum load is
given by RL = (20 15) V / 75 mA = 66.67 . Similarly, the maximum load is given
by RL = (20  15) V/ 75 mA = 466.67 . i.e. this design is suitable for
466.67 > RL > 66.67 .
In this situation, we know that there is a supply limit at 15 V, which is lower than the
zener diode voltage. Therefore, previous designs need to be modified to suit this
application. One possible solution is shown here:
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49.
P8 = 0 W.
10 March 2006
(c) va = 50 V, vb = 4 V vd = 54 V
8
vout = (2105)(54106)
= 1.041 V.
75 + 8
Thus, P8 =
2
vout
= 135.5 mW.
8
(b) va = 0, vb = 1 nV vd = 1 nV
v2
8
= 19.28 V. Thus, P8 = out = 46.46 pW.
vout = (2105)(1109)
75 + 8
8
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50.
v v
 vd  vd  VS
+
+ d out
Rf
R1
R in
[1]
10 March 2006
(c) 3.704 V.
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0 =
v  (vd )
 vout  Avd
+ out
[2]
Rf
Ro
Eqn. [2] can be rewritten as:
 (R f + R o )
vd =
vout
[2]
R o  AR f
so that Eqn. [1] becomes:
R in (AR f  R o ) VS
vout = AR in R 1 + R f R 1 + R in R f + R in R 1 + R o R 1 + R o R in
or
0 =
[1]
51.
Ri
80 1015 sin 2t V
16 + R i
vout = Avd = A
10 March 2006
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52.
v v
 vd  vin
+ d out
100
1
[1]
10 March 2006
A = 9999
(b) We want the value of A such that vout/ vin = 99 (the ideal value would be 100
if A were infinite). Substituting into Eqn. [2], we find
At the output, with Ro = 0 we may write vout = Avd so vd = vout/ A. Thus, Eqn. [1]
becomes
v
v
v
0 = out + vin + out + out
A
100A 100
from which we find
vout
 100A
=
[2]
vin
101 + A
0 =
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53.
10 March 2006
(a) = 0 V vd = 0, and P8 = 0 W.
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54.
vout  vin
v  Avd
+ out
Ro
Ri
[1]
vout =
R o + ( A + 1) R i
(R o + AR i )
vin
10 March 2006
To within 4 significant figures (and more, actually), when vin = 16 mV, vout = 16 mV
(this is, after all, a voltage follower circuit).
and
0 =
AD549
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55.
10 March 2006
This is the expression for the voltage follower in nonideal situation. In the case of
ideal opamp, A , and so A+1 A. This means the denominator and the
numerator would cancel out to give Vout = Vin, which is exactly what we expected.
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56.
10 March 2006
so
va =
50000v2 + v1
(105 + 2)
Giving va=0.49999v2+9.99980106v1. The output equation becomes
vout = 105 vd = 105 (v2 / 2 va ) =0.99998v20.99998v1 = 1.99996 sin t
Rearranging gives:
vd = vb va
105 vd + 10vb va va v1
=
R
R
vb = v2 / 2 (from voltage divider)
b) The voltage source in the circuit now becomes 105vd+10v2. Assuming Ro = 0, the circuit in figure 6.25 becomes:
This model relies on that fact that ACM is much smaller than the differential gain A, and therefore when the inputs
are different, the contribution of ACM is negligible. When the inputs are the same, however, the differential term
Avd vanishes, and so vout = ACMv2, which is correct.
a) By definition, when the opamp is at common mode, vout = ACMvin. Therefore, a model that can represent this is:
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57.
10 March 2006
Slew rate is the rate at which output voltage can respond to changes in the input. The
higher the slew rate, the faster the opamp responds to changes. Limitation in slew
rate i.e. when the change in input is faster than the slew rate, causes degradation in
performance of the opamp as the change is delayed and output distorted.
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58.
10 March 2006
c) By using a DC sweep, the voltage from the diode (i.e. V2) was monitored as the
battery voltage changes from 12 V to 4V.
There are considerable discrepancies between calculated and simulated voltages. In particular, V1 = 3.090 V is
considerably lower than the expected 4.7 V. This is due to the nonideal characteristics of uA741 which has a finite
input resistance, inducing a voltage drop between the two input pins. A more severe limitation, however, is the
supply voltage. Since the supply voltage is 18V, the output cannot exceed 18 V. This is consistent with the
simulation result which gives V3 = 17.61 V but is quite different to the calculated value as the mathematical model
does not account for supply limitations.
a) V2 = 4.7 V from the Zener diode, V1 = V2 = 4.7 V assuming ideal opamp, and V3
is given by the nodal equation at the inverting input:
V3 V1 V1
=
4.7k 1k
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59.
10 March 2006
vin (V)
From the PSpice simulation result shown below, we see that the ideal op amp model
is reasonably accurate for vin 100 < 15 V (the supply voltage, assuming both have
the same magnitude), but the onset of saturation is at 14.5 V, or vin ~ 145 mV.
Increasing vin past this value does not lead to an increase in vout.
100
vout (V)
The ideal op amp model predicts a gain vout/ vin = 1000/ 10 = 100, regardless of the
value of vin. In other words, it predicts an inputoutput characteristic such as:
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60.
10 March 2006
Positive voltage supply, negative voltage supply, inverting input, ground, output pin.
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61.
10 March 2006
92 V
41.3 V
31.77 V
A 741
LM 324
LF 411
of
negat
ive
satur
ation
onset
op amp
14.32 V
14.71 V
13.81 V
negative
satur
ation
volta
ge
positi
ve
satur
ation
54.4 mV
337.2 mV
39.78 mV
onset of
14.34 V
13.87 V
13.86 V
positive
satur
ation
volta
ge
From the simulation results below, we see that all three op amps saturate at a voltage
magnitude of approximately 14 V, corresponding to a differential input voltage of 50
to 100 V, except in the interest case of the LM 324, which may be showing some
unexpected input offset behavior.
This op amp circuit is an openloop circuit; there is no external feedback path from
the output terminal to either input. Thus, the output should be the openloop gain
times the differential input voltage, minus any resistive losses.
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62.
10 March 2006
Using the cursor tool, we see that the linear region is in the range of
68.2 mV < Vin < 68.5 mV.
The simulation predicts a gain of 7.103 V/ 32.87 mV = 216.1, which is reasonably
close to the value predicted using the ideal op amp model.
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63.
10 March 2006
For LF411, a current of 25.34 mA is drawn from the opamp. This gives a output
resistance of 38.4 . This value is quite different to the 1 figure given in the table.
As can be seen, a current of 18.57 mA is drawn from the uA741. Assuming the output
voltage from the opamp before Ro is 0, we have Ro = (118.57m)/18.57m = 52.9 .
This is close to the value given in table 6.3. There is difference between the two as
here we are still using the assumption that the voltage output is independent to the
loading circuit. This is illustrated by the fact that as the supplied voltage to the 1 ohm
resistor changes, the voltage at the output pin actually increases, and is always higher
than the voltage provided by the battery, as long as the supplied to the opamp is
greater than the battery voltage. When the supply voltage drops to 1V, the output
current increased greatly and gave an output resistance of only 8 . This suggests that
the inner workings of the opamp depend on both the supply and the loading.
To give a proper simulation, the inputs are grounded to give an input of 0. This gives:
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64.
10 March 2006
 vd
v v
Av  v
+ x 4 d + 6d d
R in
10
10 + R o
 106
vx
199.9 106
= 
vx
199.9
For vx = 10 mV, PSpice predicts vd = 6 V, where the hand calculations based on the
detailed model predict 50 V, which is about one order of magnitude larger. For the
same input voltage, PSpice predicts an input current of 1 A, whereas the hand
calculations predict 99.5vx mA = 995 nA (which is reasonably close).
vd =
0 =
Based on the detailed model of the LF 411 op amp , we can write the following nodal
equation at the inverting input:
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65.
10 March 2006
(b) The peak input voltage is 75 mV. Therefore, 15/ 75103 = 200, and we should set
the resistance ratio Rf/ R1 < 199 to ensure the op amp does not saturate.
(a) The gain of the inverting amplifier is 1000. At a sensor voltage of 30 mV, the
predicted output voltage (assuming an ideal op amp) is +30 V. At a sensor voltage of
+75 mV, the predicted output voltage (again assuming an ideal op amp) is 75 V.
Since the op amp is being powered by dc sources with voltage magnitude equal to 15
V, the output voltage range will realistically be limited to the range
15 < Vout < 15 V.
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66.
10 March 2006
current of
40.61 mA, slightly larger than the expected 35 mA, but not too far off.
(b) Using a 1 p resistor between the output pin and ground, we obtain an output
We see from the simulation result that negative saturation begins at Vin = 4.72 V,
and positive saturation begins at Vin = +4.67 V.
(a)
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67.
10 March 2006
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68.
10 March 2006
This circuit produces an output equal to the average of V1, V2, and V3, as shown in the
simulation result: Vaverage = (1.45 + 3.95 + 7.82)/ 3 = 4.407 V.
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69.
5
10
15
20
5
10
15
20
5
5
3
3
1
V active (V)
1
V active (V)
1
18 V
18 V
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b)
a)
70.
V out (V)
V out (V)
71.
2
1
12 V
V active (V)
12 V
10 March 2006
It can be seen that the sweep is very much identical to what was expected, with a
discontinuity at 0V. The only difference is the voltage levels which are +11.61V and
11.61 V instead of 12 V. This is because the output of an opamp or comparator can
never quite reach the supplied voltage.
Where RL = load resistor which is needed for the voltage probe to perform properly.
The battery is swept from 2V to +2 V and the voltage sweep is displayed on the next
page.
15
10
5
10
15
a)
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V out (V)
15
10
5
10
15
15
5
5
3
3
1
V 2 (V)
V active (V)
1
10 March 2006
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b)
5
10
15
10
72. a)
V out (V)
V out (V)
10 March 2006
The following comparator setup would give a logic 0 for voltages below 1.5 V and
logic 1 for voltages above 1.5 V
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73.
R4 1 + R2 / R1
R
(
) v + 2 v
R3 1 + R4 / R3
R1
10 March 2006
If v+ and v are different, it turns out that it is impossible to separate vout and vd
completely. Therefore, it is not possible to obtain A or CMRR in symbolic form.
vout =
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74.
10 March 2006
12 R
R + 5000.05
4.7k
1
Vout = 12
= 0.1855
2 4.7k + 5k + 50m
This gives 4998.38 > R > 4230. Using standard resistor values, the only possible
resistor values are R = 4.3 k and R = 4.7 k.
4230 R
4998.38 R
Using this we can set up two inequalities according to the two limits. The first one is:
12 R
6
0.001
R + 5k + 50m
Solving gives
12 R
5.999
R + 5000.05
R
R
= 12 1
Vout = Vref
R+R R+R
2 R + 5k + 50m
Gauge + R
c) The amplifier has a maximum gain of 1000 and minimum gain of 2. Therefore to
get a voltage of 1V at maximum loading, the voltage input into the amplifier must fall
between 0.001 and 0.5, i.e. 0.5 > Vout > 0.001.
b) If R1 = R2 = R3 = Rgauge then the two terms in the bracket cancels out, giving Vout =
0.
by treating it as a voltage divider. Similarly, the voltage at node between RGauge and
R3 is:
R3
V2 = Vref
R +R
3
Gauge
R3
Vout = V1 V2 = Vref
R +R R +R
2
3
Gauge
1
R2
V 1 = V ref
R1 + R 2
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75.
i=C
(c)
)(
10 March 2006
dv
= (10 106 )( 4 103 ) e t = 40e t nA
dt
dv
= 10 106 115 2 (120 ) sin120 t = 613sin120 t mA
dt
(DC)
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i=C
(b)
dv
dt
i=0
i=C
(a)
1.
v=
dv
dt
4.7
i (A)
t (s)
60
dv
t + 6 = 6 t , therefore i = C
= 4.7 106 A
06
dt
i=C
10 March 2006
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2.
dv
dt
therefore i = 103
dv
= 30 (1 t ) e t mA
dt
dv
= 4 5e 5t sin100t + 100e 5t cos100t
dt
dv
therefore i = 103
= 4e 5t (100 cos100t 5sin100t ) mA
dt
dv
= 30 e t te t
dt
i=C
10 March 2006
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(b)
(a)
3.
1
3
2.2 10 ( 2500 ) = 2.75 J
2
2
1
( 55 )( 2.5 ) = 171.9 J
2
2
1
3
4.8 10 ( 50 ) = 6 J
2
(d)
(e)
(f)
10 March 2006
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2
1 4
10 ( 63) = 198 mJ
2
(c)
2
1
3
25 10 ( 35 ) = 15.3 J
2
(b)
1
6
2000 10 1600 = 1.6 J
2
1
W = CV 2
2
(a)
4.
A
=
636.62 1012
=
= 71.9
0 8.854 1012
Cd (500 10 12 )(100 10 6 )
= 636.62 pF .m 1
=
6
A
(78.54 10 )
1
2 E 2(2.5 10 6 )
= 500 pF
CV 2 C = 2 =
2
(100 2 )
V
\Relative permittivity :
C=
E=
10 March 2006
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(c)
(b)
2 1103
1
2E
2
=
= 16.96 kV
Energy, E = CV V =
2
6.954 1012
C
8.854 10 12 (78.54 10 6 )
= 6.954 pF
100 10 6
C=
5. (a)
W=
)(
= 45.281 10
45.281 10
11.8 8.854 10 12 1 10 12
)(
)
)
) = 2.307 fF
)(
)
)
2K s 0
10 12
(Vbi V A ) = 2(11.8) 8.854
(0.57 + 1)
qN
1.6 10 19 1 10 24
10 March 2006
)(
)(
)
)
) = 1.225 fF
Cj =
)(
117.491 10
11.8 8.854 10 12 1 10 12
= 117.491 10 9 m
) = 889.239aF
2K s 0
10 12
(Vbi V A ) = 2(11.8) 8.854
(0.57 + 10)
qN
1.6 10 19 1 10 24
85.289 10
11.8 8.854 10 12 1 10 12
For VA = 10V,
Cj =
= 85.289 10 9 m
2K s 0
2(11.8) 8.854 10 12
(Vbi V A ) =
(0.57 + 5)
For VA = 5V, W =
qN
1.6 10 19 1 10 24
Cj =
For VA = 1V, W =
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(c)
(b)
6. (a)
10 March 2006
Constructed as shown, the halfplates are in parallel, so that each of the 10 pairs must
have a capacitance of 1000/ 10 = 100 pF when rotated such that they overlap completely.
If we arbitrarily select an area of 1 cm 2 for each halfplate, then the g ap spacing between
each plate is d = A/C = (8.8541014 F/cm)(1 cm2)/ (1001012 F) = 0.8854 mm. This is
tight, but not impossible to achieve. The final step is to determine the amount of overlap
which corresponds to 100 pF fo r the total capacitor structure. A capacitance of 100 pF is
equal to 10% of the capacitance when all of the plate areas are aligned, so we need a pieshaped wedge having an area of 0.1 cm 2. If the m iddle figure above corresponds to an
angle of 0 o and the case of perfect alignm ent (maximum capacitance) corresponds to an
angle of 180o, we need to set out minimum angle to be 18o.
Top view
fixed
We require a capacitor that may be manually varied between 100 and 1000 pF by rotation
of a knob. Lets choose an air di electric for simplicity of cons truction, and a series of 11
halfplates:
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7.
1
CV 2 = 1.35mJ 37% E max = 499.5J
2
V at 37% Emax = 1.825 V
t
5
t = 2.486s 2 s
1.2
dv
6 3
= 300 10
e 5 = 141.593A
i =C
5
dt
v (t ) = 1.825 = 3e
10 March 2006
2103
3 t
dv
= C
3e 5 e 5 dt = 1.080 J
0
dt
5
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(d)
(c)
Vmax = 3 V
(b)
t0
Energy stored = v C
8. (a)
v=
v=
(b)
(c)
(
47 10 6
)2 + 4 (1 10 3 )2 =
10 March 2006
47 10 6
3
1 10 3
.
4
)2 = 50.132mV
(3.14159 ) (1 10 3 )2 = 33.421mV
(3.14159) (1 10 3 )2 = 33.421mV
1
. 1 10 3
C 2
47 10 6
)2 + 0 =
)2 =
1
. 1 10 3
C 2
1
. 1 10 3
C 2
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v=
9. (a)
E=
1 7 10 3
cos t
idt =
200ms
0.426
C
10 March 2006
1
181.086 10 9
181.086 10 9
CV 2 = 3 10 6 =
C =
= 30181F
2
2C
2 3 10 6
200ms
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10.
1
V=
C
10 March 2006
(d)
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vc =
t
1
106 8e 100t 103 dt = 103 40(0.01) (e100t 1) = 400(1 e100t )V
0
0.2
1
1
wc = cvc2 = 2 107 (5 + 3cos 2 200t ) 2 wc max = 107 64 = 6.4 J
2
2
ic = 0.12sin 400tmA
c = 0.2 F, vc = 5 + 3cos 2 200tV; ic = 0.2 106 (3) (2) 200 sin 200t cos 200t
(c)
(b)
(a)
11.
0.9
0.1
0.2
0.1
10 March 2006
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12.
= 0.02J
1
1
wc = Cv 2 = 106 v 2 = 2 102 e 1000t v = 200e 500t V
2
2
6
i = Cv = 10 (200) (500)e500t = m0.1e500t
v 200
R =
=
= 2k
0.1
i
10 March 2006
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(b)
(a)
13.
(b)
1k
(5) = 0.877V
4.7k + 1k
1
1
Voltage Division, V2 = V VC = V
3
3
circuit:
Voltage division, VC =
2
V1 = 1(1 // 2 ) = V
3
10 March 2006
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
By
Right
By
14.
di
dt
(c)
10 March 2006
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v=L
(b)
(a)
15.
di
dt
v (aV)
t (s)
( 6 0 ) 109
i=
t + 6 109 = 6 109 106 t , therefore
3
( 0 6 ) 10
di
v = L = (1012 )(106 ) = 1018 V = 1 aV
dt
v=L
10 March 2006
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
16.
(a)
)(
di
= 5 106 4 103 5e 5t sin100t + 100e 5t cos100t
dt
therefore v = 100e 5t ( 20 cos100t sin100t ) pV
L
di
= 5 106 30 109 e t te t = 150 (1 t ) e t fV
dt
di
dt
10 March 2006
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
(b)
v=L
17.
10 March 2006
1
2
5 103 (1.5 ) = 5.625 mJ
2
1 2
LI . Maximum energy corresponds to maximum current flow, so
2
Wmax =
W=
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18.
(c)
(d)
10 March 2006
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WL =
(b)
(a)
19.
0.8
= 0.02 s
40
= 0.004V at t=0
10 March 2006
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20.
iin = 0.1vs +
1 t
40tdt + 5 = 4t + 4t 2 + 5A
5 0
10 March 2006
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
(b)
(a)
21.
1
w = 25 103 0.64sin 2 1000t = 8sin 2 1000t mJ
2
(b)
10 March 2006
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(a)
22.
0.02
8
(100V ) = 80V
2+8
20V
= 10 A
2
80V
= 1A
80
V8 =
I 2 =
i x =
If the circuit has been connected for a long time, L appears like short circuit.
1
wL = 0.2 7.52 = 5.625J
2
4
iL (20ms) = 5 + 5 104 (0.02t 0.5t )0.02
0.01 = 5 + 5 10 (0.0002 0.00015) = 7.5A
0.01
10 March 2006
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(c)
(b)
(a)
23.
10 March 2006
80
100
And we find that ix = 9
= 1A
80 + 80 2 + 8
9
After a very long time connected only to DC sources, the inductors act as short circuits.
The circuit may thus be redrawn as
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24.
(b)
iL () = 1.08A
10 March 2006
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(c)
(a)
iL = 0.08 + 0.2 10(e t e 2t ) dt = 0.08 + 2(e t + 0.5e 2t )t0
25.
15 12
120
15
40 + 40 5
12 + 15 60 15 + 60
15 12 + 60
120
1
6.667
40 + 200
12 + 12 5
66.667
= 40 + 20 = 60V
vx =
40
12
+ 40 5
12 + 20 + 40
12 + 20 + 40
200 100
=
+
= 100V
3
3
vx = 120
10 March 2006
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(b)
(a)
26.
(c)
(d)
10 March 2006
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1
wc = 20 106 1002 = 0.1J
2
1
wL = 5 1.62 = 6.4J
2
(b)
(a)
27.
0.4
0.4
1
iL = 0.5 + 0.1 400t 2 dt = 0.5 + 40 0.43 = 1.3533A
0
3
1
wL = 10 1.35332 = 9.1581J
2
1
vc = 400 0.16 = 64V, wc 105 642 = 20.48mJ
2
10 March 2006
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(c)
(b)
28.
(a)
10 March 2006
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V 2 (2 )2
=
= 0.4W
10
R
PSpice verification
We see from the PSpice
simulation that the
voltage across the 10
resistor is 2 V, so that
it is dissipating 4/10
= 400 mW.
P7 = 0W ; P10 =
7 resistor has
zero volts across its
terminals, and hence
dissipates
zero power.
The
(b)
29. (a)
V3
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(c)
(b)
Solving,
(V
(V
REF
V2
V1
+ VTH
Sim
10 March 2006
(a) We find RTH by first shortcircuiting the voltage source, removing the inductor, and
looking into the open terminals.
30.
10 March 2006
4.286F
1
1
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C equiv
31.
10 March 2006
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32.
10 March 2006
Assuming all resistors have value R, all inductors have value L, and all capacitors
value C,
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Using
(b)
33.
(a)
have
10 March 2006
(b)
Vx
(a) As all resistors have value R, all inductors value L, and all capacitors value C,
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34.
= { [(100 n + 40 n)  12 n] + 75 n}  {7 + (2  12 )}
C equiv 85.211nF
equiv
10 March 2006
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35. C
Lequiv 172.388 pH
equiv
10 March 2006
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36. L
1
(CT C x )V 2 = 1 (171 )(2.5)2 = 534.375J
2
2
1
425n (2 )
E C x = 425n = C xV 2 C x =
= 136nF
2
(2.5)2
E CT C x =
C T C x = (7 + 47 + 1 + 16 + 100) = 171F
10 March 2006
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37.
10 March 2006
LN
N =1
NLN 1
For a general network of this type, having N stages (and all L values equiv),
(b)
Lequiv =
(a)
1
1
= 2.75H
= 1.5 +
+
1 + 1 1 + 1 + 1
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38.
(3)
1
3
=1+
(2)2 + (3)3
2(2 ) 3(3)2
1
1
+K+
1 1 1 1 1
1
1
+
+ +
+K
2 2 3 3 3
N
N
1
1
1
= 1+
+
+K+
= N
2(1 / 2) 3(1 / 3)
N(1/N)
Lequiv = 1 +
(2 )
1
1
+
2+ 2 3+3
(b)
Lequiv = 1 +
Lequiv
(a)
1
1
= 3H
=1+
+
1 + 1 1+1+1
2 2 3 3 3
10 March 2006
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39.
C equiv =
3 p + 0.25 p
(3 p )(0.25 p ) = 0.231 pF
10 March 2006
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40.
Lequiv =
2.6& n
10 March 2006
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41.
(a)
(b)
(c)
10 March 2006
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42.
55
30 = 11.379
3
10 10
55
+ 10 + 10 10 =
,
3 3
3
C = 10F :
1
= 5.4545
1/ 30 + 1/10 + 1/ 20
10
Ceq = 5.4545 + = 8.788F
3
R eq =
R = 10 :10 10 10 =
10 March 2006
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(c)
(b)
(a)
43.
4 = 1.4194H
oc :1 +
1
7
1
= , ceq =
= 1.3125F
1/ 4 + 1/ 2 3
3 / 7 + 1/ 2
1
5
5
= , Ceq = 4 + = 4.833F
sc :
1/ 5 + 1 6
6
sc : L eq = (3 2 + 1) 4 = 2.2
oc :L eq = 6 1 + 3 = 3.857H
10 March 2006
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(b)
(a)
44.
10 March 2006
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(c)
(b)
(a)
45.
(a)
(c)
10 March 2006
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i1 =
(b)
1 t
4.8 200t
(e
28.8e200t dt + 0.02 =
1) + 0.02
6 o
200
= 24e200t 4mA(t > 0)
or v = 28.8e 200t V
46.
10 March 2006
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(c)
6400 80t
(e 1) + 20
80
t
106
1600 80t
(6.4 103 ) e 80t dt + 80 =
(e 1) + 80
v2
o
4
80
= 20e 80t + 60V
v1 = 80e80t 60V
(a)
(b)
47.
1
5 106
20i20 +
o
(i
20
(i
iL )dt + 12 = vs
1
5 106
vc vs
v v
+ 5 106 vc + c L = 0
20
10
t
vL vc
1
+
vL dt + 2 = 0
10
8 103 o
10 March 2006
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(b)
(a)
48.
10 March 2006
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vL (t ): 30mA, 20mA,
vc (t ) = 9.2V
0.04 cos103 t : vc = 0
49.
and:
2:
1, 4 Supernode:
V3
V2  V1
V  40e 20t
dV2
+ 2
+ 10 6
50
100
dt
[3]
0.8V1 + 0.2 V2 V4 = 0
t
V1  V2
+ 0.02 103 V4 40e 20t dt [1]
0
50
Ref.
V2
V4 = 0.2 Vx or
0 =
20103 e20t =
V1
V4
[2]
10 March 2006
We begin by selecting the bottom node as the reference and assigning four nodal
voltages:
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Node
50.
(b)
vi + Ri Avi = 0, vs =
1
idt + vi
c
1
1+ A
vo = Avi vi = vo i =
vi
A
R
1
1
1
1+ A
v
vs = idt vo = vo +
o dt
c
A
A
RC
A
1+ A
1+ A
Avs = vo
vo or vo +
vo + Avs = 0
RC
RC
also 0 + Ri + vo = 0 vo = RCvs
R i = , R o = 0, A = vi = 0 i = Cvs
10 March 2006
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51. (a)
10 March 2006
+Cf
dt
dv c f
=
1 10
Va V
+ 1.602 10 19
ions
sec
)
Vc f (0)
R1 = 1 M, Cf = 1F
1.602 10 19 ions
= C f Vc f
R2
R1
1
1.602 10 19 ions Vout =
1.602 10 19 ions
Vc f = Va Vout Vout =
R2 C f
Cf
1
R2
dv c f
V
V
19 ions
+Cf
=
1
.
602
10
+
R2
dt
sec
1 10 6
1 10
Va V
0=
0=
Place a current source in parallel with a 1M resistor on the positive input of a buffer
with output voltage, v. This feeds into an integrator stage with input resistor, R2, of
1M and feedback capacitor, Cf, of 1 F.
dv c f
ions
i=Cf
= 1.602 10 19
dt
sec
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52.
10 March 2006
Let A = vs = 10sin10tV
1
1 1
vo
1
1 t
o
RC
A
A
vo
1
1
1
1
1
1 + vo =
vs + 1 + (10sin10t ) = 1 vs + cos10t
A
RC
A A
A
A
R = 0.5M, C = 2 F, R i = , R o = 0, vo = cos10t 1V
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(b)
(a)
53.
10 March 2006
Vout = +
1mV
dvs
R
= 60
/ min
R f C1
dt
rpm
R
RfC1=60 so choose Rf = 6 M and C1 = 10 F.
Create a opamp based differentiator using an ideal op amp with input capacitor C1 and
feedback resistor Rf followed by inverter stage with unity gain.
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54.
0 v s dt '
10 March 2006
In practice, capacitors are usually used as capacitor values are more readily
available than inductor values.
Rf
Vout
1
=
=
V
v
dt
L
out
L
Rf
L
Va Vout
1
+
vdt
Rf
L
Va = V = 0,
0=
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(b)
55. (a)
1
R1C f
in
v
dt
In other words, 1 =
1
R1C f
103 dt =
103
R1C f
vout =
10 March 2006
Neglecting the sign (we can reverse terminals of output connection if needed),
we therefore need R1Cf = 103.
vin
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56.
10 March 2006
100 mV
In other words, vout = 1 V = RC
60s
or RC = 600
dvin
dt
dv 100 mV
maximum in . =
60s
dt
vout = RC
vin
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57.
10 March 2006
100 mV
In other words, vout = 1 V = RC
1s
or RC = 10
dvin
dt
dv 100 mV
At 1 litre/s, in =
.
s
dt
vout = RC
vin
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58.
1
R1C f
I
2
dt
vout =
vin
10 March 2006
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59.
vout = RC
dvin
dt
so RC = 0.447
vout = 2.237 RC = 1
vin
10 March 2006
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60.
(v
20
(v
vc )dt + 12 = is
1
5 106
iL is
i i
+ 5 106 iL + L c = 0
20
10
t
ic iL
1
+
i dt + 2 = 0
3 o c
10
8 10
1
5 106
20v20 +
10 March 2006
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(c)
(b)
(a)
61.
10 March 2006
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62.
10 March 2006
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63.
i2 (t ) = is i1 (t ) i2 (t ) = 20e80t + 60A
(c)
6400 80t
(e 1) = 80e80t 60A
80
10 March 2006
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v(t) = 6.4380t mV
(b)
(c) (a)
(b) Let
(a)
64.
10 March 2006
1 t
V1dt + G in (V1  V2 )
L1 0
iout
=
iS
1 t
V1dt + G in (V1  V2 )
L1 0
[2]
[1]
G in (V2  V1 ) + G f V2
iS =
In creating the dual of the original circuit, we have lost both vs and vout. However, we
may write the dual of the original transfer function: iout/ is. Performing nodal analysis,
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65.
verification:
1 2
LI L = 160 mJ
2
10 March 2006
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PSpice
66. I
= 4/(4/3) = 3 A. W =
1 2
LI L = 31.5 J
2
10 March 2006
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PSpice verification:
67. I
10 March 2006
VA 4 VA VA
V
+
+
= 0.8 A
100
20 25
25
Then, by KCL,
We choose the bottom node as the reference node, and label the nodal voltage at the top
of the dependent source VA.
1
1
2
CV 2 = 103 ( 0.588 ) = 173 J
2
2
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Therefore,
VC, the voltage on the capacitor, is 588 mV (no DC current can flow through
the
75 resistor due to the presence of the capacitor.)
68.
10 March 2006
1
1
2
CV 2 = 5 106 ( 32 ) = 2.56 mJ
2
2
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verification:
PSpice
69.
)( )
dvs
= 5 109 108 ( 30 cos100t ) = 15cos10t V
dt
= 5 nF, Rf = 100 M.
vout = R f C1
10 March 2006
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70. C
verification
10 March 2006
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w = Cv2 = 0.5 (33106)[5 cos (75102)]2 = 220.8 J. This is in agreement with the
PSpice simulation results shown below.
71. PSpice
verification
10 March 2006
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w = Li2 = 0.5 (1001012)[5 cos (75102)]2 = 669.2 pJ. This is in agreement with
the PSpice simulation results shown below.
72. PSpice
L f dVs
Lf d
=
A cos 2 10 3 t L f = 2 R1 ; Let _R = 1 and L = 1 H.
R1 dt
R1 dt
10 March 2006
PSpice Verification: clearly, something rather odd is occuring in the simulation of this
particular circuit, since the output is not a pure sinusoid, but a combination of several
sinusoids.
Vout =
V L f = Va Vout = 0 Vout =
L dVs
R1 dt
Va V s 1
+ v L f dt
R1
L
Vs 1
Va = Vb = 0,
0=
+ v L f dt
R1
L
0=
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73.
verification
10 March 2006
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74. PSpice
verification
10 March 2006
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w = Li2 = 0.5 (1001012)[5 cos (75102)  7]2 = 558.3 pJ. This is in agreement with
the PSpice simulation results shown below.
75. PSpice
vR = iR
(c)
)
= 6.608 V
10 March 2006
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= 736 A
4.7109 751012
= 1.25 mA
4.7109 212.81012
i(212.8 ps) = 2e
(d)
4.7109 1001012
= 2e 4.710 t mA
(b)
R t
L
i(100 ps) = 2e
i (t ) = i (0)e
(a)
1.
At t = 10 s, i (t ) = 316e 10 / 2 mA = 2.13 mA
At t = 2 s, i (t ) = 316e 1 mA = 116.3 mA . Thus, the energy remaining is
1
W (2) = Li (2) 2 = 13.53 mJ
2
(c)
(d)
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At t = 5 s, i (t ) = 316e 5/ 2 mA = 25.96 mA
= 316e t / 2 mA
(b)
R
t
L
10 March 2006
At t = 1 s, i (t ) = 316e 1/ 2 mA = 192 mA
and i( t ) = i (0)e
1 2
Li = 100 mJ at t = 0.
2
Thus, i( 0) = 0.1 = 316 mA
W=
(a)
2.
L=
= 2 10 e
100
t
L
10 March 2006
735.8 106
ln
3
2 10
= 50 mH
) = 100 ( 500 10 )
i (500 106 )
ln
3
2 10
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Thus,
3.
R
t
L
R=
= 1.5e
R
t
3103
3 103 i (2)
3 103 0.5518
ln
=
ln
= 1.50 m
2
2
1.5
1.5
10 March 2006
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Thus,
4.
R
t
L
10 March 2006
R=
) (
3 103 i (t )
3 103 8.165
ln
ln
=
= 3.454
t
0.001 25.82
i (0)
3103
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Thus,
At
At
5.
R
t
L
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v = 4(20) = 80 V.
The instant after the switch is thrown, we know that 2 A flows through the inductor. By
KCL, the simple circuit must have 2 A flowing through the 20 resistor as well. Thus,
(b)
10 March 2006
Since the inductor current cant change instantaneously, we simply need to find iL while
the switch is closed. The inductor is shorting out both of the resistors, so iL(0+) = 2 A.
(a)
6.
10 March 2006
(a) Prior to the switch being thrown, the 12 resistor is isolated and we have a simple
tworesistor current divider (the inductor is acting like a short circuit in the DC circuit,
since it has been connected in this fashion long enough for any transients to have
decayed). Thus, the current iL through the inductor is simply 5(8)/ (8 + 2) = 4 A.
The voltage v must be 0 V.
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(b) The instant just after the switch is thrown, the inductor current must remain the same,
so
iL = 4 A. KCL requires that the same current must now be flowing through the 12
resistor,
so v = 12(4) = 48 V.
7.
= 1.289 mA.
iL = 4.5e 10
t/4
103
106
=
4 103
4
mA iL (5 s ) = 4.5e 1.25
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(a)
8.
(c)
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iL (0.01) = 2e 4 = 36.63mA
100
= 2A iL (t ) = 2e80t / 0.2
50
400 t
= 2e A, t > 0
iL (0) =
(b)
(a)
9.
v
d R
2
v
5 R
L
dt
2
dv
2.5 R + 2.5vR = 0
dt
= 0 or
di
+ 5i = 0
[1]
dt
vR = 2i so Eq. [1] can be written as
L
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(c)
10. (a)
i
Now, y = m( x 1) + b = e 1 ( x 1) + e1 = x, = y
Io
1
1
At y = 0, e ( x 1) = e x = 2 t / = 2
i
d (i / Io )
d ()
= e t / ,
= et / ; t t / = 1,
=ae 1
Io
d (t / )
d ()
t
t
Io
I
= 100, = 4.605; o = 1000, = 6.908
i
i
I I
i
t
t
= e t / , = ln o , o = 10 = ln10 = 2.303;
i i
Io
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(b)
(a)
11.
I 0 = 10 A
= 2 ms
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10 March 2006
As can be seen by
comparing the two plots,
which probably should
have the same xaxis scale
labels for easier
comparison, the PSpice
simulation results obtained
using a parametric sweep
do in fact agree with our
hand calculations.
To create a sketch, we firs t realise that the m aximum current for any of the th ree cases
will be 1.732 A, and af ter one time constant (10, 1, or 0.1 s), the current will d rop to
36.79% of this value (637.2 m A); after approximately 5 tim e constants, the curren t will
be close to zero.
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13.
510 12 / 3.310 6
2 43 10 6
= 5.1 A
3.3 10 6
i (5 ps ) = 5.1e 110
I0 =
1
2
= .L.I 0 2
3.3 10 6
=
= 3.3 10 12
6
1 10
= 1.12 A
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(c)
(b)
(a)
14.
10 March 2006
6.285
= 125.7 )
5
L
5L
5 =
= 100 109 secs
R
R
(5)(125.7)106
R >
107
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15. Assume the source Thvenin resistance is zero, and assume the transient is measured to
5. Then,
10 March 2006
ix (mA)
t (s)
t < 0, we have a current divider with iL(0) = ix(0) = 0.5 [ 10 (1/ (1 + 1.5)] mA
= 2 mA. For t > 0, the resistor through which ix flows is shorted, so that ix(t > 0) = 0.
The remaining 1k resistor and 1mH inductor network exhibits a decaying current such
iL(t) = 2et/ mA where = L/R = 1 S.
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(b)
(a)
that
16. For
= RC = 100 s
2
1
2 103
C v ( 0 ) = 103 so v ( 0 ) =
= 44.72 V
2
106
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(c)
(b)
(a)
17.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
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18. If
(b)
(c)
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(a)
19.
R=
t
2 109
=
= 7.385
v(t )
0.1
10
10 ln
C ln
1.5
1.5
RC
1.5
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(b)
Thus,
20.
10 March 2006
exposure time
o e t / dt
With two 50m F capacitors connected in pa rallel for a total capacitance of 100 mF, we
may estimate the Thvenin equivalent resistance from = RC as Rth = / C
9.945 .
This estim ate is consis tent with the addition al observation that a t t = 2 s, the im age
appears to be saturated.
With 150 m s yielding an image intensity of approxim ately 14% of the m aximum
observed and the knowledge that at 2 s no further increase is seen leads us to estim ate
3
that 1 e15010 / = 0.14, assuming that we are observing singleexponential decay
behavior and that the response speed of the fil m is not affecting the m easurement. Thus,
we may extract an estimate of the circuit time constant as = 994.5 ms.
= K
where the time constant = RTHC represents the effect of the Thvenin equivalent
resistance of the equipment as it drains the energy stored in the two capacitors, then the
intensity of the image on the film is actually proportional to the integrated exposure:
(t) = o et/
The film acts as an intensity integrator. Assuming that we may model the intensity as a
simple decaying exponential,
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21.
vc (t ) = 192e 3000t / 24
30
= 192V
50
= 192e 125t V
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(b)
(a)
22.
wc =
t /100
1
1
C 802 e 20,000t = C 802 t = 34.66 s
2
4
vc = 80e 10
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(b)
(a)
23.
20
= 6.667V
3
4
2
mA
3
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vC(t)
6.667 25t
e = 0.3333e25t mA
3
20 10
iC(t)
vc (t ) = 6.667e25t V ic (t ) =
vc (t ) =
24.
= 4.5V
= 1V
/ 50 2010 6
/ 502010 6
( )
i (0 ) = 0.1A
v 0 + = 20V
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25.
(c)
ix = 6.694 mA.
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Thus,
(b)
= 30e1.5 = 6.694mA = ix
1
2
iL (0 ) = 60 = 30 mA, ix (0 ) = 30 = 20 mA
2
3
(a)
26.
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(b)
(a)
27.
(b)
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(a)
28.
85
= 40e 50000t + 45e 100000t . Let e 50000t = x
10
45 x 2 + 40 x 8.5 = 0
(c)
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x =
40 1600 + 1530
= 0.17718, < 0
90
e 50000t = 0.17718, t = 34.61 s
(b)
(a)
29.
30.
2R1R 2
R1 R 2 = 5. Also, vR (1ms)
R1 +R 2
1
1 1
+
= R1 = 7.821
13.863 R1 5
vR (0+ ) = 10 =
2R1
2R1R 2 50 R2t
e50 R2t vR =
e
R1 + R 2
R1 +R 2
2R1R 2
2R1
, iL (0) =
R1 +R 2
R1 + R 2
t > 0 : iL (t ) =
t < 0 : vR =
24
= 0.4A iL (t ) = 0.4e750t A, t > 0
60
5
vx = 24 = 20V, t < 0
6
3
vx (0+ ) = 50 0.4 = 7.5V
8
750 t
vx (t ) = 7.5e V, t > 0
iL (0) =
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(b)
(a)
31.
3iL
20 + 10iL = 25iL
4
v
vin in = 25 iL = 10e25t / 0.5 = 10e 50t A, t > 0
iL
v in =
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32.
64
40
= 5A
4 + 40 8 48
iL = 5e 24t / 8 = 5e 3t A
iL (0) =
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33.
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(b)
(a)
34.
v = 48i = 1440e600t V
(d)
1
1
WL (0) = 0.1102 + 0.4 202 = 5 + 80 = 85J
2
2
1
1
WL () = 0.1 142 + 0.4 142 = 9.8 + 39.2 = 49J
2
2
900 48
WR = i 2 48dt = 900 48e1200t dt =
(1) = 36J
0
0
1200
49 + 36 = 85 checks
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(f)
i2 = 2.5(1440) e 600t dt + 20
(c)
0.08 5
= ms = 1.6667ms;
48 3
= L eq / R eq =
(b)
(e)
(a)
35.
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We see from the DC analysis of the circuit that our initial value is correct; the Probe
output confirms our hand calculations, especially for part (c).
Verification:
(d) PSpice
(c)
15.745
= 3.936mA
4000
(b)
= 15.745+ V, i1 (10 : 05) =
vc (0) = 100
2
2
100 2
= 33.33V; i1 (0 ) =
= 16.667mA
2+2 3
2+2 3
vc (9 : 59) = 33.33V, i1 (9 : 59) = 16.667mA
(a)
36.
vc (t ) = 25 0.2e t = 5e t V ix (0+ ) =
(c)
ix (0.4) =
1
5e0.4 = 0.03352A
100
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(e)
5
= 0.05A
100
34
20 33.2
0.04
=
= 0.2767A
120
120 120
ix (0 ) = 0.2A
(b)
(d)
25ix
= 1.25ix 34 = 100(1.25ix 0.8ix + ix ) + 25ix ix = 0.2A
20
(a)
t> 0:
37.
= 10e 20000t V
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From the DC simulation, we see that PSpice verifies our hand calculation of iA = 50 mA.
The transient response plotted using Probe indicates that at 100 s, the current is approximately
5.46 mA, which is within acceptable roundoff error compared to the hand calculated value.
Verification.
iA (100 s) = iA (0 ) =
10
= 50mA
200
1 50
iA (100 s ) = 10e2
= 5.413mA
10 + 40 250
(c) PSpice
(b)
(a)
38.
t / 5 2103
= 48e100t V, t > 0
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vc (t ) = 48e10
4 12 6 = 2k , vc (0) = 48V
(b)
12
= 6mA (t < 0)
12 + 4
i1 (t ) = 8(1)
(a)
39.
t /8
, vCR = 80e10
t / 0.8
vCL = 20e10
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(b)
(a)
40.
t/4
10 March 2006
As can be seen from the simulation results, our hand calculations are accurate.
PSpice verification. Note that the switch parameters had to be changed in order to
perform this simulation.
vC(3 s) = 9.447 V
vc (t ) = 20e 10
t < 0:
vc 0.25vc vc vc 40
+ +
= 0 vc = 20V (t < 0)
5
10
4
1 0.25
+ 0.1 iin = 0.25A
t > 0: Apply vc = 1V
5
1
R eq =
= 4
0.25
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(c)
(b)
41. (a)
t /( Ro +1000)
( t 103 )
1
1
+ 103 =
R1 = 274.2
R1
215.2
.1000
,1742.4 + R1 1000
1742.4 + R1 1000
/(1742.4 + R1 1000)
50 500 /( Ro +1000)
e
60
R
500
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42.
10 March 2006
t / 3939
[1]
[2]
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(b)
(a)
With the switch closed, define a nodal voltage V1 at the top of the 5k resistor.
Then,
43.
10 March 2006
i1 (t ) =
t /150
= 13e6667 t
vo
= 0.4333e 6667 t mA (t > 0)
3 104
vc (0) = 13V
t < 0:
12 = 4i1 + 20i1 i1 = 0.5mA vc (0) = 6i1 + 20i1 = 26i1
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44.
(b)
10 March 2006
1
1
wc1 () = 20 106 802 = 64mJ, wc 2 () 5 106 802 = 16mJ
2
2
1
wc1 (0) = 20 106 1002 = 100mJ, wc 2 (0) = 0
2
25
wR = 25 106 e 25t 2 104 dt =
2 104 (1)106 = 20mJ
o
25
64 + 16 + 20 = 100 checks
v1 (t ) =
106 t
103 12.5t t
3 12.5t
12.5t
e
dt
+
=
e
+ 80V
5
10
100
o +100 = 20e
o
20
50
1000 t 12.5t
v2 (t ) =
dt + 0 = 80e 12.5t to +0 = 80e12.5t + 80V
5e
o
5
vR (t )
= 5e 12.5t mA
4
2 10
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(g)
(f)
i (t ) =
(d)
(e)
(c)
20 5
106 2 104 = 8 102 s
20 + 5
v1 (0 ) = 100V. v2 (0 ) = 0, vR (0 ) = 0
(a)
45.
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(b)
(a)
46.
104
= 20e5000t V
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(b)
(a)
47.
10 March 2006
We see from the simulation result that the current through the fuse (R3) is 869 mA, in
agreement with our hand calculation.
since the current has dropped to less than 1 A prior to t = 100 ms, the fuse does not blow.
V
1
=
= 1.1 A
R 0.909
t > 0 : iL (t ) = e 2.363t A
iL ( 0 ) =
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48.
v(t ) = 6u (t ) 6u (t 2) + 3u (t 4)
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49.
i (t ) = 2u (t ) + 2u (t 2) 8u (t 3) + 6u (t 4) A
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50.
f(0) = 6 + 6 3 = 9
f(0+) = 6 + 6 3 = 9
f(1.5) = 0 + 6 3 = 3
f(3) = 0 + 6 3 = 3
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
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f(1) = 6 + 6 3 = 9
51. (a)
g(0+) = 9 6 + 3 = 6
g(5) = 9 6 + 3 = 6
g(11) = 9 6 + 3 = 6
g(30) = 9 6 + 3 = 6
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
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g(1) = 0 6 + 3 = 3
52. (a)
t = 1.5 : i1 (1.5) = 3
100
= 1A
300
120
t = 0.5 : i1 (0.5) =
+ 1 = 0.6A;
300
120
300 120
t = 0.5 : i1 =
= 0.4A; t = 1.5 : i1 =
= 0.6A
300
300 300
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53.
t = 0.5 : i1 =
600(0.5) 600(1.5)
+
= 4A
300
300
600(1.5) 600(2.5) 1
t = 1.5 : i1 =
+
+ 6 0.5 = 3 + 5 + 1 = 9A
300
300
3
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(b)
(a)
54.
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(c)
(b)
= 4 3 1 = 12
(a)
55.
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(b)
100
20
+ 0 + 10
= 6A
50
50
60
t > 0: ix = 0 + + 0 = 2A
30
t < 0: ix =
(a)
56.
200
= 3A
66.67
ix =
ix = 3
t = 0.5 :
t = 1.5 :
ix =
t = 3.5 :
100
= 2A
50
200 100
= 2A
50
ix =
t = 2.5 :
10 March 2006
200
1/ 50
1
2
= 3 = 2.5A
66.67
1/ 50 + 1/ 25 + 1/ 50
2
100 1
= 2.5A
66.67 3
50 25 = 16.667, ix =
t = 0.5 :
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57.
4
0
12
v(t) (V)
t (s)
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58.
(b)
Resistor of value 2
7 u (t ) 0.2 u (t ) + 8(t 2) + 3
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59. (a)
vR (2 103 ) = 1.2 1 e2
)
V = 1.038 V
V =
1.2 1 e 1000t u (t )
R
t
Vo
L
e
1
u (t ) A and vR (t ) = i ( t ) R
R
R
t
vR (t ) = Vo 1 e L u (t )
i (t ) =
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(c)
(b)
(a)
60.
(b)
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iL (t ) = (2 2e 200000t ) u (t )mmA
(a)
61.
(b)
(c)
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iL (t ) = 2 + 2 (1 e 2.5t ) u (t ) A i1 (0.5) = 2A
(a)
62.
v1 (t ) = (100 80e1000t )u (t )V
iL (t ) = 4(1 e 1000t )u (t )A
iL (t ) = (4 4e20t / 0.02 )u (t )
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(b)
(a)
63.
10 March 2006
6t/ 1.307
] A. Solving at t = 3 s,
We see from the Probe output that our hand calculations are correct by verifying using
the cursor tool at t = 3 s.
(b) The total inductance is 30  10 = 7.5 mH. The Thvenin equivalent resistance is
12  11 = 5.739 k. Thus, the circuit time constant is L/R = 1.307 s. The final value of
the total current flowing into the parallel inductor combination is 50/12 mA = 4.167 mA.
This will be divided between the two inductors, so that i() = (4.167)(30)/ (30 + 10) =
3.125 mA.
(a) 0 W
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64.
106 t
9
6
and i f =
At t = 1.5 s, i = i (t ) =
1.5
t
9
0.9e 9 = 1.038 A
5
10
t
9
i (t ) = 0.9e 9 A
5
10
t
9
i (t ) = + Ae 9
5
t = 0, i(0 ) = i(0+) = 4.5/5. Thus, A = 4.5/5 = 0.9
in = Ae
9
5
30 106 30 106
=
= 9 106
5 10
3.333
i (t ) = i f (t ) + in (t )
= L/RTH =
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(c)
(b)
At
so
Thus,
(a)
65.
= L/Req =
45 103 45 103
=
= 0.0135 s
10  5
3.333
vR (t ) = v f + vn
(c)
At t = 2 ms, vR (2 ms) =
4 74.07( 2103 )
V = 1.15 V
e
3
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(b)
At
(a)
66.
10 March 2006
106 t
50
27
10 t
v1 (t ) = 6 1 e 50 V.
t = 0, iL = 0 = iL(0+). Thus, v1(0+) = 0 since no current flows through the resistor.
v1 (t ) = 6 + Ae
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At
Hence
At
L 5 103
=
= 50 s
Req
100
Therefore
67.
iL (t ) = 8 + 2e5t / 0.5
(b)
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iL (t ) = 8 + 2e10t A, t > 0
iL (t ) = 10 A, t < 0
(a)
68.
iL (t ) = 5 e4t / 0.1
(b)
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iL (t ) = 5 3e40t A, t > 0
iL (t ) = 2A, t > 0
(a)
69.
50 103 1
= ms iL = 1(1 e 4000t ) u (t )A, iL (0.2ms) = 0.5507A
200
4
v1 (t ) = (100 + 100e 4000t ) u (t )V, v1 (0.2ms) = 144.93V
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(d)
100V
0, 200V
(b)
(c) 1A,
(a) 0,
70.
t
10
2
= 2 i = e 25t 2e 25t dt + Ae 25t = e25t e 25t to + Ae25t
o
L
25
2
10
2
2
i =
+ Ae 25t , i (0) =
= A = 0i =
= 0.08A
125 25
25
25
e 25t
25t
502 + 252 (25cos 50t + 50sin 50t ) + Ae
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e 25t
1
= 2e 25t
25 + Ae 25t
(25cos 50t + 50sin 50t )
3125
3125
2
4
2 25t
e + Ae 25t
=
cos 50t +
sin 50t
125
125
125
2
2
i (0) = 0 0 =
+ AA = 0
125 125
i (t ) = 0.016 cos 50t + 0.032sin 50t 0.016e25t A, t > 0
25t
t
10u (t ) cos 50t
= 2u (t ) cos 50t i = e 25t 2 cos 50t e 25t dt + Ae 25t
o
5
10 + 10u (t )
= 2 + 2 u (t ) i = 0.16 0.08e 25t A, t > 0
5
i = 2e
Q(t ) =
Q(t ) =
(c)
t
10u (t )
2
= 2u (t ) i = e 25t 2e 25t dt + Ae 25t =
+ Ae 25t
o
5
25
2
i (0) = 0 A = i (t ) = 0.08(1 e 25t )A, t > 0
25
Q(t ) =
Q(t ) =
(d)
di
+ Pi = Q, i = e Pt Qe Pt dt + Ae Pt , R = 125, L = 5H
dt
di
L LPi = LQ LP = 5P = R = 125 P = 25
dt
(b)
(a)
71.
(d)
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iL () =
(c)
100
= 5A
20
iL (0+ ) = iL (0 ) = 15A
(b)
100 100
= 15A, t < 0
20
5
iL (t ) =
(a)
72.
iL (0 ) =
18
1
= 0.1A iL (0+ ) = 0.1A
60 + 30 2
i L () = 0.1 + 0.1 = 0.2A
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73.
ix () = iL () = 3A
(c)
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= 3 + e0.8 = 3.449A
ix (0+ ) = iL (0+ ) = 4A
(b)
30 3
= 3A, iL (0 ) = 4A
7.5 4
ix (0 ) =
(a)
74.
30
30
15
+ 3
= 2.4A
30 + 7.5 40
10 + 15
30
= 3A
10
ix ( ) =
30 30
= 3A ix (t ) = 3 0.6e 6t / 0.5
7.5 40
= 3 0.6e 12t ix (0.04) = 3 0.6e 0.48 = 2.629A
ix (0+ ) =
ix (0 ) = iL (0 ) =
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(c)
(b)
(a)
75.
10 March 2006
SC : 0.1u (t ) =
vx 0.2vx vx
+ ,12 u (t ) = 0.6vx + 2vx
40
60
v
12 u (t )
12 u (t ) u (t )
vx =
iab = x =
=
2.6
60 2.6 60 13
4 u (t )
u (t )
(1 e52t / 0.2 ) u (t ) =
(1 e260t ) u (t )
Rth = 4 13 = 52 iL =
52
13
+
260 t
) u (t )V
vx = 60iL = 4.615 (1 e
OC : vx = 0, voc = 4 u (t )V
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76.
i1 (t ) =
SC : i1 = 10A, isc = 10 +
20 10
= 20A
20
R th = 4 iL (t ) = 20(1 e 40t ) u (t )A
voc = 80 u (t )V
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(b)
(a)
77.
10 March 2006
dv 4.7
=
( 2)
dt
5
therefore
dv
4.7
4.7
or 0.1A 5 B =
=
[2]
dt t =0+
5
5
i (0) = C
v = vn + v f = Ae 0.1t + Be 5t .
Thus, vn (t ) = Ae0.2t .
= Req C = (5)(2) = 10 s
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78.
10 March 2006
= (5)(2)
9.4 cos 4t = 5i + v
dv
+v
dt
and v(t ) =
0.94
(10 )
1601
0.94
10e0.1t + 10 cos 4t + 400sin 4t
1601
At t = 0, v = 0, so that A =
10 cos 4t + 400sin 4t
v(t ) = 0.94
+ Ae0.1t .
1 + 1600
or
dv
+ 0.1v = 0.94 cos 4t , so that v(t ) = e0.1t ( 0.94 cos 4t ) e0.1t dt + Ae0.1t
dt
Performing the integration, we find that
Begin by transforming the circuit such that it contains a 9.4 cos 4t u(t) V voltage source
in series with a 5 resistor, in series with the 2 F capacitor.
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79.
6
vc (0 ) = 3 = 2V = vc (0+ )
9
6
vc () = 2 6 (2 7) = 6V
7
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As can be seen from the plot above, the PSpice simulation results confirm our hand
lations of vC(t < 0) = 2 V and vC(t = 2 s) = 3.06 V
calcu
80. (a)
since vC ( ) = 4.5 V
vC (0 ) = vC (0+ ) = 0
vn = Ae10t
= RC = 2 103 ( 50 ) = 0.1
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Since
81.
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83. iA (0 ) =
10
= 2.5mA, iA () = 10mA
4
10 7.5
vc (0) = 7.5V iA (0+ ) = +
= 17.5mA
1
1
iin (1.5) = 0
(b)
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iin (1.5) = 0
(a)
84.
12
24 + 8
= 0.4mA, iin (0+ ) =
= 3.2mA
30
10
24
= 0.8mA
iin () =
30
iin (t ) = 0.4u (t ) + (0.8 + 2.4e 500t ) u (t )mA
2
t > 0 : vc () = 24 = 16V
3
200
RC =
103 3 107 = 2 103
30
vc (t ) = 16 24e 500t V, t > 0
t < 0: vc (0 ) = 8V vc (0+ ) = 8V
vs = 12u (t ) + 24 u (t )V
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(b) iin (0 ) =
(a)
85.
OC :
vx vx 3 vx
+
= 0 vx = 1, voc = 3 1 = 2V
100 100 100
v
v
SC : vx = 3V isc = x + x = 0.06A
100 100
R th = voc / isc = 2 / 0.06 = 33.33
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86.
t > 0.5:
5 50
8
20 10 5
= A vc () = 10 + 8 + = V, 4 8 =
12
6
6 3
3
50
50
+ 7.135 e 0.37520( t 0.5) = 16.667 9.532e 7.5(t 0.5) V
vc (t ) =
3
3
vc (0.8) = 16.667 9.532e 7.5(0.3) = 15.662V
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87.
10 March 2006
For t < 0,
vC = 0.
For t > 1, we now have two sources operating, although the circuit time constant remains
unchanged. We define a new time axis temporarily: t' = t 1. Then vC(t' = 0+) =
vC(t = 1) = 29.37 V. This is the voltage across the capacitor when the second source
kicks on. The new final voltage is found to be vC() = 40(20)/ (20 + 5) +
100(5)/ (20 + 5) = 52 V.
For 0 < t < 1, only the 40V source is active. Rth = 5k  20 k = 4 k and hence
= Rth C = 0.4 s. The final value (assuming no other source is ever added) is found
by voltage division to be vC() = 40(20)/(20 + 5) = 32 V. Thus, we may write
vC(t) = 32 + [0 32] et/ 0.4 V = 32(1 e2.5t) V.
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(c)
(b)
(a) For
88.
vR (0 ) = 80V, vR (0+ ) = 8
20
80
10 + 10 = 32 + 16 = 48V
30 + 20
50
20000 t
V, t > 0
vR () = 80V vR (t ) = 80 32e
t < 0 : vR (t ) = 80V
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(d)
(c)
(b)
1
t = () : vc () = 8(10 + 10) = 80V
2
(a)
89.
t /( R1 +100)
t /( R2 +100)
1000
= 2.079, R 2 = 480.9 100 = 380.9
R 2 + 100
1
= e1000 /( R1 +100)
9
1000
= 2.197, R1 = 355.1
R1 + 100
t > 1ms : vc = 8e 10
8 = 9 (1 e 1000 /( R1 +100) ),
t < 0 : vc = 0
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90.
e 1000t =
vx = v x , L vx , c = 0
vx ,c = 100(1 e 1000t )V
vx , L = 200e 2000t V
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91.
V2
= 0.08 W
R
Pfinal =
Power (W)
V2
= 0.02 W
R
Pinit =
Time (ms)
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92.
10 March 2006
dv1
dv
dv
= C2 2 = C3 3
dt
dt
dt
(c)
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The voltage across the entire capacitor string can be written as 7.421 et/ 2.56410 V.
Thus, the voltage across the 4.7k resistor at t = 1.7 ms = 3.824 V and the dissipated
power is therefore 3.111 mW.
(b)
3
3
With the initial voltage across the 2uF capacitor now known, we may write
that v2 = 2.024 V.
v1
+ v2
+ v3 = 7.421
=0
106 v1 2106 v2
6
6
210 v2 310 v3 = 0
With no initial energy stored, integration yields the relationship C1v1 = C2v2 = C3v3
throughout the charging (i.e. until the switch is eventually opened). Thus, just prior to
the switch being thrown at what we now call t = 0, the total voltage across the capacitor
string is 7.421 V, and the individual voltages may be found by solving:
C1
When the circuit was first constructed, we assume no energy was stored in any of the
capacitors, and hence the voltage across each was zero. When the switch was closed, the
capacitors began to charge according to Cv2. The capacitors charge with the same
current flowing through each, so that by KCL we may write
t < 0, the voltage across all three capacitors is simply 9 (4.7)/ 5.7 = 7.421 V. The
circuit time constant is = RC = 4700 (0.5455106) = 2.564 ms.
(a)
so
93. For
follower vo (t ) = v2 (t )
/ 0.5 200
u (t )V
u (t )
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= 1.25e
10,000 t
vx (t ) = 1.25e 10
v2 (t ) = 1.25 u (t )V = vo (t )
94. voltage
10 March 2006
v250/250 + v=
2/1000.
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In plotting both the handderived result and the PSpice simulation result, we see that the
ideal op amp approximation holds very well for this particular circuit. Although the 741
contains internal capacitors, it does not introduce any shorter time constants than that of
the input circuit.
verification:
PSpice
Since
As
95.
10 March 2006
From the PSpice simulation, we see that our t < 0 calculation is indeed correct, and find
that the inductor current at t = 50 ms is 7.82 A.
PSpice Simulation
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96. For
4 20,000t
e
u (t )A
104
t
t
o
10 March 2006
We can see from the simulation result that our ideal op amp approximation is not
providing a great deal of accuracy in modeling the transient response of an op amp in this
particular circuit; the output was predicted to be negative for t > 0.
vc = 107
4 20,000t
e
dt = 0.2e 20,000t
o 10 4
vc (t ) = 0.2(1 e 20,000t ) u (t )
v1 = 0 (virtual gnd) i =
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97. (a)
10 March 2006
The circuit above contains a 1M resistor in parallel with the capacitor to allow current
to flow through the light bulb when the light
switch is on. In order to determ ine the
required capacitor size, we first recognise that it will see a Thevenin equivalent resistance
of 1 M  330.6 = 330.5 . We want vC(t = 5s) = 81.33 = 115 e5/, so we need a
circuit time constant of t = 14.43 s and a capacitor value of / Rth = 43.67 mF.
One possible solution of many: implement a capacitor to retain charge; assuming the
light is left on long enough to fully charge th e capacitor, th e stored ch arge will run the
lightbulb after the wall switch is turned off. Taking a 40W light bulb connected to 115
V, we estimate th e res istance of the light bu lb (which chan ges with its tem perature) as
330.6 . We define on for the light bulb som ewhat arbitrarily as 50% intensity, taking
intensity as proportional to the dissipated pow er. Thus, we need at least 20 W (246 mA
or 81.33 V) to the light bulb for 5 seconds after the light switch is turned off.
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98.
1
106 C
or C =
1000
.1.5 = 1.496 volts
1002.37
We have 1 = 1.496e
vc (0) =
vc (1) = 1 volt
Add capacitor C.
1
= 2.48F
10 ln(1.496)
6
10 March 2006
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99.
(b) Negative times are not permitted in PSpice. The only way to model this situation is to
shift the time axis by a fixed amount, e.g., t = t + 2 .
odel this
10 March 2006
(a) Note that negativ e tim es are not perm itted in PSpice. The only way to m
situation is to shift the time axis by a fixed amount, e.g., t = t + 1 .
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100.
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(b)
101. (a)
10 March 2006
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(b)
102. (a)
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103.
L 500 106
=
= 34 ns
Req 14.7 103
6
10 March 2006
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(c)
(b)
(a)
104.
0 =
(b)
1
=
LC
6
( 2 10 )(10 )
3
1
=
22.4 krad/s
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1
1
1
=
=
= 175 103 s 1
6
2 RC ( 2 ) (4 10)(10 ) ( 2 ) (2.857)(106 )
(a)
1.
1
LC
or R >
1 L
1
2
; R>
.
2 C
2 1012
1
<
2 RC
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2.
(10 )(10 )
9
12
1
=
LC
5 108
1
1
1
=
=
=
6
2 RC ( 2 ) (4 10)(10 ) ( 2 ) (1)(109 )
10 March 2006
0 =
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(b)
(a)
3.
1
LC
or R >
1 L
1
1015
.
; R>
2 C
2 2 1018
1
<
2 RC
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4.
1
, o = 6.928
LC
6 = 7 + 49 o2 o2 = 48
14 = 2 = 7 s 1
6 = + 2 o2 , 8 = 2 o2 adding,
o L = 10, s1 = 6s 1 , s2 = 8s 1
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5.
1
500
= 3.333 Also,
,R =
3
2R10
150
v
= 0.12e 100t + 0.045e 200t A
R
1 100
=
, L = 0.5H
LC
L
i R (t ) =
20000 =
150 +
300 = 2, = 150s 1
s1 = 100 = + 2 o2 , s2 = 200 = 2 o2
v(t ) =
t
1 t
0.25
(40e 100t 30e200t ) dt 0.25
i
dt
=
c
o
o
C
v(t ) = 0.4(e 100t 1) + 0.15(e 200t 1) 0.25
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(c)
(b)
(a)
6.
5 109
=
= 7.071 105
12
o 70.7110
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(e)
(d)
(c)
aF
1
= 5 109 s 1
2 RC
1
So 1R = 10
= M
(10 ) (100 1018 )
o2 =
1
= (70.71 1012 ) 2
LC
1
So 100.0
C=
=
12 2
(70.7110 ) (2 1012 )
(b)
(a)
7.
L = 4 R 2C , =
1
2 RC
d 2 v 1 dv 1
+
+ v=0
dt 2 R dt L
[1]
[3]
[2]
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1
1
1
t
(2 A1 ) e t +
( A1 ) e t
( A1t + A2 ) e +
RC
2 RC
2 RC
1
1
( A1t + A2 ) e t + 2 2 ( A1t + A2 ) et
2 RC
4R C
=0
Substituting Eqs. [2] and [3] into Eq. [1], and using the information initially provided,
= (2 A1 A2 A1t )e t
d v
= ( A1 A1t A2 ) (e t ) A1e t
2
dt
= ( A1 A2 + A1 A1t ) e t
dv
= e t ( A1 ) e t ( A1t + A2 )
dt
= ( A1 A1t A2 ) e t
8. Given:
1
2 RC
1
o2 =
LC
so
L = 312.5 mH
so C = 5F
Parallel RLC with o = 800 rad/s, and = 1000 s1 when R = 100 .
10 March 2006
new
o
new =
new old
100
old
= 95300%
old
o
1
= 954.0 103 s 1
2 RC
old =
new old
100
old
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(c)
(b)
(a)
Replace the resistor with 5 meters of 18 AWG copper wire. From Table 2.3, 18 AWG soft solid
copper wire has a resistance of 6.39 /1000ft. Thus, the wire has a resistance of
9.
1
1000
1
=
= 5, o2 =
= 16,
2RC 2 8 12.5
LC
10 March 2006
i (0+ ) = 2A 3 8A 4 =
40
= 8 A / s 4 = A 3 4A 4
5
3A 4 = 13 + 4, A 4 = 3, A 3 = 16 i (t ) = 16e 2t + 3e 8t A, t > 0
v(0+ ) 40
=
= 5A
R
8
i (0+ ) = A 3 + A 4 = iR (0+ ) ic (0+ ) = 8 5 = 13A;
40 = A1 + A 2 v(0+ ) =
1000
40
+
iL (0 ) = 80 (8 5) = 1040
12.5
8
v / s = 2A1 8A 2 520 = A1 4A 2 3A 2 = 480, A 2 = 160, A1 = 120
i (0+ ) = 8A: =
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(b)
(a)
10.
1
= 3.162 104 s 1 and 0 =
2RC
di
= 10
dt t =0
[1]
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So that
v(0+ ) = L
A1+ A2 = 4
1
= 3.162 103 rad/s
LC
1 L 1 103 1
10 = 1.581
=
=
2 C 2 104 2
= 0.1RC = 158.1 m
RC =
Noting
Thus,
(b)
Therefore
11. (a)
1
= 100 rad/s
LC
t =0
. Note that
dt
diR ( t )
=
1 dv
dv
[3] and iC = C
= i iR .
dt
R dt
dv
v(0+ )
= i (0+ ) iR (0+ ) = 2 103
= 2 103 [4]
dt t =0+
R
diR
dt
[2]
So that
(c)
mA
We see that the simulation agrees.
diR
= (50)(0.04) = 2 [5]. Taking the derivative of Eq. [1] and combining with
dt t =0
[6].
Eq. [5] then yields: s1 A1 + s 2 A2 = 2
iC (0+ ) = C
We need to find
A1+ A2 = 0
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(b)
1
= 500 s 1 and 0 =
2RC
Therefore,
Thus,
Thus,
12. (a)
1
80
= 25, o2 =
= 400,
2 0.1 0.2
0.2
1
H, R = 0.1, C = 0.2F
80
10 March 2006
i(t) = v/ R C
dv
= 200e 10t 600e 40t 0.2(20)(10)e 10t (0.2)(60)(40)e 40t
dt
10 t
= 160e
120e 40t A
1
v(0)
i (0)
= 2200
C
R
A1 4A 2 = 220 3A 2 = 180 A 2 = 60, A1 = 20
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(b)
(a)
13.
1
= 6.667 108 s 1 and 0 =
2RC
1
= 105 rad/s
LC
10 March 2006
t =0
. We know that L
di
dt
t =0
= 2 so
di
2
=
= 106 . Also,
dt t =0 2 106
di
di diR diC
+
+
= 0 so C
dt dt
dt
dt
t =0
1
( A1 + A2 ) [3]
CR
9
i
di
di
1 dv
1
dv
= iC and R =
so R = C =
A1e7.5t + A2 e1.33310 t .
dt
dt R dt
dt CR CR
diR
dt
(b)
So that
Solving Eqs. [2] and [3] yields A1 = 0.75 mA and A2 = 0.133 MA (very different!)
We need to find
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Using
Thus,
14. (a)
1
= 0.125 s 1 and 0 =
2RC
1
= 0.112 rad/s
LC
10 March 2006
diR
dt
t =0
. We know that
v(8.61) = 6.1 V
Substituting into our expression for the voltage, the peak value is
dv
= 1.236e 0.069t 8.236e0.181t . We set this equal to 0 and solve for tm:
dt
3.236 e 0.069tm
=
= e0.112tm , so that tm = 8.61 s.
1.236 e 0.181tm
So that
iC (t ) = C
dv
= 4 0.069 A1e 0.069t 0.181A2 e0.181t . So,
dt
[3]
iC (0) = 4 [ 0.069 A1 0.181A2 ] = 8
We need to find
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(b)
Thus,
15. (a)
10 March 2006
iL (0+ ) =
103 3
100 = 3000 = 2000A1 6000A 2 1.5 = A1 3A 2 0.5 = 2A 2
100
A 2 = 0.25, A1 = 2.25 iL (t ) = 2.25e 2000t 0.25e6000t A, t > 0
iL (0) =
100
= 2A, vc (0) = 100V
50
106
3 106+3
=
= 4000, wo2 =
= 12 106
2 50 2.5
100 2.5
3
16 12 10 = 200, s1,2 = 4000 2000
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16.
10 March 2006
12
= 2A, vc (0) = 2V
5 +1
1000
1000 45
= 250, o2 =
= 22500
=
2 1 2
2
iL (0) =
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17.
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(c)
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i (t ) =
v
1
v = 0.5625e4t 0.0625e36t 0.05625e4t + 0.05625e36t
+
36 1440
i (t ) = 0.50625e4t 0.00625e 36t A, t > 0
1 18
v(0) = 18 = A1 + A2 , v(0) = 1440 = 0
2 36
0 = 4A1 36A 2 = A1 9A 2 = 18 = 8A 2 , A 2 = 2.25, A1 = 20.25
s1,2
1
1440
1440
=
= 20, o2 =
= 144
2RC
72
10
= 20 400 144 = 4, 36: v = A1e 4t + A 2 e 36t
(b)
(a)
18.
LC
= 4 rad/s
1
= 5 s 1
2 RC
o = 1
A = 150 V
B = 25 V
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[1]
S1,2 = 2 o2 = 5 3 = 8, 2
iL (0 ) = iL (0+ ) = 0
so
L = 1250 mH
so
19.
S2 = 2 o2 = 6 = 5 25 o2
S1 = + 2 o2 = 4 = 5 + 25 o2
1
1
, L = 2 = 833.3 mH
LC
oC
v=
Thus, 210
e 4t 190e 6t , t > 0
v(0) = A + B = 20
[1]
dv
ic = C
= 50 103 (4 Ae 4t 6 Be6t )
dt
+
ic (0 ) = 50 103 (4 A 6 B) = 15
[2]
o2 =
(a)
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with
(b)
Since
20.
[2]
vc
= 25 + 75 = 50 V
solving  25e 2000ts + 75e 6000ts  = 0.5 in view of the graph in part (d),
find ts = 1.955 ms using a scientific calculators equation solver routine.
max
and v( c 0+ ) = A + B = 50
ic = C
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So,
we
(f)
(e)
(d)
= 2000, 6000
dv
= (5 106 ) (2000 Ae 2000t 6000 Be 6000t )
dt
[1]
ic (0+ ) = 0.01A 0.03B = 2
vc (t ) = Ae 2000t + Be 6000t
10 March 2006
50
=2 A
25
s1,2 = 2 o2
iR (0+ ) =
(c)
Since
(b)
iL (0 ) = iL (0+ ) = 0
vc (0+ ) = vc (0 ) = 2(25) = 50 V
conditions:
(a)
21. Initial
i1
i2
and i1 i2 = iA
[2]
iA (0+ ) = 0 = A + B
iA (t ) = Ae 1.881t + Be4.785t
Thus,
6
= 6
1
dvc
iA = 25 103 1.881(6 A)e1.881t 4.785(6 B)e4.785t
dt
1.881t
4.785t
Be
 Ae
= C
iL = ic iR
1
= 3.333 s 1
2 RC
1
o =
= 3 rad/s
LC
vLC = 6 V RTH =
vLC + 7 3(1) + 2 = 0
so, iA (0+ ) = 0
[1]
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So
(e)
(c)
1A
t > 0:
(b)
4.444 H
iA (0 ) = i1 i2 = 4.5 A and iL (0 ) = i2 = 9 A
4.444 H
[1]
9 + 2i1 2i2 = 0
(a)
(d)
10 March 2006
22.
1
= 79.89 Mrad/s
LC
1
> 79.89 106
2 RC
1
R<
12
2(39.17 10 ) (79.89 106 )
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or R < 159.8
Thus,
o =
L = 4H
Area = r 2 = 0.5027cm 2
Capacitance
23.
t =0
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(c) We see from plotting both the analytic result in Probe and the simulated voltage, the
two are in excellent agreement (the curves lie on top of one another).
10 March 2006
1 vC (0)
1
12
+ 0 =
+ 0 A1 9.129 103 (12 )
6
C R
12 10 4.565
dvC
dt
also iC = (iR + iL ) , so
dt
A2 = 12 V .
[1]
1
1
=
= 9.129 103 s 1
6
2 RC 2 ( 4.564 ) 12 10
t = 0, vC (0) = A1 ( 0 ) + A2 = 12
dvC ( t )
1 L 1
103
=
= 4.564 .
2 C 2 12 106
vC ( t ) = e 9.12910 t ( A1t + A2 )
Solving,
and
At
Thus,
(b)
24.
)(
t =0
= vC (0) = 0 [3], so
10 March 2006
(c) We see from plotting both the analytic result in Probe and the simulated voltage, the
two are in reasonable agreement (some numerical error is evident).
diL
dt
A2 = 10 A .
[1]
also L
dt
diL ( t )
t = 0, iL (0) = A1 ( 0 ) + A2 = 10
1
1
=
= 3.162 105 s 1
3
3
2 RC 2 1.581 10
10
1 L 1 108
=
= 1.581 m .
2 C 2 103
iL ( t ) = e3.16210 t ( A1t + A2 )
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and
At
Thus,
(b)
25.
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26.
(a)
10 March 2006
= o
1
1000
=
= 250 iL = e 250t (A1t + A 2 )
2RC 2 1 2
iL (0) = 2A, vc (0) = 2V iL = e250t (A1t + 2)
L = 4R 2 C = 4 1 2 103 = 8mH
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(c)
(b)
crit. damp.
27.
(a)
L = 4R 2 C =
100
103 = 4R 2 106 R = 57.74
3
10 March 2006
iL (0) =
100
= 1.7321A 100 = A 2
57.74
106
100
5
vc (0+ ) =
1.7321
= 0 = A1 3464A 2 A1 = 3.464 10
2.5
57.74
t
3464
vc (t ) = e (3.464 105 t + 100) V, t > 0
o = = 103 /
1
2.5 = 3464 s 1
30
vc (t ) = e 3464t (A1t + A 2 ) vc (0) = 100V
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(b)
crit. damp.
28.
10 March 2006
or R =
1
= 159.8
2oC
1
= o
2 RC
1
= 79.89 Mrad/s
LC
ith L = 4H, o =
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29.
max
= i (tm ) = 0.13821A
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(c)
(b)
(a)
108
=
= 141, 420 i = e 141,420t (A1t + A 2 )
2 353.6
A 2 = 0.1= e 141,421t (A1t + 0.1), 5 103
30.
1013 cm
10 March 2006
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So 8.106
s=
50 turns
1m
2
(4 10 H/m)
. s (0.5cm) . .
100 cm
cm
If So
s
= 2 109
N 2 A
= 2 109
L=
S
We know
1
103
= 103 , so 500
C=
=
2 RC
2 106
1
Since = o, o =
= 103
LC
1
or 10 = 6
LC
so L = 2 GH (!)
31.
(d)
(e)
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(f)
vc (0+ )
1
+
+
[iL (0 ) iR (0 )] = 4 4
= 4 (4 + 0) = 16 V/s
c
2
vc (0+ ) =
1
vc (0+ ) = 0
L
iL (0+ ) =
vc (0+ ) = vc (0) = 0
(b)
(c)
iL (0+ ) = iL (0) = 4A
(a)
1
4
1
4 13
=
= 1, o2 =
=
= 26, d = 26 1 = 5
2RC 2 2
LC
2
vc (t ) = e t ( B1 cos 5t + B2 sin 5t )
32.
1
106
1 106+3
=
= 4000, o2 =
=
= 2 107
2RC 100 2.5
LC
50
ic (0+ ) =
1
1
1
2 106
vc (0) vc (0+ ) = 0
ic (0+ ) =
L
R
RC
125
6
2 10
B1 = 2A,
= 16, 000 = 2000B2 + (2) (4000) B2 = 4
125
ic (t ) = e 4000t (2 cos 2000t + 4sin 2000t )A, t > 0
10 March 2006
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33.
iL (t ) = 4u (t ) + e 8t (4 cos 6t + 5.333sin 6t ) u (t ) A
1
100
1 100 2
=
= 8, o2 =
=
, d = 36 = o2 64
2RC 12.5
LC
L
100
o2 = 100 =
L = 1H
L
=
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(c)
(b)
(a)
34.
1
1093
1
109
=
= 5000, o2 =
=
= 1.25 108
2RC 2 20 5
LC 1.6 5
109 2
200
= 0 = 104 B2 200 (5000)
10
5
20, 000
vc (0)
1
vc + Cvc
R
10 March 2006
4
4
5000 t
=e
(0.01cos10 t 0.0075sin10 t ) A
isw = 102 iL , iL =
1
109
vc (0+ ) = ic (0+ ) =
5
c
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(b)
(a)
35.
1
106
1 1.01 106
=
= 20, o2 =
=
= 40, 400
2RC 2000 25
LC
25
1
io (0+ )
C
T=
2
= 3.42ms
200
106
(103 ) = 40 A 2 = 1 0.2 = 0.8
25
v(t ) = e 20t (10 cos 200t + 0.8sin 200t ) V, t > 0
10 March 2006
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(b)
(a)
36.
vc (0+ ) =
1
104
1
1
ic (0+ ) = 106 [i1 (0+ )
vc (0+ )] = 106
C
5000
(6 103 ) = 6000 = 1000 A 2 A 2 = 6
A1 = 0, vc (t ) = A 2 e 100t sin1000t
1
1063
1
=
= 100 s 1 , o2 =
= 1.01 106
2RC 2 5
LC
60
d = 101 104 104 = 100; iL (0) =
= 6mA
10
vc (0) = 0 vc (t ) = e 100t (A1 cos1000t + A 2 sin1000t ), t > 0
=
10 March 2006
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37.
0 =
< 3464
and
1
10 10 6 R
1
2RC
or
R > 34.64 m.
1
; we require < 0.
LC
10 March 2006
Sketch of v(t).
From PSpice the settling time using R = 34.64 is approximately 1.6 ms.
50 103
iL(0 ) = 0 =
[B d  A ], so that B = 75.42 V.
3
iL(t) = L
dvL
dv
= L C
dt
dt
t
= L e ( A d t sin d t + B d t cos d t )  e t ( A cos d t + Bsin d t )
v(t) = et (A cos dt + B sin dt) where = 2887 s1 and d = 1914 rad/s.
iL(0+) = iL(0) = 0 and vC(0+) = vC(0) = (2)(25) = 50 V = A.
For R = 34.64 (1000 the minimum required value), the response is:
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Thus,
Thus,
38.
Td = tm1 +
;
2
d
d
1
, tm1 =
tan 1 d
vm 2
v
1
= e / d ; let m 2 =
Vm1
vm1 100
21
21
= 2.02351; d = 6
= 1.380363
10.378
10.378
0
21
B = B 6
= 4R 10 +
B = 1.380363
10.3780
10.378
vm 2
< 0.01, chose R = 10.3780 v(0+ ) = d
vm1
21
R = 1/ 6 441 +
= 10.3781 To keep
100
e / d = 100, =
d
1
21
ln 100; =
= ,
2RC R
1
21 ln100
6R 2 441
02 =
= 6 d = 6 441/ R 2
LC
R R
sin d tm1
tm 2 = tm1 +
tan d t =
v = e t [ Bsin d t + d B cos d t ] = 0
v = Be t sin d t
v = et (A cos d t + Bsin d t ) A = 0,
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39.
10 March 2006
iL(t) = e4t (4 cos 3.162t + 5.06 sin 3.162t) A and iL(.25) = 2.358 A.
vC(t) = (2/13) [et (Cd sin dt + Dd cos dt)  et (C cos dt + D sin dt)]
= 1/2RC = 4 s1 and 0 = 5.099 rad/s. Since < 0, the new response will still be
underdamped, but with d = 3.162 rad/s. We still may write
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(c)
Thus,
(b)
Thus,
iL(t) = e0.4t (4 cos 5.083t + 0.3148 sin 5.083t) A and iL(2.5) = 1.473 A.
W
and
When the 4A source turns off at t = 0 s, we are left with a parallel RLC circuit such that
= 1/2RC = 0.4 s 1 and 0 = 5.099 rad/s. Since
< 0, the response will be
underdamped with d = 5.083 rad/s. Assume the form iL(t) = et (C cos dt + D sin dt)
for the response.
For t < 0 s, we see from the circuit that the capacitor and the resistor are shorted by
the presence of the inductor. Hence, iL(0) = 4 A and vC(0) = 0 V.
40. (a)
10 March 2006
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(c)
W
Thus,
and
When the 4A source turns off at t = 0 s, we are left with a parallel RLC circuit such that
= 1/2RC = 1 s1 and 0 = 5.099 rad/s. Since < 0, the response will be underdamped
with d = 5 rad/s. Assume the form iL(t) = et (C cos dt + D sin dt) for the response.
41. (a,b)
For t < 0 s, we see from the circuit below that the capacitor and the resistor are
shorted by the presence of the inductor. Hence, iL(0) = 4 A and vC(0) = 0 V.
R 80
=
= 20
2L 4
1
1
1
vL (0+ ) = [0 vc (0+ )] = 210
L
2
2
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VL (40ms) = e 0.8
vL (t ) = vc (t ) vc (t ) vR (t ) vL
iL (0+ ) =
1
ic (0+ ) = 0
C
20 t
0 = 10A 2 20 (210), A 2 = 420 vc (t ) = e (210 cos10t + 420sin10t )
o2 =
100
= 500 : d = 500 202 = 10
2
vc (t ) = e 20t (A1 cos10t + A 2 sin10t ) A1 = 210 V
42.
10 March 2006
1
vL (0+ ) = 4 (20 20) = 0
L
iL (0+ ) = 2A 2 4 10 A 2 = 20
A1 = 10; iL (0+ ) =
R
2
1
4
=
= 4, o2 =
=
= 20, d = 20 16 = 2
2L 1/ 2
LC 0.2
iL = e 4t (A1 cos 2t + A 2 sin 2t ); iL (0) = 10A, vc (0) = 20V
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43. Series:
1
C
15
= 0.3ms
50, 000
vc ,max = 0.2489V
vc (0) = 10V vc
max
= 10V
5 = 50, 000tm 10 tm =
crit. damp; 2 =
R2
1
1
= o2 =
L = R 2C
2
4L
LC
4
1
200
L = 4 104 6 = 0.01H, =
= 104 = o
4
0.02
vc (t ) = e 10000t (A1t + A 2 ); vc (0) = 10V, iL (0) = 0.15A
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(c)
(b)
44. (a)
10 March 2006
R 0.02 106
106 3
=
= 4000, o2 =
= 1.2 107
2L
2 2.5
2.5 10
mF
1
100 = 2V
50
1
iL (0) = 100A 2 = A1 + A 2 , vc (0+ ) =
C
3
(iL (0)) =
103 100 = 3000v / s
100
3000 = 200A1 600A 2 , 1.5 = A1 3A 2
F
A
Obtain an expression for vc(t) in the circuit of Fig. 9.8 (dual) that is valid for all t.
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45.
and i0.5345A
L max =
iL (t2 ) = 0.5345 iL
max
= 2.571A
1
i1 (0) = vL (0+ ) = vR (0+ ) Vc (0+ ) = 0 10 = 2B2
1
B2 = 5 iL = 5e t sin 2tA, t > 0
B1 = 0, iL = B2 e t sin 2t
R 2
1
= = 1, o2 =
= 5, d = o2 2 = 2
2L 2
LC
t
iL = e (B1 cos 2t + B2 sin 2t ), iL (0) = 0, vc (0) = 10V
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(b)
46. (a)
R 250
1
106
=
= 25, o2 =
=
= 400
2L 10
LC 2500
vc (t ) = 100e10t V t > 0
1
106
vc = ic (0+ )
(0.5) = 1000
c
500
10A 3 40A 4 = 1000 3A 4 = 0, A 4 = 0, A 3 = 100
iL (t ) = 0.5e10t A, t > 0
5 = 10 A1 + 40 (0.5 A1 ) = 10A1 40
1
1
0.5 = A1 + A 2 , iL (0+ ) = vL (0+ ) =
5
5
(100 25 100) = 5 A / s = 10A1 40A 2
s1,2 = 2 o2 = 25 15 = 10, 40
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(b)
47. (a)
10 March 2006
In order to determine B, we must invoke the remaining boundary condition. Noting that
di
vC(t) = vL(t) = L L
dt
= (9)(0.25)e0.25t (2.25 cos 0.2205t + B sin 0.2205t)
+ (9) e0.25t [2.25(0.2205) sin 0.2205t + 0.2205B cos 0.2205t]
Considering the circuit as it exists for t < 0, we conclude that vC(0) = 0 and iL(0) = 9/4 =
2.25 A. For t > 0, we are left with a parallel RLC circuit having = 1/2RC = 0.25 s1 and
o = 1/ LC = 0.3333 rad/s. Thus, we expect an underdam
ped response with d =
0.2205 rad/s:
iL(t) = et (A cos dt + B sin dt)
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48.
10 March 2006
From the circuit as it exists for t < 0, it is evident that iL(0) = 0 and vC(0) = 4.7 kV
t>0
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Simultaneous solution of Eqs. [2] and [3] yields A = 10.71 and B = 4711. Thus,
With iL(0+) = iL(0) = 0 and iR(0+) = 0 we conclude that vR(0+) = 0; this leads to vL(0+) =
vC(0) = 4.7 kV and hence A + B = 4700 [2]
di
Since
vL = L , we may integrate Eq. [1] to find an expression for the inductor current:
dt
B 9379t
1 A 21.32t
iL(t) =
e
e
L 21.32
9379
1
B
A
t = 0+, iL = 0 so we have
= 0 [3]
At
3
500 10 21.32 9379
Thus,
49.
10 March 2006
This corresponds to A = 100 mA, B = 100 mA, s1 = 4.167 s1 and s2 = 24106 s1
What else is known? We know that the bear stops reacting at t = 18 s, meaning that the
current flowing through its fur coat has dropped just below 100 mA by then (not a long
shock).
With the 144 mJ originally stored via a 12V battery, we know that the capacitor has a
value of 2 mF. The initial inductor current is zero, and the initial capacitor voltage is 12
V. We begin by seeking a (painful) current response of the form
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50.
10 March 2006
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Thus,
diL
= 9(0.3333) e0.3333t (At + 2.25) + 9A e0.3333t
dt
vC(t) = vL(t) = L
Invoking the remaining initial condition requires consideration of the voltage across the
capacitor, which is equal in this case to the inductor voltage, given by:
Considering the circuit at t < 0, we note that iL(0) = 9/4 = 2.25 A and vC(0) = 0.
1
1
=
, which, with
For a critically damped circuit, we require = o, or
2RC
LC
L = 9 H and C = 1 F, leads to the requirement that R = 1.5 (so = 0.3333 s1).
Noting
51.
v
50
to t = 0, we find that v = (10 + i1 ) and i1 =
5
15
10 500
so v = 100 V .
v 1 =
15 15
10 March 2006
1
=
LC
1
9
( 2 10 )( 20 10 )
R
10
=
= 2.5 103 s 1
2 L 2 2 103
diL
dt
t =0
diL d t
= ( e B2 sin d t ) = B2 e t ( sin d t + d cos d t ) and
dt dt
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Finally,
that
t = 0, iL = 0 B1 = 0 .
0 =
The circuit for t > 0 may be reduced to a simple series circuit consisting of a 2 mH
inductor, 20 nF capacitor, and a 10 resistor; the dependent source delivers exactly the
current to the 5 that is required.
Noting
At
and
Thus,
Thus,
52. Prior
1
=
LC
( 2 10 )( 20 10 )
3
R
10
=
= 2.5 103 s 1
3
2 L 2 2 10
dvC
= iL and
dt
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Finally,
d t
e (100 cos d t + B2 sin d t )
dt
= e t (100 cos d t + B2 sin d t ) 100d sin d t + B2d cos d t
that C
t = 0, vC = 100 B1 = 100 V .
0 =
The circuit for t > 0 may be reduced to a simple series circuit consisting of a 2 mH
inductor, 20 nF capacitor, and a 10 resistor; the dependent source delivers exactly the
current to the 5 that is required to maintain its current.
Noting
At
and
Thus,
10 March 2006
53. Prior
and
Thus,
d = 02 2 = 538 mrad/s
R 1.25
=
= 0.208 s 1
2L
6
1
1
0 =
=
= 577 mrad/s
3
LC
10 March 2006
diL
dt
t =0
= vC (0) and
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v (t ) 12.5
diL d t
= e ( B2 sin d t ) = B2 e t [ sin d t + d cos d t ] = C =
(t = 0)
dt dt
L
3
that L
t = 0, iL = 0 B1 = 0 A .
Finally,
iL
. We may replace the
4
dependent current source with a 0.5 resistor. Thus, we have a series RLC circuit with R
1.25 , C = 1 F, and L = 3 H.
Noting
At
After
54. Prior
Thus,
and
Thus,
10 March 2006
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Finally,
that
dvC d t
= e ( B1 cos d t + B2 sin d t )
dt
dt
t
= e [12.5cos d t + B2 sin d t ] + e t [ 12.5d sin d t + d B2 cos d t ]
and this expression is equal to 0 at t = 0,
we find that B2 = 0.143 V.
t = 0, vC = 12.5 B1 = 12.5 V .
d = 02 2 = 18.26 rad/s
R 1.25
=
= 0.208 s 1
2L
6
1
1
0 =
=
= 18.26 rad/s
3
LC
3
10
(
)
iL
. We may replace the
4
dependent current source with a 0.5 resistor. Thus, we have a series RLC circuit with R
1.25 , C = 1 mF, and L = 3 H.
Noting
At
After
55. Prior
Thus,
R 100
=
= 500,
2L 0.2
iL (0+ ) = A1 300 =
1
[vc (0) vR (0+ )] = 0
L
5000 t
A1 = 3000 e
iL (t ) = 3 + e 500t
iL = 3 + e 500t (A1t + A 2 ) 3 = 3 + A 2 , A 2 = 6A
o2 =
1 10 106
=
= 250, 000
LC
40
Crit. damp iL ( f ) = 3(1 2) = 3,
Series, driven: =
10 March 2006
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(b)
56. (a)
R
2
1
=
= 4, o2 =
= 4 5 = 20
2L 0.5
LC
1
vL (0+ ) = 4 0 = 0 iL (0+ ) = 0 = 2A 2 + 40, A 2 = 20
L
iL (0+ ) =
vc (0) = 0, iL (0) = 0, =
10 March 2006
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57.
10 March 2006
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R 250
1
106
=
= 25, o2 =
=
= 400
2L 10
LC 2500
s1,2 = 25 625 400 = 10, 40
58.
1
106
1 106+3
=
= 4000, o2 =
=
= 20 106
2RC 100 2.5
LC
50
10 March 2006
ic (t ) = Cvc = 2.5 106 400e 4000t (4000sin 200t + 2000 cos 200t )
4000 t
1
106
+
(2 1) = 8 105
vc = B2 e
sin 2000t , vc (0 ) = ic (0 ) =
C
2.5
4000 t
5
8 10 = 2000B2 , B2 = 400, vc = 400e
sin 2000t
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59.
1
8 106
8 106 13
2
=
=
1000,
=
= 26 106
o
3
2RC 2 4 10
4
A1 = 8; vc (0+ ) =
1
8
0.008) = 0
ic (0+ ) = 8 106 (0.01
C
4000
5000A 2 1000 8 = 0, A 2 = 1.6
iL (0) = 8mA, vc , f = 0
10 March 2006
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(b)
60. (a)
10 March 2006
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R 1
1
= = 1, o2 =
= 1 crit. damp
2L 1
LC
5
vc (0) = 12 = 10V, iL (0) = 2A, vc , f = 12V
6
1
1
vc (t ) = 12 + e t (A1t 2); vc (0+ ) = ic (0+ ) = iL (0+ ) = 1
C
2
t
1 = A1 + 2; A1 = 1 vc (t ) = 12 e (t + 2) V, t > 0
61.
A 3 3A 4 = 0, add: 2A 4 = 10, A 4 = 5 A 3 = 15
10
0.01
= 0 500A1 1500 A 2 = 0,
1000
A1 3A 2 = 0; add: 2 A 2 = 10, A 2 = 5, A1 = 15
1
106
vs = 10u (t ) V : =
=
= 1000
2RC 2000 0.5
1
2 106 3
o2 =
=
= 0.75 106 s1,2 = 500, 1500
LC
8
vc = A1e 500t + A 2 e 1500t , vo (0) = 10V, iL (0) = 10mA
10 March 2006
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(b)
62. (a)
10 March 2006
106 (2500e 500t + 22,500e 1500t ) = 25e 500t + 22.5e1500t mA, t > 0
vc = 10 + 5e 500t 15e1500t V, is = ic =
10
4
vc (0+ ) = 106 ic (0+ ) = 106 0 +
= 2 10 = 500 A 3 1500 A 4
500
vc = 10 + A3 e 500t + A 4 e1500t A 3 + A 4 = 10
10
500
4
2 10 = 500A1 1500A 40 = A1 + 3A 2 30 = 2A 2 , A 2 = 15, A1 = 5
1
106
=
= 1000
2RC 1000
1 106 3
3
o2 =
=
s1,2 = 1000 106 106 = 500, 1500
LC
4
4
500 t
1500 t
vc , f = 0 vc = A1e
+ A2e
, vc (0) = 10V, iL (0) = 0
vs (t ) = 10u (t ) V: =
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(b)
63. (a)
10 March 2006
(vC() = 0)
dvC
= (80103)(0.375B e0.375t sin 1.728t
dt
vC(t) = 50.64 e0.375t sin 1.807t V and vC(t = 200 ms) = 16.61 V.
iC(t) = iL(t) = C
vC(0+) = vC(0) = 0 = A and we may therefore write vC(t) = Be0.375t sin (1.728t) V
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Thus,
At
64.
iL(0+) = iL(0) = 15 A
iC(0+) = 22 15 = 7 A and vS(0+) = 3(7) + vC(0+) = 51 V
(b)
Thus,
10 March 2006
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(d) We are presented with a s eries RLC circuit having = 5/2 = 2.5 s 1 and o = 3.536
rad/s. The natural response will therefore be underdamped with d = 2.501 rad/s.
65. (a)
10 March 2006
t = 0+
t = 0+
Thus,
dt
iC(0+) = C dv C
t > 2: Define t' = t 1 for notational simplicity. Then, with the fact that vC() = 6 V,
our response will now be vC(t') = et' (A' cos dt' + B' sin dt') + 6.
With vC(0+) = A' + 6 = 4.181, we find that A' = 10.18 V.
Thus, vC(t) = e2.5t (30 cos 2.501t 44.98 sin 2.501t) and
iC(t) = e2.5t (15 cos 2.501t + 2.994 sin 2.501t).
Hence, vS(t) = 3 iC(t) + vC(t) = e2.5t (15 cos 2.501t 36 sin 2.501t)
dt
iC(0+) = C dvC
vC(0+) = vC(0) = 30 = A so we may write vC(t) = e2.5t (30 cos 2.501t + B sin 2.501t)
dvC
= 2.5e2.5t(30 cos 2.501t + B sin 2.501t)
dt
+ e2.5t [30(2.501)sin 2.501t + 2.501B cos 2.501t]
0<t<1
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66. For
at t = 0.
t (s)
10 March 2006
diL
= B[(5103)(2000 e2000t sin 1999t + 1999 e2000t cos 1999t)]
dt
vL(t) = L
diL
, and this enables us to calculate that vL(t = 1 ms) = 13.54 V. Prior to the
dt
pulse returning to zero volts, 75 + vL + vC + 20 iL = 0 so vC(t' = 0) = 69.97 V.
(d) Define t' = t 1 ms for notational convenience. With no source present, we expect a
new response but with the same general form:
Thus, iL(t) = 7.504 e2000t sin 1999t and iL(1 ms) = 0.9239 A.
vL(t) = L
The general form of the expected response is iL(t) = et (A cos dt + B sin dt)
(c) We are faced with a series RLC circuit having = R/2L = 2000 rad/s and 0 = 2828
rad/s. Thus, an underdamped response is expected with d = 1999 rad/s.
(b) iL(t) = 0 at t = 0+
75
vx (V)
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67.
10 March 2006
The key will be to coordinate the decay dictated by , and the oscillation period
determined by d (and hence partially by ). One possible solution of many:
1
LC
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Arbitrarily selecting R = 1 , we find that L = 1 H and C = 25.17 mF. We need the first
peak to be at least 5 V. Designing for B = 10 V, we need iL(0+) = 2(25.17103)(10) =
1.58 A. Our final circuit, then is:
d = 02  = 39.73 rad/s =
1
2
Thus, vC(t) = B et sin 2t. This function has max/min at t = 0.25 s, 0.75 s, 1.25 s, etc.
Designing so that there is no strong damping for several seconds, we pick = 0.5 s1.
Choosing a series RLC circuit, this now establishes the following:
Arbitra
rily set d = 2 rad/s.
We want a capacitor voltage vC(t) = et (A cos 2t + B sin 2t). If we go ahead and
decide to set vC(0) = 0, then we can force A = 0 and simplify some of our algebra.
68.
10 March 2006
1
= 1.914106 rad/s, and so d2 = 02 2 leads to 2 = 332.8109
LC
Theoretically, this value must include the radiation resistance that accounts for the
power lost from the circuit and received by the radio; there is no way to separate this
effect from the resistance of the rag with the information provided.
0 =
iL(t) = et (A cos dt + B sin dt) where we were given that d = 1.825106 rad/s.
The circuit described is a series RLC circuit, and the fact that oscillations are detected
tells us that it is an underdamped response that we are modeling. Thus,
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69.
dvC
dt
t =0+
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and vC(1 ms) = 31.96 V. This is confirmed by the PSpice simulation shown below.
Solving Eqs. [1] and [2], we find that A = 133.3 V and B = 8.333 V. Thus,
[2]
iC(0+) = C
dvC
= 2000 Ae2000t 8000 Be8000t
dt
For
10 March 2006
t < 0, iL(0) = 3 A and vC(0) = 25(3) = 75 V. This is a series RLC circuit with =
R/2L = 5000 s1 and 0 = 4000 rad/s. We therefore expect an overdamped response with
s1 = 2000 s1 and s2 = 8000 s1. The final value of vC = 50 V.
70. For
10 March 2006
PSpice sim ulations ar e very sens itive to par ameter v alues; bette r re sults were obta ined
using LF411 instead of 741s (both were compared to the simple LC circuit simulation.)
0
dt
10
and then take the derivative of both sides:
d 2v
1
=  v
2
dt
20
dv
With
= (0.2236)(2.236 10 3 ) = 5 10 4 , one possible solution is:
dt t = 0 +
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71.
10 March 2006
0
dt
20
and then take the derivative of both sides:
d 2v
=  50v
dt 2
dv
With
= (7.071)(282.8) = 2178 , one possible solution is:
dt t = 0 +
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72.
dv
1
= v
dt
3.3
(b) One possible solution:
(a)
v
dv
+ 3.3 10 3
1000
dt
or
= 0
10 March 2006
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73.
10 March 2006
d 2v
= 0.3v
dt 2
or
1
1
dv
vdt + 103 + vdt + 2
10 0
20
dt
= 0
and
di
dt
t =0+
=0
We see either a series RLC with R = 0 or a parallel RLC with R = ; either way, = 0.
d = 0.5477 rad/s (com bining the tw o inductors in parallel for the
calculation). We expect a response of the form i(t) = A cos dt + B sin dt.
02 = 0.3 so
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74.
iL) = 5
20(
diL
dt
or
diL
=  4iL
dt
4 k
1 F
8V
1 k
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1 M
10 March 2006
(b) We expect a response of the form iL(t) = A et/ where = L/R = 0.25.
vR = vL
75. (a)
(c)
10 March 2006
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2103
= 290.9t rad/s
21.6
f (t ) = 8.5sin (290.9t + ) 0 = 8.5sin (290.9 2.1 103 + )
T = 4 (7.5 2.1)103 = 21.6 103 , =
(b)
(a)
1.
10 March 2006
= , 10t = 1.0304,
cos10t 3
t = 0.10304 s; also, 10t = 1.0304 + , t = 0.4172 s; 10t = 1.0304 + 2, t = 0.7314 s
G = 200sin130 = 153.2
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(d)
(c)
(b)
(a)
2.
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(b)
B
that A cos x + B sin x = A2 + B 2 cos x + tan 1
. For f(t), the angle is in the
A
second quadrant; most calculators will return 30.96o, which is off by 180o.
(a) Note
3.
[A sin (
L t )] + RA cos (t ) = Vm cos t
R 2 + 2 L2
+ RA
*
R 2 + 2 L2
R
= Vm
Thus,
R2
2 L2
so that
+
A = Vm
2
2 2
R 2 + 2 L2
R + L
and LA
Thus, tan =
L
R
L
LA cos = RA sin
= Vm cos t
R 2 + 2 L2
Vm
10 March 2006
i (t ) = A cos (t ), and
L(di / dt ) + Ri = Vm cos t
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4.
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Since
(85.2106)(21.15103) + = n, n = 1, 3, 5,
10 March 2006
Vm2
= 300 so Vm = 38.73 V.
5
Finally,
5.
1
1
10 March 2006
90o
90o
1103o
90o
15 66o
2
450o = 2 90o = 2 270o
sin t
cos (t 90o)
1 90o
sin (t 13o)
cos (t 90o)
2270o
1566o
121o
3381o
1103o
(b)
(a)
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(d)
(c)
6.
1 90o
1
7000
 = 7000 180o
9
3.14o
90o = 190o
1 90o
9 3.14o
10 March 2006
69o
6189o
1 100o
1
100o = 1 80o
180o
7000 cos (t )
9 cos (t 3.14o)
7000 180o
(d)
190o
sin t
sin t
1100o
cos (t  100o)
cos (t  100o)
69o
6189o
(a)
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(c)
(b)
7.
[1]
V2
V1
V12 + V22
V2
V sin
= m
= tan and = tan1(V2/ V1)
V1
Vm cos
10 March 2006
V1
2
2
V +V
2
1
V1
Vm =
V12 + V22
Next, we see from the above sketch that we may write Vm = V1/ cos or
Equating terms on the right hand sides of Eqs. [1] and [2],
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yields
8.
0.8046 V.
(c) 0.8141 V.
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(d)
9.
V2
= m
2T
V2
= m
2T
1
2
V2
dt + m
2T
0
1
2
1
2
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4t
cos
dt
T
4t
1 + cos
dt
T
2t
cos
dt
T
V2
V2
4
= m T + m cos u 0
8
2T
V
= m
2
V2
= m
T
(b)
cos 2 t dt
10 March 2006
Vrms
10. (a)
V2
= m
T
i = iC = C
dvC
, we may rewrite our KVL equation as
dt
dv
30 C + vC = 2 103 cos 5t
dt
2103cos5t + 10i + vC = 0.
10 March 2006
[1]
150 A
3
+ A2 cos 5t + ta+ n 1
= 2 10 cos 5t
A
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Equating terms, we find that A = 13.33 V and = tan1 150 = 89.62o. Thus,
(150 A)
dvC
= 5 A sin(5t + ) ,
dt
we now may write Eq. [1] as 150Asin(5t + ) + Acos(5t + ) = 2103 cos5t. Using a
common
trigonometric identity, we may combine the two terms on the left hand side into
a single cosine function:
Since
11.
yields
10 March 2006
[1]
800 A
cos 400t + t + an 1
= 6 cos 400t
100 A
di
di
= 2 = 5.954cos (400t + 7.12o)
dt
dt
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(800 A) + (100 A)
Using a common trigonometric identity, we may combine the two terms on the left hand
side into a single cosine function:
6cos400t + 100i + vL = 0.
di
di
Since
vL = L = 2 , we may rewrite our KVL equation as
dt
dt
di
2 + 100i = 6 cos 400t
dt
We anticipate a response of the form i(t) = Acos(400t + ). Since
di
= 400 A sin(400t + ) ,
dt
we now may write Eq. [1] as
12. KVL
t V 200o V. 20 mH j10 .
10 March 2006
19.99
= 0.742721.81o A. Thus, iL(t) = 742.7 cos (500t 21.81o) mA.
19.99 + 5 + j 10
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IL =
13. 20cos500
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(b)
10
162 + 102
= 0.2544 cos (500t 32.01) A
iL =
(a)
4.8
80
cos 500t
85
voc = 4.8cos 500t V
14.
At x x : R th = 80 20 = 16
ps = 0 when 105 t =
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(c)
t = 10.121 or 25.83s
(b)
800
5
cos 105 t
= 0.10600 cos (10 t 57.99) A
2
2
500
500 + 800
57.99
pR = 0 when i = 0 105 t
= , t = 25.83s
180
2
i=
100
(a)
15.
10
502 + 102
At 10
t = s, 105 t = 1 iL = 0.1167 cos (1rad 11.310) = 81.76mA
iL =
vs = 3cos105 t V, is = 0.1cos105 t A
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16.
10 March 2006
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17. cos500
37.70
40
402 + 37.702
= 2.183cos (120 t 43.30) A
L , av =
1
0.2383 = 0.11916 J
2
1
L = 0.1 2.1832 cos 2 (120 t 43.30)
2
= 0.2383cos 2 (120 t 43.30) J
iL =
120
120
120
= 2A,
= 1A, 2 + 1 = 3A, 60 120 = 40
60
12
3 40 = 120 V, L = 12 = 37.70
10 March 2006
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(b)
(a)
18.
10 March 2006
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=
C1 R
L
R
= vout +
Vm cos t = vout + R1C1vout
vout
R
d v
For RL circuit, Vm cos t = vr + L R
dt R
L
Vm cos t = vR + vR
R
By comparison, vR = vout
v
Vm cos t
, ilower = out
R
R1
iupper =
R i = , R o = 0, A = , ideal,
10 March 2006
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20.
cos ( t + )
A
cos ( t + )
C
A
A
cos t cos sin t sin
C
C
10 March 2006
i =
A
1
C 1 + 2C2 R 2
1
cos t + tan 1
CR
1 + 2 C2 R 2
A
CVm
1 + 2 C2 R 2 A =
=
1 + 2C2 R 2
C
1+ C R
CR
A R 2C2 + 1
C 1 + 2 C2 R 2
CVm
Vm =
[2] Vm = R A
Vm sin t = R A sin ( t + ) +
Assume iA=
1
idt (ignore I.C)
C
1
Vm sin t = Ri + i
C
Vm cos t = Ri +
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(b)
21.
(a)
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(f) 3 = 3 0o
1 0o = 1
(d)
10 March 2006
7 90o = j 7
(c)
22. (a)
10 March 2006
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(b)
23.
10 March 2006
(c) (14 j 9)/ (2 j 8) + 5 30o = (16.64 32.74o)/ (8.246  75.96o) + 4.330 j 2.5
= 5.011 137.1o
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(d)
24.
10 March 2006
(5 30o)/ (2 15o) + 2 e j5 / (2 j 2)
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(b)
25.
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
10 March 2006
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(a)
26.
2 2 j5
+
= 4.050 69.78
j 1+ j2
3+
(2.125)3 = 9.26175 = 2.397 + j8.945+
0.7e j 0.3 = 0.70.3rad = 0.6687 + j 0.2069
(b)
(c)
(d)
10 March 2006
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(a)
27.
10 March 2006
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28.
ic = 20e(40t +30) A vc = 100 20e j (40t +30) dt
d
[20e j (10t + 25) ] = j 40e(10t = 25 )
dt
10 March 2006
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vL = 0.2
29.
iL = 20e j (10t + 25) A
(b)
10 March 2006
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(d)
(c)
(a)
30.
(c)
(d)
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(e)
(b)
(a)
31.
33 50 + 41 75 = 72.27 63.87 V
20 + j 30 = 36.0656.31 V
vx = 20 cos108t 30sin108t
I x = 4 + j1.5 = 4.272159.44 A
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(e)
(d)
(c)
(b)
I x = 5 80 A
(a)
= 4000, t = 1ms
32.
10 March 2006
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= 1200, M by 5, t = 0.5ms
10 March 2006
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and
34.
(2.5
(c)
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(b)
Thus,
10
(a)
10 March 2006
= 5000 rad/s.
35.
or 2  3  1 = 0
VR = 1 and Vseries = 1 + (  1/ )
10 March 2006
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36.
10 March 2006
Vx = VL Vc = 7.805+ 48.79 5 50
With an operating frequency of = 400 rad/s, the impedance of the 10mH inductor is
jL = j4 , and the impedance of the 1mF capacitor is j/C = j2.5 .
Vc = 240 ( j 2.5) = 5 50 A
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37.
90 j 30
= 12.415+ j 20.21
440
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+ (26.15117.97) (2.560)
= 165.90 140.63V
= 49.842 60.32
Vout = (49.842 60.32) (2.5 60)
B =
30.06 153.82
= 26.148117.97
1.1496 + 88.21
A = 12.415+ j 20.21 10.800 + j 23.81
8010
3 30
=A+B
A = 40 10 B(1.5 50)
220
220
12.415+ j 20.21 B = 40 10 B(1.5 50)
and 90 j 30 = (A + B) (440) A + B =
I s1 = I s 2 = 440 A Vout = 90 j 30 V
38.
10 March 2006
j106
= 2000 rad/s, therefore ZC = j/C =
= j 291.8 m .
2000 ( 545.5 )
(c)
j106
= j 291.8 n .
2 109 ( 545.5 )
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(d)
(b)
j106
= j 2.918 .
200 ( 545.5 )
j106
= j 291.8 .
2 ( 545.5 )
We begin by noting that the series connection of capacitors can be replaced by a single
1
equivalent capacitance of value C =
= 545.5 F
. Noting = 2f,
1+ 1 + 1
2
3
(a)
39.
10 March 2006
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
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(a)
= 2f,
5 j 109
6
Z=
5
9
5 + j 10
6
We begin by noting that the parallel connection of inductors can be replaced by a single
1
5
equivalent inductance of value L =
= nH . In terms of impedance, then, we have
1+ 5 6
Noting
40.
300( j 312.5)
300 j 312.5
600( j 960)
= 587.6 + j119.79
600 + j 960
= 1600 : Zin =
Zin =
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(b)
41.
(a)
(b)
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6.667 + j 5
20 + j15
4 + j3 4 j3
= Z in Z in (1.2 + j1.6) (4 j 3) = 9.6 + j 2.8
(a)
42.
10 March 2006
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I =
j 625
120
Zin =
43.
same:
4 = 000 V = (3 20) (3 + j8 j 2)
V = (3 20) (3 + j 6) = 20.1243.43 V
(b)
(c)
(d)
10 March 2006
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44.
(a)
1
0.005 j 0.01 + j 0.002
1
1
= 100 =
5
0.01
0.0005 j 0.1/ + j 2 10
10 March 2006
use + sign: =
use sign: =
0.1
0.1
5
5
0.0052 + 2 105
= 0.0001, 2 10
= 7.5 10
0.01
2 105
866.0 105 = 0 2 105 2 866.0 105 0.1 = 0
C = 20F Zin =
so
or
1
0.005 j 0.001 + j100C
1
or
Z in = 125 =
= 100 rad/s Z in =
1
1
+
+ j1000 20 106
200 j1000
1
Zin =
= 196.12 11.310
0.005 + j 0.001
Zin =
C = 20F, = 100
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(c)
(b)
(a)
45.
=
30 + j 0.02 30 j 0.02 900 + 0.00042
Zin =
1
3 0
1
Yin = 25 = f o j = tan 1
x
x
30
x = 64.34 = 0.02, = 3217rad/s
1
1
1
1
= 25 =
+ 2 = 0.0016
1
1
0.04 900 x
+
jx 30
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(d)
(c)
(b)
(a)
46.
10 March 2006
240 (R 2 j 2.5)
R1 + j 4
R 2 = 4.335+ , R1 = 3.211
R1 + j 4 =
240 (R 2 j 2.5)
1.9513 41.21
= 1.025081.21 ( R2 j 2.5)
IL =
Vc = 240 ( j 2.5) = 5 50 A
With an operating frequency of = 400 rad/s, the impedance of the 10mH inductor is
jL = j4 , and the impedance of the 1mF capacitor is j/C = j2.5 .
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
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47.
80X j 200X
Zin = 100
200 + j (80 X)
1
C = 1.437
F
1200C
X=
Zin =
= 1200
j (200 + j80) (80 x j 200 x)[200 + j ( x 80)]
=
Zin =
200 + j (80 x)
40, 000 + 6400 160 x + x 2
= 1200 rad/s.
10 March 2006
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(b)
(a)
48.
10 March 2006
(b) Term
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= 4 rad/s, the 1/8F capacitor has an impedance of j/C = j2 , and the 4H
inductor has an impedance of jL = j16 .
(a) Term
49. At
= Z1
= Z2
= Z3
= Z4
= Z5
= Z6
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The three impedances at the upper right, Z3, 700 k, and Z3 reduce to j0.01592
Finally,
50.
2
3.2
1
1
20
10 March 2006
(c)
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As in any true design problem, there is more than one possible solution. Model answers
ollow:
(b)
51.
f
(b) To obtain a purely real impedance, the reactance of the inductor must cancel the
reactance of the capacitor, In a series string, this is obtained by meeting the criterion L
1/C, or L = 1/2C = 1/100C.
10 March 2006
As in any true design problem, there is more than one possible solution. Model answers
ollow:
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52.
f
10 March 2006
Y = j400C = j8.796 S
= 400 rad/s.
= 4103 rad/s. Y = j4103C = j879.6 S
= 41011 rad/s. Y = j41011C = j8.796109 S
(b)
(c)
(d)
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
Y = j4C = j87.96 mS
= 4 rad/s.
(a)
53.
Note that we may replace the three capacitors in parallel with a single capacitor having
value
10 3 + 2 103 + 4 103 = 7 mF .
Z = 1 + j100 , so Y =
(b) B = C = 100 S
(a) Susceptance is 0
10 March 2006
1
1 j100
=G + jB , where B = 9.999 mS.
=
1 + j100
1+1002
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(c)
54.
10 March 2006
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1
2H
j2
10
1 1 j1
=
= 0.5 j 0.5
1 + j1 1 j1
Vin
Vin =
VL = j 2V I c = I in + 0.5 VL = 1 + j1
55.
2 H j 2, 1F j1 Let I1 = 0 A
= 1000 rad/s
(c)
1
1
+
= 0.180835.58o S
Z S ZC
10 March 2006
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= 147.1 + j105.2 mS
Yin ,ab =
Thus,
and Z C = j 58.89 .
Z S = 5 + j 2 j 5 = 5 j 3 = 5.831 30.96o
R in , ab =
106
= 21.2
5
YinRLC =
1
5 j9
9
=
Yc =
= 500C
5 + j9
106
106
9
C =
= 169.8
F
53, 000
(b)
56.
(a)
= 10
100 81
= 52.23 and 133.95 krad/s
108 106
10
25 108 + 0.362
10 = 37.5 104 + 54 106 2
X in = 50 =
10
= 0.5 106 + 0.5 104 2 10
6 2
10 + 10
2
= 0, 2 105 + 1010 = 0
Zin =
j 0.1
100 + j 0.001
50, 000 + j 0.6 100 j 0.001
Zin =
10 March 2006
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(d)
(c)
(b)
57.
(a)
(c)
I3 0.213.740
=
= 44.7277.18 V V3 = 44.72V
Y3 (2 j 4)103
Vin = 45.60V
V3 =
10 March 2006
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
(d)
V2 = V1 V2 = 20V
(b)
V1 =
I1
0.130
=
= 20 23.13 V1 = 20 V
Y1 (3 + j 4)103
(a)
58.
R1 j
500
= 5 j 5 R1 = 5 , C1 = 100 F
C1
Yin =
R1 j
1
1000
1
R1 j
=
= 8 j4
1000
C
0.1 + j 0.05
R1 j
C
1
R 1 = 8 and C1 =
= 250 F
4
500
C1
10 March 2006
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(b)
(a)
59.
Gin
0
0.0099
0.0385
0.2
0.5
0.8
1
0
1
2
5
10
20
Yin =
0
0.0099
0.1923
0.4
0.5
0.4
0
Bin
2 + j10
2 + 100
10
2
G in = 2
, Bin = 2
+ 100
+ 100
10 10 + j
=
j
j
j
10 j
Yin
10 + j 10 j
Zin = 1 +
10 March 2006
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(a)
60.
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mF.
(c)
1/
(b)
Y = 1 j4 S at = 1 rad/s.
Construct this using a 1 S conductance in
= 4, or L = 250 mH.
(a)
10 March 2006
As in any true design problem , there is m ore than one possible solution. Model answers
ollow:
61.
f
10 March 2006
Y = 1 j4 pS at = 30 rad/s.
As in any true design problem , there is m ore than one possible solution. Model answers
ollow:
One possible solution, then, is a 253.9 M resistor in parallel with a 28.78 H inductor.
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(c)
200
(a)
62.
f
10 March 2006
(2)
5 j 2 j 75
j4
300
1500 j 600 300 1200 j 600
= 34.3623.63 V
=
V2 =
=
j2
5 j2
25 j 30
17 j30 + 8
j4
5 j4
v2 V1 V2 V1 V2
+
+
= 10
6
j5
j3
j10V2 + j10V1 + j 6V2 j 6V1 + 5V2 = 300 j 4V1 + (5 j 4) V2 = 300
v1 V1 V2 v1 V2
, j 75 = 5V1 + j 3V1 j 3V2 j 5V1 + j 5V2
+
+
3
j5
j3
(5 j 2) V1 + j 2V2 = j 75 (1)
j5 =
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63.
10 March 2006
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= 13.198154.23 A
0
j5
60 j15 9 j 5 75 + j 300
=
IB =
j2
j5
15 j18
j5 9 j5
j 5I B + (9 j 5) I D = 60 j15
j 3I B j 5(I B I D ) = 0 2I B + j 5I D = 0
64.
10 March 2006
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vx (t ) = 70.71cos(1000t 45) V
vx 20 vx vx + j 20
+ +
= 0, 0.04vx + j 2 2 = 0,
j10
j10
25
Vx = 25(2 j 2) = 70.71 45 V
65.
100
= 34.65+ 94.97V
j 0.25 j 2.875
10 March 2006
X 2 = 6, X = 6, Z c = j 2.449 k
= 0.25 j 2.875 V V3 =
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(b)
66.
(a)
10 March 2006
j 0.25
2 j 0.25
Ix =
10 (1 + 1 j 0.5)
j 0.25(2 j 0.5) + (2 + j 0.25 + j 0.25) + (2 j 0.25) (4 + 1 j 0.5 + j8 1)
20 j 5
=
I x = 1.217 75.96 A, ix (t ) = 1.2127 cos (100t 75.96) A
8 + j15
2 + j4
1 10
2 j 0.25
1
2 + j4 0
1
j 0.25
0
Ix =
2 j 0.25
1
j 0.25
Mesh 2: I1 + (1 + 1 + j4)I2 I3 = 0
Define three clockwise mesh currents i1, i2, i3 with i1 in the left mesh, i2 in the top right
esh, and i3 in the bottom right mesh.
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67.
m
10 March 2006
10 (1 + 1 j 0.5)
j 0.25(2 j 0.5) + (2 + j 0.25 + j 0.25) + (2 j 0.25) (4 + 1 j 0.5 + j8 1)
20 j 5
=
= 1.2127 75.96 V
8 + j15
vx = 1.2127 cos(100t 75.96) V
1 10
2 j 0.25
1
2 + j4 0
1
j 0.25
0
Vx =
j 0.25
j 0.25
1
1
1
2 + j4
j 0.25
1
2 j 0.25
j 0.25V1 V2 + (2 j 0.25) Vx = 0
j 0.25Vx + j 0.25V1 + Vx + Vx V2
V1 + (2 + j 4) V2 Vx = 0
V2 V1 + V2 Vx + j 4V2 = 0
(2 j 0.25) V1 V2 + j 0.25 Vx = 10
V1 10 j 0.25V1 + j 0.25Vx + V1 V2 = 0
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68.
V1 + AVi
= j C1 (Vs Vi )
Rf
1
Rf
=
1 + j C f R f
Rf
(V1 + AVi )
(1 + j C f R f ) = (Vs Vi ) j C1 , Vo = AVi
Rf
j C f +
10 March 2006
Vo
[(1 + A) (1 + j C f R f ) + j C1R f ] = j C1R f Vs
A
j C1R f
j C1R f A
V
V
o =
As A , o
Vs
1 + j C f R f
Vs (1 + A) (1 + j C f R f ) + j C1R f
Vi (1 + A) (1 + j C f R f ) = Vs j C1R f j C1R f Vi ,
I=
R f Cf =
Vo = AVi
Vo
(1 + A + j C1R f ) = j C1R f Vs
A
j C1R f A
V
V
o =
As A , o j C1R f
Vs
1 + A + j C1R f
Vs
Vi (1 + A + j C1R f ) = j C1R f Vs
I=
R1 = , R o = 0, A = Vo / Vi >> 0
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(b)
69.
(a)
10 March 2006
j2
( V2 V1 )
+
V2
j2
[2]
5V2 =
V1  3  3o
(V  V )
5V2 + 3V2 =
+ 1 2 [1]
100 j / 0.6
 j2
Define the nodal voltage v1(t) at the junction between the two dependent sources.
The voltage source may be replaced by a 33o V source, the 600F capacitor by a
j/ 0.6 impedance, the 500F capacitor by a j2 impedance, and the inductor by a
j2 impedance.
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70.
10 March 2006
0o 5 I2 + (5 j6.667) I3 = 0
3:
I1 + I2 = 2103
Define three clockwise mesh currents: i1(t) in the leftmost mesh, i2(t) in the bottom right
esh, and i3(t) in the top right mesh. The 15F capacitor is replaced with a j/ 0.15
impedance, the inductor is replaced by a j20 impedance, the 74 F capacitor is
replaced by a j1.351 impedance, the current source is replaced by a 20o mA source,
and the voltage source is replaced with a 50o V source.
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Mesh
and
71.
m
10 March 2006
j500 I4 = 6 0o [3]
+ (1 j500) I3
j0.004 I4 = 0
[4]
[2]
= 6 13o [1]
I1
(1 j/ 0.0015) I1 + j/0.0015I2 I3
We define an additional clockwise mesh current i4(t) flowing in the upper righthand
mesh. The inductor is replaced by a j0.004 impedance, the 750 F capacitor is
replaced by a j/ 0.0015 impedance, and the 1000 F capacitor is replaced by a j/ 2
impedance. We replace the left voltage source with a a 6 13o V source, and the
right voltage source with a 6 0o V source.
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72.
10 March 2006
We replace the voltage source with a 115 2 0o V source, the capacitor with a
j/ 2C1 impedance, and the inductor with a j0.03142 impedance.
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Thus,
Defi
73.
10 March 2006
Thus, 20 =
115 2
= 8.1320o
20 + j (2L 1.592 )
Defining a clockwise mesh current i1(t), we replace the voltage source with a
115 2 0o V source, the inductor with a j2L impedance, and the capacitor with a
j1.592 impedance.
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74.
and R L = RC  RL
g m R S j C R S
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(c) The output is ~180o out of phase with the input for f < 105 Hz; only for f = 0 is it
exactly 180o out of phase with the input.
(b)
Therefore,
1
1
1
+
+
R S R B r
C + C C
1
+ 2 (2C2 + C C )  j g mC +
+
RS R L
R
R S
L
[2]
C + C C
1
+ 2 2C2 + C C  j g m C +
+
RS R L
RL
R S
g C + C + C + C
m
jC
RL
R S
1
tan
ang(Vout) = tan
2
1
2
2
g m RS
+ (2C + C C )
RS R L
Vout =
And
RS
ne
[2]
10 March 2006
1
1
1
[1]
+
+ + j (C + C ) V  jC Vout =
RS
R S R B r
Then
Defi
75.
Vx 100 Vx
+
0.02Vx = 0
j10
20
j10
0.07 + j 0.1
57.35 55.01
= 4.698 j 6.711
7
100
= 7A
20
10 March 2006
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Zth =
Vx = 67.11 + j 46.98
OC :
76.
1
+ j 2
j
and
L = 1/0.5 = 2 H.
1
= 0.5 j 0.5
1 + j1
R = 1/0.5 = 2
Yin =
= 1+
1
+ j 2
j
V
1
Zin = in = 1 +
+ j 2 so Yin =
1
j
+ j (2 2 1)
At = 1, Zin = 1 j1 + j 2 = 1 + j
Vin = (1 + j )
10 March 2006
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77.
10 March 2006
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j2 1=
j2 1 j2
= 0.8 + j 0.4 V1
1+ j2 1 j2
10 + j 20
0.8 + j 0.4
= j 25
=
= 11.785+ 135 V
1 j1 + 0.8 + j 0.4 1.8 j 0.6
s:
(b) I
so
15
(1 j1)1 2 + j1 3 j1
=
V1 =
0.6 j 0.2
2 j1 2 + j1
5
j 2 + 0.6 j 0.2
V1 = 590 v1 (t ) = 5cos (1000t + 90) V
Vs :
(a)
78.
10 March 2006
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IN =
I
1
= 0.4 j 0.8 YN = N = 0.4 j 0.8
0.5 + j1
10
1
1
1
1
RN =
= 2.5 ,
=
= j 0.8, L N =
= 1.25H
0.4
0.8
j L N
jL N
SC : I N VL = j 2I N 10 = j1[0.25( j 2I N ) + I N ] + j 2I N
79.
OC :VL = 0 Vab ,oc = 10 V
10 March 2006
To solve this problem , we e mploy super position in order to separate sources having
different frequencies. First cons idering the sources operating at w = 200 rad/s, we opencircuit the 100 rad/s current source. This leads to VL = (j)(20) = j2 V. Therefore, vL ( t )
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80.
30, 000
= j150
j 200
10 March 2006
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j100
j100 j 300
j 300
= 500 V Right: Vab = j100
= j150 V
j 300 + j100
Vth = 50 + j150 = 158.11108.43 V
81.
10 March 2006
I =
This problem is easily solved if we first perform two source transformations to yield a
circuit containing only voltage sources and impedances:
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Then
82.
10 March 2006
PSpice verification.
Converting back to the time domain, vC(t) = 88.21 cos (t 107.1o) mV.
(a) There are a number of possible approaches: Thvenizing everything to the left of the
capacitor is one of them.
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(b)
83.
10 March 2006
[2]
j V1 + (1 + j) V2 = j5
(b)
VM($N 0002,0)
4.474E+00
VM($N_0005,0)
4.473E+00
FREQ
1.592E+01
FREQ
1.592E+01
1.165E+02
VP($N_0005,0)
1.165E+02
VP($N 0002,0)
[1]
[2]
2:
Node 1:
[1]
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Node
84.
1
j C
V out
1 / jC
, or
R + 1 / jC
V in
1
1 + j RC
Vout
10 March 2006
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
As
Thus, low frequency signals are transferred from the input to the output relatively
unaffected by this circuit, but high frequency signals are attenuated, or filtered out.
This is readily apparent if we plot the magnitude as a function of frequency (assuming R
1 and C = 1 F for convenience):
The magnitude of this ratio (consider, for example, an input with unity magnitude and
zero phase) is
1
Vout
=
2
Vin
1 + (RC )
Vout = Vin
Vin
As
85.
1/jC
R
jRC
V
, or out =
R + 1 / jC
Vin
1 + jRC
Vout
10 March 2006
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As
Thus, high frequency signals are transferred from the input to the output relatively
unaffected by this circuit, but low frequency signals are attenuated, or filtered out.
This is readily apparent if we plot the magnitude as a function of frequency (assuming R
1 and C = 1 F for convenience):
The magnitude of this ratio (consider, for example, an input with unity magnitude and
zero phase) is
RC
Vout
=
2
Vin
1 + (RC )
Vout = Vin
Vin
As
86.
hence
and
10 March 2006
+
Vout

Vout
1
405
=
12
VS
505 1 + j 2.532 10
1 + 6.411 10 24 2
0.802
so
31.57 fF
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Vout
=
VS
405
1/jC
VS
505 80.2 + 1 / jC
405
VS
505
80.2
Vout =
(c)
(a) Removing the capacitor temporarily, we easily find the Thvenin equivalent:
(b)
87.
10 March 2006
low frequency
R R (r  R B )
R R
r R B
=  g m C L
=  g m C L
R C + R L R S + r  R B
R C + R L R S (r + R B ) + r R B
We seek to maximize this term within the stated constraints. This requires a large value
gm, but also a large value of r  RB. This parallel combination will be less than the
smaller of the two terms, so even if we allow RB , we are left with
Vou t
 2398
g r
 (7.994) m =
VS
100 + r
100 + r
Vou t
r  R B
=  g m (7.994)
VS
100 + r  R B
(b) If we set RS = 100 , RL = 8 , RC  max = 10 k and rgm = 300, then we find that
The resistor network comprised of r, RS, and RB acts as a voltage divider, leading to a
reduction in the gain of the amplifier. In the situation where r  RB >> RS, then it has
minimal effect and the gain will equal its maximum value of gm (RC  RL).
Vout
VS
2
2 R R 2
2
2
2 R CR L
C L
C
+
g m
R C + R L
R C + R L
Vout
=
2
Vin
2
2 R CR L
C
1 +
RC + RL
This function has a maximum value of gm (RC  RL) at = 0. Thus, the capacitors reduce
the gain at high frequencies; this is the frequency regime at which they begin to act as
short circuits. Therefore, the maximum gain is obtained at frequencies at which the
capacitors may be treated as open circuits. If we do this, we may analyze the circuit
of Fig. 10.25b without the capacitors, which leads to
that
 g m (R C  R L ) + j (R C  R L )C
Vout
=
Vin
1 + j (R C  R L )C
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(c) Referring to our original expression in which the gain Vout/ Vin was computed, we
see that the critical frequency C = [(RC  RL) C]1. Our selection of maximum RC,
RB , and r << 100 has not affected this frequency.
of
so
88.
[2]
[1]
92 F j0.05435
[3]
v1(t) = 3.223103 cos (2104t 87o) + 312.81012 cos (2105t + 177o) V and
Adding, we find
v1"(t) = 312.8 cos (2105t + 177o) pV and v2"(t) = 115.7 cos(2105t 93o) V
(V2" V1")/ (56103 + j44.8) + (V2" 100 3o)/ 47103 + V2"/ (j0.05435) = 0 [4]
v1(t) = 3.223 cos (2104t 87o) mV and v2(t) = 31.28 cos(2104t 177o) nV
(V1 100 3o)/ 47103 + V1/ (j1.515) + (V1 V2)/ (56103 + j4.48) = 0
92 F j0.5435
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Thus,
Then
33
Thus,
Then
33
10 March 2006
89. Considering
10 March 2006
=
=
=
=
0
7
0
0
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
=
=
=
=
0
7
0
0
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
(9.5 + j2) IA j2 IB 7 IC
4 ID
j2 IA + (3 + j) IB
3 ID
7 IA +
(12 j/ 4) IC + j/ 4 ID
3 I2 + j/ 4 IC + (4 + j5.75) ID
Then by mesh analysis, (define 4 clockwise mesh currents IA, IB, IC, ID in the top left, top
right, bottom left and bottom right meshes, respectively):
(9.5 + j4) I1 j4 I2 7 I3
 4 I4
j4 I1 + (3 + j3.5) I2
3 I4
7 I1 +
(12 j/ 8) I3 + j/ 8 I4
3 I2 + j/ 8 I3 + (4 + j11.875) I4
Then by mesh analysis, (define 4 clockwise mesh currents I1, I2, I3, I4 in the top left, top
right, bottom left and bottom right meshes, respectively):
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
90.
2
= 51.21 50.19 (2.05in)
2 j1
100 (2 j1)
= 57.26 76.76 (2.29in)
2.5 + j 3
Ic = (57.26 76.76)
2
2 j1
j1
= 25.61 140.19 (1.02in)
2 j1
j 2.5 +
100
I R = (57.26 76.76)
IL =
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
(a)
91.
= 6.265 22.14 A
I s = I1 + I 2 + I 3
120
= 3 30 A
4030
120
I2 =
= 2.05830.96 A
50 j 30
120
I3 =
= 2.4 53.13 A
30 + j 40
I1 =
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
(c)
(b)
(a)
92.
[Analytically: 5 + 7 = 10
= 5cos + j 5sin + 7 cos + j 7 sin
sin = 1.4sin
I1 = 5A, I 2 = 7A
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93.
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94.
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I c = 1.060057.99 A
Zc =
50 ( j80)
106
= j80 ,
= 42.40 32.01
j 500 25
50 j80
V = 84.80 32.01 V, I R = 1.696 32.01 A
1.
10 March 2006
(b)
10
10
61
61
8 10 + 5 + 2 = V Pc (2) = 7 = 142.33 W
3
3
3
3
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
vc (2) =
1 t 2
2
2
2
(2t 1) dt + 2 = 5 t 3 t + 2 = 5 t 3 t 5 1 + 2
0.2 F : vc =
0.2 1
3
1
3
3
t
4H : i = 2t 2 1 v = Li = 4 (4t ) = 16t , wL =
1 2 1
Li = 4 (4t 4 4t 2 + 1)
2
2
4
2
4
2
wL = 8t 8t + 2 wL (3) wL (1) = 8 3 8 3 + 2 8 1 + 8 1 2 = 576 J
(a)
2.
R
1
= 2, o2 =
= 3, s1,2 = 2 1 = 1, 3
2L
LC
10 March 2006
(c)
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
vc = 3e 5e3t Pc (0+ ) = (3 5) (1 + 5) = 8 W
1
i = Ae t + Be3t A + B = 4; i (0+ ) = vL (0+ ) = (4 4 +2) = 14
1
A 38 = 14 B = 5, A = 1, i = e t + 5e 3t A
(b)
(a)
3.
10 March 2006
][
97.97 mW
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT12) IP(V_PRINT12)
1.592E+02 2.629E04
5.054E+01
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT2) IP(V_PRINT2)
1.592E+02 2.628E03
1.405E+02
VP(L,0)
5.054E+01
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT11) IP(V_PRINT11)
1.592E+02 1.052E02
3.946E+01
279.6 W
FREQ
VM(R2_5k,$N_0002)VP(R2_5k,$N_0002)
1.592E+02 1.974E+01
3.755E+01
FREQ
VM(L,0)
1.592E+02 2.629E+00
10000
[
][
[2.631cos( 50.54 )] =
P2.5k =
2500
o 2
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)
1.592E+02 7.896E03
3.755E+01
Veq =
(2030)(11.10 j 333.0)
= 2.631 50.54o V
2500 + 11.10 j 333.0
Veq
Veq
I10k =
= 0.2631  50.54o mA
I1 H =
= 2.631  140.5o mA
j1000
10000
Veq
(2030)(2500)
I4 F =
= 10.52 39.46o mA V2.5k =
= 19.7437.55o V
j 250
2500 + 11.10 j 333.0
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Thus,
4.
2.5
40 53.13
11 j 4
17.087 33.15
= 3.41719.98 A
3 j4
( = 0)
I3 =
i8 =
17.087
cos (25t 33.15)
8
i8 (0.1) = 2.136 cos (2.5rad 33.15) = 0.7338 A
is 50 A, C j 4 , Zin = 8 (3 j 4) =
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5.
(b)
(c)
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
p(0+) = (8)2(1) = 64 W
(a)
= 8e 2t .
t > 0, i(t) = 8e
6. For
R t
L
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
p(0.03)
= v2(0.03)/R = (18103e1)2 / 6000 = 7.308 kW
30103
(b)
v(t ) = (3)(6000)e
(a)
7.
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
8.
v(0+ ) =
=
ms)
100 106 kJ
= 271.15 + 23 + 0.1111
kJ
3
(10 kG ) 0.9 kg K
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
= 271.15 + 23 +
RC
1 2e
v 2 (t )
RC 2 2
=
dt
0 R
0 R dt = 2 R e RC 1 100 mJ
2 t
p(120
10 March 2006
2W
2(100 103 )
t
t
=
= 2 V and so v(t ) = 2e RC = 2e 0.12 V.
3
C
100 10
1
CV 2 . The initial voltage, v(0+), is therefore
2
9. W =
p = (276)(130) = 358.8 mW
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(b)
v(t) = 2.76cos1000t V (given); we need to know the IV relationship for this
(nonlinear)
device.
10. (a)
I10 =
100
j5
= 6.09752.43 so
6.5 + j 5 10
1
P10,abs = (6.097) 2 10 = 185.87 W
2
PL = 0
( = 0)
j 5(10 j 5)
= 4 + 2.5 + j 5 = 6.5 + j 5
10
100
Is =
= 12.194 37.57 A
6.5 + j5
1
Ps , abs = 100 12.194 cos 37.57 = 483.3 W
2
1
P4, abs = (12.194) 2 4 = 297.4 W,
2
Pcabs = 0
Zin = 4 +
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11.
V = (10 + j10)
4030
= 52.4469.18 V
550 + 8 20
( gen = abs )
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1 52.44
P8 20 abs =
cos (20) = 161.5 W
2 8
P550 abs
1 52.44
=
cos (50) = 176.8 W
2 5
1
P10, gen = 10 52.44 cos 69.18 = 93.19 W
2
1
Pj10, gen = 10 52.44 cos (90 69.18) = 245.1 W
2
12.
(2 + j 5) (4 + j 3)
= 13.46351.94 V
6 + j8
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1
13.463 5cos 51.94 = 20.75 W
2
Vs = 50
(b)
Ps , gen =
P3
(a)
1 5 29
=
3 = 10.875 W
2 10
2 + j5
5 29
, IR =
6 + j8
10
1
= 3 + 1 + j3 = 4 + j3
0.1 j 0.3
Ignore 30 on Vs , I R = 5
ZR = 3 +
13.
P10 =
1 79.062
= 312.5 W;
2 10
79.06161.57 50
I 50 =
= 12.7578.69 A
j10
1
P50V = 50 12.748cos 78.69 = 62.50 W
2
79.06161.57 j 50
= 15.811 7.57 :
I j 50 =
j5
1
Pj 50 = 50 15.811cos (90 + 71.57) = 375.0 W
2
V10 = 79.0616.57 V
Pj10 = P j 5 = 0,
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14.
[2]
[1]
[1] and
1
Pgen = 9.233 ( 2 5.122 ) cos (83.88 + 140.2) = 26.22 W
2
Solving,
Vx = 9.233 83.88 V and Vc = 5.122 140.2 V
5Vx 14Vc = 60
Vx 20 Vx Vc
+
= 2Vc
2
3
and
V
V Vx
0= c + c
j2
3
which simplify to
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15.
Vth
2PL
=
RL
(R th + R L ) 2 + a 2
R th2 + (Xth + X L ) 2
R L = R th2 + a 2 =
R + R 2L + a 2 2R L (R th + R L )
df
= th
=0
2
dRL
(R th + R L ) 2 + a 2
R th2 + 2R th R L + R 2L + a 2 2R th R L = 2R 2L = 0
Vth
1
R L Z L = R L jX th
R L fixed PL =
2 (R th + R L ) 2 + (X th + X L ) 2
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(e)
(d)
(c)
R L , X L independent Z L = Zth = R th jX th
(b)
2
X in = 0 Z L = R th + j 0
(a)
16.
ZTH + ( ZTH )
VTH
=
107.3 116.6
.
16
16
10
IL =
ZTH = ( Z L ) = 8 + j14
179.8 W
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(b)
(a)
Vth = 120
j10
= 107.3 116.6 V
10 + j 5
j10 (10 + j15)
Zth =
= 8 j14
10 + j 5
17.
PL =
1
107.332
16.125 = 119.38 W
2 (8 + 16.125) 2 + 142
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18.
1
24 1.6 5 = 96
2
)
( genW
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Po =
Ix =
9.6
=5
1.92
V = (0.6 5)8 = 24 V
19.
j 9.6 = 4.8 I x j1.92 I x +4.8I x
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IL =
144 + j192
2 28.8
1 1442 + 1922
28.8 = 250 W
and PL ,max =
2 4 28.82
(b)
j 480 80 j 60
80 + j 60 80 j 60
= 28.8 + j 38.4 Z L max = 28.8 j 38.4
Z th = 80 j 60 =
(a)
20.
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= 98.11 W (okay)
Check:
21.
j10 (20)
j10
= 20 + j 40, Zth =
= 4 + j8
20 + j10
20 + j10
PL ,max =
1
202 + 402
8.944 = 38.63 W
2 (4 + 8.944) 2 + 64
R L = Zth R L = 8.944
Vth = 100
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22.
10 March 2006
IP(V_PRINT3)
1.846E+01
IP(V_PRINT4)
1.846E+01
IP(V_PRINT3)
4.499E+01
IP(V_PRINT4)
4.499E+01
(a)
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT3)
6.000E+01 5.375E+00
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT4)
6.000E+01 5.375E+00
(b)
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT3)
6.000E+01 6.011E+00
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT4)
6.000E+01 3.006E+00
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(c)
(b) = 1, so I1 =
1700 o
= 3.00545 o A
40 j 40
P20 = (3.005)2 (20) = 90.30 W
The current through the 10 resistor is I1 + I1 = 2 I1 = 6.01 45o so
1700 o
(a) = 0, so I1 =
= 5.376  18.43 o A and, with the same current flowing
30 + j10
through both resistors in this case,
P20 = (5.376)2 (20) = 289.0 W
P10 = (5.376)2 (10) = 144.5 W
23.
We may write a single mesh equation: 170 0o = (30 + j10) I1 (10 j50)(I1)
Solving,
1700 o
I1 =
30 + j10 + 10 j 50
16
(0 1) =
10 3
16
A
2t
8sin
dt =  8 10 3
3
4 10
10 3
4 10 3 t
cos
3
2 2 10
10 3
10 March 2006
(b)
2
I avg
10 3
sin
= 32 A 2
3
2 10
2t
sin 10 3 t
3 t
dt
=
64sin 2
64
10
4 10 3
2 10 3
2
3
10
= 64 10 3
2
1
=
1 10 3
2
Waveform (a): I avg
=
2
1
0.1333
3 3 8 10
(
)
(
=
= 66.67 A 2
10
10 3 ) + 400(10 3 ) =
3
3
2
2 10 3
2
10
Waveform (c):
1
Iavg =
1 10 3
Waveform (c):
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
24.
)(
=
=
=
=
400 2 9 o
= 0.2081  27.61o A
2500 + 870.585.01o
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT12)
6.000E+01 1.812E02
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT2)
6.000E+01 4.805E01
IP(V_PRINT12)
5.740E+01
IP(V_PRINT11)
1.474E+02
VP(L,0)
5.740E+01
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2007 The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers
and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
IP(V_PRINT2)
3.260E+01
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT11)
6.000E+01 2.732E01
FREQ
VM(L,0)
6.000E+01 1.812E+02
FREQ
VM(R2_5k,$N_0002) VP(R2_5k,$N_0002)
6.000E+01 5.204E+02
2.760E+01
IP(V_PRINT1)
2.760E+01
and Psource = ( 400 2 )(0.2081) cos (9o + 27.61o) = 55.78 W (checks out).
Isource =
10 March 2006
54.16 W
1.642 W
0
0
(A total absorbed power of 55.80 W.)
2 9 o 2500
V2.5k =
= 520.4  27.61o V
o
2500 + 870.5 85.01
400 2 9 o 870.5 85.01o
V10k =
= 181.2 57.40 o V
o
2500 + 870.5 85.01
(400
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT1)
6.000E+01 2.081E01
Thus,
25. At
Define
1 144
144
= 8.485
1 + cos 1000t 176o dt =
2
T 0 2
(c)
(d)
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
1 144
144
= 8.485
(1 + cos1000t ) dt =
2
T 0 2
1 144
144
= 8.485
(1 cos 2000t ) dt =
2
T 0 2
(b)
26. (a)
1 144
144
= 8.485
(1 + cos 2000t ) dt =
2
T 0 2
1 4
2
= 1.414
1 + cos 10t 64o dt =
2
T 02
(c)
(d)
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1 4
2
(1 + cos10t ) dt = = 1.414
2
T 02
1 4
2
(1 cos 20t ) dt = = 1.414
T 02
2
(b)
27. (a)
1 4
2
(1 + cos 20t ) dt = = 1.414
T 02
2
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Vrms
1
100
100(2)
(10) 2 dt =
=
t =
= 8.165 V
31
3 1
3
28.
T = 3 s; integrate from 1 to 4 s; need only really integrate from 1 to 3 s as function is zero
between
t = 3 and t = 4 s.
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I rms
1
49
49(1)
(7) 2 dt =
=
t =
= 4.041 A
32
3 2
3
29.
T = 3 s; integrate from 2 to 5 s; need only really integrate from 2 to 3 s as function is zero
between
t = 3 and t = 4 s.
(c)
1
= 1 +
= 1.225 V
2
1
= 1 +
= 1.225 V
2
2
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Vrms = V
+V
2
2eff
2
1eff
+V
(b)
Vrms = V
2
2eff
(a) 1 V
2
1eff
30.
avg
1 2
(10 + 202 + 102 ) = 150 = 12.247
4
Feff =
1
1
Veff = 100 + 81 + 36 = 158.5 = 12.590 V
2
2
v = 10 + 9 cos100t + 6sin100t
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(c) F
(b)
(a)
31.
10
1
106 103 = 33.33
3
3
1 0.1 6 2
10 t dt
0.3 0
1
1
H eff = 22 + 32 + 42 = 16.5 = 4.062
2
2
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(c)
(b)
(a)
32.
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
1
1
Feff = 8.52 + 122 + 4.52 = 12.43
2
2
(a)
(b)
f (t ) = (2 3cos100t ) 2
33.
(c)
ieff
(b) ieff
ieff
)
2
1 1
2
t dt
= 8sin
0
4
1
1
2
1
2
5 = 2.236 A
10 March 2006
2
t
 8 cos 2 = 2.257 A
0
= 6.455 A
1 1
= [ 20t + 20] dt + 0
2 0
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34. (a)
= 102 + (5) 2 + 0
3
1 1
18.482 = 42.68 W
2 4
1 102 1 102
+
= 25
2 4
2 4
W
102
= 80.18 W
// + 10dc Pav = 55.18 +
4
1 7.6542
P =
= 7.322
2
4
P=
P =
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(e)
(d)
(c)
(b)
(a)
35.
j 0.3R
. By voltage division, then, we write:
R + j 0.3R
10 March 2006
FREQ
VM($N_0001,$N_0002)VP($N_0001,$N_0002)
6.000E+01 7.347E+01 3.527E+01
FREQ
VM($N_0002,$N_0003)VP($N_0002,$N_0003)
6.000E+01 7.349E+01 3.525E+01
(b) Substituting into the expression for V100mH, we find that V100mH = 73.47 V,
independent of frequency.
To verify with PSpice, simulate the circuit at 60 Hz, or = 120 rad/s, so R = 40 .
We also include a miniscule (1 p) resistor to avoid inductor loop warnings. We see
from the simulation results that the two voltage magnitudes are indeed the same.
36R =
j 36 R
j 0.1
 0.03 2 + j 0.1R
= 1200
V100mH = 1200
j 0.3R
0.03 2 + j 0.4 R
j 0.1 +
R + j 0.3
j 0.3R
j 36 R
R + j 0.3
= 1200
V300mH = 1200
j 0.3R
0.032 + j 0.4 R
j 0.1 +
R + j 0.3
(a) Were interested in the value of R that would lead to equal voltage magnitudes, or
Zeq = R  j0.3 =
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Thus,
36.
1 3
1
1
(20t ) 2 dt =
400 27 = 1200 = 34.64V
0
3
3
3
1 2
1
(10 + 302 + 502 ) =
3500 = 34.16 V
3
3
Veff ,1 =
Veff ,2 =
1
Vav ,2 = (10 + 30 + 50) = 30V
3
Vav ,1 = 30V
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(b)
(a)
37.
10 March 2006
1
106
j
j
3
10
= j 90 A, or
90 cos(t + 90o ) A
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT3)
6.000E+01 3.393E02
IP(V_PRINT3)
9.000E+01
(c) PSpice verification: set f = 60 Hz, simulate a single 0.75 F capacitor, and include a
100M resistor in parallel w ith the capacitor to prevent a floating node. This should
resit in a rms current amplitude of 33.93 mA, which it does.
1200
= 1 . This is
106
R j
3
only true when R = ; otherwise, current is shunted through the resistor and the two
capacitor currents will be unequal.
(b) In this case, the capacitor current is
120 3R  j106
1200
ISRC =
=
106
R106
j106 3R j106 jR106
j
j
3R j106
R
I3F = ISRC
106
R j
3
j106
jR106
=
Zeff = R 
6
3 3R j10
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38.
1 5
256 3 t 5
e (e )3 = 6.654
256e ( t 3) dt =
3
5
5
V2,eff =
1 100
8 + 256e3 (e 3 e5 )
5 3
1 800
+ 256 (1 e 2 ) = 9.879 V OK
5 3
=
=
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5
1 2
2
+
t
dt
100
256e3e t dt
0
3
5
Veff =
1 2
20
8 = 7.303
100t 2 dt =
0
5
3
V1,eff =
39.
v(t ) = 10t [u (t ) u (t 2)] + 16e 0.5(t 3) [u (t 3) u (t 5)] V
10 March 2006
Vm 0 Vm 45o
A.
=
Z
1414
e may write p(t) = Vm Im cos + Vm Im cos (2t + ) where = the angle of the
t (45o). This function has a maximum value of VmIm cos + VmIm.
designate V = Vm 0 , so that I =
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W
curren
The peak instantaneous power is 250 mW. The combination of elements yields
Arbitrarily
40.
(a)
(d)
(e)
(f)
since I L lags V,
PFL = cos L =
PFL is lagging
PL
335.3
=
= 0.599
APL 568.3
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(g)
(c)
PR = I R = 16 20 = 320 W
(b)
I = 435 A rms
41.
ce verification
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)
6.000E+01 8.264E+00
9.774E05
10 March 2006
FREQ
IM(V_PRINT1) IP(V_PRINT1)
6.000E+01 9.215E+00
2.625E+01
FREQ
VM($N_0003,0) VP($N_0003,0)
6.000E+01 1.200E+02
0.000E+00
(d) PSpi
ZL = 4 +
j 48
1
(192 + j144)
= 4+
3 + j4
25
11.68 j 5.76
Z L = 11.68 + j 5.76 , YL =
11.682 + 5.762
j 5.76
, C = 90.09 F
j120 C =
11.682 + 5.762
(b)
(c)
120
= 9.214 26.25 A rms
j192
4+
12 + j16
PFs = cos 26.25 = 0.8969 lag
Is =
(a)
42.
+ j5
10 March 2006
Z B = 5.8812 10 5 = 773.5 VA
Z1 = 9.32 10 = 864.9 VA
APD = I 2
APB = I1 I 2
25 j8 200
20 + j10 0
200 (20 j10)
=
= 9.300 0.5681 A rms
I2 =
480.9 26.00 480.920.00
200
20 + j10
0 33.66 j13.660
726522.09
=
= 15.113.908 A rms
I1 =
25 j8
20 + j10
480.9 26.00
20 + j10 33.66 j13.660
Z D = 10 60 = 5 j8.660
Z A = 5 + j 2 , Z B = 20 j10 , Z c = 1030
8.660
=
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43.
The impedance has a positive angle; it therefore has a net inductive character.
V = IZtot = 683.829.31o so
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(c)
(b)
(a)
PF = cos 29.3 = 0.8719 lag
Z1 = 3015, Z 2 = 4040
44.
Stotal
550.4
=
= 4.786 A rms
Veff
115
Ieff =
100 23.07o
S1 =
= 100 + j 42.59 VA
0.92
250 36.87 o
S2 =
= 250 + j187.5 VA
0.8
500 0o
S3 =
= 500 VA
1
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(a)
45.
+ jX L R L =
10 March 2006
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and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.
0.09124 120 C
0.12651
C = 79.48 F
1
5.2 + j 3.75
= 0.12651 + j (120 C 0.09124),
Let R
ZL =
A rms
8000
=5
402
cos L = 0.8lag L = cos 1 0.8 = 36.87
Let I40
L =
46.
10 March 2006
j300  200 =
100 X C
+138.5 + j92.31
j (100 + X C )
IM(V_PRINT1)
4.853E01
7.641E01
7.641E01
IP(V_PRINT1)
5.825E+01
2.707E+01
2.707E+01
PF
54.25o 0. 5843 lag
23.07o 0. 9200 lag
23.07o 0. 9200 lag
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FREQ
1.592E+02
1.592E+02
1.592E+02
100X C
= 138.5 + j 92.31 +
100 + X C
100X C
92.31 +
100 + X C
1
tan
= cos1 0.92 = 23.07o
138.5
Zeff = j100 + j300  200 = 237 54.25o. PF = cos 54.25o = 0.5843 lagging.
With no compensation:
With series compensation:
With parallel compensation:
47.
j 764.7 VA,
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20 5.42349.40
= 4.851 14.04
10 + j 20
I10 =
S 20 = 20 5.4322 = 588.2 + j 0 VA
I 20 = 8.74519.65
10 + j 20
= 5.42349.40
30 + j 20
20 (1 + j 2)
= 10.769 j 3.846 = 11.435+ 19.65
3 + j2
100
Is =
= 8.74519.65
11.435 19.654
S s = Vs I s = 100 8.745 19.65 = 823.5 + j 294.1VA
Zin = j10 +
48.
=0
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1
100
Vx
+ j 0.1 + 0.2 =
+ j 20
6 + j4
6 + j4
Vx = 53.35 42.66 V
Vx 100
V
V j100
+ x + x
=0
6 + j4
j10
5
49.
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(c)
(b)
(a)
50.
(c)
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1833.3
+
PFL = cos tan 1
= 0.6575 lag
1600
I s =
1600 + j 500
= 4 + j1.25 I s = 4 j1.25
400
400
Ic =
= j 3.333A rms I L = I s I c = 4 j1.25 j 3.333
j120
I L = 4 j 4.583A rms
(b)
(a)
51.
(a)
S = 3300 + j1417 VA
(c)
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3591.5
= 15.62 A rms
230
(b)
Is =
52.
10 March 2006
PF3 =
70, 000
= 0.8604 lag
81,360
AP3 =
30, 000
40, 000
= 40, 000 VA, I 3 =
= 160 A rms
0.75
250
I 3 = cos 1 0.75 = 41.41 I 3 = 160 41.41 A rms
I1 =
20, 000
= 800 A rms
250
I 2 = 25, 000 / 250 = 100 A rms
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(c)
(b)
(a)
53.
10 March 2006
A single 200kVAR increment costs $395 to install, and would remove the entire excess
kVAR. The savings would be $1 (wow) in the first year, but $396 each year thereafter.
(c) A single 100kVAR increment costs $200 to install. The excess kVAR would then be
280 100 130 = 50 kVAR, for an annual penalty of $332. This would result in a
firstyear savings of $64.
200 kW average power and 280 kVAR reactive result in a power factor of
PF = cos (tan1 (280/200) = 0.5813 lagging, which is pretty low.
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54.
10 March 2006
Vrms
2
2
= CVrms
= CVrms
( j / C)
C =
2
Vrms
QQC
new = ang(Stotal) = tan 1
P
QC = SC = Vrms
Perhaps the easiest approach is to consider the load and the compensation capacitor
separately. The load draws a complex power Sload = P + jQ. The capacitor draws a
purely reactive complex power SC = jQC.
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55.
10 March 2006
(f) S = 57.46 VA
(e) Since the load is purely resistive, it draws zero reactive power.
339
Veff
339
2
(d) Apparent power = Veff Ieff =
=
= 57.46 VA
2 1000 1000
(c) pmin = 0 W
(a) Veff =
339
= 239.7 V rms
2
(b) pmax = 3392 / 1000 = 114.9 W
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56.
10 March 2006
339
(5.087 ) = 1219 VA
2
(e) reactive power = Q = Veff Ieff sin ( ) = 1219 VA
I =
339  66o
V
=
= 7.194  156o A
Z
j 47.12
7.194
= 5.087 A rms
so Ieff =
2
p(t) = VmIm cos + VmIm cos(2t + )
where = angle of current angle of voltage
pmax = VmIm cos + VmIm = (1 + cos(90o)) (339)(7.194)/ 2 = 1219 W
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(c)
(b)
(a)
57.
10 March 2006
Ssource =
1
50
( 50 )
2
25000.02292
= 0.005 0.02292o VA
pmax
V10k =
H j , 4 F j250
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(d)
(a)
58. 1
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(e) Q = Veff Ieff sin (ang VS ang IS) = (12000)(43.48) sin (3.049o) = 27.75 kVAR
(d) P = Veff Ieff cos (ang VS ang IS) = (12000)(43.48) cos (3.049o) = 521 kW
(c) The apparent power of the source is 521.8 kVA. The apparent powers of the passive
elements sum to 37.81 + 49.55 + 77.28 + 483.1 = 647.7 kVA, so NO! Phase angle is
important!
(b) 37.81 0 + 49.55 90o +77.28 90o + 483.1 0o = 521.6 3.014o kVA,
which is within rounding error of the complex power delivered by the source.
V250 =
(111300.2381o )(250)
= 10990 8.852o V rms
250 + j 40
so S250 = (10990)2 / 250 = 483.1 0o kVA
I100mH =
V100mH
= 43.96  8.852o A rms
j 40
so S100 = (1758)(4.43.96) 90o = 77.28 90o kVA
(111300.2381o )( j 40)
= 1758 81.15o V rms
250 + j 40
Veff
= 4.452 90.24o A rms
 j 2500
so S1F = (11130)(4.452) 90o = 49.55 90o kVA
V100mH =
I1F =
Veff
(120000)(2563.287 o )
=
= 11130 0.2381o V rms
o
20 + 2563.287
IS =
120000
= 43.48  3.049o A rms
20 + 2563.287 o
Ssource = (12000)(43.48) 3.049o = 521.8 3.049o kVA
59.
(a) At = 400 rad/s, 1 F j2500 , 100 mH j40
Defi
ne Zeff = j2500  (250 + j40) = 256 3.287o
10 March 2006
p(t) =
load = cos1(0.812) = +35.71o (since lagging PF). Assume ang (V) = 0o.
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(d)
at
(b)
60.