Anda di halaman 1dari 23

MANAJEMEN PROYEK

PERANGKAT LUNAK (MPPL)


Software Project Management
Pengantar MPPL

Tujuan perkuliahan
Memahami pengertian umum tentang MPPL dan
urgensinya dalam pengembangan PL
Memahami karakteristik proyek PL
Memahami kriteria sukses/gagal sebuah proyek
PL
Memahami problem-problem dalam proyek PL

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

2/23

Agenda
Pengertian umum: proyek, manajemen dan PL
Pengertian dan urgensi MPPL
Perbedaan MPPL dengan proyek lain
Pemangku kepentingan (stakeholders)
Aktifitas dalam MPPL
Kriteria kesuksesan dan kegagalan sebuah
proyek PL
Problem-problem di dalam proyek PL

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

3/23

Project is
A specific, finite task to be accomplished
A temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish
a unique purpose
A specific plan or design
A planned undertaking

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

4/23

Jobs vs. projects

Jobs repetition of very well-defined and well


understood tasks with very little uncertainty
Exploration e.g. finding a cure for cancer: the outcome
is very uncertain
Projects in the middle!
MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

5/23

Characteristics
Terdiri dari non-routine tasks
Ada perencanaan
Ada tujuan yang spesifik yang harus dicapai atau
ada produk yang spesifik yang harus dibuat
Dibatasi oleh waktu dan sumber daya
Pekerjaan yang dilakukan untuk melayani
konsumen
Melibatkan berbagai keahlian
Melibatkan beberapa fase/tahapan pekerjaan
Berukuran besar dan kompleks
MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

6/23

Project dimensions
People
Process
Product
Project

People

Management
Structure

Business
Environment

Product
Tools

Methods
Process
Project

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

7/23

Relevant issues (partly)


People  faktor vital

Personil yang lemah: motivasi, skill


Penambahan orang pada proyek yang terlambat
Friksi antara developer dan konsumen
Koordinasi dan komunikasi antar anggota tim

Process

Requirements volatility
Domain permasalahan dan kebutuhan konsumen
Perancangan yang tidak baik
Proses review yang lemah

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

8/23

Relevant issues (partly)


Product

Requirements gold-plating
Design gold-plating
Research-oriented development
Unjuk kerja yang rendah

Project

Perencanaan yang lemah


Jadwal yang terlalu optimistik
Manajemen resiko yang kurang memadai
Manajemen kontrol yang kurang baik
Manajemen perubahan yang kurang baik

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

9/23

What is management ?
Serangkaian aktifitas yang meliputi planning,
organizing, staffing, directing, monitoring
controlling, innovating dan representing untuk
mencapai tujuan tertentu

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

10/23

Management functions
Planning - deciding what is to be done
Organizing - making arrangements
Staffing - selecting the right people for the job
Directing - giving instructions
Monitoring - checking on progress
Controlling - taking action to remedy hold-ups
Innovating - coming up with solutions when
problems emerge
Representing - liaising with clients, users,
developers and other stakeholders
MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

11/23

What is project management ?


The application of knowledge, skills, tools and
techniques to project activities in order to meet
project requirements [PMI Project Management
Institute]
A system of management procedures, practices,
technologies, skills and experience that are
necessary to successfully manage a project

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

12/23

What is software ?
Computer programs and associated documentation such
as requirements, design models and user manuals.
Software products may be developed for a particular
customer or may be developed for a general market.
Software products may be:
Generic - developed to be sold to a range of different
customers e.g. PC software such as Excel or Word.
Bespoke (custom) - developed for a single customer according
to their specification.

New software can be created by developing new


programs, configuring generic software systems or
reusing existing software.
MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

13/23

Software characteristics
PL itu direkayasa, bukan difabrikasi/diproduksi
PL tidak bisa diraba (intangible)
PL tidak mengalami keausan
Sebagian besar PL dikustomisasi (customized)
increased failure
rate due to side effects

Failure
rate

change
actual curve

idealized curve
Time
MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

14/23

What is software project management ?


Concerned with activities involved in ensuring
that software is delivered on time and on
schedule and in accordance with the
requirements of the organizations developing and
procuring the software

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

15/23

SPM urgency
Project management is needed because software
development is always subject to budget and
schedule constraints that are set by the
organization developing the software

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

16/23

Software project charateristics


Invisibility the product is intangible
Complexity more complex than others
Conformity to conform to the human client
requirements
Flexibility subject to change
Many software projects are one-off projects
Software processes are variable and organization
specific
The technology changes very quickly
MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

17/23

What are stakeholders ?


Orang-orang yang berkepentingan dengan proyek
Menentukan cara berkomunikasi
Kategori:
Internal dalam satu tim proyek (e.g. Project
Manager, Analyst, Designer, Programmer,
Configuration Manager, dll.)
Eksternal dari tim proyek, tetapi dalam satu organisasi
(e.g. Accountant, HR Manager, dll.)
Eksternal, baik proyek dan organisasi (e.g. customer,
end user)

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

18/23

SPM activities
Feasibility study estimasi kelayakan proyek
Planning perencanaan proyek, jika layak
Execution - pelaksanaan proyek

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

19/23

Success criteria
Delivering the software to customer at the agreed
functionality to the required level of quality on time
and within budget

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

20/23

Problems
Planning for software projects is generally poor.
Procedures and techniques for the selection of
project managers are poor.
The accountability of many software engineering
projects is poor, leaving some questions as to
who is responsible for various project functions.
The ability to accurately estimate the resources
required to accomplish a software project is poor.
Success criteria for software development
projects are frequently inappropriate  unreliable,
difficult to use, and difficult to maintain.
MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

21/23

Problems
Decision rules to aid in selecting the proper
organizational structure are not available.
Decision rules in selecting the correct management
techniques are not available.
Procedures, methods and techniques for designing a
project control system that will enable project managers
to successfully control their projects are not readily
available.

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

22/23

Summary
Proyek terdiri dari aktifitas-aktifitas non-rutin yang
harus diatur
Proyek PL bersifat intangible sehingga tidak
mudah untuk memonitor kemajuan proyek
Manajemen proyek PL yang baik akan
menentukan keberhasilan proyek
Keberhasilan proyek PL tidak hanya diukur dari
jalan/tidaknya PL

MPPL - Pengantar MPPL | Tri A. Kurniawan, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

23/23