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TEX-426 & 428: INDUSTRIAL TRAINNING & PRACTICES

On
Department of Textile Engineering

Aboni Textiles Limited


Hemayetpur, Savar

Department of Textile Engineering


PRIMEASIA UNIVERSITY

Prepared By:
MD. ALAMIN KHAN
ID-101-196-041

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
DAFFODIL INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY has given us the opportunity to perform
the industrial attachment with Aboni Textile Limited (A concern of Babylon Group).
We would like to convey our deep gratitude to our departmental head Prof. Dr. Md.
MahbubulHaque for his throughout support without whose help it would not have possible
to complete the training successfully.
We are grateful toMd. Azharul Islam for supervising us to accomplish the attachment. May
we also take the opportunity to express my sincerest gratitude toAboni Textile Limited (A
concern of Babylon Group)management, and administration & personnel for their kind cooperation.
Above all, we would like to acknowledge our deep debt to all teachers of our university
especially of Fabric Manufacturing Technology department for their kind inspiration and
help, which remain as the backdrop of all our efforts.
Finally, we would like to acknowledge that we remain responsible for the inadequacies and
errors, which may remain in the report undoubtedly.

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INTRODUCTION :
CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

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By achieving practical knowledge it is possible to apply the theoretical knowledge in the


technical field. For any technical education, practical experience is almost equally necessary
in association with the theoretical knowledge. The industrial attachment is the most effective
process of achieving the practical experience. It provides us sufficient practical knowledge
about production management, productivity, evaluation, work study, efficiency, industrial
management, production planning & control, production cost analysis, inventory control,
purchasing, utilities and Maintenance of machinery and their operation technique etc.

Industrial attachment is an essential part of four years B.Sc. in Textile Engineering as


a course of Daffodil International University. We had the opportunity to perform the
industrial attachment with ABONI TEXTILES LTD. During 45 days long attachment, we
studied the man, machine, material aspects of the circular knitting section, knit dyeing section
,quality control section, planning section, grey fabric inspection. According to my studies
there I have prepared the following report and would like to present.

CHAPTER-2

COMPAN
Y
PROFILE

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Inside view

Outside view

Company Profile
Serial
no.

Subjects

description

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1.

Name

2.

Type

3.

Legal Form of
Company

4.

Year of In corporation

6.

Location

7.

Certification &
awards

Aboni Textiles Ltd


100% Export Oriented Composite Knit Industry.
Private Limited Company.

2001
Hemayetpur, Savar,Dhaka, Bangladesh.

B.S.C.I

ISO 9001:2000
OKO-TEX

8.

Production capacity

9.

Working Period

Production capacity per month


(Garments)
78000 Doz. T shirt
24000 Doz. Polo shirt
17000 Doz. Sweat shirt / Jacket
60000 Doz. Short / Trouser
Production capacity per month
(Knitting Section)
1,50,000 Kgs
Single Jersey /
Pique
1,00,000 Kgs
Interlock
1,00,000 Kgs
Freeze
1,00,000 Kgs
Rib
Production capacity per month
(Dyeing Section)
200 240 M. Tons

3(Three) shifts Per Day

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Company Details
Primary Information
Company Name :

ABONI TEXTILE LTD.

BKMEA Membership Number :

624

Membership Type :

Ordinary Member

Year of Registration :

2002-03-13
Contact Information

Contact Person Name :

MR. S. M. EMDADUL ISLAM

Contact Person Designation :

Managing Director

Addresses :

Factory
Address :
PLOT-169-171,UNION-TETULZHORA
HAMAYETPUR,SAVAR
Telephone :
88-02-8023495-6, 8013449
Fax :88-02-7713502
Office Address :
2-3/1,DARUSSALAM
ROAD,MIRPUR,DHAKA
Telephone :88-02-7713652
Fax :88-02-8015128
Email :
badylon@babylon-bd.com
Web :www.babylongroup.com
Factory Information

Factory Category :

Number of Machine :

KNITTING : 68
DYEING : 14

Production Capacity :

300 TON/MONTH

Number of Employee (Workers) :

Male: 500 | Female: 0 | Total :500

Yearly Turnover (In US$) :

ABONI TEXTILE LTD is a sister concern group of Babylon Ltd. With a vision to
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transform the group into a self sufficient 21st century conglomerate, Babylon has
diversified its products and services gradually and expanded to 18 strategic business
units (SBU). All the units are controlled from the headquarter based in Dhaka which
ensures integrated and smooth operation. It also enables Babylon to offer competitive
price to its customers.

Babylons 18 strategic business units

(SBU)are :
Babylon Garments Ltd.
Babylon Dresses Ltd.
Suravee Garments Ltd.
Aboni Fashions Ltd.
Babylon Casual Wear Ltd.
Aboni Knitwear Ltd.
Aboni Textiles Ltd.
Juniper Embroideries Ltd.
Babylon Trims Ltd.
Babylon Washing Ltd.
Babylon Printers Ltd.
TRENDZ (Local Retailing)
Babylon Buying Services Ltd.
Babylon Medical Services
Babylon Outfit Ltd.
Babylon Logistics Ltd.
Babylon Products (Softy)
Babylon Agriscience Ltd.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS :
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Consists of the following members


1. Mr. Neesar Ahmed

In charge of IMPORTS & ADMINISTRATION

2. Mr. Emdadul Islam


CONTROL

3. Mr. Moinul Ahsan

4. Mr. Abidur Rahman


DIVISION

5. Mr. Abdus Salam

In charge of MARKETING & QUALITY

In charge of FINANCE
In charge of EXPORT & EMBROIDERY

In charge of BABYLON TRIMS LTD.

History of the Project Development:


Aboni Textiles Ltd. a 100% export oriented composite knit
textile unit established with the commitment to contribute to
the Global needs for knit and casual clothing. Aiming at the
context of the changing Global demand pattern, international
environment on trade specially the withdrawal of quota system.
The project is comprising with the Knitting, Dyeing and Readymade Garments production available from one stop service. We
ensure to supply of finished RMG all from one source, in time
delivery and complying quality. The machines and equipments
setup for these projects are procured from world-class brand,
names renowned for their high quality, product integrity and
dependable production.
The Project is established in 2001. The manpower engaged in
the Projects all highly skilled, purely professional, and vastly
experienced. The unique combination of organized Managerial
and Technical team in one hand and latest, advanced and
balanced technology on the other hand made the project on of
the top to be referred in this field in the Country. The best use
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of continuous development of Human Resources by providing


them
International
Standard
Environment
and
equal
opportunity is the keys for achieving comprehensive
competence in all the level.
Aboni Textiles Ltd. has been established with the objective and
vision to meet the needs of 21st century of world wide knit
apparels market from one stop service being committed to Ontime Delivery, Short Lead Time, Quality Assurance, Price
Affordability and Social Accountability

Mission & vision of the company:


Aboni Textiles Ltd. is a prominent developing composite Knit
Garments in Bangladesh. Started its journey with circular
knitting section in the year of 2001. As its 2nd phase Dyeing
Section started in 2002 with the capacity of 8,000-10,000kg
per day. And in the end of 2008 Garments Division commenced
with 12 lines. All the above three divisions Knitting, Dyeing and
Sewing are located in the same premises of about 3 acres land
at hemayetpur, savar,Dhaka, Bangladesh. Its unic management
body with experienced & qualified personals aim to establish
the company as a brand name of top class Garments
manufacturer in Bangladesh.

Different Department:

Knitting
Dyeing (Knit).
Finishing
Garments.
Washing

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Supporting Department:

Personnel department
Marketing and Merchandising
Utility
Human resource Department
Accounting and financing

Major buyers of ABONI TEXTILE LTD:


UK

TESCO , NEW LOOK .

France

JULES, KIABI , MONOPRIX, CAMAIEU.

Sweden

H&M

Spain

ZARA

Italy

TRR.

Capacity of ABONI TEXTILE LTD:


The knit textile project has been designed with all European
best Machinery and Technical know-how. The current capacity
of the project is 15.0 tons per day for Knitting, 12.0 tons per
day for Dyeing & 18 tons per day for Finishing. This project is
having both tubular and with open-width facility.
A modern and efficient composite knit textile industry equipped
with hi-tech European Knitting, Dyeing, and Finishing
Machinery. Aboni offers various types of high quality tubular
fabrics including interlock, single jersey, pique polo, lacoste, rib,
lycra rib, flat knit collar / cuff and many other varieties of
structured fabrics and fashionable garments.

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Aboni now also offers stentering, compacting, and calendaring


of open width fabrics and is equipped with 100% Cotton, T/C,
CVC, Polyester & Spandex mixed fabric finishing facilities.
Location Of ABONI TEXTILE LTD In Google Map:

Image-Location of ABONI TEXTILE LTD

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Aboni Textiles Ltd. Location layout


Sadat Composite Knit Industries Ltd
Sadat Composite Knit Industries Ltd
Sadat Composite Knit Industries Ltd, LOCATION LAYOUT

Aboni fashion Ltd


Ab
on
i Te
xti

le

Ltd

CHAPTER-3

Button Tex Ltd

AKH group

LAYOUT OF THE COMPANY

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CHAPTER-4
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

A. Recruitment Policy:
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.Recruitment is done as per following systems.


Serving notice/poster in important locations.
Personal contacts by own employees.
Head hunting for manager/executive

B. Selection:
During the selection of the workers following factors are
considered:
Good physical appearance/fitness
Age 18 years minimum must be supported by certificate from educational
institution or local govt. authorities and confirmed by medical officer.
Educational qualification as per job profile.
Skill ness (practical for operators).
Wages/salary negotiation.
Joining date.
C. Joining:
Selected workers/trainees submit the followings to personal
department on joining:
Prescribed application form duly filled.

Two passport size photographs.


Educational certificate.
Experience certificate (if any).
Medical fitness certificate mentioning age.

D. Service Confirmation:
On completion of 3 months satisfactory job performance, company confirms
the employees' service permanently.
Trainees who fail to show satisfactory performance within this time his/her
apprenticeship period are generally extended for another one month. If he/she
cannot cope-up within this given period then his/her service is terminated.
E. Daily Working Hours and Over Times:
Eight hours a day from 8.00 am to 5.00 pm with one hour lunch break.
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Maximum two hours overtime per day (maximum 12 hours per week) with
one-hour Tiffin break in the afternoon/evening.
Friday is weekly holiday.
F. Medical:
Medical facilities are as follows:

Each worker provided medical allowance @ Tk.200/= per month.


Company also provides treatment with experience doctors.
Company also provides medicine as required.
First Aid facilities with trained first aider are available for each employee.
Accident register for injured person is being maintained.

G. First Aid Box:


Each floor has been provided with sufficient first aid box with
following items:
Pain relief tablets
(Paracitamol).
Nix.
Or-Saline.
Antiseptic cleaner (Savlon).
Roller bandages
Surgical gloves

Surgical gauze.
Cotton.
Surgical scissors.
Tourniquet.
Adhesive tape (plasters).
Antibacterial ointment sterile
(Savlon cream).

OTHER FACILITIES:
A. Salary & Wages:
Salary and wages are paid to the staff and workers as per gazette notification of
the government of Bangladesh.
Payment of salary and wages are made regularly on 1st of each month.
In the salary sheet basic salary, house rent, medical allowance and gross salary
are shown separately for each employee.

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B. Overtime:

(1) Overtime is calculated on the basis of double the basic salary calculation of
over time per hour is.
Basic salary x 2 26 (days) x 8 (hours)
(2) Payment of overtime is made of 1st date of each month.
C. Bonus:
Two festival bonus equivalents to two month basic salary are paid to each
employee, Who has completed one year of service.
D. Leave:
(1) Casual: All employees enjoy 10 days casual leave in a year with full salary/wages.
(2) Sick Leave: All staff & workers are entitle 7 days sick leave upon submission of
medical certificate.
(3) Maternity Leave: Female employees are entitled to enjoy 12 weeks (6 weeks
before & 6 weeks after delivery) maternity leave with 100% salary/wages.
(4) Earn Leave: For adult worker, 1 day leave for 22 days of work (but they have to
work minimum 1 year for the entitlement).
(5) Festival Leave: 10 days per calendar year.

MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:
Buyer sample is send to G.M or merchandising manager.
Marching is done under lab manager.
Sample is prepared by asst. dyeing manager.
Sample is send to the buyer for approval.
Approved sample is returned and taken as STD. sample for
bulk production.
Dyeing manager gives responsibilities to asst. dyeing manager.
Then shift in-charge with the supervisors start bulk production.

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On line and off line quality check is done by lab in-charge and
asst. dyeing manager.
After dyeing asst. manager (finishing) controls the finishing
process with the supervision of shift in-charge.
Finally G.M checks the result with dyeing manager and decision
is taken for delivery.

SHIFTING:

In Aboni Textiles Ltd the whole day production time is divided into 3 shif
Per shift Consists of 12hours.

Shift
A
B
c

Duration
8.00 AM-2.00PM
2.00PM-10.00PM
10.00PM-8.00AM

DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITY OF DIFFERENT POST:


Managing Director:

To deal with the buyer and merchandiser.


To set up price for the product.
To plan apply and control all administrative functions.
To follow up the instruction of managing director and
chairman.

GM in Dyeing and Finishing Section:


Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.
Check the sensitive parameters of different machines for
smooth dyeing.
Check the different log books and report to management.
Check the plan to control the best output.

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To trained and motive the subordinates how to improve


the quality production.
Control the Manager, Asst. Manager, Senior Production
Officer, Production Officer, in -charge, supervisor, of
dyeing and finishing section
Deputy General Manager (DGM) production:
Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.
Check the sensitive parameters of different machines for
smooth dyeing.
Check the different log books in different areas and
report to management.
Check the plan to control the best output
To trained and motive the subordinates how to improve
the quality production.
Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and
helper of dyeing machine.
Any other work as and when required.
Manager:
To supervise the personal working under him
To plan the sequence of production
To arrange necessary raw materials for the production
problems.
To find out the possible reasons which are responsible
for less production?
To follow up the instruction of Managing Director and
Executive Director as well.
Senior Executive:

Overall supervision of dyeing and finishing section.


Batch preparation and pH check.
Dyes and chemicals requisition issue and check
Write loading/unloading time from machine.
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Program making, sample checking color measurement.


Control the supervisor, operator, asst. operator and
helper of dyeing machine.
Any other work as and when required.
Executive:
To collect the necessary information and infrastructure
from the previous shift for the
smooth running of the
section.
To match production sample with target shade.
To match production sample lot sample matching next
production.
To observed dyed fabric during finishing running and also
after finishing process.
To identify disputed fabrics and report to PM/GM for
necessary action.
To discuss with PM about overall production if necessary.
T sign the store requisition and delivery challenge in the
absence of PM
To execute the overall floor work.
To maintain loading/unloading paper.

Shift In charge:
To follow the workers movement.
Should discuss with the production Officer about what is
happening.
To maintain the production sequence.
To check the sample at certain time interval.

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CHAPTER-5
PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL

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Basic Procedure of Production Planning &Control:


A planned work brings success. Without planning nothing is
complete within the required time. So planning has its own
importance which is intolerable. Planning gives a scheduled
task and control completes it successfully. But production
planning and control is not an easy task. Its basic working
procedure is as follows

Taking order form marketing division


Analyzing the orders
Planning for knitting the fabric
Planning for dyeing the fabric
Planning for finishing the fabric

It is only a basic procedure. It may change according to the


type of order. Sometimes the order is planned only for finishing
the materials or only for dyeing the goods. Then some steps are
minimizing for planning.
Taking order from the marketing division:
ATL marketing division supplied fabric orders to
the planning and control division by a specific format.
Analyzing the orders:
After getting the fabric order, this section analyzes
the orders according to buyers order quantity, type of orders
(i.e. type of fabric, color to be dyed etc.) delivery date etc. This
section plans for required quantity of fabric to be knitted,
knitting balance, fabric to be dyed, dyeing balance RFD (ready
for delivery), RFD balance, delivery fabric & delivery balance.
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Planning for knitting:


This section plans for knitting production. It
selects m/c for knitting the fabric, no of m/c to be used, type of
yarn used, from which source of yarn will be collected, required
GSM, width etc. It also gives delivery date of knitted fabric.
Planning for dyeing of the fabric:
Production planning for dyeing is
called "Batch Plan". Batch plan is prepared according to m/c
capacity, no. of nozzle batch no, fabric construction, color,
width, GSM and priority of delivery etc. and written in a batch
card.
Planning for finishing of the fabric:
Finishing schedule is same as
dyeing. After dyeing, materials go to the finishing section with
the batch plan. The fabric can be finished in the open line finish
or tube line finish. Finishing line will be selected according to
the type of the fabric to be finished. Finishing data is written to
the batch card and is informed to the planning section.
However this section always forces to all the departments to
finish all the workwithin the delivery time given by the buyers.
Thus, it plays a very important role in the success of the
company.

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CHAPTER-6

KNITTING SECTION

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Knitting:.
Knitting is the method of creating fabric by transforming
continuous strands of yarn into a series of interlocking loops,
each row of such loops hanging from the one immediately
preceding it. The basic element of a knit fabric structure is the
loop intermeshed with the loops adjacent to it on both sides &
above and below it.
Knitted fabrics are two types. One is weft & another is warp.
ATL produces weft knit fabrics.
Classification of knitting:
Knitting

warp knitting

weft knitting

Circular/tubular knitting

Flat

knitting

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Single jersey

Double

jersey
Example:
1. Lacose
2. pk
3. Fleece
Interlock
4. Tery fleece

Rib

Purl

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Layout Plan Of Knitting Floor:

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Features of Knitting Machine:


A knitting machine is an apparatus for applying mechanical
movement either hand or power driven, to primary knitting
element in order to produce knitted structure from yarn. The
machine incorporates and coordinates the action of a number
of mechanism and device each performing specific function,
which contributes toward the efficiency of the knitting action.

The main features of a knitting machine are given below:


The frame, normally free standing and either circular or other shape
according to needle bed.
The machine control and drive system
The yarn supply system
The knitting system
The fabric take-down mechanism
The quality control system
The stop motion mechanism
Machine List Of Knitting Section In ABONI TEXTILE LTD:
Machine name
Circular
jersey) m/c

Machine Quantity

Knitting(Single 30

Circular 19
Knitting(Rib+Interlock) m/c
V-bed Knitting m/c

18

Grey Fabric Inspection m/c

03

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Types of weft knitting m/c


Circular knitting m/c
Flat bed knitting m/c
S/L Brand name
01 Cylinder dia
02 Feeders
03 Gauge(NPI)
04 Needles
05 RPM
06 Origin
07 m/c type
Specification Of Pai Lung

Pai lung
42,36
84f
18g,28g
2376,3168
21
TAIWAN
Rib
Circular Knitting M/C:

Specification of FUKAHAMA circular knitting m/c:


01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08

Brand name
Cylinder dia
Feeders
Needles
Origin
m/c type
Gauge(NPI)
RPM

FUKAHAMA
38
76
2148T
JAPAN
Single jersey
18G
23

Specification Of JIUNN LONG Circular Knitting M/C:


01
02
03
04
05
06

Brand name
Cylinder dia
Feeders
Gauge(NPI)
Needles
RPM

JIUNN LUNG
32,42,38,36
96F,84F,114F,
24G,18G,24G,24G
2400T,2484T,2880T,2212T
21,18
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07
08

Origin
m/c type

TAIWAN
Single jersey, Rib

Specification Of MAYER & CIE Circular Knitting M/C:


01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08

Brand name
Cylinder dia
Feeders
Needles
Origin
m/c type
Gauge(NPI)
RPM

MAYER & CIE


26
24
2268T
Germany
Single jersey
27G
18

Circular knitting machine details:

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Machine parts :
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NEEDLE
Needle is the primary knitting element. It is a thin metal bar.

Needle is used to produce a loop.

SINKER
Sinker is the second primary knitting element. It is a thin metal
plate.

Functions of sinker are


Holding down
Knocking over
Loop formation.

KNITTING CAM
Cam is the device which converts rotary machine drive into a
suitable reciprocation action for the needle.
Knitting cams (raising) are three types. These are:
i.

Knit cam
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ii.
iii.

Tuck cam
Miss cam

KNIT CAM:

It is used to produce a knit loop.

TUCK CAM

It is used to produce a tuck loop.

MISS CAM

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It is used to produce a miss loop.

CAM BOX:

Function of cam box is to set cam on the slider.


VDQ PULLEY:

VDQ pulley is used to control the GSM & SL.

MEMMINGER POSITIVE FEEDER:


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It is used to apply positive feed of the yarn.

OILING POINT:

It is used to pass oil into the needle.

AIR PIPE:

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It is used to flow air into the cam and needle.


LYCRA FEEDING DEVICE:

Lycra feeding device is used to apply positive feed of the


spandex.

Main features of flat bed knitting machine:

Flat bed machine has two stationary needle beds


Latch needles are used
Angular cam system is used
Separate cam system for each needle bed

Specification Of Flat Bed Knitting Machine:


01
02
03
04
05

Brand
Model
Gauge
Origin
Dia

KAUO HENG
KH-313
14
TAIWAN
54
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06

Total no. Of machine

18

Sequence of operations in knitting section:


Sample fabric

Design analysis

Setting the
machine for the
specific design

Production

Quality control

Send to batch
section

Comparison between basic structures of weft


knitted fabric:
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Plain

Rib

Interlock

Appearanc
e
Unroving

Different on
face & back
Either end

Same on both sides

Curling

Tendency to
curl

No tendency to curl

Thickness
& warmth

Thicker &
warmer than
plain woven
made from
same yarn

Much thicker &


warmer than plain

Same on
both sides
Only from
end
knitted last
No
tendency
to curl
Very much
thicker &
warmer
than plain

Structure
Properties

End-uses
Ladies
stockings, fine
cardigans,
dresses, base
fabric for
coating

Only from end


knitted last

Socks, cuffs,
waistbands, collars,
Underwear,
knitwear.

Underwear
, shirts,
Suits,
sportswear
,
Dresses.

Types of Fabric Knitted In Aboni Textiles Ltd:


Single Jersey:
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Single Jersey

Pique

Interlock

Rib

Lacoste

Single Jersey (Lycra)


Single Jersey (Auto
Stripe)
Pique
Pique (Auto Stripe)
Interlock
Interlock D/N (Cotton)
Interlock D/N (Polyester)
Rib: Any Drop Needle
Rib Elasten
Single Lacoste
Double Lacoste

Types of yarns used in Aboni Textiles Ltd:


Type of yarn
Cotton

Count
20S ,24S, 26S, 28S, 30S, 32S,
34S, 36S ,40S
Polyester
70D, 100D,150D
Spandex yarn
20D,40D, 70D
PC (65%Polyester & 35% 24S, 26S, 28S, 30S
cotton)
CVC(60% Polyester & 40% 24S, 26S, 28S, 30S
Cotton)

Typical knitting calculations:


The calculations which are frequently used in the knitting section are discussed
below:
Gauge (G): Number of needles per inch.
Total needles: Machine diameter Gauge3.416.
Feeders of Single Jersey: Machine diameter3.
Feeders of Double Jersey: Machine diameter2.
Production Calculation per shift (kilograms):
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Machine RPM feeders Stitch length Efficiency 60 8


Yarn sount 840 36 2.54 2.2048

Important parameter& their effect in fabric production:

Stitch length Stitch length increase, GSM decrease.


Stitch length decrease ,GSM increase
GSM
Grey GSM should be less than finished GSM
GSM increase with decrease of stitch length and it is
adjusted by Variable Dia Quality (VDQ) pulley.
Color
If shrinkage increase then GSM increase.

Count
GSM depends on yarn count
Gauge
If gauge decrease then stitch length increase.
Feeder
Production increase with increase of number of feeder.
Design
Cam setting
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Set of needle
Size of loop shape.

Greige fabric inspection:


Most of the knitting factories follow 4-point grading system for
quality standard. Though AKL is a 100% export oriented subcontracting factory but they do not follow any standard system
like 4-point or 10-point system.AKL standardize their products
by checking of their skilled inspection team, visual inspection of
every product if any problem is occurred & negotiation with
buyers. But some officials of AKL suggest 4-point grading
system with big problem in product; but it is rare case.

Size Of Defects
3 inches or less
Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch
Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch
Over 9 inch

Four Point Grading System


Penalty
1 point
2 point
3 point
4 point

Faults and their causes in knitting:Defects

Causes

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Star mark

Hole

Set-up
Needle mark

Barrie

Oil mark

Drop stitches

Un-effectiveness or buckling of latch of


needle.
Low GSM.
Yarn tension variation.
Wrong stitch attachment.
Yarn breakage.
Yarn tension variation.
Defective needle.
Thick-thin place in the yarn.

Yarn breakage.
Needles hook breakage.
Needle latch breakage.
Dirt in needle slot.
Needle line.
Improper cam setting.
Bad yarn.
Needle to loose or tight in trick.
Count variation in same lot.
Lot mistake.
Low tensioned yarn.
Old produced yarn.
Faulty yarn.
Excess oil or grease use in
the machine.
Poor quality lubricant.
Mixing of lubricant.
Leakage in oiling system.
Faulty needle.
Wrong setting of yarn feeder.
Improper yarn feeding.
Unlocking the wheel lock.
Raising the wheel to upper collection.

Wheel free & belt


44 | P a g e

free
Slubs

Poor yarn quality.


Poor air circulating system.
Fly formation of yarn.

Packy

Thicked yarn.

Black spot

Late servicing of m/c

Loop

Yarn tension variation.


Needle drop.
Low SL.
Storage of dust during yarn feeding.

Yarn contra

Lycra drop

Wrong setting of needle.


Dusted yarn.

Lycra out

Breakage of yarn.
Dusted yarn.

GSM variation

Count variation

Design variation

Wrong setting of VDQ pulley.


Wrong selection of yarn count.
Tension variation in yarn.
Different count in same lot.
Different yarn quality in same order.
Long storaged yarn.
Stripe variation in the machine.
Wrong cam arrangement.

45 | P a g e

46 | P a g e

Batching :
Batching is the process to get ready the fabrics for wet
processing like scouring, bleaching, dyeing, finishing, washing,
heat setting etc.
Where the greige fabric are visually Inspected & divided into
different batches. It is a part of dyeing process & it is done to
feed the dyeing machines for fabric dyeing.
The main function of batching section is to prepare the batch
for dyeing according to machine capacity, order and
emergency. This section receive the grey fabric from knitting
section and make batch according to order for particular shade.
Then this batch delivers to dyeing section for dyeing.

The main Function of Batch section:


To receive the grey fabric roll form knitting section.
Turn the few selected the gray fabric using air turning machine .
Prepare the batch card for dyeing machine depending on the following criteria:
Buyer order sheet
Individual Machine capacity & performance Dyeing shade ( light or dark, color
or white)
Types of fabric & fabric construction.
Either Emergency order or not.
To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card.

Objects of Batching:
To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c.
To minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c
stoppage time.
To keep the no. of batch as less as possible for same
shade.
To use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade.
Batch calculation:

Equation for rope length:

47 | P a g e

Batch=

Batch quantitymachine capacity


Dia
Total quantity

quantity

Example:
Let, machine capacity 500Kg
Given Dia

Quantity

45

866

49

4688

51

2545

Calculation:
Total quantity = 866+4688+2545
=8099
No. of batch

= 8099500=17

For 45 Dia,
500
8099 866 = 54Kg

For 49 Dia,
500
8099 4688 = 290Kg

For 51 Dia,
500
8099 2545 = 158Kg

Equation for collar program


48 | P a g e

Total no . of collar of t h e Dia


Dia quantity per
Dia quantity
batch

Available m/c in batch floor:


Machine Name :
No. of M/c
:
Origin
:

Air Turning M/C


01
KOREAN

Air turning m/c function:


For Reversing the Circular Knitted Fabrics
The Machine is used to reverse the knitted face to back
and back to face.
The Machine has capacity blower pipe, fabric turning pipe,
roller and folding parts.

Process of fabric turning:


Turn right the blower pipe.
Insert the one end of fabric to fablic turning pipe.
Switch on.
Fabric moves to left side of turning pipe.
Bring back the blower pipe.
fabric will be entered to lnside of turning pipe and at
the same time blower direction will be changed.
Fabric will be reversed and folded automatically
Batch Management

Checking point before Operation:


1. Availability of required manpower.
49 | P a g e

2. Availability of key accessories & other required


materials.
3. Availability of power.
4. Check order no. & customers name of the batch/job
card.
5. Check types, quality, quantity,& other specification on
the batch/job card.
6. Check fabric & yarn quality & quantity while receiving
goods from inspection.
7. Check machine wise production plan to set priority.

Operation Procedure:
1. Check production plan to set the priority
2. Select 7-8 batches/shift to prepare
3. Consult with previous shift stuff to get the required
information about the batches
4. Check batch card & job card specification(e.g.-Yarn
type, quality, weight etc) for fabric & collars/cuffs
respectively
5. Calculate number of batches, nozzles & rolls to be
prepared for each order & specify on the batch & job
card. One should be very careful while calculating &
entering such data on these cards.
6. Start batching operation & check the following
information7. Machine no
8. Number of nozzle to be prepared
9. Order no.
10.
Customer number
11.
GSM
12.
Width
13.
Lot no.
14.
Turning required or not
15.
Special instruction(if any)
16.Prepare the body fabric of specified weight. This
weight must be accurate & each nozzle of same batch
must weight equal to ensure even dyeing.
17.Calculate the number of collar/cuffs & attach the
collars& cuffs with the body fabric
18.Write down the weight of each roll on the back of
batch card
50 | P a g e

19.Check hole mark in each roll for identification


20.Turn the roll(if required)
21.Calculate the total weight very carefully & write it
down in the specific area of the batch card
22.After completation of one batch, write OK as
comments at the notes section of batch card & send
the batch along with the card to the dyeing section.

51 | P a g e

Lab dip:
A lab dip is a swatch of fabric test dyed to hit a color standard.
Several lab dips may be submitted for feedback until the
standard is achieved and the lab dip is approved. Lab dips are
reviewed in a "light box".
52 | P a g e

Lab dips are done to provide a visual aid on how a color will
look when it is dyed. Actual production sample will vary from
the lab dip that is provided.
It is not possible to lab dip enough fabric for a sample cap or
garment. When the goods are dyed in a real production run, the
conditions are dramatically different from the laboratory.
Production will not begin on fabric unless a lab dip is approved
or the customer waives the lab dip process. Once a lab dip is
approved, we will dye only to the lab dip approved.
OBJECTS OF LABDIP
To know about the shade % of fabric for sample dyeing.
To calculate revise recipe for sample dyeing.
To compare dyed sample with swatch by light box
spectroflash.
Finally approved lab dip(Grade: A B C)

Lab dip preparation:

Receiving buyer swatch

Take Spectrophotometer reading

Start up recipe(DCI match) software/Using color tools software

DCI match software is given recipe

Digital/Manual Pipatting

53 | P a g e

Fabric sample Pot dyeing

Unload

Normal wash

Acid wash

Hot wash

Cold rinsing

Drying

Available machine of Dyeing Lab:


S/L
01
02

03
04
05
06
07
08

M/C NAME
Manual twist
tester
Motorised crock
meter

TYPE
Yarn twist
testing
Rubbing
fastness
testing
Digital pilling
Pilling
tester
testing
Incubator
Colorfastne
ss to water
Indesit drayer
Tumble
dryer
Electrolux dryer dryer
Washcator
washing
Electrolux
Dimension
Washcator
al stability
54 | P a g e

09
10
11
12
13
14
15

16

17

Electrolux
washing m/c
AHIBA top
speed 2
AHIBA nuance

washing

Sample
dyeing
Sample
dyeing
Rapid Eco dryer dryer
Spectrophotom Recipe
eter
making
Digital Ph
Ph & temp
meter
measuring
Digital pipette
Automatica
lly
pipetting
Vervide cac-60 Color
matching
cabinet
Manual wrap
Count
reel m/c
measurem
ent

The flowing equation are used in lab:


This eqation are given below:

Recipe % Sample Weight


Dye Solution =
(cc).
Stock solution %

55 | P a g e

( Recipe % Liquor)
Salt

(gram

per liter).
1000

(Recipe % 100 Liquor)


Soda Solution

(cc).
(1000Stock solution %)

Lab liquor ratio - 1:8


Topping fabric sample Lab liquor ratio - 1:13

COLOR MASUREMENT SYSTEM:


There are two ways for color measuring system of standard
sample. This are
1. Manual method
2. Computer color matching
system(CCMS)
1.Manual Method:
In this method,at first we need to see the
sample fabric is either dark or lighter,then which tone is
present either yellowish or blueish tone ,then based on
assumption increase or decrease shade % .Sometimes standard
sample is measured by comparing it with previously produced
samples of different tri-chromatic color combination. The
sample with which the color of the std. matched, that sample
color recipe is being taken for shade matching. This methods

56 | P a g e

accuracy completely depends on the vision of the experience


person.

2. Computer Color Matching System(Ccms):


The instrumental method is more reliable if it is operated
accurately to do the work of color measurement.
Spectrophotometer interfaced with a PC is used for shade
matching. This instrument works with the principle of
reflectance measurement of light at different wave length.
When the standard sample is being subjected under
spectrophotometer, then the instrument suggest a recipe with
required tri-chromatic colors within the tolerance limit of color
difference. In this way, color measurement of the standard
sample is carried out for the purpose of shade matching.

Spectrophotometric measurement:
Color fastness is usually assessed separately with respect to:
It is an alternative to the visual method of assessment by
Grey Scale. The color of the specimen which has been
subjected to the color fastness test and the color of an
original specimen are measured instrumentally by
spectrophotometric measurement.
The CIE LAB coordinates for lightness L*, chroma C* and
hue H* for both specimens are measured.
The total color difference value AE* which is the function
of AL *, AC*, AH * are calculated and converted to a Grey,
Scale by means of a series of equations or by the following
table

Functions of spectrophotometer:
Color difference
57 | P a g e

Metamerism
Pass/fail operation
Fastness rating
Shade library
Cost comparison
Color match production
Reflectance curve.

Sequence Of Dyeing Polyester Part In Lab:


Color dosing

Water dosing

Levelling/dispersing dosing(1 g/l)

Ph buffer/Acid dosing (1g/l)

Fabric load in pot

Pot load in m/c

As reqd temp (130 *45)

Pot unload from m/c (45 )

58 | P a g e

R/c (80 *20)with caustic 2 g/l ,hydrose 2 g/l

Hot wash (90 *10)

Acid wash (0.8g/l)normal temp

Cold wash (Rinse)

Dry sample

Sequence of dyeing cotton part in lab:

Dyeing of cotton part

Hot wash

Soaping

Neutralization

Cold wash
59 | P a g e


Drying

Total sample match with standard sample

Yes

Bulk production

Digital pippeting procedure:


Dont use less than 1 cc in digital pipette.
Always try to avoid 2%,4% & other big % of stock
solution .
Always try to meet total volume (40ml) with solid salt,if
needed 2%,4% & others % of stock solution then make
required % of stock solution.
Always try to use same stock solution for same shade & its
stricklt controlled.
Always try to use same fabric & yarn lot for same shade.
Purity test of NaoH (%)
Dissolve 1 gm of soda ash in distrilled water in a 100ml
measuring flask.
Making the volume up to the mark.
Filled the burette with 0.1 M HCL solution with the help of
funnel.
60 | P a g e

Note down the initial reading of burette.


Pipette out 10 ml of soda ash solution & transfer in the
titration flask.
Add 1-2 drops of methyl orange as indicator .
Add 0.1 M HCL solution from the burette drop wise with
constant shaking until color change from orange to red.
Note the final reading of the burette.

Purity Percentage of Na2co3= 5.3*burette reading


=x%

61 | P a g e

LAYOUT PLAN OF DYEING FLOOR:


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CAPACITY CHART:

MACHINE NUMBER

TOTAL CAPACIY

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HT-3
HT-2
HT-1
HT-4
DM-3
DM-4A

540KG
360KG
180KG
450KG
600KG
600KG

DM-4B
DM-4C
HT-5
DM-6
KOREAN
HT-B(sample dyeing machine)

600KG
600KG
750KG
900KG
150KG
50KG

HT-S/1(sample dyeing machine)


HT-S/2(sample dyeing machine)
HT-S/3(sample dyeing machine)
S/W-1(sample dyeing machine)

25KG
25KG
15KG
30KG

Dyeing Machine Specification:

Machine Quantity:
MACHINE TYPE
SCLAVOS
DILMENLER
KOREAN
LONGCASE

QUANTITY
04
07
01
01

Specification of SCLAVOS dyeing machine:


M/c Name
No. of Nozzle
Total Capacity

SCLAVOS
03
540Kg

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Maximum work pressure


(bar)
Maximum work
temperature (C)
Types
Built Year
Origin

2.8
140
Twin soft flow system
2005
Athence Greece

Specification of DILMENLER dyeing machine:


M/c Name
No. of Nozzle
Total Capacity
Maximum work pressure
(bar)
Maximum work temperature
(C)
Types
Built Year
Origin

DILMENLER
06
900Kg
.5
98
Winch dyeing
2005
Turkey

Specification of BENEKS dyeing machine:


M/c Name
No. of Nozzle
Total Capacity
Maximum work pressure
(bar)
Maximum work temperature
(C)
Types
Built Year
Origin

BENEKS
02
25Kg
1.5
135
Winch dyeing
2010
Turkey

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Dyeing Process Definition:


Pretreatment is carried out before dyeing to remove oil, waxes,
and fats, natural
Coloring matters and all other impurities and to ensure proper
dyeing.

Scouring:
Gray fabrics contain fats, waxes, and other impurities. The
absorbency of the fabric is adversely affected due the presence
of these impurities .this leads to improper dyeing, printing and
finishing in the subsequent process. These impurities are
removed from the fabric by a chemical treatment. This
chemical treatment is called scouring process.

Bleaching:
Bleaching is the process for removing natural nitrogenous coloring
matter, i.e. dust ,husk, broken seeds, protein, leaf , etc from the
fabric and make it white by oxidizing or chemical treatment .

Scouring & bleaching Objects:


To remove fats, wax, impurities from the fabrics.
To increase absorbency of fabric
To remove natural coloring materials, dirt, dust, broken seed by
oxidizing of chemical treatment
To obtain pure & permanent color.
To whiten the fabric.
To impart wet ability of the fabric which is necessary for further
treatment and in domestic uses.
It helps to produce even shade during dyeing operation.

Washing:

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Washing is a process to remove waxes, fats, or to increase


absorbency of the fabric by chemical treatment. Washing
process specially used only for TC and TTC dark color shade.

Some Important Point for Dyeing:


Stripping=When it is impossible to control the levelness need to
remove all colors from the fabric is called stripping.
Re dyeing = After stripping Process fabric is dyed again.
Stripping is the part of re dyeing process.
Addition= with out dropping Bath color is added to bath.
Topping= Hot wash, neutralization, then again dyeing process is
performed.

Calculation Of reel Speed & Cycle Time:


Reel Speed=

Batch Weight*1000
Dia (Inch)*0.254*G.S.M*No Of Nozzle*Cycle

Time
Cycle Time=

Batch Weight*1000
Dia (Inch)*0.254*G.S.M*No Of Nozzle* Reel

Speed
Effect of Cycle Time:
When Cycle Time Increase Then increase Uneven Shade,
Running Mark
When Cycle Time decrease Then Color pick up low

Bulk Production Operation procedure:


Process Sequence:
I.

Pretreatment

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II.
III.
IV.
V.

Enzyme
Dyeing
Washing
Softening

Fixing

Chemical used In Aboni Textiles Ltd:


Serial
No
01
02
03
04
05
06

07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Chemical Name

Brand Name

Detergent
Sequestering agent
Stabilizer
Anti-creasing agent
Caustic Soda
Bleaching
agent/Oxidizing
agent
Peroxide Killer
AceticAcid/Neutraliza
tion
Enzyme
Leveling agent
Glauber Salt
Soda Ash
Soaping/Washing
Agent
Softener
Fixing Agent
OBA
Reducing Agent

DFW,RWD
1090
SIF
CA
NaOH
H2O2 50%

VHK
CH3COOH,Green-acetic acid
Mataenzyme-E
DLR
Na2SO4
Na2CO3
DSP
NISB,OFS,CSIL,SCH
Optifix-EC, GG-100
G.CO3
Hydrose powder BASF

Dyes Used in Aboni Textiles Ltd:


Sl.
No
1
2
3

Dyes Brand
Matex
Remazol
Novacron

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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Ciba

Different Types of Dyeing Process:


BASIC COTTON DYEING PROCESS:
1. Scouring & bleaching process:

Chemical used:

Detergent-1.5gm/l
Oil spot remover-0.75 gm/l
Sequestering agent-1.0 gm/l
Anti crease-1.0 gm/l
Anti foam-0.2 gm/l
Causting-3.0 gm/l
Sif-0.6 gm/l
H2o2-6.0 gm/l

PROCESS:
Detergent, oil spot remover, sequestering agent, anti crease,
anti foam apply into the machine.

D/t: 2-3 min


Temp: 50c

causting
d/t: 10min
Temp: 60c, steam up 70c
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h2o2
D/t: 10 min
Temp: 98c
Total r/t: 60 min.
after this time cooling the machine 70 and cut a sample for
check the scouring rate.

DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW WATER

2. NORMAL HOT WASH

D/t: 10min
Temp: 80-90ccooling 70c

DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW WATER

3. COLD WASH
D/t: 10min
Temp: 70c
DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW WATER

4. NEUTRALIZTION PROCESS:

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CHEMICAL USED:
o H2o2 killer (vhk)-0.6 gm/l
o acide (as)-0.5 gm/l
o detergent (dfw)-0.2 gm/l
PROCESS:
mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing the
chemical into the machine.
D/t:2-3 min
R/t: 10 min
Temperature: 60c
*ph must be check.

DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW WATER

5. COLD WASH
D/T: 10MIN
TEMP: 70C

DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW


WATER

6. ENGYME:

Engyme (ds)-1.0 gm/

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Process: the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing the


chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 50 min
Temperature: 55-75c

DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW WATER

7. COLD WASH
D/t: 10min
Temp: 70c
DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW WATER

Ph and hardness check.ph-6-6.5 for cotton

8. DYEING PROCESS:
o
o
o
o

Levelling agent (dlr)-1.0 gm/l


sequestering agent (1090)-0.50 gm/l
anti crease (ca)-1.0 gm/l
acide (as) - 0.10 gm/l
anti foam-0.20 gm/l

D/t:2-3 min
R/t: 10 min
Temperature:

60c (light shade)


40c (deep shade)

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Dyes:---------------------Deep shade:
D/t: 20min
R/t: 10 min
Temperature: 40c (deep shade)
Light shade:
D/t: 30 min
R/t: 20 min
Temperature: 60c (light shade)

Sequestering agent (1090)-0.10 gm/l


Soda-20 gm/l
Glubal salt- gm/l

Process: glubal salt apply to the m/c in 3 times equaly.each


timeD/t: 10min
R/t: 10 min
Final r/t: 30 min
Then salt sample check.if ok then

Soda:
D/t: 40min
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R/t: 20min
Temp: 40
Again sample check.if ok.

DRAINS THE WATER AND TAKES NEW WATER

9 .COLD WASH:
APPLY NORMAL WSAH TO THE FABRIC.
TEMP: 70C
R/T: 10 MIN (LIGHT)
20 MIN (DEEP)

DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW

10. NEUTRALIZATION:
DETERGENT (DFW)-0.5 gm/L
ACIDE (AS)-1.0 gm/L
PROCESS: MIXING THE ENTIRE CHEMICAL IN THE BLANKET
THEN DOSSING THE CHEMICAL INTO THE MACHINE.
D/T:2-3 MIN
R/T:20 MIN
TEMPERATURE: 50C

DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW WATER


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11. SOAPING:
SOAP (DSP)-0.5 gm/L
CLEAR-0.3 gm/L
CSC-0.5 gm/L

PROCESS: MIXING THE ENTIRE CHEMICAL IN THE BLANKET


THEN DOSSING THE CHEMICAL INTO THE MACHINE.
D/T: 2-3 MIN
R/T: 15 MIN
TEMPERATURE: 50C
DRAIN THE WATER AND TAKE NEW
WATER

12. SOFTENER:
SOFTENER-0.5 gm/L
SEQUESTERING AGENT (1090)-0.10 gm/L
ACIDE-(CN)-0.10 gm/L

PROCESS: MIXING THE ENTIRE CHEMICAL IN THE BLANKET


THEN DOSSING THE CHEMICAL INTO THE MACHINE.
D/T: 2-3 MIN
R/T: 15 MIN
TEMPERATURE: 50C
UNLOAD
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PROCESS NAME: 100% COTTON WHITE PROCESS:


1. LOADING HOT:

Detergent (AFD) - 0.5 gm/L


Oil spot remover (OSR) - 0.5 gm/L
Anti crease (CA) - 0.5 gm/L
AF-9.0 gm/L

TEMPERATURE & TIME: 80C&15min


PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and add
chemical and run 15min. after drain and fill water
2. SCOURING & BLEACHING&WHITENING PROCESS:

Detergent (RWD)-1.0 gm/L


Anti crease (CA) - 0.6 gm/L
Sequestering agent (FE+)-0.5 gm/L
Anti foam (Mx jet) - 0.3 gm/L
Caustic-2.0 gm/L
SIF-8.0 gm/L
H2O2-0.23 gm/L

White COB-0.23%
Sky BVB-0.161%

TEMPERATURE & TIME: 100C&50min


PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and add
chemical (RWD, ,CA FE+,MX,SIF)And dosing the caustic 40 min at
60-65 c and dosing the H2O2 5min .run the machine 20 min and
then dosing the COB,BVB and run the machine 50 min .sample
check if ok then drain water and take new water.
3. NORMAL HOT:
Sequestering agent (FE+)-0.5 gm/L

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TEMPERATURE & TIME: 90C&10min

PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and run the
machine 10 min .finally drain the water and take new water in the
machine.

1. NUTRALIZATION PROCESS:
Acid (As)-0.3%
Sequestering agent (FE+)-0.5 gm/L

TEMPERATURE & TIME: cold&10min

PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and add


chemical)
And run the machine 10 min and drain water and take new water.

6. ENZYME WASH:

ENZYME (Bio-f)-1.0gm/L
TEMPERATURE & TIME: 55C&40min

PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and add


chemical
And run the machine 40 min at 55 temp and sample check if ok then
drain water.
UNLOAD

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TURQUISE COLOUR (COTTON):

Load water according to the receipe

Load fabric to the selected machine

oil spot remover (osr) -0.5gm/l


Detergent (rwd)-0.5 gm/l
Sequestering agent (1090)-0.5 gm/l

Process: mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing the
chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 10 min
temperature: 80c

Drain all the chemical and again fill the water

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Oil spot remover (osr) -0.75 gm/l


Detergent (rwd)-1.5 gm/l
Anti crease (ca)-1.0 gm/l
Sequestering agent (fe+)-1.0 gm/l
Anti foaming agent (mx)-0.5 gm/l
Caustic-3.0 gm/l
H2o2-6.0 gm/l
Sif-0.6 gm/l

Test the scouring by absorbancy test.if ok thenProcess: mixing the entire chemical (rwd, osr, ca, fe, mx) in the
blanket then dossing the chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 5 min
Temperature: 50c

Caustic:
D/t: 10
R/t: 5
Temp: 60c
H2o2& sif:
Take cold water 100l and mixing the chemical.
D/t: 5 min
R/t: 10min
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Temp: 70c
Final temperature: 100c
R/t: 60 min
Then cooling the temp and cut the sample.

Drain the entire chemical and again fill the water.

apply normal hot to the fabric.


temp: 90c
r/t: 10

Drain the water and again fill the water.

Apply normal wsah to the fabric.


Temp: 50c
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r/t: 5-10

Drain the water and again fill the water

H2o2 killer (vhk)-0.6


Acide (as)-0.5
Detergent (dfw)-0.2

Process: mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing the
chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 10 min
Temperature: 60c
*ph must be check

As-0.1
Engyme (ds)-0.5
Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

Page 81

Dfw-0.3

Process: the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing the


chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 50 min
Temperature: 55c
Ph-4.5

Apply normal hot to the fabric with sequestering agent. (0.5 gm/l).
Temp: 70c
R/t: 10
Ph-4.5 & hardness check

drain the water and again fill the water

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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Levelling agent (dlr)-2.0 gm/l ,


Dba-1.0 gm/l
Sequestering agent (1090)-0.50 gm/l
Anti foam-0.20 gm/l
Acide (as)-0.10 gm/l

Process: mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing the
chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 10 min
Temperature: 40c

Turquise color dye


80*90*80
Process: mixing the dye in the blanket about 5 min.
D/t: 30min
Temp: 80c
R/t: 20 min

Sequestering agent (1090)-0.10 gm/l


Glubal salt-60 gm/l
Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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Soda-20 gm/l

Process: glubal salt apply to the m/c in 3 times equaly.each timeD/t: 10min
R/t: 30 min, temp-90c
Then salt sample check.if ok then
Cooling..60c

Soda:
D/t: 40min
R/t: 20min
Temp: 80(steam up 60 to 80c)
Again sample check.if ok

drain the water and again fill the water

Apply normal wsah to the fabric.


Temp: 70c
Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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R/t: 5-10

Drain the water and again fill the water

Neutralization:

Detergent (dfw)-0.3
Acide (as)-0.4
Process: mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing the
chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 20 min
temperature: 50c

Drain the water and again fill the water

Soaping:
Soap (dsp)-0.5
Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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Clear-0.3
Csc-0.5(only for turquise)
Process: mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing the
chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 15 min
Temperature: 50c

Drain the water and again fill the water

Softener-0.5
Sequestering agent (1090)-0.10
Acide-(cn)-0.10
Process: mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing the
chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 15 min
Temperature: 50c

UNLOAD

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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POLYESTER COTTON FABRIC DYING PROCESS:

1. Loading :

Detergent (AFD) - 0.5 gm/L


Oil spot remover (OSR) - 0.5 gm/L
Anti crease (CA) - 0.5 gm/L
AF-9.0 gm/L
Temperature & time: 80c&15min

PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and add


chemical and run 15min. after drain and fill water
2. Scouring & bleaching & whitening process:

Detergent (RWD)-1.0 gm/L


Anti crease (CA) - 0.6 gm/L
Sequestering agent (FE+)-0.5 gm/L
Anti foam (Mx jet) - 0.3 gm/L
Caustic-2.0 gm/L
SIF-8.0 gm/L
H2O2-0.23 gm/L
White COB-0.23%
Sky BVB-0.161%
Temperature & time: 100c&50min

PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and add


chemical (RWD, ,CA FE+,MX,SIF)And dosing the caustic 40 min
at 60-65 c and dosing the H2O2 5min .run the machine 50
min .sample check if ok then drain water and take new water.

3. NORMAL HOT:
Sequestering agent (FE+)-0.5 gm/L
TEMPERATURE & TIME: 90C&10min

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PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and run the
machine 10 min .finally drain the water and take new water in
the machine.
4. ENZYME WASH:

ENZYME (Bio-f)-1.0gm/L
TEMPERATURE & TIME: 55C&40min

PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and add


chemical
And run the machine 40 min at 55 temp and sample check if ok
then drain water.

5. COLD WASH:

TEMP: normal
R/T: 5(2 times)

6. POLYESTER PART DYEING:

DCP-2.0 gm/L
Sequestering agent (1090)-0.5 gm/L
ACID (As)-0.3 gm/L
BD-1.5 gm/L
DYES: --------------%

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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PROCESS:
Leveling chemical dosing at 40c
Color dosing at 60c, D/T: 20min
R/T: 5, pH-4.0
Temperature up 60-100 at 2c/min
Temperature up 100-130 at 1c/min
Temperature down130-100 at 1c/min
Temperature down 100-60 at 2c/min
After that we need to check the sample .if ok then we move to
next step.
7. REDUCTION CLEARING:
DETERGENT (RWD)-2.0gm/L
CAUSTIC-3.0gm/L
HYDROSE-1.0 gm/L
PROCESS: this process is done for the removing extra dyes
which are staying the surface of the fabric specially cotton part.
8. NORMAL HOT:
Temp: 80c
R/t: 10
9. NUTRALIZATION PROCESS:
Acid (As)-0.3%
Sequestering agent (FE+)-0.5 gm/L
Temperature & time: cold&10min

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PROCESS: Take required amount of water in the m/c and add


chemical)
And run the machine 10 min and drain water and take new
water.
10. COLD WASH:
TEMP: normal
R/T: 5(2 times)

11. COTTON DYEING PROCESS:


Levelling agent (dlr)-1.0 gm/l
sequestering agent (1090)-0.50 gm/l
anti crease (ca)-1.0 gm/l
acide (as) - 0.10 gm/l
anti foam-0.20 gm/l

D/t:2-3 min
R/t: 10 min
Temperature: 60c (light shade)
40c (deep shade)
Dyes: ---------------------Deep shade:
D/t: 20min
R/t: 10 min
Temperature: 40c (deep shade)
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Light shade:
D/t: 30 min
R/t: 20 min
Temperature: 60c (light shade)

Sequestering agent (1090)-0.10 gm/l


Soda-20 gm/l
Glubal salt- gm/l

Process: glubal salt apply to the m/c in 3 times equaly.each


timeD/t: 10min
R/t: 10 min
Final r/t: 30 min
Then salt sample check.if ok then

Soda:
D/t: 40min
R/t: 20min
Temp: 40
Again sample check.if ok
12 .cold wash:
Apply normal wsah to the fabric.
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Temp: 70c
R/t: 10 min (light)
20 min (deep)
13. Neutralization:
Detergent (dfw)-0.5 gm/l
Acide (as)-1.0 gm/l
Process: mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing
the chemical into the machine.
D/t:2-3 min
R/t:20 min
Temperature: 50c
14. Soaping:
soap (dsp)-0.5 gm/l
clear-0.3 gm/l
csc-0.5 gm/l
Process: mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then dossing
the chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 15 min
Temperature: 50c
15. Softener:
o softener-0.5 gm/l
o sequestering agent (1090)-0.10 gm/l
o acide-(cn)-0.10 gm/l

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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Process: mixing the entire chemical in the blanket then


dossing the chemical into the machine.
D/t: 2-3 min
R/t: 15 min
Temperature: 50c

UNLOAD

DYEING PARAMETERS:

PH Levels for Different Stages Of Cotton Dyeing:

Initial Bath pH
6.5~7.0.
Before Enzyme, bath pH
4.5~4.7.
After Enzyme pH
5.5~6.0.
Scouring & Bleaching, bath pH
10.0~10.5.
After Scouring & Bleaching, pH
8.5~9.0.
After Adding Dyes, pH
6.2~6.35.
After Addition of Salt, pH
7.5~8.0.
After Addition of Soda, pH
10.5~11.0.
Before Softener, bath pH
7.2~7.8.

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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After Softener Addition, bath pH


6.5~6.8.

Ph Levels For Different Stages Of Polyester


Dyeing:
Initial bath pH
6.5~7.0.

Scouring, bath pH
10.0~11.5.
After Scouring, bath pH
8.5~9.0.
After Addition of Colors, bath pH
4.2~4.3.
During Reduction Clearing, bath pH
10.5~11.5.
Before Softener, bath pH
6.3~6.8.

Common dyeing faults with their remedies:

1. Crease mark:
Causes:

Poor opening of the fabric rope


Shock cooling of synthetic material
If pump pressure & reel speed is not equal
Due to high speed m/c running

Remedies:
Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed.


Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature
Reducing the m/c load
Higher liquor ratio
2. Uneven dyeing:
Causes:
Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring & bleaching).
Improper color dosing.
Using dyes of high fixation property.
Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers.
Lack of control on dyeing m/c
Remedies:

By ensuring even pretreatment.


By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers.
Proper dosing of dyes and chemicals.
Proper controlling of dyeing m/c

3. Batch to Batch Shade variation:


Causes:
Fluctuation of Temperature.
Improper dosing time of dyes & chemicals.
Batch to batch weight variation of dyes and chemicals.
Dyes lot variation.
Improper reel speed, pump speed, liquor ratio.
Improper pretreatment.
Remedies:
Use standard dyes and chemicals.
Maintain the same liquor ratio.
Follow the standard pretreatment procedure.
Maintain the same dyeing cycle.
Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the
same depth of
the Shade.
Make sure that the operators add the right bulk chemicals
at the same time and temperature in the process.

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The pH, hardness and sodium carbonate content of


supply water should check daily.
4. Patchy dyeing effect:
Causes:
Entanglement of fabric.
Faulty injection of alkali.
Improper addition of color.
Due to hardness of water.
Due to improper salt addition.
Dye migration during intermediate dyeing.
Uneven heat in the machine, etc.
Remedies:
By ensuring proper pretreatment.
Proper dosing of dyes and chemicals.
Heat should be same throughout the dye liquor.
Proper salt addition.
5. Roll to roll variation or Meter to Meter variation:
Causes:

Poor migration property of dyes.


Improper dyes solubility.
Hardness of water.
Faulty m/c speed, etc

Remedies:
Use standard dyes and chemicals.
Proper m/c speed.
Use of soft water
6. Dye spot:
Causes:
Improper Dissolving of dye particle in bath.
Improper Dissolving of caustic soda particle in bath.
Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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Remedies:

steel

By proper dissolving of dyes & chemicals


By passing the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless
mesh strainer, so that the .
large un-dissolved particles are removed

7. Wrinkle mark:
Causes:
Poor opening of the fabric rope
Shock cooling of synthetic material
High temperature entanglement of the fabric
Remedies:

Maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed.

Lower rate rising and cooling the temperature

Higher liquor ratio


8. Softener Mark:
Causes:
Improper mixing of the Softener.
Improper running time of the fabric during application of
softener.
Entanglement of the fabric during application of softener
Remedies:

Maintaining proper reel sped & pump speed.

Proper Mixing of the softener before addition.

Prevent the entanglement of the fabric during application


of softener

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Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

Page 98

FINISHING SECTION:
Finishing is the general term for a multitude of processes and
treatments which a fabric may undergo after it has been made
(woven or knitted) and coloured (dyed or printed). It is the final
processing of the cloth and its purpose is to make the fabric
suitable for its intended end use.
Finishing
is the final
processing before the fabric is cut into apparel or made into
any articles of textiles.
In order to impart the required functional properties to the fiber
or fabric, it is customary to subject the material to different
types of physical and chemical treatments. For example, wash
and wear finish for a cotton fabric is necessary to make it
crease-free or wrinkle-free. In a similar way, mercerising,
singeing, flame retardant, water repellent, waterproof, antistatic and peach finishing achieve various fabric properties
desired by consumers.
The use of 100% synthetic textiles has increased considerably
since the development of textured yarns made of filaments,
and the growing production of knit goods. The use of open
weave has enabled production of lighter, breathable, fabrics to
ensure better wearing comfort.

Object of finishing:
Finishing is done to improve following things:Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

Page 99

To improve the attractiveness.


To improve appearance.
To improve properties.
To improve quality To improve of dyed and printed fabric.
To reduce crimp.
To reduce wrinkle.
To reduce shrinkage.
To reduce loss of strength.
To improve lusture.
To improve handle.
To improve service ability.
LAYOUT PLAN OF FINISHING FLOOR:

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Open fabric

Tube fabric

Flow chart of finishing section:


Slitting machine

Dewatering machine

Dyed fabric
Stentering
Open

Compacting m/c

Drying Machine
Tube compacting machine

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)


Final inspection

Final inspection

Page 101

Avaliable machine in finisfing floor:


S/
L

Machine name

Brand

Origin

De-Watering

No. of
machine
01

0
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6

Santex

Switzerlan
d

Slitting

01

Corino

Italy

stenter

01

Unitech

Italy

open compector

01

Lafar

Italy

tube compector

01

Santex

Switzerlan
d

dryer

02

- Santex
- Unitech

bag-sewing

01

local

Switzerlan
d
-Italy
Local

0
7
0
8

hydroextractor

01

Dilmenler

Turkey

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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De-watering machine:
After dyeing process from the dyeing machine then the fabrics arc ready for dc-watering.
This is the process to remove the water from the fabric partially by squeezing. This is the
main function of the squeezing machine. But here also control the some important factor of
the fabric quality.

The basic function of the squeezing m/c:

To remove the excess water from the dyed fabric.


To control the length of the fabric.
To control the spirality of the fabric.
To control the width of the fabric.
To increase the softness of the fabric.
To remove the crease mark of the fabric.

M/C Specification:
Brand Name
Company
Model
Origin
Electr. Voltage
working Speed
Year of Manufacture
Overfeed Range

Santex
Santex ag
Sth
Switzerland
400 v
40~ 60 m/min
2004
-5% to +10%

M/C Parts:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Spreader
Hand wheel
Water tank
Over feed
Turn tube
spreader
6) Densing roller

To open the fabric from the rope position.


it is used for guide spreader.
To store the water and fall into the Fabric in rings form.
G.S.M control.
fabric rotation is controlled by it .feed the fabric into
Help to remove the crease mark.

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7) Air pressure
Open the tube fabric to remove the crease mark.
8) Padding roller
2 Set
a)
Front roller - After squeezer water contain 20%
b)
Back roller - After squeezer water contain 30%
9)security shield
Automatic system to ensure the
security of padder.
Padding roller pressure capacity-6bar
Maximum apply-4bar.
Normally applied-2 bar

Controlling point:
1. Speed: As much as possible (40-60 m/min). Higher the
GSM lower the speed.
2. Over feed: As required. Higher the GSM higher the over
feed.
3. Padder pressure: 2-2.5 bar as required. Higher the GSM
lower the padder pressure.
4. Width: Fabric width is adjusted as per required width.

SLITTING MACHINE:
Slitting machine is used for removing excess water from tube
fabric or open fabric .That is applied by cutting the tubular
fabric into open wide fabric.

The basic function of the slitting m/c:


To open the tube fabric according to specific needle mark.
To remove the excess water from fabric.
To remove the crease marks.

Machine name
brand
Year
Model

Slitting machine
Corino
2004
177/04

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

Page 104

Maximum pressure
Maximum working speed

8 bar
80-85 m/min

M/C Parts:
Twist detector- detect the twist of fabric which is in rope
form.
Cutting knife/device - cutting the fabric according to
specific needle mark.
Ring use to help the cutting process.
Sensor Identify the specific wales line .makes sense for
it.
Guide roller after slitting ,plaiting of the fabric to
plaiting .
Plaiting - open fabric is make plait by plaiting.
Padder- to remove the required exact water.

Controlling point:
Maintain fabric expanding shape to keep minimum dia of (1*1)Rib,
(2*1)Rib,(2*2)Rib fabric, otherwise after slitting fabric dia increased.
Speed -The speed should be optimum (30-80 m/min).More
speed,less remove of water.
Pressure: The padder pressure should be according to
requirement. Although ATL normally used 2 to 2.5 bar at
front padder.
Hairiness remove Remove hairiness of fabric otherwise it
may causes uneven padder pressure.

DRYER:
Drying is defined as a process where the liquid portion is
evaporated from the fabric. After de-watering then the fabric
through the dryer.

The basic function of the dryer m/c:

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To dry the fabric by using steam or gas blower


To control the vibration which increase the G.S.M.
To control the overfeed system.

Specification of santex ag:


Brand Name
Company
Year of Manufacture
Origin
Type
Model
Max. Working Speed
Min. working Speed
Max. Temperature
No. of Burner
Overfeed Range
No. of Chamber

Santex AG
Santex AG
2001
Switzerland
Santashrink 2K/240, IRGF1
,GAS
CH-9555, Tobel
30 m/min
3 m/min
1850C
02
0% to -25%
02

Specification of UNITECH :
Brand Name
Company
Year of Manufacture
Origin
Type
Model
No. of Chamber
Burner

UNITECH dryer
UNITECH co Ltd
2005
Italy
DF-3K-260
Gold evo 3
03
03

M/C Parts:
Conveyor net
Chamber
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Page 106

Burner
Exhaust air fan
Over feed roller
Filter net
Fan
Nozzle

Controlling point of SANTEX dryer for open


fabric:
S/L

Color

Temp()

01
02

Black
Average
color
White
polyester

03
04

150
140

Vibratio
n
400
400

Speed(m/m
in)
25-30
20-25

Overfeed(
%)
20-25
20-25

120
110-120

400
400

20-25
25-30

20-25

Controlling point of dryer for tube fabric:


S/L
01
02
03
04
05

Color/GSM
White
Average color
Black
220
180

Temp()
140
160
170
150
160

Speed(m/min)
5.5
6.6-7
8-9
5.5-6
7-8

Controlling point of santex dryer for collar


fabric:
S/L
01
02
03
04

Color
Scouring
White
Pale/light
Deep/dark shade

Temp()
160
140
150
160

Overfeed(%)
20
20
20
20

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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Never dry coller/cuff in dryer second times otherwise shade is not


matched.
Vibration roller increase GSM ,its speed kept down between (400-600)
according to buyer requirement.
Following things are also considered incase of Dryer
machine:
If fabric is redder than the standard one, then reduce the temperature.
If fabric is more Yellowier than the standard one, then increase the
temperature.
If fabric is more Bluer than the standard one, then increase the
temperature.

Stenter machine:
A machine or apparatus for stretching or stentering fabrics. The
purpose of the stenter machine is to bringing the length and
width to pre determine dimensions and also for heat setting
and it is used for applying finishing chemicals and also shade
variation is adjusted. The main function of the stenter is to
stretch the fabric width wise and to recover the uniform width.

Stenter consists of three parts:

M
c
s
a
o
t
h
r
e
ln
i
o
n
t
o
e
r

Functions
of Stenter
Machines:
Heat
setting is done by the stenter for lycra fabric, synthetic
and blended fabric.

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

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Width of the fabric is controlled by the stenter.


Finishing chemical apply on fabric by the stenter.
Loop of the knit fabric is controlled.
Moisture of the fabric is controlled by the stenter.
Spirility controlled by the stenter.
GSM of the fabric is controlled by stenter.
Fabric is dried by the stentering process.
Shrinkage property of the fabric is controlled.
Curing treatment for resin, water repellent fabric is done
by the stenter.

Specification of UNITECH stenter machine:


Brand name
Serial no.
Origion
Year
Speed range
Temp range
Chamber
Fabric width range
Air pressure
Burner
Extra attachment
Used utilies

UNITECH
A5040158
Italy
2004
(7-150)m/min
(70-210)
06
(114-250)cm
3 bar
06
MATLo
Gas,Air,Electricity

M/C Parts:
Padders
Weft straighter(mATLo)
Burners
Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

Page 109

Heat recovery
Attraction rollers
Circulating fans.
Clips
Pins
I.R
Nozzle
Chain arrangement
Blower
Exhaust air fan
Over feed roller

Controlling point of UNITECH dryer for open


fabric:
Pressure in padder:
White
Color
Heat setting

3.0 bar
2.5 bar
3.5 bar

If softenter is used in dyeing machine ,then padder


pressure in stenter machine 3 bar.
If softenter is used in stenter machine padder pressure 2.5
bar

STANDARD OPERATING PARAMETER FOR DIFFERENT


FABRIC IN STENTER:
Fabric
Type

GSM

Dia

Temp

Single
jersey

115150

2+ 110140

Over
Feed
4045%

Padder Spee Blower


Pressu d
rpm
e
(rpm)
bar

2 3035

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

11001300
Page 110

Single
jersey

160220

2+ 120170

4045%

Lycra
Single
jersey

160200

4+ 130160

50%

Lycra
Single
jersey

200250

4+ 140160

50%

Pique

160200

3+ 130160

4045%

Lycra
Pique

190220

4+ 130160

50%

Fleece/Ter
ry

260300

4+ 140170

4045%

1x1 Rib

160220

2+ 130160

45%

190220

2+ 140160

45%

190220

3+ 130160

50%

2x2 Rib
Interlock

2.5
bar

2530

12001400

bar

2 2530

12001400

bar

2 2428

12001400

2530

12001400

bar

2 2025

12001400

bar

2 2025

13001400

bar

2 2428

13001400

bar

2 2025

12001400

bar

2 2025

12001400

1.52bar

COMPACTOR MACHINE:
Compactor is a textile finishing machine which is designed
specially for compacting 100% cotton knitted fabric like jersey,
pique, interlock, plush, rib and sinker etc. as well as cotton
blended fabric in rope form, changing the loft and dimensional
stability of the fabric and presenting it to plaited form. Fitted
with two felt compacting units which makes it to obtain top
quality fabric, with minimized shrinking nature and a soft fluffy
hand.
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Page 111

Functions of compactor Machines:

GSM control
Control shrinkage
Twisting control
Increase smoothness of fabric
Heat setting is done of fabric
Shade match control.

Types of Compactor Machine:


Compactor machines are two types. They are1. Tube compactor
2. Open compactor
Specification of Tube Compactor Machine:
Brand name

Santex ag

year

2001

Manufacturing
country

Italy

Speed range

25-45 m/min

Temperature

110-150

Used utilities

Electricity, Compress air,


Steam

model

STS(Santaspread)

Aboni Textiles Limited (A concern of Babylon Group)

Page 112

Maximum width

50

Minimum width

17

Applied for

Tube fabric

Specification of open Compactor Machine:

Brand name

Lafer

year

2004

Manufacturing
country

Italy

Speed range

8-45 m/min

Temperature

20-150

Used utilities

Electricity, Compress air,


Steam

model

SPA

Over feed range

(50-100)m/min

Applied for

open fabric

M/C Parts:

Over feed roller.


Steam sprayers.
Expander.
Cylinder
Blanket

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Teflon covers.
Tension roller
Sensor roller
Temperature roller
Cold roller

Controlling point of compactor for open fabric:

S/
L
0
1
0
2
0
3

Color

Temp()

Speed
35

Overfe
ed (%)
100

Finish
dia
70.5-71

Compacti
on (%)
5

Black

140-150

Average 140-150
color
White
140-150

35

100

70.5-71

35

100

70.5-71

S/
L
0
1
0
2
0
3

Fabric style

Overfeed(%)

Compaction(%)

S/j

12

6-7

(1*1)Rib

12

5-6

Single/double
lacoste

20-22

8-10

GSM steam speed tension overfeed


GSM steam speed tension overfeed

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Quality Control:
Quality control is concerned with the evaluation of test data
and its application to control of the textile process, raw
materials, intermediate products and final products.
It is concerned not only with quality level and cost of
maintaining this quality level but also concerned with the
presentation of tangible values to measure quality and changes
in quality. In order to control quality one must know about the
consumers expectations.

Process Flow Chart of Final Inspection:

At first check the shade as per buyer standard with dimensional


stability from lab.

Secondly check dia / width fabric weight or G.S.M

Thirdly check fabric surface or appearance as per buyer


standard.

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The every roll with every meter check (as per four (04) point
system)

Make a report.

Send to the buyer

If OK then ready for delivery.

If not OK then identify the fault.

If it is knitting fault then inform the knitting department by job


card and mail, & requested the fabric for replacement.

If it is dyeing fault, then give job card to dyeing department


correction. And if is not reprocess able then reject the fabric &
inform the dyeing department to replace the rejected quantity

List of Equipments:
1. Computer
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Light box
Electric Heater
Sample Dyeing M/C
Electrical Balance
PH meter
G S M Cutter
Washing M/ C
Shrinkage & spirality measurement instrument

Objectives of quality Control:

Selection of raw materials


Specification test
Product testing.
To ensure the product desired quality.
To fulfill requirements for quality.
Process control and development
To control and different techniques will be required by
different conditions.
Quality assurance and so on.
To evaluate accurately of the end product.
To research and development
Quality assurance and so on.

Quality Management system:

Quality assurance procedure may be provided by the following


two major parts-

Quality control

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On Line Test

Off Line Test

Physical Tests

Chemical

Tests
On Line Test:
Fabric GSM control
Grey Fabric Inspection with 4 point system
Diameter and Width control
Shade Check;
Bias and Bowing;
Visual appearance (Enzyme performance);
Stripe.
Off Line Test:
Off line quality are divided into two groupsPhysical Tests and Chemical Tests.

TEXTILE TESTING FOR KNIT FABRIC:


COLOR FASTNESS TEST:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Color
Color
Color
Color
Color
Color
Color
Color
Color

fastness
fastness
fastness
fastness
fastness
fastness
fastness
fastness
fastness

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

washing
rubbing/crocking
perspiration
water
sea water
light
saliva
saliva & perspiration
phenolic yellowing

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SHRINKAGE & RELATED TEST:


1. Dimensional stability to washing2. spirality/skewnessFABRIC/GARMENTS PERFORMANCE TEST:
1. Pilling resistance, ICI BOX
2. Abrasion resistance (martindale method)
3. Pilling resistance (martindale method)
4. Elongation & modulus
5. Stretchability of narrow fabric
6. Stretch & recovery
7. spandez/lycra slippage(flex test)
ANALYTICAL TEST:
1. PH value
CONSTRUCTION ANALYSIS:
1. Fabric weight
2. Stitch density
3. Fabric width
FABRIC/GARMENTS STRENGTH TEST:
1. tensile strength
2. Bursting strength3. Seam performance
4. Tearing strength
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YARN TEST:
1. twist
2. Yarn appearance
3. Yarn count
4. Tensile strength
5. Tensile strength
OTHER TEST:
1. General appearance

Quality Control Flow Chart:

Yarn receiving

Sample Knitting

Batching
Dyeing (Check shade & Faults)

Dewatering

Drying (Check diameter, Pretreatment, Shrinkage Spirality and


GSM)
Compacting

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Final inspection

If sample OK go for bulk production

Quality assurance:
Quality assurance is defined as all those possible planned and
systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence
than a product or service will satisfy given requirements for
quality. The Quality Assurance Department is assigned to
maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process
and various stages of its manufacturing.

Quality assurance at different stage:


Assures the quality of the products of dyeing section in the
following three steps:
In laboratory
In dyeing section &
In finishing section
Procedures are described below

In laboratory

Swatch card from buyer according to their requirement


recipe prediction for sample dyeing
sample dyeing until matching with swatch card
Fastness & other tests of the fabric or yarn are done here.

In dyeing section

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According to the buyers sample, sample dyeing is done


in sample dyeing machine in dyeing shed & again
matched with the approved sample.
If result is OK, then bulk production.
During dyeing, samples are taken until accurate shade
matching. The interval may be 30-40 minutes.
After dyeing sample is collected after softening
matching is done.
Last of all, sample is collected after fixation & matched.
Then allowed the fabrics to be finished.
In finishing section
By using a series of finishing machines correct
width, softness & appearance are maintained according to
requirements.
Then sampling is done for several times to test GSM, Shrinkage
& fastness properties.
Finally fabric is inspected & prepared for delivery.

List of equipments:

In the quality assurance Department the followings equipments


are used

Electronics Balance
Iron
Lab. Dyeing Machine
Rota Wash
Crock Meter
Spectro-photometer with software (Data Color)

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PH meter

Fabric Inspection:
The inspection of fabric is a procedure by which the defects of
fabric are identified and fabric is classified according to degree
or intensity of defects. The fabric inspection is done for both
gray and finished fabric.

Grey Fabric Inspection:


Grey fabric inspection is performed according to 4-point
system.

Finished Fabric Inspection:


4 point numbering system is followed for finished fabric
inspection.

Defects found in the final inspection:

Uneven shade
Oil spot
Neps
Crease mark
Machine Stoppage mark
Listing
Line mark
Pick missing
Double yarn
Dead cotton

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Bowing
Fly yarn contamination
Some test procedure are given below

G S M Test:
GSM is the most important factor. There is a G S M Cutter. The
Sample is cut then weighted in the electronic balance. The
reading is then (in gm) from the balance, multiplied by 100, to
get Value of G S M.

Finished Fabric dia:


In Knit, dyeing finishing, finished diameter is Very important
factor. It should be kept as the buyer requirements. Simply a
measuring tape measures it. Finished diameter is controlled at
compacting m/c.
Color Fastness to Rubbing:
Rubbing fastness is the resistance to color fading of dyed
textile, when rubbing against a rough surface.
Process
The test specimen size 15cm x 15cm are taken
Then place on the cork meter.
(5cmx5cm) Cotton, desized, bleased but without finished
fabric is attached to the cork meter finger.
Rubbing 10 minutes at 10 second.
Rubbings are test in two conditions.
1. Dry condition and
2. Wet condition
Here gray scales are used and grade the fabric rubbing
fastness according to the gray scale.
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Color fastness to wash


The resistance to color loss of any dyed or printed material
during wash.

Chemical:

ECE Detergent
4gm/l
Sodium per-borate
1gm/l
Time
30 mine
Temperature
60C
Steel balls
25
Solution of chemical
150 ml (From 1 litter ECE or
Sodium per-borate)

Required materials:

Sample size 40 x 10 cm
Multi-fiber at 40 x 10 cm
ECE detergent (WOB)-4g/L
Sodium Per-borate (Na2BO3.H2O2-1g/L)-1g/L
Distilled water
Normal cold water

Required instrument:
Rota wash
Scissor
Stitch machine
Process:
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The cut sample sized 4cmx10cm.


Attach the multi-fiber with the sample.
Sample immersed in 150ml solution of ECE or Sodium perborate and put into the Rota wash m/c for 30 mine at
60C
After that dry on oven.
Here gray scale is used to measurement.
Changing

After wash and before

wash the sample.

Staining

Color bled from

sample to multi-fiber

Color fastness to light:

Purpose:
Light fastness is the test design to evaluate the laundering
fastness test of dyeing, Pigment which re to be made in
comparison of result obtained on many test pieces treated
under light.

Method: ISO

Apparatus:
1. Light fastness tester & blue scale
2. Scale
3. Scissor
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4. Hard paper
5. 4cm X 2cm
Process:

Cut the sample specimen into (4X2) cm


Stay the sample into the sun test m/c for 20 hour.
Finally measure the color change with blue wool scale.
Expectable value (5-8)

Standar
d
8
7
6
5
4
3

Rating

2
1

Not fast
Not fast

Fast
Fast
Average
Average
Average
Average

Result:
The test result of light fastness test is equivalent to the class of
standard 6.So we can say that the color fastness of dyed fabric
is aver
Shrinkage test:
M/C Name:

Washing m/c

Temperature

40 C

Time

(37-40) minutes

Water amount

20 litters

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Chemical:

ECE Detergent
requirement)

20,40,50gm/l (According to the buyer

Sodium per-borate 5.10gm/l


Process:
At first wash the fabric sample in washing m/c with
require chemical at 40C on (37-40) mine.
After that dry the fabric in oven in required
temperature.
Before washing the fabric are marked with tame plate
or measuring tape.
After washing find out the length, chest, salvage or
spirality change.

After wash Before wash


Lengthwise:

---------------------------------- 100
Before wash

After wash Before wash


Width wise:

= --------------------------------------- 100
Before wash

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Maintenance:
Maintenance is a process by which equipment is looked after in
such a way that trouble free. Service and increased machine
life can be ensured and specific product quality required by the
customers is sustained. On time maintenance increase m/c
lifetime & ensures trouble free services. Maintenance of
machineries is very important for any type of industries and it
is must for a knit composite factory. All machines and machine
parts of knitting, dyeing and garments are maintained with
extreme care. Because production quality and quantity, both
depends on the maintenance with regularity.
Objective of Maintenance:
To keep the factory plants, equipments, machines. Tools in
an optimum working condition.
To ensure specified accuracy to product & time schedule of
delivery to customer.
To keep the machine down time to minimum thus to have
control over the production program.
To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range.
To modify the machine settings to meet the need for the
production.
Maintenance of Machinery:

Mainenance

Preventive Maintenance

Break Down Maintenance

Electrical Page 131


Mechanical
Aboni Textiles
Limited (AElectrical
concern ofMechanical
Babylon Group)
Maintenance

Maintenance Maintenance

Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance
Preventive maintenance is a predetermined
routine actively to ensure on time inspection / checking of
facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break
downs or harmful description.

Break down maintenance


In this case, repairs are made after the
equipment is out of order and it cant perform its normal
functions.

Routine Maintenance
Maintenance of different m/c is prepared by
expert engineer of maintenance department. Normally in case of
dyeing m/c maintenance after 30 days complete checking of
different important parts are done.

Maintenance Tools &Equipments:

Mechanical
Electrical
1. Pliers
1. Voltmeter
2. Inside Calipers
2. Ammeter
3. Outside Calipers 3. Contact
4. Digital Millimeter
Cleaner
5. Heating Shoulder
6. Hammer
7. Pliles
8. Gauge
9. Vernier Calipers
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10.
Lather M/C
11.
Drill M/C
12.
Welding M/C
13.
Spanner Set
14.
Alen Key Set
15.
Steel Roll
16.
Measuring
Tape
17.
Crew Driver
18.
Cutting
oil
(WD-40)
Maintenance Procedure:
Normally preventive maintenance is done here.
maintenance procedure following points should be checked:

During

Checklist for Different Machine:


Machine: Dyeing Machine
Maintenance: Mechanical

Check the main pump oil level.


Check all bearings, seals, gaskets.
Check all mechanical seal flush pipes.
Discharge the water from air filter.
Check all m/c flange & platform bolts.
Grease RCR rotary joints every 2 weekly
Clean & check the control panel.
Check the adjustment of catch basket mechanism
and plaiter system.

Machine:Squeezer Machine
Maintenance: Mechanical
Grease squeezer bearings.
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Grease all the bearings.


Check oil level of pneumatic oilers.
Check oil level of gearboxes.
Check magnetic spreader adjustment.

Machine:Compactor
Maintenance: Mechanical
Check, Grease if necessary
Nuts of width adjustment spindles for wear
Check all spindle bearings for free running
Free running of guide rollers, deflection rollers &
contact rollers
Pressure springs of chain tensioner
Perform visual inspection: Gear box oil level
Belts, pulleys

Machine: Stenter
Maintenance: Mechanical
Crease all bearing with stuburg NBU-12, energrease
1002
Complete cleaning of the machine
Check all belt and belt tension
Check all door sills
Check gear box of platting and its oil.
Check all pin bars & clean
Check chain and give oil if required .Clean exhaust
blower & duct
All chamber blowers check and clean
Chamber nozzle cleaning
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Check gas pressure, adjust if required

Machine: Boiler:
Maintenance: Mechanical

Check and clean fluff & dart at all machine.


Feed pump servicing.Main boiler servicing.
Cheek all temperature & pressure gauge meter.
Cheek gas strainer.
Clean gauge glass &change if required.
Clean feed tank.
Clean fire tube.
Clean all safety valves.
Check all steam valves.
Check all gas regulators.

Remarks:
Maintenance of m/c is very essential to prolong the m/c
life and good maintenance is important consideration. In this
industry maintenance program is done by expert maintenance team.
So, very few times production is stopped due to m/c problem.

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Available Utility Facilities


ATL is a large project. So, it requires adequate utility services.
In ATL. the following utility services are available

Electricity
Gas
Water
Compressed air
Steam

Electricity
It is impossible to continue the production without electricity. A
frequent supply of electricity is very much essential to ensure
smooth production. In ATL. the whole demanded electricity is
generated by Own Generator.

Starting Procedure (Generator)

Generator Room should be Clean

Cooling Tower water reserve tank shold filled

Oil Circulation pump run for 10 min

Start the Engine 5 Min without any load

Close the main circuit breaker and connect the load.

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Total power is then distributed as per requirements of different,


section of ATL.
Gas
The gas is supplied to Gas Generator, Boiler.
The source of gas is TITAS GAS LTD.
Water
Continuous supply of water for ATL is ensured by Water pump.
The deep well water is subjected to Water Treatment Plant
(WTP) to make sure the water quality parameter suitable for
Textile Wet Processing.

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS
All the solid waste and effluent generated by the factory are
treated and disposed off in an environmentally safe manner.
Our textile complex has its own water treatment facility or
Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). The Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) of Bangladesh certifies the compliance.
ATL commitment:
To continuously improve our waste management facilities.
Meet relative environmental safely standards.
Continual waste reduction, recycle and reuse.
Improve work environment and work safety.
ETP:

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ETP means effluent plant. It can be defined as a plant where


the effluent is treated. Now a day ETP is mandatory for
industries which produced huge amount of waste water (such
as wet processing industries in Textiles).By basic studies on
ETP, we learn how to control textile waste water pollution, how
waste water is treated in order to save our environment.
Classification of ETP:
ETP can be classified as follows
1. Physicochemical
2. Biological a) Conventional
b) Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR)
3. Physicochemical followed by biological (Bio-chemical)

The ETP of ATL is used Physicochemical followed by biological


(Bio-chemical). The ETP of ATL is described below:
Amount of using chemicals:

1) Polyelectrolyte
2) Lime

2kg/1000L
(50-100) kg/1000L

3) FeSO4

50 kg/1000L

4) DAP +Urea

(8+2) kg/1000

Using Chemical of ETP in Aboni Textiles Ltd:


1) H2SO4/HCl :
Function:
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Neutralize the waste water controlling the PH. It is auto


dispensed in the neutralization tank.
2) Polyelectrolyte:
Function:
Make chemical particles bigger in size
3) De-colorant:
Function:
It
.

is

used

for

removing

color

of

waste

water.

4) Sodium Hypochlorite:
Function:
It is used to kill the harmful bacteria. It is used in the
biological oxidation tank.
6) FeSO4:
Function:
Used for coagulation and sludge separation from waste
water.
7) Lime:
Function:
To change the color of waste water.
8) Di-ammonium phosphate:
Function:
Using food of bacteria.
9) Urea:
Function:

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Using food of bacteria.

Product Quality Checked:

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Total suspended solids
Total dissolved solids
Color
PH, etc.

After treatment the waste water the permissible limit of


different parameters of waste water is known as discharge limit
.It is an acceptable value which is standard for all mills and
factories.

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Parameters

Discharge limits

BOD(20 C0.mg/L)

150 mg/L

COD(mg/L)

100 mg/L

TSS(mg/L)

2100 mg/L

TDS(mg/L)

10 mg/L

Oil & Grease(mg/l )

605-9

pH

100 L/Kg of fabric processing

Waste water flow

Discharge standard for textiles liquid waste water according to


the National Effluent Quality Standards (NEQS) guided by DOE
(Department of Environment)

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Parameters

Discharge limits

BOD(20 C0.mg/L)

150 mg/L

COD(mg/L)

100 mg/L

TSS(mg/L)

2100 mg/L

TDS(mg/L)

10 mg/L

Oil & Grease(mg/l )

605-9

pH

100 L/Kg of fabric processing

Waste water flow

Remarks:

Waste water from processing industries e g. Dyeing ,


Printing , Finishing and washing causes great harmful effect on
our environmental, As a result agricultural land loses its
fertility, natural water becomes polluted aquatic life is
destructive and crops are damage.

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CHAPTER-15

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Conclusion

Industrial training is an essential part for textile education


because it minimizes the gap between theoretical and practical
knowledge. Undoubtedly, this industrial training taught us lot
about textile technology, production processes, textile
machineries, industrial management, and made us comfortable
to industrial life. Besides it gave us the first opportunity to work
in industry. Industrial Training program send me to the expected
destiny of practical life. The completion of six week industrial
Training at Aboni Textiles Ltd.I have got the impression that
the factory is one of modern knit dyeing projects in Bangladesh.
Though it was established only few years ago, it has earned
very good reputation for its best performance over any other
knit dyeing project.

During my industrial Training I had tried to my best to done my


duty. My supervising officer also satisfied to me & offer cooperation in every steps. It is completely a new experience in
my life, which will be very effective in my service life. During
my training period I realized that practical experience is
valuable for service life.
Limitations of the Report:
It is not possible to hold the whole thing of a textile industry in
such a small frame as this report. So, try our hard to summarize
all the information that we are provided.
Because of secrecy act, the data of costing and
marketing activities have not been supplied.

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We did not get enough supervision form the responsible


persons of different section due to their busy schedule.
So there may some limitation of data of different
section in this report.
We had a very limited time. In spite of willingness to
study in more details it was not possible to do so.
Some of the points in different chapters are not include
as these were not available.

Reference:
To write this report I take some help from different source. To
developed this attachment I collect data from internet, different
journal, and book. Which photo I attach here thats I collect
from different web site.

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