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prEN 1998-1:2003 (E)

ANNEX B (Informative)
DETERMINATION OF THE TARGET DISPLACEMENT FOR
NONLINEAR STATIC (PUSHOVER) ANALYSIS
B.1

General

The target displacement is determined from the elastic response spectrum (see 3.2.2.2).
The capacity curve, which represents the relation between base shear force and control
node displacement, is determined in accordance with 4.3.3.4.2.3.
The following relation between normalized lateral forces Fi and normalized
displacements i is assumed:
Fi = mi i

(B.1)

where mi is the mass in the i-th storey.


Displacements are normalized in such a way that n = 1, where n is the control node
(usually, n denotes the roof level). Consequently, Fn = mn.
B.2

Transformation to an equivalent Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) system

The mass of an equivalent SDOF system m* is determined as:


m* = mii = Fi

(B.2)

and the transformation factor is given by:


=

m*
=
mii2

Fi

F2
i
mi

(B.3)

The force F* and displacement d* of the equivalent SDOF system are computed as:
F* =

Fb

(B.4)

d* =

dn

(B.5)

where Fb and dn are, respectively, the base shear force and the control node
displacement of the Multi Degree of Freedom (MDOF) system.
B.3
Determination of the idealized elasto-perfectly plastic force displacement
relationship
The yield force Fy*, which represents also the ultimate strength of the idealized system,
is equal to the base shear force at the formation of the plastic mechanism. The initial

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stiffness of the idealized system is determined in such a way that the areas under the
actual and the idealized force deformation curves are equal (see Figure B.1).
Based on this assumption, the yield displacement of the idealised SDOF system dy* is
given by:

E*
d y* = 2 d m* m*

Fy

(B.6)

where Em* is the actual deformation energy up to the formation of the plastic
mechanism.

Key
A

plastic mechanism
Figure B.1: Determination of the idealized elasto - perfectly plastic force
displacement relationship.

B.4

Determination of the period of the idealized equivalent SDOF system

The period T* of the idealized equivalent SDOF system is determined by:


*

T = 2
B.5

m * d y*

(B.7)

Fy*

Determination of the target displacement for the equivalent SDOF system

The target displacement of the structure with period T* and unlimited elastic behaviour
is given by:
d et*

T *
= S e (T )
2

(B.8)

where Se(T*) is the elastic acceleration response spectrum at the period T*.
For the determination of the target displacement dt* for structures in the short-period
range and for structures in the medium and long-period ranges different expressions
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should be used as indicated below. The corner period between the short- and mediumperiod range is TC (see Figure 3.1 and Tables 3.2 and 3.3).
a) T * < TC (short period range)
If Fy* / m* Se(T*), the response is elastic and thus
d t* = d et*

(B.9)

If Fy* / m* < Se(T*), the response is nonlinear and


d t* =

d et*
T
1 + (q u 1) C* d et*
qu
T

(B.10)

where qu is the ratio between the acceleration in the structure with unlimited elastic
behaviour Se(T*) and in the structure with limited strength Fy* / m*.
qu =

S e (T * )m *
Fy*

(B.11)

b) T * TC (medium and long period range)


d t* = d et*

(B.12)

dt* need not exceed 3 det*.


The relation between different quantities can be visualized in Figures B.2 a) and b). The
figures are plotted in acceleration - displacement format. Period T* is represented by the
radial line from the origin of the coordinate system to the point at the elastic response
spectrum defined by coordinates d* = Se(T*)(T*/2)2 and Se(T*).
Iterative procedure (optional)
If the target displacement dt* determined in the 4th step is much different from the
displacement dm* (Figure B.1) used for the determination of the idealized elastoperfectly plastic force displacement relationship in the 2nd step, an iterative procedure
may be applied, in which steps 2 to 4 are repeated by using in the 2nd step dt* (and the
corresponding Fy*) instead of dm*.

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a) Short period range

b) Medium and long period range


Figure B.2: Determination of the target displacement for the equivalent SDOF
system
B.6

Determination of the target displacement for the MDOF system

The target displacement of the MDOF system is given by:


d t = d t*
The target displacement corresponds to the control node.

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(B.13)