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MATERI B INGGRIS-TOEFL-READING COMPREHENSION

READING COMPREHENSION
Section 3 dalam ujian TOEFL adalah Reading comprehension. Ini digunakan untuk
mengukur kemempuan peserta ujian dalam memahami teks tertulis dalam bahasa
inggris. Bagian ini mengujikan setidaknya 5 bacaan, dimana masing-masing bacaan
biasanya terdiri dari sepuluh pertanyaan. Sehingga pertanyaan pada bagian ini
berjumlah limapuluh pertanyaan. Anda harus menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan
dalam waktu limapuluh menit. Bagian ini hanya mengujikan teks bacaan saja, tanpa
gambar, diagram, atau alat Bantu visual lainnya.
Tema bacaan yang diujikan dalam bagian ini cukup bervariasi, namun secara umum
berkaitan dengan materi perkuliahan yang diajarkan oleh universitas-universitas di
Amerika Serikat. Misalnya, sejarah, sastra, seni, arsitektur, geologi, biologi,
kesehatan, astronomi, geografi, dan seterusnya. Adapun pertanyaan pada section 3
bisa dikategorikan ke dalam dua bentuk pertanyaan sebagai berikut:
1.

Reading comprehension

Pada section 3 ini anda akan diminta untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang
berkaitan dengan informasi yang terdapat pada teks bacaan. Mulai dari main idea,
bagian bacaan yang lebih rinci, sampai inferasi atau penyimpulan atas informasi
yang terdapat pada bacaan.
2.

Vocabulary

Section 3 juga meminta anda untuk menjawab arti dari kata-kata tertentu yang
terdapat pada teks bacaan. Namun apabila anda sama sekali tidak tahu arti katakata tertentu, anda masih tetap bias mengetahui arti kata-kata tersebut dengan
memahami konteks bacaan. Dengan demikian anda bias memperkirakan arti dari
kata-kata yang ditanyakan dalam soal.

Permasalahan yang biasa dihadapi oleh peserta tes TOEFL dalam ujian Reading
Comprehension adalah batasan waktu yang singkat. Banyak peserta tes yang tidak
bias menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan ketika waktu yang disediakan telah habis.
Untuk itu

Berbagai kemampuan yang dibutuhkan dalam reading harus anda kuasai sebelum
benar-benar menjalankan ujian TOEFL. Sekalipun demikian, Anda masih berpeluang
untuk mendapatkan skor TOEFL yang lebih tinggi apabila menguasai trik-trik taktis.
Berikut disajikan beberapa kunci yang bisa membantu anda berkompetisi dengan
waktu yang ketat sekaligus untuk mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik.

1.

Kunci umum

Kunci 1: Jangan terlalu lama membaca teks bacaan.


Harus diingat bahwa anda tidak memiliki cukup waktu untuk membaca teks bacaan
secara mendalam. Pertanyaan yang muncul dalam tes reading ini umumnya dpat
dijawab secara tepat dengan tanpa langsung membaca bacaan secara rinci. Anda
dapat mengalokasikan satu atau dua menit untuk membaca main idea pada
masing-masing paragraph dari sebuah bacaan sebelum mulai membaca
pertanyaan. Dengan demikian anda sudah mendapatkan gambaran sekilas tentang
informasi yang disampaikan oleh bacaan.
Kunci 2 : Perhatikan semua pertanyaan yang terdapat pada sebuah bacaaan dan
ingat-ingat kata kuncinya.
Setelah membaca sekilas main idea masing-masing paragraph, selanjutnya anda
harus segera membaca pertanyaan pada soal-soal yang terdapat pada bacaan
tersebut. Rekamlah kata-kata kunci pada masing-masing pertanyaan pada pikiran
anda sehingga anda dapat mencari jawabannya pada bacaan dengan sekali tempo
untuk beberapa pertanyaan. Anda juga dapat memeberi tanda pada kata kunci di
lembar soal, karena anda tidak dilarang memberikan coretan. Cara ini sangat efektif
untuk menghemat waktu, sehingga pandangan anda tidak bolak-balik antara teks
bacaan dengan pertanyaaan.
Kunci 3 : Jangan panic apabila tema bacaan bukan merupakan disiplin yang anda
kuasai..
Ujian TOEFL sudah didisai sedemikian rupa sehingga peserta ujian tidak
dipersyaratkan untuk menguasai tema-tema dari disiplin ilmu tertentu. Semua
informasi yang ditanyakan dalam soal section 3 sudah tersedia dalam teks bacaan.
Sehingga apapun latar belakang keilmuan yang anda kuasai anda akan tetap dapat
menjawab soal-soal pada bacaan yang sama sekali berbeda dari disiplin anda.

KUNCI KHUSUS
Materi yang diujikan dalam tes reading biasanya memiliki pola-pola dan standar
tertentu. Biasanya anda diminta untuk mengetahui tema bacaaan, menentukan
main idea, mengetahui arti dari kosakata tertentu, mengetahui informasi tertentu,
melakukan penyimpulan, melakukan identifikasi ats pengecualian-pengecualian dan
mengetahui rujukan dari pronoun tertentu.
Untuk membekali diri anda dalam mengahadapi are apersoalan yang diujikan dalam
reading tes, perhatikan kunci-kunci berikut ini :
Kunci 4 : Lakukan previewing untuk mengetahui topic bacaan..
Topik merupakan salah satu item yang hampir dapat dipastikan keluar pada setiap
tes TOEFL. Untuk mengetahui topic sebuah bacaan, anda tidak perlu membaca
secara detail dan mendalam. Anda cukup membaca kalimat pertama dan terakhir
pada tiap-tiap paragraph bacaan. Anda tidak dituntut untuk memahami bacaan

secara rinci melainkan hanya untuk menentukan topic, oleh karena nya anda harus
membaca secepat mungkin.
Kunci 5 : Perhatikan kalimat pertama dari sebuah paragraph untuk mengetahui
main idea.
Tes reading sering kali mengujikan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan
main idea. Main idea biasanya terdapat pada kalimat pertama dari sebuah
paragraph. Dengan mengetahuinya, anda dapat memahami pesan apa yang ingin
disampaikan oleh penulis. Main Idea dari sebuah bacaan biasanya terdapat pada
dua kalimat pertama.
Kunci 6 : Pahamilah konteks yang terdapat pada bacaan untuk mengetahui arti kata
tertentu.
Konteks dalam bacaan bahasa Inggris adalah kombinasi dari kosakata dan grammar
yang digunakan pada sebuah kata. Ia dapat berupa sebuah kalimat, paragraph,
atau bacaan. Dengan memahami sebuah konteks anda akan dapat memperkirakan
arti sebuah kata. Karena dengan mengetahui arti secara umum dari sebuah kalimat
berarti anda juga memahami arti kata-kata yang terdapt pada kalimat tersebut.

Kunci 7 : Lakukan scanning untuk menemukan informasi tertentu yang berkaitan


dengan permintaan soal.
Sebuah teks bacaan dalam ujian TOEFL biasanya diikuti dengan sepuluh
pertanyaan, karena batasan waktu yang sangat mendesak sebaiknya anada
membaca kesepuluh pertanyaan tersebut. Ketika membaca semua pertanyaan
anda harus menemukan kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan dan merekamnya dalam
pikiran. Bacalah secara cepat dengan cara scanning untuk menemukan kata-kata
tertentu yang menjadi kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan. Hal ini sngat berguna
dalam melakukan klarifikasi pada teks bacaan untuk menemukan informasi yang
ditanyakan. Dengan mengingat semua kata kunci pertanyaan, pandangan, dan
focus anda tidak perlu terpecah untuk mencocokkan pertanyaan dengan teks.
Karena biasanya urutan nomor soal tidak menanyakan kalimat atau bagian dari teks
secara berurutan. Sehingga bila anda hnaya membaca satu pertanyaan kemudian
mencarinya di teks bacaan akan menghabiskan banyak waktu karena anda perlu
melakukan hal yang sama berkali-kali.
Kunci 8 : Kumpulkan fakta dan data dalam bacaan untuk melakukan inferasi atau
penyimpulan
Tidak semua jawaban dari sebuah pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL dapat ditemukan
secara langsung dalam teks bacaan. Hal ini karena informasi yang dimaksud tidak
secara eksklusif disebutkan dalam sebuah pernyataan langsung. Sering kali dlam
ujian reading anda diminta untuk membuat kesimpulan mengenai informasi
tertentu. Untuk itu ketika membaca teks sebaiknya anda memberikan perhatian
khusus terhada data atau fakta tertentu yang mengarah pada sebuah kesimpulan
yang informative. Lagi-lagi dalam hal ini mengetahui kata kunci dari sebuah

pertanyaan terlebih dahulu merupakan sebuah keuntungan tersendiri. Dengan


berbekal kata kunci anda akan menentukan data dan fakta apa yang patut and
apilih dan kump[ulkan untuk membuat sebuah kesimpulan.
Kunci 9: Berkonsentrasi selama membaca teks bacaan.
Konsentrasi sangat diperlukan dan merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan yang
paling menentukan dalam readng test. Sering kali peserta ujian lupa dengan apa
yang telah disampaikan oleh kalimat atau paragraph sebelumnya ketika ia mula
membaca kalimat atau paragraph baru. Akhirnya ia membaca ulang lagi kalimat
tersebut. Apabila ini juga terjadi pada anda, langlah berikut dapat dimanfaatkan
untuk meminimalisasi kek\salahan tersebut.

Ketika anada membaca sebuah kalimat, latihlah didri anda untuk menerka
atau memperkirakan apa isi atau informasi yang akan disampaikan oleh kalimat
selanjutnya.

Perhatikan kesesuaian sebuah teks dengan judul atau main idea yang sudah
anda ketahui sebelumnya, dengan cara ini anda tetap dapat menangkap pesan
untama yang diasampaikan oleh masing-masing kalimat sekalipun anda sudah
beranjak pada kalimat-kalimat berikutnya.
Kunci 10 : Tingkatkan kecepatan membaca anda.
Dengan keterbatasan waktu ujian yang singkat, maka kemampuan anda untuk
membaca secara cepat dan singkat sangat penting dalam ujian TOEFL. Memang
kecepatan membaca ini tidaklah sesuatu yang instant. Melainkan ia harus dilatih
secara terus menerus apalagi membaca teks yang bukan bahasa asli kita. Salah
satu caranya adalah dengan memilih kata-kata yang paling penting dalam sebuah
kalimat, yang mana hal ini akan memberikan anda ringkasan atas arti sebuah
bacaan.

2. RECOGNIZE THE ORGANIZATION OF IDEAS


Dalam tes reading seringkali akn ada pertanyaan tentang pengorganisasioan ide-ide
dalam teks pada jenis pertanyaan ini anda akan diminta untuk menentukan
bagaimana ide-ide dalam paragraph berhubungan dengan ide-ide lain dalam
paragraph lain.
Example
The passage :
f asked who invented the game of baseball, most Americans would probably reply
that it was Abher Doubleday. At the beginning of this century, there was some
disagreement over how the game of baseball had actually originated, so sportinggoods manufacturer Spaulding inaugurated a commission to research the question.
In 1908 a report was published by the commission in which Abner Doubleday, a U.S
Army officer from Cooperstown, New York, was given credit for the invention of the
game. The National Baseball Hall of Fame was established in Cooperstown in honor

of Doubleday., most sports historians are in agreement that Doubleday really did not
have much to do with the development of baseball. Instead, baseball seems to be a
close relation to the English game of rounders and probably has English rather than
American roots.
The question
The second paragraph
(A) provides examples to support the ideas in the first paragraph
(B) precedes the ideas in the first paragraph
(C) outlines the effects of ideas in the first paragraph
D) refuses the ideas in the first paragraph
TOEFL EXERCISE
PASSAGE ONE (QUESTIONS 1-2)

Conflict within an organization is not always viewed as undesirable, various


managers have widely divergent ideas on the value that conflict can have.
According to the traditional view of conflict, conflict is harmful to an organization.
Managers with this traditional view of conflict see it as their role in an organization
to rid the organization of any possible sources of conflict.
The interactionist view of conflict on the other hand, holds that conflict can serve an
important function in an organization by reducing complacency among workers and
causing positive changes to occur. Managers who hold an interactionist view of
conflict may actually take steps to stimulate within the organization.
1. How is the information in the passage organized?
(A) The origin of ideas about conflict is presented.
(B) Contrasting views of conflicts are presented.
C) Two theorists discuss the strength and weaknesses of their views on conflict.
(D) Examples of conflict within organizations are presented
2. What type of information is included in the third paragraph?
(A) A comparison of the interactionist and traditional views of conflict
(B) A discussion of the weaknesses of the interactionist view of conflict
(C) An outline of the type of manager who prefers the interactionist view of conflict
(D) A description of one of the opposing views of conflict

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-4)


IQ, or intelligence Quotient as the radio of a patrons mental age to chronological
age, with the radio multiplied by 100 remove the decimal. Chronological age is
easily determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test
and is not so simple to define.
In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individuals ability to
perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These
intellectual operations are considered to represent intelligence.
In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus at to which types of
intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been
impossible to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so
far proposed have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test makers
from that culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from
a different culture with equal intelligence.
3. What type of information is included in the first paragraph
(A) An argument
(B) A definition
(C) An opinion
(D) A theory
4. How does the information in the third paragraph differ from that in the second
paragraph?
(A) It presents a contrasting point of view.
(B) It follows chronologically from the ideas in the second paragraph.
(C) It presents real information rather than a premise.
(D) It presents an example of the ideas in the second paragraph

PASSAGE THREE (Questions 5-6)


The largest lake in the western United sates in the Great Salt Lake, an island
saltwater lake in northwestern Utah, is just outside the state capital of Salt Lake
City. Rivers and streams feed into the Great Salt Lake, but none drain out of it, this
has a major influence on both the salt content and the size of the lake.
Although the Great Lake was fed by freshwater streams, it is actually saltier than
the oceans of the world. The salt comes from the more than two million tons of
minerals that flow into the lake each year from the rivers and creeks that feed it.
Sodium and chloride-the components of salt- comprise the large majority of the
lakes mineral content.

The Great Salt Lake can vary tremendously from its normal size of 1,700 square
miles, depending on long term weather conditions. During periods of heavy rains,
the size of the lake can swell tremendously from the huge amount of water flowing
into the lake from its Feeder Rivers and streams; in 1980 the lake even reached a
size of 2,400 square miles. During periods of dry weather, the size of the lake
decreases, sometimes drastically, due to evaporation.
5. How is the information in the passage organized?
(A) Two unusual characteristics of the Great Lake are discussed.
(B) Contrasting theories about the Great Salt Lakes salt levels are presented.
(C) The process by which the Great Salt Lake gets its salt is outlined.
(D) The reasons for the variation in the Great Salt Lakes size are given.
6. The third paragraph contains information on
(A) how the size of the lake affects weather conditions
(B) the effects of contrasting weather conditions on the size of the lake
(C) the effects of changes in the size of the lake
(D) the causes of the varied weather conditions in the area of the lake
Common types of calendars can be based on the Sun or on the Moon. The solar
calendar is based on the solar year. Since the solar year is 362.2422 days long,
solar calendars consist of regular years of 365 days and have an extra day every
fourth year, or leap year, to make up for the additional fractional amount. In a solar
calendar, the waxing and waning of the moon can take place at various stages of
each month.
lunar calendar is synchronized to the lunar month rather than the solar year. Since
the lunar month is twenty-nine and thirty days. A twelve-month lunar year thus has
354 days, 11 days shorter than a solar year.

Solar eclipse
Lunar eclipse
1. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) All calendars are the same.
(B) The solar calendar is based on the sun.
(C) Different calendars have dissimilar bases.
(D) The lunar month is twenty-nine and a half days long.
2. How is the information in the passage organized?

(A) Characteristics of the solar calendar are outlined.


(B) Two types of calendars are described.
(C) The strengths and weakness of the lunar calendar are described.
(D) The length of each existing calendar is contrasted.
Vaccines are prepared from harmful viruses or bacteria and administered to patients
to provide immunity to specific diseases. The various types of vaccines are
classified according to the method by which they are derived.
The most basic class of vaccines actually contains disease-causing microorganisms
that have been killed with a solution containing formaldehyde. In this type of
vaccine, the microorganisms are dead and therefore cannot cause disease;
however, the antigens found in and on the microorganisms can still stimulate the
formation of antibodies. Examples of this type of vaccine are the ones that fight
influenza, typhoid fever, and cholera.
A second type of vaccine contains the toxins produced by the microorganisms
rather than the microorganisms themselves. This type of vaccine is prepared when
the microorganism itself does little damage but the toxin within microorganism is
extremely harmful. For example, the bacteria that cause diphtheria can thrive
without much harm, but when toxins are released from the bacteria, muscles can
become paralyzed and death can ensue.
A final type of toxin contains living microorganisms that have been rendered
harmless. With this type of vaccine, a large number of antigen molecules are
produced and the immunity that results is generally longer lasting than the
immunity from other types of vaccines. The Sabin oral antipolio vaccine and BCG
vaccine against tuberculosis are examples of this type of vaccine.

3. Which of the following expresses the main idea of the passage?


(A) Vaccines provide immunity to specific diseases.
(B) Vaccines contain disease-causing microorganisms.
(C) Vaccines are derived in different ways.
(D) New approaches in administering vaccines are being developed.
4. How many types of vaccines are presented in the passage?
(A) two
(B) three
(C) four
(D) five
3. FIND UNSTATED DETAILS

Dalam tes reading anda seringkali akan diminta untuk menentukan jawaban yang
tidak disebutkan atau tidak benar dalam teks. Jenis pertanyaan ini berarti bahwa
ada tiga pilihan yang disebutkan atau benar dalam teks, sementara satu pilihan
tidak. Jadi tugas anda adlah menemukan tiga pilihan yang benar kemudian memilih
satu pilihan yang tersisa yang menjadi jawaban pada soal.
Anda harus memperhatikan bahwa ada dua macam pilihan atas pertanyaan ini :
1.

Tiga pilihan benar dan satu tidak dibahas dalam teks.

2.

tiga jawaban benar dan satu salah menurut teks.

The passage:
In English there are many different kinds of expressions that people use to give a
name to anything whose name is unknown or momentarily forgotten. The word
gadget is one such word. It was first used by British sailors in the 1850s and
probably came from the French word gachette, which was a small hook. In everyday
use, the word has a more general meaning. Other words are also used to give a
name to something, unnamed or unknown and these words tend to be somewhat
imaginative. Some of the more commonly used expressions are a what-dye-call-it,
a whatsis, a thingamabob, a thingamajig, a doodad, or a doohickey.
1. Which of the following is NOT true about the word gadget ?
(A) It is used to name something when the name is not known
(B) It was used at the beginning of the nineteenth century
(C) It most likely came from a word in the French language.
(D) Its first known use was by British sailors.
1.
Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an expression for
something that is not known?
2.

(A) a thingamabob

3.

(B) gadget

4.

(C) A doohickey

5.

(D) A what-is-it

6.

Passage one (question 1-2)

7.
Blood plasma is a clear, almost colorless liquid. It consists of blood from
which the red and white blood cells have been removed. It is often used in
transfusions because a patient generally needs the plasma portion of the blood
more than the other components.
8.
Plasma differs in several important ways from whole blood. First of all, plasma
can be mixed for all donors and does not have to be from the right blood group, as

whole blood does. In addition, plasma can be dried and stored, while whole blood
cannot.

.
1.

All of the following are true about blood plasma EXCEPT

2.

(A). it is a deeply colored liquid

3.

(B). blood cells have taken out of it

4.

(C). patients are often transfused with it

5.
(D). it is generally more important to the patient than other part of whole
blood
6.

2. Which of the following is NOT stated about whole blood?

7.

(A). it is different from plasma

8.

(B). it cannot be dried

9.

(C). it is impossible to keep in storage for a long time.

10.

(D). it is a clear, colorless liquid.

11.

Passage two (question 3-4)

12.
Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman was an American journalist at the turn of the
century who wrote for the newspaper New York World under the pen name Nellie
Bly, a name which was taken from the Stephen, Foster song Nellie Bly. She achieved
fame for her exposes and in particular for the bold and adventuresome way that she
obtained her stories.
13.
She felt that the best way to get the real story was from the inside rather
than as an outside observer who could be treated to a prettified version of reality.
On one occasion she pretended to be a thief so that she would get a nested and see
for herself how female prisoners were really treated. On another occasion she faked
mental illness in order to be admitted to a mental hospital to get the real picture on
the treatment of mental patients.
14.

3. Which of the following is NOT true about Nellie Bly?

15.

(A). Nelly Blys real name was Elizabeth Cochrane seaman.

16.

(B). Nellie Bly was mentally ill

17.

(C). The name Nellie Bly came from a song.

18.

(D). The name Nellie Bly was used on articles that Seaman wrote.

19.
4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as something that Nellie Bly did
to get a good story?

20.

(A). she acted like a thief

21.

(B). she got arrested by the police.

22.

(C). she pretended to be ill.

23.

(D). she worked as a doctor in a mental hospital.

4. FIND PRONOUN REFERENTS


Dalam tes reading seringkali anda diminta untuk menentukan sebuah pronoun
mengacu pada noun yang mana?
Cara menjawab pertanyaan ini adalah dengan melihat kalimat /kata-kata sebelum
pronoun. Anda akan mendapatkan noun yang dimaksud disana.
Example
The passage
Carnivorous plants, such as the sundew and the Venus Flytrap are generally found
in the humid areas where there is an inadequate supply of nitrogen in the soil. In
order to survive, these plants have developed mechanisms to trap insects within
their foliage. They have digestive fluids to obtain the necessary nitrogen from the
insects. These plants trap the insects in a variety of ways. The sundew has sticky
hairs on its leaves; when an insect lands on these leaves, it gets caught up in the
sticky hairs, and the leaf wraps itself around the insect. The leaves of the VenusFlytrap function more like a trap, snapping suddenly and forcefully shut around an
insect.
The questions :
1.

The pronoun they in line 4 refers to

2.

(A) humid areas

3.

(B) these plants

4.

(C) insects

5.

(D) digestive fluids

6.

2. The pronoun it in line 6 refers to

7.

(A) a variety

8.

(B) the sundew

9.

(C) An insect

10.

(D) the leaf

5. INDIRECTLY ANSWERED QUESTIONS

Beberapa pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL akan meminta jawaban yang tidak secara
langsung disebutkan dalam teks. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini anda harus
menarik kesimpulan dari informasi yang di berikan dalam teks.
Pertanyaan jenis ini meliputi dua : (1) implied detailed questions and (2) transitions
questions.

ANSWER IMPLIED DETAILED QUESTIONS CORRECTLY

Example
The passage
The Hawaiian language is a melodious language in which all words are derived from
an Alphabet of only twelve letters, the five vowels, A,E,I,O,U and the seven
consonants H,K,L,M,N,P,W. Each syllable in the language ends in a vowel, and two
consonants never appear together, so vowels have a much higher frequency in the
Hawaiian language than they do in English.
This musical sounding language can be heard regularly by visitors to the islands.
Most Hawaiians speak English, but it is quite common to hear English that is
liberally spiced with words and expressions from the traditional language of the
culture. A visitor may be greeted with the expression aloha, and may be referred to
as a malihini because he is a new comer to the island. This visitor may attend an
outside luau where everyone eats too much and be invited afterwards to dance the
hula.
The questions :
1. Which of the following is probably NOT a Hawaiian word?
(A) mahalo
(B) mahimahi
(C) meklea
(D) moana
2. It is implied a luau is
(A) a dance
(B) a feast
(C) a concert
(D) a language

TOEFL EXERCISE
PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2)
Eskimos need efficient and adequate means to travel across water in that the areas
where they live are surrounded by oceans, bays, and inlets and dotted with lakes
and seas. Two different types of boats have been developed by the Eskimo, each
constructed to meet specific needs.
The Kayak is something like a canoe that has been covered by deck. A kayak is
generally constructed with one opening in the deck for one rider, however, some
kayaks are made for two, Because the deck of a kayak is covered over except for
the hole (or holes) for its rider (or riders), a kayak can tip over in the water and roll
back without filling with water and sinking. One of the primary uses of the kayak is
for hunting.
The umiak is not closed over, as is in the kayak, instead it is an open boat that is
built to hold ten to twelve passengers. Eskimos have numerous uses for the umiak
which reflect the size of the boat; e.g. the umiak is used to haul belongings from
campsite to campsite, and it is used for hunting larger animals that are too big to be
hunted in a kayak.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that an example of the animal mentioned in
lines 12-13 might be
(A) a kangaroo
(B) a snake
(C) a whale
(D) a salmon
PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5)
Two types of trees from the same family of trees share honors in certain respects as
the most impressive of trees. Both evergreen conifers, the California redwood
(Sequoia sempervirens) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiandendrom gigantteum) are
found growing natively only in the state of California. The California redwood is
found along the northern coast of the state, while the giant sequoia is found inland
and at a higher elevations, along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas.
The California redwood is the tallest living tree and is in fact the tallest living thing
on the face of the earth; the height of the tallest redwood on the record is 385 feet
(120 meters). Though not quite as tall as the California redwood, with the height of
320 feet ( 100 meters), the giant sequoia is nonetheless the largest and the most
massive of living things ; giant sequoias have been measured at more than 100 feet
(30 meters) around the base, with weights of more than 6,000 tons.
3. It is implied in the passage that
(A) the leaves of only California redwood turn brown in the autum

(B) the leaves of only the giant sequoia turn brown in the winter
(C) the leaves of both types of trees in the passage turn brown in the winter
(D) the leaves of neither types of tree in the passage turn brown in the winter
4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Siera Nevadas are
(A) a type of giant redwood
(B) a coastal community
(C) a group of lakes
(D) a mountain range
5. Which of the following is implied in the passage?
(A) The giant sequoia is taller than the California redwood.
(B) The California redwood is not as big around as the giant sequoia.
(C) The California redwood weighs more than the giant sequoia.
(D) Other living things are larger than the giant sequoia.

TRANSITION QUESTION CORRECTLY


You will sometimes be asked to determine what a probably came before the reading
passage (in the preceding paragraph) or what probably comes after the reading
passage (in the following paragraph). Of course, the topic of the preceding or
following paragraph is not directly stated, and you must draw a conclusion to
determine what a probably in these paragraph.
This type of question. It asks you to demonstrate that you understand that good
writing contains transition from one paragraph to the next. A paragraph may start
out with the idea of the previous paragraph as a way of linking the ideas in the two
paragraphs. A paragraph may also end with an idea that will be further developed in
the following paragraph.

Example
The passage:
Another myth of the oceans concerns Davy Jones, who in folklore is the meanspirited sovereign of the oceans depths. The name Jones is thought by some
etymologists to have been derived from the name Jonah the Hebrew prophet who
spent three days in a whales belly.
According to tradition, any object that goes overboard and sinks to the bottom of
the ocean is said to have gone to Davy Joness locker, the ocean sized, mythical

receptacle for anything that falls into the water, needless to say, any sailor on the
seas is not so eager to take a tour of Davy Joness locker, although it might be a
rather interesting trip considering all the treasures located there.
The questions:
1.

The paragraph preceding this passage most probably discusses

1.

The youth of Davy Jones

2.

Davy Jones career as a sailor

3.

A different traditional story from the sea

4.

Preparing to travel on the ocean

1.

The topic of the paragraph following the passage most likely is

1.

valuable items located of the bottom of the ocean.

2.

Where Davy Jones is found today

3.

Jonah and the whale

4.

Preventing objects from failing overboard

6. VOCABULARY QUESTIONS

Dalam tes reading akan ada sejumlah soal tentang vocabulary. Jawaban atas soal ini
seringkali sudah ada dalam teks itu sendiri. Berikut ini beberapa macam jenis soal
vocab.
FIND DEFINITIONS FROM STRUCTURAL CLUES
(Menemukan definisi dari kata kunci yang ada dalam teks :)
Ketika anda diminta untuk menemukan kata dalam tes reading kemungkinannya:
1.

Teks memberikan informasi tentang kata itu

2.

Ada tanda-tanda trtentu yang mengarahkan kita pada kata tersebut

Example
The passage ;
One of the leading schools of psychological thought in the
twentieth century is behaviorism the belief that the role of the
psychologist is to study behavior, which is observable, rather than conscious and
unconscious thought, which is not. Probably the best known proponent of
behaviorism is B.E Skinner, who is famous for his research on how rewards and

punishment influence behavior. He came to believe that positive reinforcements


such as praise, food, or money were more effective in promoting good behavior
than negative reinforcement or punishment.
The questions
1.

In behaviorism In line 2, a psychologist is concerned with

(A) unconscious thought patterns


(B) observable actions
(C) unobservable actions
(D) unobservable actions
2. What is positive reinforcement in line 7
A) a gift
B) A reward
C) A bribe
D) A penalty
3. What is negative reinforcement in line 9?
(A) A promotion
(B) A reward
(C) A surprise
D) A punishment
To answer the first question, you should look at the part of the passage following
word behaviorism. The dash punctuation (-) gives extra or further information about
behaviorism. In the information following the dash you should see that the
behaviorist in behavior which is observable, so the best answer to this question is
answer (C).
To answer the second question, you should look at the part of the passage following
the expression positive reinforcements. The expression such as indicate that
examples of positive reinforcement are going to follow. Your job is to look at the
examples of positive reinforcement and draw a conclusion about what positive
reinforcement might be. Since price, food, or money might be given in return for a
job well done, then positive reinforcement must be a reward. The best answer to
this question is therefore answer
(B).To answer the third question, you should look at the part of the passage
following the expression negative reinforcement. The word or following negative
reinforcement tells you that the idea is going to be restated in different words. You
can see in the passage that another word for negative reinforcement is punishment,
so answer (D) is the best answer to this questions

DETERMINE MEANINGS FROM WORD PARTS


When you are asked to determine the meaning of long words but you do not know
THE MEANING in the reading comprehension section of the TOEFL test, it is
sometimes possible to determine the meaning of the word by studying the word
part.
Example
The Passage
Ring lardner himself was born into a wealthy, educated, and cultured family. For the
book of his carrier, he worked as a reporter for newspapers in South Bend, Boston,
Santa Louis, and Chicago. However, it is for his short stories of lower middle clash
Americans that ring lardner is perhaps best known. In these stories, Lardner vividly
creates the language and the ambiance of this lower class, often using the
misspelled words, grammatical errors and incorrect diction that typified the
language of the lower middle class.
The questions
1. The word vividly in line 6 is closest in meaning to
A) in a cultured way
(B) in a correct way
(C) in a lifelike way
(D) in a brief way
2. The word misspelled in line 7 is closest in meaning to
(A) highly improper
(B) vulgar
(C) incorrectly written
(D) slang
1.

The word diction in line 8 is closest in meaning to

(A) Writing
(B) Sentence structure
(C) Form
(D) Speech
In the first question, the word vividly contains the word part viv, which means life,
so the best answer is answer (C).
In the second question, the word misspelled contains the word part mis, which
means error or incorrect, so the best answer is answer (C).

In the third question, the word diction contains the word part dic, which means
speak, so that answer is answer (D).
USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS
On the TOEFL test you will sometimes be asked to determine the meanings of a
difficult word, a word that you are expected to know. In this case, the passage will
give you a clear indication of what the word means.
Example
Line in the passage :
The barges headed across the lake
The question :
A barge is probably, which of the following?
A) A trai
(B) A plane
C) A bicycle
(D) A boat
USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF SIMPLE WORDS
You will sometimes be asked to determine the meaning of a simple word, a word
that you see often in everyday English. In this type of question, you should not give
the normal everyday meaning of the word, instead, the TOEFL test wants you to
know the meaning of the word in this situation.
Example
A line from the passage :
He put his answer this way
The question :
The word put is closest meaning to which of the following?
A) Placed
(B) Set
(C) Expressed
D) handed
She always helps many people. She, however, is bad with her mother.
Cardamon is not as widely used as a spice in the United States as it is in other parts
of the world. This fruit of the ginger plant provides an oil that basically has been
used solely as a stimulant in American and English medicines. Other cultures have

recognized the multipurpose benefits of this aromatic fruit. In Asia it is used to


season sauces such as curry; in Middle Eastern countries it is seeped to prepare a
flavorful golden colored tea; in parts of northern Europe it is used as spice in various
types of pastry.
1. The word solely in line 2 could best be replaced by
A) initially
B) only
C) reportedly
D) healthfully
2. The word multipurpose in line 3 is closest in meaning to the word season in
line 4?
(A) Health
(B) Singular
(C) Recognized
(D) varied
3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word season in line 4?
(A) Divide
(B) Forecast
(C) Spice
(D) Put a time limit
4. Curry in line 4 is
(A) the fruit of ginger plant
(B) A spicy type of sauce
(C) A culture in the area of the Middle East
(D) A type of golden-colored tea
5. The word seeped in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) Steamed
(B) Dried
(C) Stored
(D) grown

The life-span of an elephant that dies from natural causes is about sixty-five years.
Of course, an elephant can perish from a number of unnatural causes; e.g it can
be killed by hunters, most probably for the valuable ivory in its tusks; it can die from
deases that spread throughout an elephant herd; or it can die from drought or from
the lack of food that almost certainly accompanies the inadequate supply of water.
If, however, an elephant survives disasters, it falls prey to old age in its mid-sixties.
Around this age, the cause of death is attributed to the loss of the final set of
molars. When this last set of teeth is gone, the elephant dies from malnutrition
because it is unable to obtain unadequate nourishment. In old age, elephant tend to
search out a final home where there is shade for comfort from the sun and soft
vegetation for cushioning; the bones of many old elephants have been found in
such places.
1.

The word perish in line 2 means

2.

(A) fall ill

3.

(B) shoot

4.

(C) die

5.

(D) get rich

1.

The word unnatural in line 2 is closest meaning to

2.

(A) wild

3.

(B) violent

4.

(C) domesticated

5.

(D) abnormal

1.

The word drought in line 4 means

2.
3.

(A) a drowning

4.

(B) a lack of food

5.

(C) an inadequate supply of water

6.

(D) an overabundance of animals

1.

Which of the following could be used to replace the word survives in line 6?

2.
3

(A) Rises to

(B) Succumbs to

(C) Denies

(D) Lives through

1.

Molars in line 7 are

2.

(A) germs

3.

(B) old-age characteristics

4.

(C) types of food

5.

(D) teeth

1.

In line 8, malnutrition is used to describe someone who

2.

(A) is in good health

3.

(B) has an illness

4.

(C) suffers from poor eating

5.

(D) experiences dental problems

1.

The expression a final home in line 9 is closest in meaning to

2.

(A) a place to die

3.

(B) a comfortable house

4.

(C) a place for sale

5.

(D) the only remaining place to live

1.

The word shade in line 9 is closest in meaning to

2.

(A) color

3.

(B) heat

4.

(C) diminished light

5.

(D) a front porch

6.

GRAMMAR/STRUCTURE

NORMAL SENTENCE PATERN


IN ENGLISH

Subject Verb Complement Modifier


(predicate) (object) (adverb)
John and I ate a pizza last night
We studied present perfect last week.

Learn the following sentences and their sentence patterns!

They smile.

They smile.
Subject

Verb / predicate

We sleep.

We

sleep.

Subject

Verb / predicate

My father drinks coffee.

My father

drinks coffee.

Subject

Verb / predicate

Complement

/ object

The lady writes a letter.

The lady

Writes A letter.

Subject

Verb/ predicate

The man lives in a village.

The man

lives in a village.

subject

Verb/ predicate

Complement / object

Modifier/ adeverb

The man makes handicrafts in a village.

The man

makesHandicrafts in a village.

Subject

Verb / predicate

/ adverb

She can dance.

She

can dance.

Complement / object

Modifier

Subject

verb phrase

Mr. Joko has gone.

Mr.Joko

Has gone.

Subject

Verb phrase

He is shopping.

He

is shopping.

Subject

verb phrase

Linking verb : am, is, are


Incorrect : She drove on the street the car.
Verb modifier complement
Correct : She drove the car on the street.
Verb complement modifier
Urutannya subject + Verb + complement + modifier, tidak bisa dibalik antara
complement dengan modifier
. Identify the subject, verb, and modifier
1.

George is cooking dinner.

2.

Henry and Marcia have visited the president.

3.

We can eat lunch in this restaurant today.

4.

Pat should have visited the president.

5.

We can eat lunch in this restaurant today.

6.

Trees grow

7.

It was raining at seven oclock this morning.

8.

Jill is buying a new hat in the store.

9.

Harry is washing dishes right now.

10.

She opened her book.

B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives

My car is new.

He has a house.

His house is old

And so on.

I have a car.

Aku dalam bahasa Inggris ketika sebagai subjek = I, ketika sebagai objek = me..
Selanjutnya ketika aku berfungsi menyatakan kepunyaan berubah menjadi my,
kemudian you menjadi your, dst.
Rumusnya
Subject pronouns
I

my

You

your

Possessive adjectives

They their
We

our

He

his

She

her

It

Its

C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns

My hat is red and your hat is blue.

My hat is red and yours is blue.

Your hat is blue and mine is red.

Ketika kita mau mengatakan topiku bahasa Inggrisnya = my hat. Lantas apa bahasa
inggrisnya milikku? Yaitu mine.. milik mereka = theirs, mikik kami ours,
dst.Rumusnya
Possessive adjectives

My

mine

Your

yours

Possessive pronouns

Their Theirs
Our

Ours

His

His

Her

Hers

Its

Its

D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns

He cooked for me yesterday.

He cooked for himself last night.

Anisa bought her little brother a new hat.

Joan bought herself a new hat.

Rumus ini digunakan ketika sebuah subjek melakukan perbuatan yang terarah pada
dirinya sendiri. Misalnya, Aku membeli makanan untuk diriku, maka bahsa
inggrisnya I buy food for myself. Dia menyakiti dirinya = He hurts himself. Jadi ada
penambahan self/selves pada pronounya.

Rumusnya
Object/complement pronouns
Me

myself

You

yourself

Reflexive pronouns

yourselves
Them themselves
Us

ourselves

Him

Himself

Her

Herself

It

Itself

Do the following exercises!


1.

I go to school with (he/him) yesterday.

2.

I see (she/her/herself) at the union everyday.

3.

She speaks to (we/us/ourselves) every morning.

4.

(He/Him) is going to New York on vacation.

5.

(She/her) and John gave the money to the boy.

6.

I hurt (my/mine/the) leg.

7.

John bought (he/him/ hisself /himself) a new hat.

8.

(Your/yours) record is scratched and (my/mine) is too.

9.

(We/us) girls are going camping over the weekend.

10.

We like (our/ours) new car very much.

11.

Marry and (I/me) would rather go to the movies.

12.

Monday is a holiday for (we/us) teahers.

VERBS AS COMPLEMENTS
Verbs as Complements, artinya kata-kata kerja sebagai pelengkap. Maksudnya
sering kali kata kerja itu berfungsi sebagai pelengkap, yaitu pelengkap dari katakata kerja lain. Contoh :
1.

He agrees to meet.

2.

He enjoys sitting there.

3.
Kata meet adalah sebagai pelengkap kata agrees, tapi coba perhatikan meet
ditulis dengan to meet. Bukan meet saja atau ditambah ing meeting.
4.

Sedangkan kata enjoys diikuti verb ing sitting, bukan sit saja, atau to sit.

5.
Jadi materi ini mengajarkan bahwa ada daftar kata kerja yang diikuti to
verb, dan ada daftar kata kerja yang diikuti verb-ing.
6.

Dalam tes TOEFL materi ini sangat sering diujikan.

A. Verbs yang diikuti infinitives (to verb)


Agree : setuju

Desire : ingin

Intend : ingin

Prepare : menyiapkan

Tend : cenderung

Attempt : berusaha

Fail : gagal

Learn : belajar

Pretend : berpura-pura

Try : mencoba

Claim : mengklaim

Forget : melupakan

Need : membutuhkan

Refuse : menolak

Want : menginginkan

Decide : memutuskan

Hesitate : ragu-ragu

Offer : menawarkan

Seem : kelihatan

Wish : berharap

Demand : menuntut

Hope : berharap

Plan : berencana

Agree : setuju

Contoh

Marry learned to swim when she was very young.

The soldiers are preparing to attack the village.

The budget committee decided to postpone this meeting.

B. Verbs diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing)

Admit : mengakui

Appreciate : menghargai

Delay : menunda

Miss : ketinggalan / rindu

Regret : menyesal

Risk : mengambil resiko/beresiko

Deny : menyangkal

Postpone : menunda

Report : melaporkan

Suggest : menyarankan

Avoid : menolak

Enjoy : menikmati

Practice : berlatih

Resent : marah, benci, merasa tersinggung

Cant help : tidak betah

Finish : menyelesaikan

Quit : berhenti

Resist : menahan, menolak

Consider : mempertimbangkan

Mind : keberatan

Recall : mengingat

Resume : melanjutkan, mulai lagi

Object to : keberatan

Look forward to : mengharap-harap

Confess to : mengakui

Approve of : setuju dengan

Give up : menyerah

Worry about : merasa cemas dengan

Be better off : lebih baik

Insist on : bersikeras

Succeed in : berhasil

Count on : mengharapkan

Keep on : terus , tetap

Think about : depend on

Put off : menunda

Think of : berpikir terhadap

Contoh :

John admitted stealing the money.

We enjoyed seeing them again.

Michael was considering buying a new car.

John gave up smoking

Marry insisted on taking the bus instead of the plane.

Fred confessed to stealing the jewels.

We are not looking forward to going back to school.

C. Verbs yang dapat diikuiti oleh gerund = verb-ing atau infinitives = to


verb tanpa perubahan makna.

Begin : mulai

Like : suka

Cant stand : tidak betah

Love : cinta

Continue : melanjutkan

Prefer : lebih suka

Dread : takut kepada

Start : mulai

Hate : benci

Contoh :

He started to study TOEFL. OR He started studying TOEFL.

Joan hates to ride her bicycle. OR Joan hates riding her bicycle to school.

He dreads meeting the headmaster. OR He dreads to meet the headmaster.

D. Be berapa verbs yang dapat diikuti baik oleh infinitive = to verb atau gerund
= verb-ing, tapi maknanya berubah.

stop

remember

forget

For examples

John stopped studying. (John sedang belajar kemudian berhenti, dan tidak
melanjutkan lagi)

John stopped to study. (John sedang melakukan suatu pekerjaan, kemudian


berhenti unuk belajar)

I remember meeting him in a seminar last year. (Aku ingat peristiwa ketika
bertemu dia di sebuah seminar tahun lalu.)

I remember to meet him today. (Aku ingat bahwa aku harus / berencana
untuk menemui dia hari ini.)

Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat yang diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing)

Accustomed to : terbiasa dengan

Intent on : bermaksud sungguh-sungguh untuk

Afraid of : takut pada

Interested in : tertarik pada

Capable of : mampu untuk

Successful in : sukses dalam

Fond of : senang pada

Tired of : lelah dengan

For examples

Mitch is afraid of getting married now.

I am accustomed to smoking

We are accustomed to sleeping late on weekends.

Alvaro is intent on finishing school next year.

Crag is fond of dancing.

Tambahan* Daftar kata benda yang diikuti oleh the gerund (verb ing)

Choice of : pilihan terhadap/atas

Possibility of : kemungkinan terhadap

Excuse for : alasan untuk

Intention of : keinginan untuk

Reason for : alasan untuk

Method for / method of : metode.

Contoh :
George has excuse for dropping out of school.
There is a possibility of acquiring this property at a good price.
There is no reason for leaving this early.
Connie has developed a method for evaluating this problem.
Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat diikuti oleh infinitive (to verb)

Anxious : khawatir

Eager : ingin tahu

Pleased : senang

Usual : biasa

Boring : membosankan

Easy : mudah

Prepared : siap

Common : umum

Dangerous : berbahaya

Good : bagus

Ready : siap

Difficult : sulit

Hard : keras

Strange : aneh

Able : dapat

For Examples

Muhammad is anxious to see his family.

It is dangerous to drive in this weather.

We are ready to leave now.

It is difficult to pass this test.

Do the following exercise

1.

The teacher decided (accepting/to accept) the paper.

2.

They appreciate (to have/ having) this information.

3.

We found it very difficult (reaching / to reach) a decision)

4.

Dona is interested in (opening/to open a bar).

5.

Marry regrets (to be/ being) the one to have to tell him.

6.

George pretended (to be/being) sick yesterday.

7.

He demands (to know/knowing) what is going on.

8.

Henry shouldnt risk (to drive/driving) so fast.

9.

There is no excuse for (to leave/leaving) the room in this condition.

10.

She is looking forward to (return/returning) to their country.

THE VERB NEED

The boy needs cutting his hair or The boy needs to cut his hair?
Kata kerja need diikuti infinitive / to verb hanya jika subjeknya benda hidup. Tapi jika
subjeknya benda mati maka kata kerja need diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing) atau
diikuti oleh to be + past participle (Verb 3)
A. Subjek benda hidup + infinitive

John and his brother need to paint the house.

My friend needs to learn Spanish

He will need to drive

B. Subjek benda mati + verb ing (to be+ past participle)

The grass needs cutting. OR The grass needs to be painted.

The television needs repairing. OR The television needs to be repaired.

The composition needs rewriting. OR The composition needs to be written.

Perhatikan, kita menggunakan in need of dengan aturan berikut.


subject + be + in need of + noun
For examples

Jill is in need of money. (Jill needs money)

The roof is in need of repairing. (The roof needs to be repaired.)

The organization is in need of volunteers. (The organization needs


volunteers.)

Exercise

1. Its too hot and my hair needs (cut).


2.

The computer needs (repair).

3.

James needs .. (see) a doctor.

4.

Marry will need (make) a new dress for the party.

5.

His car needs (tune).

6.

You will need to be here at night.

7.

The house needs (paint) soon.

QUESTIONS
Dalam pertanyaan selalu digunakan kata kerja Bantu atau to be sebelum subjek.
Contoh :

Are you sad?

Is he tall?

Why are they angry?

What do you eat?

What will we get?

Etc

Selalu beriringan to be / kata kerja Bantu + subject


Penting*Embedded Questions : Adalah sebuah pertanyaan yang terdapat dalam
sebuah kalimat lain ; kalimat positive, negative, atau interrogative. Pelajari
susunannya.
Rumusnya :
Subject + verb (phrase) + question word + verb
Pelajari contoh-contoh berikut !
Question : Where will the meeting take place?
Embedded question : We havent ascertained where the meeting will take place.
Q.word Subject verb phrase
Question : Why did the plane land at the wrong airport?
Embedded Questions : The authorities cannot figure out why the plane landed at
the
Q.word subject verb
wrong airport.
Embedded Questions :
Do you know where he went?
Could you tell me what time it is?
The professor didnt know how many students would be in her afternoon class.
I have no idea how long the interview will take.
Tambahan (perkecualian)* Apabila kalimat Tanya nya seperti berikut (question word
berfungsi sebagai subject) maka dalam embedded question kalimat Tanya tersebut
tidak mengalami perubahan.
Question : Who will paint that picture?
Embedded question : They cant deide who will paint the picture.

Question : Whose car is parked in the lot?


Embedded Questions : The police cant determine whose car is parked in the lot.
Question tag* Dalam bahasa Indonesia kita sering mengatakan kamu lapar kan?
..Dia tinggal di Jogja kan?.. dst. Berikut caranya, pelajari baik-baik!

You are sick, arent you?

He likes tea, doesnt he?

You helped him, didnt you?

You were at home, werent you?

He can swim, cant he?

Berikut ini beberapa contoh tipe soal dalam tes TOEFL, pelajari baik-baik!

Tipe soal 1
Penggunaan to be
Find the incorrect word/words!
Buying clothes are often a very time-consuming practice because those clothes
ABC
that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her.
D
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah A. To be are yang ditulis disana salah, seharusnya to be
nya adalah is.
Nah dari sini seharusnya kita kita kritis bertanya, mengapa yang benar is bukan
are?
Kapan digunakan is, kapan digunakan are?
Pertama, to be is digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah he, she, atau it atau orang
ketiga tunggal (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan
itu tunggal). Contoh The boy is handsome. The cat is funny.
Kedua, to be are digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah you, they, we atau orang
ketiga jamak (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan
itu jamak)
Contoh : The boys are handsome. The cats are funny.

Adapun untuk soal di atas to be yang benar adalah is karena subjeknya adalah
buying clothes (membeli pakaian). Buying clothes disini dianggap tunggal karena
sama maknanya dengan kata it (sesuatu yang kita bicarakan, dan itu tunggal).
Perhatikan kalimat berikut!
Membeli banyak pakaian tidak baik. (Buying clothes is not good.)
Coba kita perhatikan frase membeli banyak pakaian itu termasuk subjek tunggal.
Jangan terkecoh pada kata banyak pakaian (clothes)! Frase buying clothes tetap itu
dianggap tunggal karena frase itu merupakan sebuah topic/ issue tunggal.
Tipe soal 2
Penggunaan many atau much, a few atau a little
Find the incorrect word/words!
Because they had spent too many time considering the new contract, the students
ABC
lost their opportunity to lease the appartment.
D
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah B.
Karena too many time.. adalah salah. Seharusnya too much time.
Mengapa yang benar pakai much bukan many? Bagaimana aturannya?
Rules
Diikuti kata benda terhitung
/countable nouns

Diikuti kata benda tak terhitung /uncountable nouns

a, the, some, any


some chairs the, some, any
some water
this, that, these, those

this, that

none, one, two, three

None

Many
a lot of
a large number of
a great number of

(a)

few

(b)

fewer than

(c)

more than much (usually in negatives or questions)

a lot of
a large amount of
(a)

little

(b)

less than

(c)

more than

Tipe soal 3
Penggunaan pronoun kata ganti; my/me, they/them, himself/hisself?
Find the incorrect word/words!
These televisions are all too expensive for we to buy at this time, but perhaps we
ABCD
will return later.
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah C.
..all too expensive for we to buy. Kata for we disini salah, yang
benar seharusnya for us.
Mengapa?
Karena kata kita disini berposisi sebagai object of preposition/complement of
preposition(objek preposisi)
Contoh mudahnya sebagai berikut, mana yang benar?
I buy an apple for. (he/him).tentu yang benar adalah him
He builds a house for (they/them.)
Berikut teori lengkapnya:
A. Subject pronouns Vs Object/complement pronouns

I like him.

He likes me.

They like us.

We like them.

I write a letter for her.

And so on..

Subject pronouns

Object pronouns

(Complement pronouns)
I

Me

You

You

They Them
We

Us

He

Him

She

Her

It

It

B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives

I have a car.

My car is new.

He has a house.

His house is old

And so on.

Subject pronouns
I

My

You

Your

Possessive adjectives

They Their
We

Our

He

His

She

Her

It

Its

C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns


My hat is red and your hat is blue.

My hat is red and yours is blue.

Your hat is blue and mine is red.

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns

my

Mine

your

Yours

their Theirs
our

Ours

his

His

her

Hers

its

Its

D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns

He cooked for me yesterday.

He cooked for himself last night.

Anisa bought her little brother a new hat.

Joan bought herself a new hat.

Object/complement pronouns
me

Myself

you

yourself

Reflexive pronouns

yourselves
them themselves
us

ourselves

him

Himself

her

Herself

it

Itself

Tipe Soal 4
Embedded question
Find the incorrect word/words!
The next important question we have to decide is when do we have to submit the
ABCD
proposal.
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah pilihan C.

Seharusnya kalimat itu adalah The next important question we have to decide is
when we have to submit the proposal.
Jadi tidak pakai do.
Untuk lebih memahaminya perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut;

When do you go?

Then question is when you go.

Penggunaan do dihilangkan manakala kalimat tersebut berfungsi sebagai


objek/complement dari sebuah kalimat (noun clause)
Contoh lain :

Where do you live?

I know where you live.

Where is your house?

He told me where your house is.

Tipe soal 5
Penggunaan either dan neither
Find the incorrect word/words!
George has not completed the assignment yet, and Maria hasnt neither.
ABCD
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah pada pilihan D.
Seharusnya yang benar adalah Maria hasnt either, atau Maria has neither.
Kata either artinya juga.
Sama, kata neither artinya juga.
Kedua-duanya digunakan untuk kalimat bermakna negatif.
Anda mau mengatakan :
Dia tidak makan, dan aku juga.
Anda dapat mengatakan :
He does not eat, and neither do I.
Atau

He does not eat, and I dont either.


Jadi rumusnya :
Neither + auxiliary verb + subject
Subject + auxiliary verb + not + either
Tipe soal 6
Susunan modifier dan complement yang dibalik
John decided to buy in the morning a new car, but in the afternoon
ABC
he changed his mind.
D
Apa jawaban anda?
Jawaban yang benar adalah B.
Seharusnya kalimat diatas John decided to buy a new car in the morning, but
..
Jadi masalah di atas terkait dengan posisi complement(objek) dengan modifier
(keterangan) yang di awali preposis yang terbalik. Seharusnya complement dulu,
baru modifier yang diawali preposisi.
Pelajari teori berikut.
Normal Sentence Pattern in English

Subject Verb Complement Modifier


John and I ate a pizza last night
We studied present perfect last week.

They smile.

They smile.
Subject

verb

We sleep.

We

sleep.

Subject

verb

My father drinks coffee.

My father

drinks coffee.

Subject

verb

complement

The lady writes a letter.

The lady

writes a letter.

Subject

verb

complement

The man lives in a village.

The man

lives in a village.

Subject

verb

modifier

The man makes handicrafts in a village.

The man

makeshandicrafts in a village.

Subject

verb

complement modifier

She can dance.

She

can dance.

Subject

verb phrase

Mr. Joko has gone.

Mr.Joko

Has gone.

Subject

Verb phrase

He is shopping.

He

is shopping.

Subject

verb phrase

Linking verb : am, is, are


Incorrect : She drove on the street the car.
Verb complement
Correct : She drove the car on the street.
Verb complement
Tipe soal 7

Penggunaan kata other


Some of the plants in this store require very little care, but this one needs
AB
much more sunlight than the others ones.
CD
Tipe soal 8
Penggunaan tenses dalam adverbial clause yang menggunakan kata after dan
before
After George had returned to his house, he was reading a book.
ABCD
After + s + had + v3s + v2
After I had taken a bath, I prayed.
After I had taken a bath, I was sleepy.
Before I ate , I had taken a bath.
Tipe A Tipe B
Predikat Kata kerja Predikat selain kata kerja
We sleep.
He drinks tea.
I go home.
I do not stand.
We do not walk.
She does not sing.
We do not have money.
Do you smoke?
Do I sleep?
Does she sing?
Do you eat rice?
What do you eat?
Does she drink milk?
What does she drink?

Who do you go with?


What do you work for?
Last night I met a ghost.
Yesterday they walked.
Yesterday I did not eat.
Yesterday he did not smile.
Did you go to the beach yesterday?
What did you write last night?

Tomorrow I will meet the director.


Tomorrow I will go to Bali.
Will you fly?
Will you sleep?
Will she cry?
What will you eat?
Who will you go with?
I have eaten.
She has gone.
They have left jogja.
Has she gone?
Have they left jogja?
Have I eaten?
What have I eaten?
I am sitting.
He is reading.
They are talking.
Are they studying?
What are they studying?
They are not playing.
I have eaten now.

At that time I had eaten.


At that time she had gone.
At that time she had not gone.
Now we are studying English.
At that time we were studying.
At that time I would call you.
They are rich.
My mother is pretty.
I am not hungry.
She is not famous.
She is not angry.
We are not at home.
Are you crazy?
Am I beautiful?
Why are you sad?
Why am I tired?
Why are they sad?
Last night I was afraid.
Yesterday they were angry.
Yesterday I was not healthy.
Yesterday they were not sick.
Were you happy last night?
Was crazy last night?
Why were you sad last night?
Next year I will be happy.
Will she be happy?
Will she be mine?
Why will you be here?
They have been here.
He has been satisfied.

She is beautiful.

Why has he been satisfied?


Why have you been disappointed?

Tipe soal 9
Subject-verb agreement
Many theories on conserving the purity of water has been proposed,
AB
but no one has been as widely accepted as this one.
CD
The girls .are/isin bad condition.
The boy playing toys..naughty.
They boys are
I eat.
You eat.
They eat.
He eats.
She eats.
The lady eats.
The ladies eat.
The lady ..has/have.. a car.
The ladies ..has/have.. a car.
Tipe soal 10
Beberapa kata yang tidak pernah digunakan dalam bentuk continuous
The food that Mark is cooking in the kitchen is smelling delicious.
ABCD

Know

Understand

Have

Believe

Hate

Need

Hear

Love

Appear

See

Like

Seem

Smell

Want

Taste

Wish

Sound

Own

Tipe soal 11
Pemahaman tenses dasar
After John eaten dinner, he wrote several letters and went to bed.
ABCD
Tipe soal 12
Keterangan waktu pada tenses dasar
The manager has finished working on the report last night, and now she will
ABC
begin to write the other proposal.
D
I have eaten now.
I have eaten two hours ago.
S + v2
S + have/has + v3
I have eaten now.
I ate two hours ago.
I have bought a dictionary today.

I have bought a dictionary this morning.


Tipe soal 13
Masalah pronoun
Because Sam and Michelie had done all of the work theirselves., they were
ABC
unwilling to give the results to Joan.
D
Tipe soal 14
Masalah conditional sentence
Daniel said that if he had to do another homework tonight, he would not be able
AB
to attend the concert.
D
TIPE 1
If I meet Mr. Yanto, I will address him.
If I get money , I will treat you.
If it rains, I will wear a raincoat.
TIPE 1
If I am hungry, I will buy some food.
If you are sick, I will take care of you.
If he comes, I will be happy.
Tipe 2
If I brought money, I would treat you.
If he met me, I would be happy.
If they helped me, I would thank them.
TIPE 2
If I were healthy, I would work.
If I were rich , I would build a villa
Tipe 3
If I had brought money , I would have given you some food.

If I had passed, I would have studied abroad.


If they had come, they would have helped us.
If I had been healthy, I would have helped you.
If I had been rich, I would have built a villa.
Tipe soal 15
Prepositions + gerunds (Verb-ing)
After to take the medication the patient became drowsy and more manageable.
ABCD
Tipe soal 16
Verbs + prepositions followed by gerund
We insist on you leaving the meeting before any further outburst take place.
ABCD

Approve of

Give up

Rely on

Worry about

Be better off

Insist on

Succeed in

Count on

Keep on

Think about

Depend on

Put off

Think of

Tipe soal 17
Question tag
It has been a long time since we have talked to John , isnt it?
ABCD
You are sick, arent/isnt you?

You will go, wont you?


He sleeps, doesnt he?
Tipe soal 18
Verbs + prepositions followed the word to as preposition
(object to, look forward to, confess to)
Henry objects to our buying this house without the approval of our attorney, and
ABC
John does so.
D
I want to go.
He comes to sleep.
Tipe soal 19
Verbs that are followed by gerund / verb ing
Rita enjoyed to be able to meet several Congress members during her vocation.
ABCD

Admit

Delay

Miss

Regret

Risk

Appreciate

Deny

Postpone

Report

Suggest

Avoid

Enjoy

Practice

Resent

Cant help

Finish

Quit

Resist

Consider

Mind

Recall

Resume

Tipe soal 20
Verbs that are always followed by infinitive (to + verb)
After being indicted for his part in a bank robbery , the reputed mobster decided
find
ABCD
another attorney.

Agree

Desire

Intend

Prepare

Tend

Attempt

Fail

Learn

Pretend

Try

Claim

Forget

Need

Refuse

Want

Decide

Hesitate

Offer

Seem

Wish

Demand

Hope

Plan

Strive

LISTENING COMPREHENSION
KUNCI UMUM
Kunci 1 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk perintah (direction) pada masing-masing bagian
(part) dengan baik sebelum hari- H ujian.
Kunci 2 : Baca pilihan-pilihan jawaban pada masing-masing soal sebanyak mungkin
ketika narrator sedang membacakan directions dan contoh soal (example)
Kunci 3 : Dengarkan dengan penuh konsentrasi dan fokuskan perhatian Anda pada
percakapan yang sedang Anda dengarkan.
Kunci 4 : Maksimalkan kemampuan listening Anda pada soal-soal pertama pada
masing-masing part.
Kunci 5 : Fokuskan pendengaran Anda pada pembicara kedua.
Kunci 6 : Jangan panik bila tidak bisa memahami kata demi kata dalam percakapan
secara komplit. Anda hanya perlu menangkap ide atau isi percakapan.
Kunci 7 : Bila Anda sama sekali tidak bisa memahami apa yang diucapkan
pembicara kedua, pilihlah jawaban yang paling berbeda dari apa yang telah Anda
dengar.
Kunci 8 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk functional expression (agreement, uncertainty,
suggestion, surprise), idiomatic expression, dan situasi ketika pembicaraan
dilakukan.
LONGER CONVERSATION
Kunci 9 : Ketika narrator membacakan direction part B anda sebaiknya membaca
pilihan jawaban secara sekilas kemudian mrekamnya dan memperkirakan tema apa
yang akan menjadi perbincangan.
Kunci 10 : ketika menyimak conversation, anda harus mengetahui apa tema/topic
yang dibicarakan
Kunci 11 : waspadalah terhadap masing-masing pertanyaan.

Kunci 12 : Cermati kondisi dan situasi yang terjadi selama percakapan berlangsung,
yakni menyangkut tempat dan waktu pembicaraan, apa dan siapa yang
dibicarakan.
Kunci 13 : Bila anda memiliki waktu, lihatlah pilihan-pilihan jawban yang tertera
pada lembar soal dan temukan kata kuncinya.
Kunci 14 : Waspadailah pembicaraan pada kalimat-kalimat pertama karena
biasanya akan menjadi topic bagi kalimat-kalimat selanjutnya.
Kunci 15 : Fokuskan pendengaran anda pada hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan
pertanyaan 5-wh (what, who, when, where, why) dan how.

Kunci 16 : buatlah kesiompulan\inferasi atas situasi yang terjadi saat pembicaraan


dilakukan.

PENTING!!!

(PELAJARI EXPRESI-EXPRESI BERIKUT)

Turned out well : sangat baik

Watch your step : hati-hati

Take it easy : santai aja

Thats it : ya itu / beres

Youve got to be kidding : menyatakan keterkejutan

Make ones own mind : berpikir sendiri

Stand on ones own foot : mandiri

Thanks for the attention and forgive me any of my lacks! Good Luck!

MATERI B INGGRIS-TOEFL-READING COMPREHENSION

Oleh : Gun gun Maulana,S.Pd