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Types of files:

All purpose
Half round
Round square
Three square
Types of hacksaws:
14 TPI for softer larger sections, for
cutting materials 1 or thicker in
sections of cast iron, machine steel,
brass, copper, aluminum, bronze, slate.
24 TPI for angle iron, brass, copper,
iron, pipe, etc., for cutting material 1/8
to 1/4 in sections of iron, steel, brass
and copper tubing. Wrought iron pipe,
drill rod, conduit, light structural
shapes, metal iron.
18 TPI for general use, for cutting 1/4
to 1 sections of annealed tool steel,
high speed steel, rail, bronze, lght
structural shapes, copper.
32 TPI for conduit or thin tubing, sheet
metal work, for cutting material similar
to recommendations for 24TPI blades
for 1/8 and thinner.
Types of taps:
Most common taps are hand tap and
machine screw tap.
Other types of taps are pipe taps, nut
taps, pulley taps, taper taps and special
purpose taps.
Hand tap intended only for hand
operation but they are now widely used
on machine production.
Tapering tap used to start the
thread and at least six threads
are tapered or chamfered.
Plug tap used to cut the
threads as fast as possible after
the taper tap has been used.

Three to five threads are

chamfered or tapered.
Bottoming tap used last to
drive the thread to the bottom
of a blind hole this tap has only
1.5 threads chamfered or
Drill bits
Cutting angles

Types of sprockets are as follows:
Style A - Flat sprocket with no hub
extension either side.
Style B - Sprocket with hub extension
one side.
Style C - Sprocket with hub extension
both sides.
Style D - Sprocket with a detachable bolt
on hub attached to a plate.
Multiple Strand Sprockets
Listed using a letter prefix starting with
the letter D for Double Strand, E
for Triple Strand, and F for
Quadruple, etc. They also have the
designation listed on previous page.
In addition to the four specific types,

sprocket may also be made in various

other styles.
Spur Gears - Spur gears are by far the
most common type of gear and with
the exceptions of the "cog" the type of
gear that has been around the longest.
Spur gears have teeth that run
perpendicular to the face of the gear.
Helical Gears - Helical gears are very
similar to spur gears except the teeth
are not perpendicular to the face. The
teeth are at an angle to the face giving
helical gears more tooth contact in the
same area. Helical gears can also be
used on non-parallel shafts to transmit
motion. Helical gears tend to run
quieter and smoother than spur gears
due to the increased number of teeth in
constant contact at any one period of
Herringbone gears - Herringbone gears
resemble two helical gears that have
been placed side by side. They are often
referred to as "double helicals".
One benefit of herringbone gears is that
it helps to avoid issues related to side
thrust created with the use of helical
Bevel / Miter gears - Bevel gears are
used mostly in situations that require
power to be transmitted at right angles
(or applications that are not parallel).
Bevel gears can have different angles of
application but tend to be 90.
Worm Gears - Worm gears are used to
transmit power at 90 and where high
reductions are required. The worm
resembles a thread that rides in
concaved or helical teeth.
Internal Gears - Internal gears typically
resemble inverted spur gears but are
occasionally cut as helical gears.
Racks - A rack is basically a straight gear
used to transmit power and motion in a
linear movement.

Face gears - Face gears transmit power

at (usually) right angles in a circular
motion. Face gears are not very
common in industrial application.
Involute splines - Splined shafts and
hubs are usually used as connectors in
many different types of applications.
One of the most common applications
is to connect motors to gear reducers.
They may also be used in transmissions.
Involute splines resemble spur gears,
but tend to have different pressure
Straight sided spline - Straight sided
splines often serve the same function as
involute splines but have "straight
sided" teeth instead of involute teeth.
Sprockets - Sprockets are used to run
chains or belts. They are typically used
Layout tools
The pencil and knife
Lines are made on wood with a
pencil or a knife. Pencil lines are
temporary lines and can be readily
removed. Knife lines are cut into the
wood and are therefore permanent;
they are removed only with difficulty.
A rule is a tool consisting of a
straight-edged strip of metal, wood, or
some other material, graduated in
some units of measurement. Today
there are but two universally accepted
standards: the English system, based on
the inch, and the French or metric
system, based on the meter. All scales
in common use are graduated or
calibrated in either metric or English
units; on some scales both metric and
English units appear.
The try square
Most of the dimensions on
drawings appear on lines drawn at right
angles to each other. When work is laid
out corresponding lines must be drawn
or scribed (scratched). For locating

these lines and for testing the trueness

of the work as it progresses, the square
is used. A commonly used type is the
try-square. The try square is a layout
tool consisting of a blade, calibrated in
inches, and a handle; the blade and
handle form an angle of exactly 90
degrees. The blade is set into the
handle and is riveted securely in place.
It must be treated with great care in use
and carefully protected from damage
when not in use. Before being replaced
in its box after use, it should be wiped
off with an oily cloth.
The framing square
The framing square is a tool
used for laying out various angles. It can
also be used in the same manner as the
try square for testing the squareness of
a corner. This square consists of two
parts, the tongue and the body or
blade, which form an angle of 90
degrees. The tongue is the shorter and
narrower part, and the body is the
wider and longer member. The tongue
and blade are both marked in inches
and fractions of an inch, so that the tool
can be used to lay out any size of angle.
The framing square will be considered
in more detail in Unit IV.
The T-bevel
The T-bevel is a tool that is used
to lay out and test angles other than 90
degrees. It consists of a handle, a
movable blade, and a clamping screw.
The blade can be moved by loosening
the clamping screw; when the blade is
set, it is held securely by tightening the
screw. The clamping device is designed
so that the pressure of the fingers
against the lever is sufficient to loosen
or tighten the blade.
The marking gage
The marking gage is a tool that
is used for scribing lines parallel to the
edge or the face of a piece of wood.
Sometimes it is used to scribe lines
across the grain or parallel to an end,

but this practice is not advisable

because the pin which does the marking
will tear the wood fibers rather than cut
them. The lines are scribed by a pin
with a wedge-shaped point.
The trammel, divider, compass
Sometimes it is necessary or
convenient to lay off a given distance
from some point, to repeat a given
dimension a number of times, or to
divide a line into parts. The tools used
for this purpose are the divider, the
compass, and the trammel. The divider
is a tool which scribes a line. It consists
of two steel legs hinged at one end and
sharpened to a point at the other end, a
wing, a lock screw, an adjustment
screw, and a spring. (A) The legs can be
moved toward or away from one
another by turning the lock screw in a
counter clockwise direction, thereby
releasing the pressure on the wing. Fine
adjustments between the points of the
divider can be made by means of the
adjusting screw.