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Physical-Layer Security with

Multiuser Scheduling in Cognitive Radio
Cognitive radio networks is a promising technology that addresses the
spectrum scarcity in a very intelligent manner. Basically CR allows secondary
users to access a licensed band, this enable them to coexist with primary used
without causing interference. Because of the physical characteristics of CRNs
where various unknown wireless devices are allowed to scrupulously access the
licensed spectrum, several types of attacks on physical layer in CRNs has been
interestingly growing. One type of such attacks is discussed in this paper which is
eavesdropping. A network which consists of multiple cognitive users (CU),
eavesdroppers and a cognitive base station (CBS) is used to investigate the
eavesdropping attack. The general idea behind the paper is that when a wireless
transmission takes place between a CU and CBS there is a certain QoS which is
tagged to it. To illustrate this two types of link has been identified one is the link
between the CBS and eavesdroppers known as the wiretap link, and one between
the CU and CBS which is denoted as main link. It was proved in that if the
capacity of the main link is less than that of the wiretap link, the eavesdropper
will succeed in decoding the source signal and an intercept event occurs in this
case. When a CU is transmitting to CBS, it is assumed that the eavesdropped is
aware of the parameters that is involved in a cognitive transmission, this
includes the carrier frequency, spectrum bandwidth, modulation scheme,
encryption techniques and so on, and the only information that is not viable to
them is the source signal. Eavesdroppers would attempt to decode the possible
value of the source signal to intercept the transmission. In the case none of the
eavesdropper is able to achieve this the information is deemed to be secure.
The traditional multiuse scheduling scheme does not consider the
eavesdropping attack therefore the CU that provides the best achievable secrecy
rate would be selected as optimal which may be an eavesdropper. A new
multiuser scheduling scheme is proposed to address this security issue at the
physical layer. The main challenge of this scheme is the primary user (PU) QoS
should not be compromised. Besides that the PU should not face any type of
harmful interference as well. As mentioned before the secrecy rate of the
transmission is based on the difference between the main link and the wiretap
link. Therefore a cognitive user that is able to achieve the highest secrecy rate
will be selected as the optimal user for that transmission. This would yield the
signal from the eavesdroppers. To perform multiuser scheduling the channel
state information and the received signal of the main link and the wiretap link is


The formula above denotes the computation of the maximum achievable

secrecy rate in the presence of an eavesdropper. Nb represents the interference
and thermal noise received by the CBS from a CU and Nej is that of a
eavesdropper. This will allow legitimate CU to maximize their secrecy rate over
the eavesdroppers and perform transmission under the PU QoS constraint. In
conclusion the multiuser scheduling scheme achieves multiuser diversity for
improving the cognitive transmission security against eavesdropping attacks.