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CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
A study on Total quality human Resource management carried at Non-governmental
Organization
The importance of Total Quality Human Resources Management (TQHRM) in a nongovernmental organisation (NGO) as a means of ensuring sustainable growth for an organisation
cannot be overemphasized, as it is the fundamental strength upon which people; strategies,
processes and operations are based. Effective employee management should be on top of the list
of priorities for progressive improvement of an organisation. A NGO must strive to attract,
develop and retain qualified and enthusiastic employees as they are the key to the success of
ones business. TQHRM in a NGO is no different to HR in any other sector, but the problems
that HR professionals face within the NGO industry are quite unique.

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INDUSTRY PROFILE
Non governmental Organisations (NGOs) as we know them today are generally thought
to have come in to existence around the mid nineteenth century. It was only about a century
later that the importance of NGOs was officially recognized by the United Nations. At the UN
congress in San Francisco in 1968, a provision was made in article 71 of the charter of the
United Nations frame work that qualified NGOs in the field of economic and social development
to receive consultative status with economic and social council.
The development of modern NGOs has largely mirrored that general world of history,
particularly after the Industrial Revolution .as far NGOs have existed in some form or another
back as 25000 years ago. Since 1850, more than 100,000 private. Non-profit Organisations with
an international focus have been founded. The growth of NGOs really took off after the second
world war , with about 90 international NGOs founded each year , compared with 10 each year
in the 1890s .Only about 30 percent of early international NGOs have survived ,although those
Organizations after the wars have had better survival rate. Many more NGOs with local, national
or regional focus have been created, through like their international counterparts, not all have
survived or have been successful.
International Non Governmental Organisations have a history dating back to at least
1839. It has been estimated that by 1914 there were 1083 NGOs International important in the
anti- slavery movement and the movement for womens suffrage, and reached a peak at the time
of the World Disarmament Conference. However, the phrase non governmental organisation
only came in to popular use with the establishment of the United Nations in 1945 with provisions
in Article 71 of chapter 10 of the United Nations. Charters for a consultative role for
Organisations which are neither governments nor member states consultative status. The
definition of "international NGO" (INGO) is first given in resolution 288 (X) of ECOSOC on
February 27, 1950: it is defined as "any international organization that is not founded by an
international treaty". The vital role of NGOs and other "major groups" in sustainable
development was recognized in chapter 27 of Agenda 21, leading to intense arrangements for a
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consultative relationship between the United Nations and non-governmental organizations. Rapid
development of the non-governmental sector occurred in western countries as a result of the
processes of restructuring of the Welfare further globalization of that process occurred after the
fall of the communist system Washington stem and was an important part of the Washington
consensus.
Globalization during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Many
problems could not be solved within a nation. International treatise and international
organizations such as World Trade Organizations were perceived as being too centered on the
interests of capitalist enterprises. Some argued that in an attempt to counterbalance this trend,
NGOs have developed to emphasize humanitarian issues, development aid and sustainable
development. A prominent example for this is the world is the World Social Form held annually
in January in Davos Switzerland. The fifth world Social Forum in Porto Alegre, Brazil

in

January 2005 was attended by representatives from more than 1,000 NGOs. Some have argued
that in forums like these, NGOs take the place of what should belong to popular movements of
the poor. Others argue that NGOs are often imperialist in nature, that they sometimes operate in a
racial zed manner in third world countries, and that they fulfill a similar function to that of the
clergy during the high colonial era. The philosopher Peter Halward argues that they are an
aristocratic form of politics. Whatever the case, NGO transnational networking is now extensive.
Indias NGOs Profile (HISTORY OF INDIAN NGOs)
India has a long history of civil society based on the concepts of daana (giving) and seva
(service). Voluntary organizations that are voluntary in spirit and without profit-making
objectives were active in cultural promotion, education, health, and natural disaster relief as early
as the medieval era. They proliferated during British rule, working to improve social welfare and
literacy and pursuing relief projects. During the second half of the 19th century, nationalist
consciousness spread across India and self-help emerged as the primary focus of sociopolitical
movements.

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Numerous organizations were established during this period, including the Friend-inNeed Society (1858), Prathana Samaj (1864), Satya Shodhan Samaj (1873), Arya Samaj (1875),
the National Council for Women in India (1875), and the Indian National Conference (1887).
The Societies Registration Act (SRA) was approved in 1860 to confirm the legal status of the
growing body of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The SRA continues to be relevant
legislation for NGOs in India, although most state governments have enacted amendments to the
original version. Christian missionaries active in India at this time directed their efforts toward
reducing poverty and constructing hospitals, schools, roads, and other infrastructure. Meanwhile,
NGOs focused their efforts on education, health, relief, and social welfare.
A firm foundation for secular voluntary action in India was not laid until the
governmental development agencies were established around this time, such as the Peoples
Action for Development of India. Foreign-trained Indians entered civil society in greater
numbers, leading to a professionalization of the sector. India witnessed a rapid increase in and
diversification of the NGO sector as a response to the national political scenario and increasing
concern about poverty and marginalization. Both welfare and empowerment oriented
organizations emerged during this period, and development, civil liberties, education,
environment, health, and livelihood all became the focus of attention.

With

community

participation as a defined component in a number of social sector projects during the 1970s and
1980s, NGOs began to be formally recognized as development partners of the state. Their work
was increasingly characterized by grassroots interventions, advocacy at various levels, and
mobilization of the marginalized to protect their rights. The process of structural adjustment
begun in the early 1990sand the more recent approach of bilateral and international donors
channeling funds directly through the government, NGO networks, and large corporate NGOs
have somewhat pushed peoples organizations into the background. Small, spontaneous
initiatives at the community level, as a response to social and economic exploitations at the
community level, are no longer the hallmark of the NGO sector.

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1.2 COMPANY PROFILE
PRACHODANA ORGANISATION HASSAN
Prachodana organization (center for social services) is a development organization,
engaged in building a new civil society in India through its grassroots to policy-level action in
Health, Education and Community Development sectors. Acting as a key promoter-facilitator in
the communitys efforts towards self-reliance and empowerment, organization is developing
local, innovative and cost-effective solutions to sustain community-driven progress. Buying in
support from the community, working in healthy partnership with the government and corporate
sectors and sharing its experiences with like-minded organizations have been the hallmark of
organization evolution over the past 18 years.
Social Service Society is an NGO registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860,
meant for social and charitable services to the humanity. It caters to the poor and marginalized,
especially to the people of socially and economically weaker sections of the society without any
discrimination of caste, creed, community, religion, gender, etc. One of the services undertakes
is food for the hungry, to provide one square meal for those who are suffering from starvation
and are finding it difficult to fill their empty stomachs. We can see such needy persons in the
surroundings -- may be they are wanderers at streets, patients in hospitals, inmates in
orphanages, rehabilitation centers, old-age homes, slums or otherwise. Providing meals to the
hungry is a great virtue and an act of love, concern & charity before the Lord and the humanity.
The Activities of the organisation are, community organization, formation and
strengthening of SHGs, formation of cluster federations for the SHGs, IGP activities, awareness
trainings on PRI, Legal AID, Live stock, Leadership capacity building, finance management,
child rights, children programme, formation of children panchayath, bridge school for the child
labor children, strengthening of the SDMCs, Health programme on, HIV/AIDS, small family
norms, Eye checkup camps, construction of eco san latrin, watershed activities, watershed
committees, earthen bunding, bund sowing, form ponds, vermi compost, CCTs, nursery raising,
and planting, Sujala watershed activities, under pri minister draught relief programme, Micro
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finance activities, Jeevanamadura insurence program from LIC, protection of child rights and
anti child trafficking programme, Tuberculosis diseases control programme etc.
This protesting child trafficking and it creating awareness for child trafficking and it
produces articles to create awareness in association with Karl Kbel Institute for Development
Education (KKID), Coimbatore, and Tamil Nadu. The brief introduction of the article as follows
Not for Sale: Report of the National Workshop on Child Trafficking in India
Centre for Social Service
Hassan, Karnataka
&
Karl Kbel Institute for Development Education
Anaikatty Road, Mankarai
Coimbatore 641 108
Introduction
Child trafficking is one of the worst forms of human rights violations. It affects millions
of children worldwide. United Nations estimates suggest that globally trafficking in women and
children is an operation worth $10 billion annually. And it is still increasing.
The definitions on trafficking used all over the world are countless. In a general sense,
Child trafficking is the movement of children from place to place through force, coercion or
deception into situations of economic and/or sexual exploitation. Trafficking is nothing but
modern-day slavery with prostitution as its most recognized form and purpose. That children are
trafficked for labor, domestic work, organ transplants, begging, drug peddling, marriages,
adoption, camel jockeying, circus and other forms of entertainment in large numbers is only
hardly known.

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The Root Causes
The root causes of trafficking in children are multiple and complex. In most developing
countries today, globalisation has severed the traditional socio-economic relations and the growth
of tourism has rendered women and children vulnerable. A disintegration of the rural
communities and the grim reality of the poor and the marginal people, lack of employment
opportunities for adults, low social status of the girl child, a general lack of education and
awareness make people easy victims of trafficking, particularly in the South Asian countries. A
religious and cultural tradition in the form of devadasi system, which means the dedication of
young girls to gods and goddesses (euphemistically known as temple prostitution) in places like
northern Karnataka, sanctifies and institutionalizes this crime.
Beliefs that sex with virgins and young children is safe and can heal sexual disorders only
add to the problem. Situations of emergency natural disasters and political conflicts also
make children vulnerable to trafficking. One of the biggest hurdles in stopping child trafficking
is the lack of public awareness and acceptance of this crime. Inadequate legislation and weak law
enforcement make it easier for the traffickers to operate. India is a country of both transit and
destination. Unlike Sri Lanka, where the Government has come down heavily on pedophilic
activity, India is still considered a soft state. There is a considerable degree of internal
trafficking across state borders as well as cross-border trafficking from India to Gulf States and
to South-East Asia. India is both a supplier as well as a consumer. The procurement and sale of
these children is undertaken in an organised manner by organised syndicates or individuals
and, sometimes, informal groups including relatives and parents. A deep-rooted social
stratification within Indian society means that children belonging to the underprivileged sections
are the most vulnerable.
The impact globalisation and liberalisation have on these parts of society are increasing
poverty, unemployment and forced migration, and disintegrating traditional family systems
coupled with growing consumerism and individualism. Trafficking has become a lucrative
business. The growing co modification of women and children makes them vulnerable to being
trafficked. Nearly half the children born in India remain unregistered. In many cases, when a
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child goes missing, the case goes unreported. According to police sources, of the 15,000 children
that are reported missing every year, only 22 per cent get traced. Some are sold by their families;
some get lured with promises of a job or a marriage and quite a few lands up in illegal activities
like begging, organ trade, smuggling, drugs, sex tourism (including paedophilia).
There have been studies on trafficking, based on available data, newspaper reports and
information through NGO initiatives, but most of them focus on trafficking for the sex industry
this applies to child trafficking too. Prostitution is a billion-dollar industry in the SAARC (South
Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, comprising India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka,
Nepal, Bhutan and Mauritius) region. At a conservative estimate, about 200 girls and women
enter prostitution daily. But this is only the tip of the iceberg. At a conservative estimate, about
200 girls and women enter prostitution daily and this is only the tip of the iceberg.
There is little or non-systematic documentation on the other forms such as labour, organ
trading, adoption, illegal marriages or entertainment. Putting numbers to the magnitude of the
problem in India is an impossible task as there is little reliable quantitative data on the overall
problem of child trafficking in India. Within India, women and children are trafficked for forced
labour, forced prostitution, and forced marriage. Illegal trafficking in human organs also takes
place, as does illicit adoption of infants and children. A researcher of the National Human Rights
Commission conducting research on child trafficking in India stated in January 2004 that, on
average, 30,133 children disappear every year. 27 percent of the missing children are never
found.
Girls are trafficked within the country for forced marriage. Girls from West Bengal
(particularly Murshidabad and Chaubis Pargana) have been sold in Haryana for marriage. Here,
only one example shall be mentioned: a 16-year-old girl was tricked into boarding a train and
was taken from Murshidabad to Delhi, where an agent sold her to a 40-year-old man for
marriage. When the girl refused to marry the man, he and his family beat her. After the girl was
confined in the mans house for 4 days, police, who had been tipped off by neighbors, rescued
her.

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India has one of the worlds largest underground markets in human organs. Though
commercial trading in organs was banned in 1994, it is believed that regulation has merely
pushed the trade underground to a market controlled by organized crime gangs. Veritable organ
bazaars operate out of private clinics, especially in cities such
as Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras). According to a 2002 report, 2,000 Indians sell their
kidneys every year, mostly to affluent Westerners, who fly to India for the surgery. In a Chennai
(Madras) slum in South India, a U.S. anthropologist met five local women, each of whom had
sold one kidney for US$1,200 (in 1999). Most of them were low-paid domestic servants, whose
husbands were in trouble or in debt. They had sold their kidneys after a financial crisis. During
the interviews, the women claimed that they would do it again if they could as shown above, the
reasons for trafficking are numberless and may be listed as follows:
On Gender:

Child marriage, polygamy, incompatible or pseudo marriages.

Dowry demand.

Unequal power relations and discrimination in the family by gender and age.

Negative attitude towards women and the girl child.

Socialisation which devalues the girl child..

Social stigma against single, unwed, windowed women.

Incest.

Inadequate government policies in favor of women.

Women released from jail/hazat are given to the guardians/custodians without


Proper/legal verification.

The malpractice of providing affidavit for women entering into the profession of
prostitution without verification of age.

Lack of shelter for women in distress.

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Complications of restoring to law are both expensive and time consuming for women
victims.

On Religion

Misanalysis and interpretation of religion regarding women.

Religious fundamentalism.

On Socio-economic reasons

Break up of traditional joint family and the emerging unclear families; easy divorce.

Complications out of conditionality and fraudulent practices in marriages/ after


marriages.

Physical as well as mental illness, contagious diseases turning women as outcastes.

Frustration in love, failure in conjugal life.

Enticements for better life e.g., job, prospect of marriage.

Globalisation and export oriented growth model, consumerism.

Increased dependency of the guardians on the income of their girl child.

Natural disasters making families homeless and disintegrated.

Acute poverty forcing parents to abandon their children.

Inadequate rural development projects for women and unemployed.

Lack of social security and safety.


Purpose of the Workshop
The three-day workshop held at the Karl Kbel Institute for Development Education

(KKID), organised by (a child development agency in Hassan, Karnataka) and supported by the
German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and by Karl
Kbel Stiftung (KKS), Germany, from October 24 to
26, 2005 set for itself a limited agenda, namely:

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Understand and study the various ramifications of human trafficking, particularly child
trafficking, as it occurs in India.

Take an informed position on the issue of child trafficking, and explore possibilities of
integrating the concern into the present ambit of work among KKS partners in India.

Draft an outline Plan of Action with a long-term perspective.

Expected Outcomes

Documentation of learnings and insights.

Embark on a medium/short-term course of action based on the preparation of


perspectives gained.

Social Service Society is an NGO registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860,
meant for social and charitable services to the humanity. It caters to the poor and marginalized,
especially to the people of socially and economically weaker sections of the society without any
discrimination of caste, creed, community, religion, gender, etc. Social Service Society works to
build a new civil society in India through its grassroots to policy-level action in health,
education, and community development. To promote communities efforts toward self-reliance,
Social Service Society strives to develop local, innovative, and cost-effective solutions to sustain
community-driven progress. The organization is primarily dedicated to providing services to
poor and marginalized communities. In the area of health including maternal and child health
care, eye care, and such HIV/ AIDS services as testing, counseling, and anti-retroviral (ARV)
treatment. Social Service Society also carries outreach activities related to reproductive and
child health, water and sanitation, and tuberculosis control. The organizations research and
advocacy work focuses on health, education, and the right to information. Social Service Society
has conducted social audit work in the past and has started to include health sector public
expenditure tracking in its work, as well.
Objectives of the organization
Social Service Society is a development organization, engaged in building a new civil
society in India through its grassroots to policy-level action in Health, Education and Community
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Development sectors. Acting as a key promoter-facilitator in the communitys efforts towards
self-reliance and empowerment. Social Service Society is developing local, innovative and costeffective solutions to sustain community-driven progress.
Children at the forefront to support Charity endeavor
Social Service Society is also rooted to its slogan When you give to the poor it is like
lending to the Lord and the Lord will pay back which is reflected in its program design and
delivery, transactions with its stakeholders, resource utilization, disclosures and openness to
public scrutiny. Buying in support from the community, working in healthy partnership with the
government and corporate sectors and sharing its experiences with like-minded organizations
have been the hallmark of Social Service evolution over the past 18 years.

The main aim of the Social Service t is to provide equitable, high-quality healthcare
through sustainable mechanisms, with active community involvement and in line with the
organizational analysis and interpretation of core values.

Supporting the local heads through give first preference in employment opportunities

Create awareness about health in tribal people

Helps tribal people to achieve there financial sustainability

Provide quality education. And avoid discrimination among people.

Vision and mission of the and Quality policy


Vision statements reflect the ideal image of the organization in the future. They create a focal
point for strategic planning and are time bound, with most vision statements projected for a
period of 5 to 10 years. The vision statement communicates both the purpose and values of the
organization. For employees, it gives direction about how they are expected to behave and
inspires them to give their best. Shared with customers, it shapes customers understanding of
why they should work with the organization.

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Developing a Vision Statement
1. The vision statement includes vivid description of the organization as it effectively carries
out its operations.
2. Developing a vision statement can be quick culture-specific, i.e., participants may use methods
ranging from highly analytical and rational to highly creative and divergent, e.g., focused
discussions, divergent experiences around daydreams, sharing stories, etc. Therefore, visit with
the participants how they might like to arrive at description of their organizational vision.
3. Developing the vision can be the most enjoyable part of planning, but the part where time
easily gets away from you.
A Prachodanas vision is to transform the society to bring Equality, justice, peace and
ensure that every one lives with dignity.
Social Services visions a Transform the society to bring equity justice ,peace and ensure
at everyone likes with dignity ,towards fulfilling this, all the development efforts of Social
Service were strategically realigned to focus on primarily three Program Areas- Health Education
&Community development and one Program Support Area- Development Support team.
MISSION STATEMENTS
A Mission Statement defines the organization's purpose and primary objectives. Its prime
function is internal to define the key measure or measures of the organizations success and
its prime audience is the leadership team and stockholders. Mission statements are the starting
points of an organisations strategic planning and goal setting process. They focus attention and
assure that internal and external stakeholders understand what the organization is attempting to
accomplish.
MISSION AND PURPOSE

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Mission and purpose are used interchangeably, though at theoretical level, there is a
difference between two. Mission has external orientation and relates the organization to the
society in which it operates. A mission statement helps the organization to link its activities to the
needs of the society and legitimize its existence. Purpose is also externally focused but it relates
to that segment of the society to which it serves; it defines the business which the institution will
undertake.
To help self help groups for the development of rural women
a is dedicated to bring about awareness in the community, organize vulnerable sections
,empower them through training exposure .seminars and workshops and build network and
linkage and through these to achieve sustainable developmental change in education, health,
environment socio-economic-political status through participatory approaches.

ORGANISATION BACKGROUND:
A is one of the non Government Organisation It is one of the award Organisation from
NABARAD for the best performance in community organization, promotion and linkage of
SHGs in the State. Organisation is working with rural poor, mainly with women and children,
Agriculture farmers, land less laborers and also natural resource management activities. In
addition to this we conduct various awareness training programmers Organization is working in
two Districts namely Hassan and Kodagu. It works with the involvement of the community
based on their need.

OBJECTIVES OF THE ORGANISATION


1. To work towards gradual reduction of school dropout and child labor system.
Subsequently eliminate child labor system by using preventive measures, rehabilitation
processes through awareness, non-formal education, intensive
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training, institutional
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capacity building. So that the community at large will be able to deal with the problem
of school dropouts.
2. To work towards the reduction and elimination of poverty through organization of the
poor, deprived and weaker sections of the society, especially women, youth, landless
laborers and marginal farmers.
3. To provide and develop the level of awareness, organization capacity, leadership potential
of the marginalized and oppressed groups of people. So that they will learn and grow by
taking their own responsibilities, initiatives and sustain the development thus brought
about.
4. To work towards building broad based linkages, net-works and support systems across
the beneficiary community, non government development organizations, government
service sectors, finance institutions, issue based local, regional, national and international
groups

AWARDS AND RECOGNITION

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State award for the best performance in SHG promotion and linkage with the Bank by
NABARD in the year 2001-2002
State award from Government through Women and child Welfare Department for the
best performance in working with Women and Children in 2008 -2009

ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES:
PAST AND PRESENT ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES:
1. Self-help groups (SHG) formations, trainings & Linkage, formation of Cluster Federations
for the SHGs. Formation of Common interested groups(CIGs) for the farmers.
2.

Vocational Trainings for the youths such as computer, tailoring, Radio and TV repair,

Automobile training.
3. Conducting trainings on Legal Aid, Panchayath Raj, Live stock Management, Child rights,
Book keeping, Leadership capacity building, Small family norms, on Agriculture,etc.
4. Non-formal education canters for child labourers & Dropout children
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5. Health & Nutrition Education classes & programme
6. Rehabilitation of child labour and dropout children and eradication of child labour system.
7. Soil and water conservation and forest management, such as Earthen bonding, bund sowing,
formation of farm ponds, raising nursery plants and planting, construction of vermin compost,
Social forestry programme, Horticulture programme, construction water ways, waste wares,
formation of watershed committees. Trainings etc.
8. Mobilizing support from Government departments, Banks and NABARD for the groups.
9. Awareness generation programs on AIDs, Environment and Social aspects.
10. Running Pre primary centers in the village.
11.Nattividya convention, (identification of traditional village level Nattividyas.)
12.Organizing eye camps on cataract cases with the support of DBCS(District Blindness Control
Society)/ Mission Hospital
13. Income generation programmes for the SHG members.
14. Running bridge schools for the school dropouts, non-school going children and child
laborers.

List of Board members for A


Sl

Name and address of

Age

Occupation

Designation

Experience

No the members
1

Mrs. Susheela

48

Social Work

Chairman

23 years

Mr.Paul

47

Private school teacher

Vice Chairman

24 years

Mr.C.C.Poulose

46

Social Work

Secretary

22 years

Mrs.Tara Durani

44

Private school teacher

Treasurer

20 years

Mr. Narayanamurthy

49

Private school teacher

Member

20 years

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Mr.Kumaraswamy

46

Social worker

Member

26 years

Mrs.Asha

35

Health worker

Member

21 years.

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Infrastructural facilities
Governing body
The governing body is responsible for all policy level decisions of Social Service. There
are seven members in the governing body. The members are not paid any remuneration are any
travel reimbursement for undertaking the responsibilities associated with their roles in the board.
The Team
The achievements of the organization would not have been possible without the hard
work and commitment of the staff. The spirit, creativity, talent, dedication, perseverance and
excellence of 212 member strong team and the community participation is praiseworthy. The
development support team which supports guides and synergizes the organizational efforts
toward achieving its strategic goals and objectives increased from 9 members to 15 members.
The organization believes in catalyzing local candidates and provides encouragement, training
and opportunities for the local candidates to join the team.
Achievements and Award
Major achievements and awards to social service are SUJALA award in the year 2008
from Indian government, NABARD award from Indian Government for proper planning,
children welfare awards from Karnataka government.
Work flow model
A workflow consists of a sequence of connected steps. It is a depiction of a sequence of
operations, declared as work of a person, a group of persons, an organization of staff, or one or
more simple or complex mechanisms. Workflow may be seen as any abstraction of real work.
For control purposes, workflow may be a view on real work under a chosen aspect, thus serving
as a virtual representation of actual work.

SOCIAL SERVICE work flow model


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Health
Aims to provide equitable, high-quality healthcare team through sustainable
mechanisms, with active community involvement and in line with the organizational analysis and
interpretation of core values.
Education
Education is the root of all sustainable development and an essential component of
progress. In pursuit of its goal of a just and equitable society, has accorded prime importance to
education at the basic level. It provides and facilitates quality education by joyful, experiential
and child-centric means to children in the 6-15 age groups with a focus on human values,
literacy, numeracy and vocational training.
Community based development
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The Community Development Services (CDS) wing works to empower the community
through awareness, education and action, hoping to create sustainable development and
economic security. The objectives are:
To form and support Self Help Groups in tribal areas.
To provide vocational training and entrepreneurial skills to youth to create employment
and prevent migration.
To facilitate the creation of basic infrastructure in rural and tribal households.
Training-Research-Advocacy-Consultancy (TRAC)
By virtue of its historical strengths, have become a powerhouse of knowledge and ideas
and many service agencies have sought to benefit from this. The organization has therefore
opened an exclusive Training, Research, Advocacy and Consultancy (TRAC) wing that seek to
share its accumulated knowledge, experience, expertise and other intangible assets with sincere
users everywhere.

FUTURE GRWOTH AND PROSPECTOUS


Completing 18 years is a mile stone for any organization and is no exception, has indeed
demonstrated that there can be so much continuity too. Over the years we have been able to
transition towards being a large collective of well meaning individuals who value and cherish
democratic functioning. While have had share of challenges. while it could be easy to get carried
away with the regnition and adulation that we have got over the last many years it all so need to
be sensitive to the ever-dynamic situation around us. While completing 18 years is indeed a
milestone, need to now focus on the next 25 years begins a journey of re-discovery.
A rediscovery which will enable us to recommit to the community being at the center
stage of the organisation existence: where quality, transparency and accountability becomes a
way of life for each one of us: where governance and management standard become the
benchmark for the sector, and where ideology rather than individual cherish becomes the prime
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mover of the orgnisation. An ideology that is responsive and sensitive to the changing social
milieu and ensure that it stays free of the bondage of dogma and is all-inclusive. Only than can
organisation truly and effective team of making vision a reality. A vision of making
development matter of Right for every Indian.
GROWTH
Growth brings with it its own set of complexities and challenges. It also throws up the
basic questions- of what is growth, and how much of it is desirable. It is necessary to draw the
distinction between growth and maturation, as is done in biological sciences. The increase in the
physical dimensions that are measurable as size is important, but just as important is the less
tangible component of maturation.
It is our desire to ensure that institution grows, and at the same time, mature. Have
tried to ensure that growth in size is not at the cost of the quality of our work, the depth of our
interventions, and the heart with which we respond to emerging needs and situations. As more
people join us with growth, the big task in front of us would be to bring them on to the same
wavelength. Development cannot be achieved or understood in compartments.
Health, education, socioeconomic stability, cultural inputs - all are but some of the facets
of Development. One challenge which as Development workers and the community as the socalled beneficiaries face is that of compartmentalization of interventions.
The interventions in Health will reach their intended goal, only with concerted efforts in
the sectors of Education, which is similarly dependent on social awareness, and so on As
organization grow in size, and as it add more numbers to the projects institution implement, the
need to ensure Convergence is emerging as a key area of focus. Efforts to ensure that the right
hand knows what the left hand is doing have been strengthened over the past year, and will need
further attention. Some of the strategies adopted last year to bring in this convergence gave
insights into streamlining the process in the coming days. According to the recently published
reports of the Multidimensional Poverty index, the total number of

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Poor living in India is more than those living in all countries of Sub-Saharan Africa put
together. Though the report makes for sad reading, it opens ones eyes to the harsh reality of
today. It is time that all put in resources and efforts in a concerted way to achieve a synergistic
impact.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


HRM and TQM issues have been studied from several perspectives and this study
investigates in general the fact total quality management specific relationship with HRM in
continuous improvement systems of NGO the core objectives of the study is to examine that
human resources issues are the core for improved implementation of TQM for the in sighted
benefits of NGO.
1. To study the present human resource management system in NGO
2. To develop a conceptual framework of TQM implementation in relation to HRM issues
3. To explore the relationships between TQM and HRM
4. To propose and develop Total Quality Human Resource Management model to NGOs
Hypothesis
Based on the extensive study, it would therefore suggest that HRM issues improve TQM
implementation. As such, the following hypotheses are proposed.
H1: HRM issues are positively associated with TQM implementation.
The above hypothesis can be specifically written as:
H11: Employee Empowerment is positively associated with TQM implementation
H12: Employee involvement is positively associated with TQM implementation
H13: Staffing is positively associated with TQM implementation
H14: Selection is positively associated with TQM implementation
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H15: Job Analysis is positively associated with TQM implementation
H16: Teamwork is positively associated with TQM implementation
H17: Training and development is positively associated with TQM implementation
H18: Performance appraisal is positively associated with TQM implementation
H19: Reward and Recognition system is positively associated with TQM implementation.

1.6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN:
The research design conducted in this study was descriptive in nature. Descriptive
research studies are those studies, which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a
particular individual or of a group.

SAMPLING DESIGN
SAMPLING FRAME:
The sampling frame is used for the employees working in top position of the
organisation.
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SAMPLING UNIT:
The Sampling unit consists of various employees working under different grades in the
organisation.

SAMPLING METHOD:
Simple random sampling method is utilized for the survey.

SAMPLE SIZE:
The study is conducted by employed the sample size of 50 employees of different
designation held in the organisation.

SAMPLING PLAN:
The sampling plan consisted of taking responses from the employees through direct and
structured questionnaire method.

This is a descriptive study based on the described data and information.

This study is based on primary and secondary data, through discussion with respective
authorities, Researcher articles availed in journals websites, and books.

For collecting secondary data websites are used. Graphical methods are used for better
presentation of data and detailed analysis examining only a part of it.

DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE


PRIMARY DATA

Questionnaires

Discussion with respective authorities

Structured interviews

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SECONDARY DATA
Secondary datas are collected from the following ways.

Journals

Articles
Bulletins , organisations year books and publications of the organisation , internet and

various libraries are utilized for the study.


Deceptively simple the survey questionnaires will be used as a prime data collection
tool. The questionnaires offer a way to accurately evaluate the extent and credibility of the facts
and opinions gathered by interviews. Questionnaire is the most efficient tool to getting data from
a large dispersed population. Study mainly aimed at develops a total quality human resource
management model to NGOs. It is felt that any information structured interview would help to
probe and elicit reactions of the participants. Personal interview will be considered as one of the
effective tools for this study.
Desk research which includes the collection of data by reviewing scholarly and
professional works of TQM & HRM published works to achieve the objectives. Data will
be collected from companies records which include annual reports and different HR and
TQM journals. Statistical tools are used to effective presentation of the data, graphs and
tables are used for the study.

Questionnaire:
The questionnaire consists of 20 questions comprising of two variables namely Work
Environment and Organizational Performance. The question relating to work environment
comprises of various parameters.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY

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A study on effective total quality human resource management cover the area of
implementation of total quality management on NGOs Human resource management
to improve the employee empowerment and achieve the operational excellence in the
organisational performance.

This study focus on the total quality management and human resource management
issues and also concentrate on establish linkage between them.

The significance of this study points out the implemtation and the role of total
quality management in NGO HR issues for any course on HRD in the development
field, and

in order to achieve such things as operational efficiency, cost-

effectiveness, the delivery of projects, targets, key results, objectives, and so on, but
we regard HRD as integral to sustainable development.

Further, since most if not all programmes aim to achieve a sustainable


development process through community-based organizations (CBOs), then the task
of HRD for NGOs extends from the NGO to the CBOs themselves.

This study examines the issue of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the
management of human resources.

It suggests that while TQM has been identified as a major innovation in management
practice, there has been a preoccupation with the hard production-oriented aspects
of TQM, rather than the softer HRM elements.

However, increasing attention is now being paid to HR issues arising from these
cases and point to an enhanced role for the personnel function

1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

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This study is only focused on the only one organisation

Lack of improper response from the respondents

Lack of information

Lack of support

CHAPTER -2 LITERATURE REVIEW


HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - NATURE, SCOPE, OBJECTIVES AND
FUNCTION

Human resources may be defined as the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and
aptitudes of an organizations workforce, as well as the values, attitudes, approaches and
beliefs of the individuals involved in the affairs of the organization. It is the sum total or
aggregate of inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills represented by the talents and
aptitudes of the persons employed in the organization.

The human resources are

multidimensional in nature. From the national point of view, human resources may be defined
as the knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes obtained in the population;
whereas from the viewpoint of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent

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abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitudes of its
employees.
Human Resource Management: Defined
Human Resource Management has come to be recognized as an inherent part of
management, which is concerned with the human resources of an organization. Its objective is
the maintenance of better human relations in the organization by the development, application
and evaluation of policies, procedures and programs relating to human resources to optimize
their contribution towards the realization of organizational objectives. In other words, HRM is
concerned with getting better results with the collaboration of people. It is an integral but
distinctive part of management, concerned with people at work and their relationships within the
enterprise. HRM helps in attaining maximum individual development, desirable working
relationship between employees and employers, employees and employees, and effective
modeling of human resources as contrasted with physical resources. It is the recruitment,
selection, development, utilization, compensation and motivation of human resources by the
organization.
Human Resource Management:

The early part of the century saw a concern for improved efficiency through careful
design of work. During the middle part of the century emphasis shifted to the employees
productivity. Recent decades have focused on increased concern for the quality of working life,
total quality management and workers participation in management. These three phases may be
termed as welfare, development and empowerment.

Human Resource Management:


Nature
Human Resource Management is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that
the goals of each are met. The various features of HRM include:
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It is pervasive in nature as it is present in all enterprises.


Its focus is on results rather than on rules.
It tries to help employees develop their potential fully.
It encourages employees to give their best to the organization.
It is all about people at work, both as individuals and groups.
It tries to put people on assigned jobs in order to produce good results.
It helps an organization meet its goals in the future by providing for competent and well-

motivated employees.
It tries to build and maintain cordial relations between people working at various levels in

the organization.
It is a multidisciplinary activity, utilizing knowledge and inputs drawn from psychology,

economics, etc.

Human Resource Management: Scope


The scope of HRM is very wide:
1. Personnel aspect-This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection,
placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, layoff and retrenchment,
remuneration, incentives, productivity etc.
2. Welfare aspect-It deals with working conditions and amenities such as canteens, creches, rest
and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, healthand safety, recreation
facilities, etc.
3. Industrial relations aspect-This covers union-management relations, joint consultation,
collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary procedures, settlement of disputes, etc.
Human Resource Management:
Beliefs The Human Resource Management philosophy is based on the following beliefs:
Human resource is the most important asset in the organization and can be developed and
increased to an unlimited extent.

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A healthy climate with values of openness, enthusiasm, trust, mutuality and collaboration

is essential for developing human resource.


HRM can be planned and monitored in ways that are beneficial both to the individuals

and the organization.


Employees feel committed to their work and the organization, if the organization

perpetuates a feeling of belongingness.


Employees feel highly motivated if the organization provides for satisfaction of their

basic and higher level needs.


Employee commitment is increased with the opportunity to discover and use ones

capabilities and potential in ones work.


It is every managers responsibility to ensure the development and utilisation of the

capabilities of subordinates.
Human Resource Management: Objectives
To help the organization reach its goals.
To ensure effective utilization and maximum development of human resources.
To ensure respect for human beings. To identify and satisfy the needs of individuals.
To ensure reconciliation of individual goals with those of the organization.
To achieve and maintain high morale among employees.
To provide the organization with well-trained and well-motivated employees.
To increase to the fullest the employees job satisfaction and self-actualization.
To develop and maintain a quality of work life.
To be ethically and socially responsive to the needs of society.
To develop overall personality of each employee in its multidimensional aspect.
To enhance employees capabilities to perform the present job.
To equip the employees with precision and clarity in transaction of business.
To inculcate the sense of team spirit, team work and inter-team collaboration.

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Table 1 identifies some of the major milestones in the historical development of


HRM. Frederick Taylor, known as the father of scientific management, played a
significant role in the development of the personnel function in the early 1900s. In
his book, Shop Management, Taylor advocated the "scientific" selection and training
of workers. He also pioneered incentive systems that rewarded workers for meeting
and/or exceeding performance standards. Although Taylor's focus primarily was on
optimizing efficiency in manufacturing environments, his principles laid the groundwork for future HRM development. As Taylor was developing his ideas about
scientific management, other pioneers were working on applying the principles of
psychology to the recruitment, selection, and training of workers. The development
of the field of industrial psychology and its application to the workplace came to
fruition during World War I, as early vocational and employment-related testing was
used to assign military recruits to appropriate functions.

The Hawthorne Studies, which were conducted in the 1920s and 1930s at Western
Electric, sparked an increased emphasis on the social and informal aspects of the workplace.
Analysis and interpretations of the studies emphasized "human relations" and the link between
worker satisfaction and productivity. The passage of the Wagner Act in 1935 contributed to a
major increase in the number of unionized workers. In the 1940s and 1950s, collective
bargaining led to a tremendous increase in benefits offered to workers. The personnel function
evolved to cope with labor relations, collective bargaining, and a more complex compensation
and benefits environment. The human relations philosophy and labor relations were the dominant
concerns of HRM in the 1940s and 1950s.
HRM was revolutionized in the 1960s by passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and
other anti-discrimination legislationas well as presidential executive orders that required many
organizations to undertake affirmative action in order to remedy past discriminatory practices.
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Equal employment opportunity and affirmative action mandates greatly complicated the HRM
function, but also enhanced its importance in modern organizations. As discussed more fully in a
later section, these responsibilities continue to comprise a major part of the HRM job. Finally,
changes in labor force demographics, technology, and globalization since the 1980s have had a
major impact on the HRM function. These factors also are discussed in more detail in a later
section.

Table 1:
18901910

Milestones in the Development of Human Resource Management


Frederick Taylor develops his ideas on scientific management. Taylor advocates
scientific selection of workers based on qualifications and also argues for incentivebased compensation systems to motivate employees.
Many companies establish departments devoted to maintaining the welfare of workers.

1910-

The discipline of industrial psychology begins to develop. Industrial psychology, along

1930

with the advent of World War I, leads to advancements in employment testing and
selection.
The analysis and interpretation of the Hawthorne Studies' begins to have an impact on

1930-

management thought and practice. Greater emphasis is placed on the social and informal

1945

aspects of the workplace affecting worker productivity. Increasing the job satisfaction of
workers is cited as a means to increase their productivity.
In the U.S., a tremendous surge in union membership between 1935 and 1950 leads to a

1945-

greater emphasis on collective bargaining and labor relations within personnel

1965

management. Compensation and benefits administration also increase in importance as


unions negotiate paid vacations, paid holidays, and insurance coverage.

1965-

The Civil Rights movement in the U.S. reaches its apex with passage of the Civil Rights

1985

Act of 1964. The personnel function is dramatically affected by Title VII of the CRA,
which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, and national
origin. In the years following the passage of the CRA, equal employment opportunity

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and affirmative action become key human resource management responsibilities.
Three trends dramatically impact HRM. The first is the increasing diversity of the labor
force, in terms of age, gender, race, and ethnicity. HRM concerns evolve from EEO and
affirmative action to "managing diversity." A second trend is the globalization of
1985present

business and the accompanying technological revolution. These factors have led to
dramatic changes in transportation, communication, and labor markets. The third trend,
which is related to the first two, is the focus on HRM as a "strategic" function. HRM
concerns and concepts must be integrated into the overall strategic planning of the firm
in order to cope with rapid change, intense competition, and pressure for increased
efficiency.

Human resources and TQM


The literature on TQM emphasizes the need for: (a) personnel policies (selection,
training, appraisal and recognition and career development) to be adapted to the new culture
(Bowen and Lawler, 1992b; Collard, 1992; Evans and Lindsay, 1999; Lawler, 1994;
Schonberger, 1994) and to create a suitable environment for employee motivation (Steininger,
1994), and (b) the involvement of all the staff (Deming, 1982; Ishikawa, 1985; Powell, 1995;
Saraph et al., 1989). Thus, human resource policies and practices must be integrated with quality
schemes (Evans and Lindsay, 1999). Therefore, extensive changes are required in human
resource management, which must 486 The International Journal of Human Resource
Managementbe related to one another and tailored to a quality culture (Schonberger, 1994).
Personnel policies, empowerment and effects of quality systems on employees are analysed
below.

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Selection Employees should possess skills for continuous improvement in a TQM
context, such as working in teams, problem solving and improving process aptitudes. Thus, the
selection process should identify employees who have these abilities or at least have values and
behavior consistent with TQM (Ahmad and Schroeder, 2002). Based on this idea, employee
selection should be designed to assess TQM-derived competencies (Bowen and Lawler, 1992b;
Evans and Lindsay, 1999; Rees and Doran, 2001; Schonberger, 1994). However, in some cases,
the effects of TQM on selection tend to be weak or non-existent (Snell et al., 2000). In this sense,
the practice of organizations possessing quality systems suggests that: (a) some of them maintain
the same selection process as they had before implementing the system, for many assume that the
skills required may be rapidly acquired through training programmes; whereas (b) others have
adjusted their selection policies to the TQM context (Blackburn and Rosen, 1993).
Training allows both individual staff and the whole entity to attain maximum potential
because it gives employees the ability to improve the way work is done (Downey-Ennis et al.,
2004). When employees are trained in quality-related issues they can improve quality. This is
why training is a major feature of all TQM programmes (Bowen and Lawler, 1992b) and it is a
must for the development of TQM (Ishikawa, 1985), as shown by the standardized quality
models (EFQM model, ISO 9001, etc.). It must include both the technical and human aspects
(Anderson and Sohal, 1999; Bowen and Lawler, 1992b; Dale, 1999; Moreno, 1993; Schonberger,
1994). Based on selection and training ideas, it could be said that selection and training for
technical and problem-solving skills ensures that the employees have the necessary skills
required for TQM (Snell et al., 2000).
Appraisal and recognition There is a certain degree of disagreement among those who
support the quality philosophy. According to part of the literature, evaluations of individual
performance are negative for rms, and should, therefore, be eliminated, together with any
recognition involved (Deming, 1982), whereas other authors consider
that performance evaluation has positive effects on quality and productivity (Imai, 1986; Juran,
1988). In this sense, several researchers have recognized that a careful evaluation and rewards
systems may be used, provided organizations strive to reach a balance between individual and
collective recognition (Blackburn and Rosen, 1993; Campbell et al., 1998; Waldman, 1993,
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1994), which may be a monetary or a non-monetary one and oriented toward continuous
improvement of quality (Evans and Lindsay, 1999; Schonberger, 1994).
Career development In general, when a quality system is implemented, no great changes can be
perceived in promotion opportunities (Lam, 1995). Nevertheless, the orientation of the quality
system involves placing a greater emphasis on cross-functional career moves and, in some cases,
purely horizontal reassignments (Bowen and Lawler, 1992b) because managerial roles shift from
directing and controlling to coaching and facilitating (Evans and Lindsay, 1999). In view of all
these ideas regarding personnel policies, it can be said that (Blackburn and Rosen, 1993; Knouse,
1995): . Some rms with quality systems adapt their personnel policies to TQM. . Others have
not fully considered the implications of TQM on selection, promotion and career development.
Tar and Sabater: Human aspects in a quality management context 487. The implementation of a
quality system is directly related to training, and also to recognition, in such a way that, as a rule,
rms with quality systems change these policies in order to adjust to the new culture. Employee
involvement Empowerment is a way to obtain employee involvement that acquires a vital role in
a quality environment (Evans and Lindsay, 1999; Fok et al., 2000).
Indeed, it entails a high level of involvement, whereby employees take decisions and are
responsible for their results (Conger and Kanungo, 1988) and can be a tool for quality
improvement (Morris and Haigh, 1996). It includes employees (Bowen and Lawler, 1992a,
Ciampa, 1992; Dean and Evans, 1994): (a) receiving information on the rms operations; (b)
being trained, so that they can contribute better to organizational work;
(c) being empowered to take certain decisions that may inuence the rms activity; and
(d) obtaining rewards, based on their performance, aimed at encouraging and boosting their
creativity and initiative. In this line of thought, various authors have found that TQM leads to a
higher level of empowerment (Fok et al., 2000), and that rms, in order to encourage employee
involvement, usually resort mainly to teams, suggestions schemes, quality training and staff
recognition (Anderson and Sohal, 1999; Chelsom, 1997; Fok et al., 2000; Garc aLorenzo et al.,
2000). In this way, the implementation of empowerment practices can be related to performance
(Guerrero and Barraud-Didier, 2004).

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Effects of the quality system Steininger (1994) emphasizes that leaders must reinvent the
workplace in order to transfer more control to employees, which in turn increases motivation.
However, in spite of the importance of employee involvement, the
practice of rms with quality systems does not seem to provide evidence for this theory (Lam,
1995). Research carried out with both managers and employees shows that TQM tends to give
greater autonomy to lower echelons in the organizational hierarchy, but also leads to higher
control by the management over the employees (Rees, 1995; Wilkinson et al., 1992, 1997). This
suggests that involvement is not part of the managements agenda, and that, although a quality
culture entails involvement in decision-making, such involvement is limited by the
managements control over employees (Edwards et al., 1998). Finally, and considering this
review of the literature, the following summary can be offered: . Successful TQM
implementation requires a number of changes in personnel policies and practices because, for
managers to suitably comply with the new principles, they must carry out careful selection,
provide continuous training and reward their employees, so that they can develop themselves,
adapt to the new culture and acquire the necessary knowledge.
TQM has positive effects on employee involvement (Deming, 1982) because it is
necessary for them to be responsible for the quality of their work, and to participate actively in
continuous improvement (Wilkinson et al., 1997). Alongside the benets listed by the TQM
theory, there may be also an intensication of work and higher managerial control. Therefore, a
higher commitment towards these aspects may give the rms a higher level of TQM (Brown et
al., 1998; Escanciano et al., 2001; Othman and Poon, 2000; Taylor and Megan, 1997). Firms in
which TQM has been developed to a greater extent have a greater implementation of human
resource management (Ghobadian and Gallear, 2001; Kudu and Vouzas, 1998) in terms of
selection, training, promotion, pay and incentives, 488 The International Journal of Human
Resource Management teams, suggestion schemes, etc. (Bayo-Moriones and Merino-D az,
2001). Then, a rms focus on human aspects will inuence the degree of TQM implementation.
Also, managers in high quality outcome rms attach greater importance to the human dimension
than their counterparts in low quality results rms (Guest, 1999; Powell, 1995; Rao et al., 1999;
Sako, 1998).
(Dean and Bowen, 1994) have analyzed the total quality management literature,
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claiming that the key points of total quality management are those of customer focus,
continual improvements, and teamwork. Each of these points will be implemented through a
number of practices, like gathering customer items of information and analyzing processes by
applying specific quality techniques. (Raffio, 1993) further includes the involvement of
employees as well as management commitment; as basic principles of total quality
management while (Hart and Bogan, 1992) identify the distinction of total quality
management as a penetrating customer oriented approach to managing quantity for
competitive advantage.
The British Quality Association (BQA) has three alternative definitions of
total

quality management. The first focuses on soft qualitative attributes, containing

elements such as customer oriented,

cultural as advantage,

removal of performance

barrier, teamwork, training and involvement of employees.


The second BQA definition comprises production aspects such as systematic measuring
and control of the work, setting standards for performance and the use of statistical
procedures to achieve quantity. This definition focuses, contrary to the first, on hard
quantitative attributes. A similar definition on total quality management is provided by
( Steingard and Fitzgibbons, 1993). They define total quality management as a set of
techniques and procedures which should be used to reduce or eliminate variations in
production process. The third BQA definition is a mixture of the two previous definitions
which provide an acknowledgement of the scientific as well as the humanistic
approaches.
Oakland (1993, p.2-3) defines total quality management as the way for the management
to improve effectiveness, flexibility, and competitive advantages for the organization as a
whole because it complies with the internal and external customer requirements. He sees the
essence of the total quality management concept as a triangle, each corner being a key
point; the management commitment, statistical process control, and teamwork. In this triangle,
the points are connected as a chain but they are also interdependent of one another. Some
have argued that the chain could be broken at any of these points by a person or a
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tool, and therefore fail to meet customer requirements.
But according to ( Oakland, 1993), the internal customer focus throughout the
chain builds an internal customer environment which will provide compensation if the chain
should break.
The triangle has management commitment as the height, a position upon which most
total quality management theorists would agree.
Even though the explicit definition of total quality management is not obvious, there are
some basic principles in total quality management making for a joint approach. (Hill and
Wilkinson, 1995) have identified the principles outlined below:
Customer oriented: Quality means complying with customer requirements;
customers are both internal and external, and quality oriented management will need to
meet customer requirements. Customer orientation does generate throughout the organization
a shared aim for all activities while integrating quality in the design as well as in the
specifications. Customer expectations for a design or specifications must be transformed in
order that the organization may adapt these expectations to activities required for production.
This is accomplished by using a customer perspective because no matter how many
productions and vast improvement the organization makes, it will be to no avail unless
customers are willing to buy the product, based on the idea that a product can do no more
than it has been des igned for. Design and specifications are equally important .
And if an organization focuses on one of these only, it will deteriorate. An organization may
provide the right design quality, a product which customers would want to buy - but could lose
out by not having the right specifications required. Similarly, a product providing the right
specifications only may not meet customer design requirements.
Process oriented: The tasks or processes in an organization are connected in a series
of quality chains working across the conventional internal functional principles. Every
process in a quality chain has a customer, beginning with the internal customer in an
organization, and continuing to be subjected to various stage processes until the product
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actually reaches the external customer. In this manner, total quality management attempts, by
way of teamwork and cooperation, to involve all organization levels in delivering quality to
internal customers, and ultimately to external customers.
Continuous I m p r o v e m e n t s : To

comply

with

customer

requirements

involves

continuous improvements of products and processes. The most efficient method to create
improvement is to let the staff performing the particular work identify and implement the
particular improvement in their daily work. Even through continuous improvement involves
all staff, this should be viewed from the angle that it is the management that has the
responsibility for the development and the change in the organization. The role for the
employees is to assist. To eliminate errors in products or processes and also to give the
worker a chance to use the brains and make them contribute to continuous improvements
within their organization (Lillrank and Canoe 1989, p.29).
Improvement Tools: These tools are statistic process control methods, to be used by
all staff to simplify processes and process reorganizing.
Measuring: Monitoring the cost of quantity and customer satisfaction denotes a recent
effort in total quality management; it is a supplement to the more traditional way of
measuring failure and variations. The cost of quantity is a financial measure of the
quality performance; it may be described as follows:

Preventing expenses checking and testing incoming components, inspecting products


prior to their leaving the organization, routine inspection maintenance; failure

expenses waste, scrap, double work;


Estimating expenses inspection, inspection with vendors, estimate activities.
Organization Approach: This includes implementation of groups, commitment to

quality, planning of cross functional workgroups, changing staff role towards a customer
oriented role, teamwork and an extended cooperation with suppliers about continuous quality
improvements. The management of

the organization

needs

quality

planning

as

component in their strategic planning. Those responsible for the political messages in the
organization should make sure that the quality concept becomes well known by all staff.
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HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN VARIOUS ORGANISATIONS
The human resource management (HRM) of an organization is directly or indirectly
responsible for the quality of services the employees of an organization render to their
customers. They recruit and develop the employees in an organization for the type and quality
of services the organization is offering to the consumers.
(Devanna, Fombrum and Tichy, 1984) illustrate, by way of Figure 1 . The various tasks of
human resource management.

Fig 2.1 (Source: Devanna, Fombrum and Tichy, 1984) Human Resource Management Cycle
Source
Selection : ( Devanna, Fombrum and Tichy, 1984) claims, as illustrated by Figure 1 that the
attempt to develop a quality culture starts with the selection of employees with the
appropriate characteristics.
Effective
advertising

recruitment

is

consequently important and specific

media

for

and formulations should be selected with a view to hiring staff. Realistic and

precise job adds which would inspire candidates to reflect on their abilities in relation to the
particular job while selective methods in the organization should test applicant abilities
in problem-solving and teamwork (Bowen and Lawler, 1992).
Industrial Relations Review and Report (2001) claims that there is ample evidence
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testifying how organizations identify the selection of staff as a key area in total quality
management. On this aspect, (Storey, 2000) mentions how some total quality organizations
used tests in the selection of foremen and hourly-paid workers in order to measure their
abilities to think independently, work in teams and in a general spirit of cooperation. After the
selection and the integration of the new staff in the organization, the human resource
cycle will move its focus on to the organizations performance as manifested by control,
rewards, and development.
Performance: Some theorists have claimed that performance control plays a major
role in the development, communication, and measuring of quality standards (Deblieux,
1991). However, experience has shown that the result of the performance might be unable
to reach the targets and would thus frequently degenerate into an empty ritual (Snape, 1994).
Further, many authors on total quality management, especially W.E. Deming, assert that
control of the performance does not fit the idea of total quality management (Evans and
Lindsay, 1999). W.E Deming maintains that variations in performance will mainly derive from
the work process, and not from the individual employee.
Deming: If an employee is told by the manager to cut the plates exactly 2,536mm
long, and the employee is equipped with nothing but a rip saw, a table, as well as a tape
measure, it would not be possible for the employee to cut all the plates exactly 2,536mm
long. Improvements in the work process would only be gained if the management would
inves t in an electrical saw, a cutting table, and more precise measuring equipment. It is,
however, up to the particular staff member to report whenever the saw blade might, for
instance, be worn down

Improvements should occur through changes of processes rather than through control
of the staff; according to Deming this is the key to develop cooperation teams (Evans and
Lindsay, 1999). Deming argues that it is difficult to gain any kind of cooperation if the
management focuses on blaming the individual employee as was the case in the traditional
control of performance. Deming further argues that this would generate a work environment
of fear in which the staff would rather avoid
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any

form

of

risk

while

merely
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concentrating on short-term potential and individual performance an attitude which
would undermine cooperation, creativity, and the committed pattern of behaviour needed
to create continuous improvement (Evans and Lindsay, 1999). Others have asserted that
there is a need for a change leading away from the traditional and individual control of
performance

towards

more

process-oriented

and

teamwork-measuring

type

of

performance to be manifested in the total quality management work (Glover, 1993).


Western management has, however, generally demonstrated a dislike of the removal of
control with regard to performance. Even in organizations which had implemented total quality
management, such organizations have frequently done so alongside their existing control
system (Bowen and Lawler, 1992). Several authors claim that something should be done
about the control sheets to make these more effective, a proposal aiming to remove the
traditional hierarchical structure and to involve employees further down the organization in
control of the performance. In total quality management seeing the customer, external or
internal, as the highest instance in control of performance, it would seem logic to include
the customer. This could also support the collaboration between

the

various

teams,

suppliers, and customers, and develop a more open and positive organization.

Human Resource Management Functions :


In order to achieve the above objectives, Human Resource Management undertakes the
following activities:
1. Human resource or manpower planning.
2. Recruitment, selection and placement of personnel.
3. Training and development of employees.
4. Appraisal of performance of employees.
5. Taking corrective steps such as transfer from one job to another.
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6. Remuneration of employees.
7. Social security and welfare of employees.
8. Setting general and specific management policy for organizational relationship.
9. Collective bargaining, contract negotiation and grievance handling.
10. Staffing the organization.
11. Aiding in the self-development of employees at all levels.
12. Developing and maintaining motivation for workers by providing incentives.
13. Reviewing and auditing manpower management in the organization
14. Potential Appraisal. Feedback Counseling.
15. Role Analysis for job occupants.
16. Job Rotation.
17. Quality Circle, Organization development and Quality of Working Life.
Human Resource Management: Major Influencing Factors In the 21st century HRM will be
influenced by following factors, which will work as various issues affecting its strategy:

Size of the workforce


Rising employees expectations
Drastic changes in the technology as well as Life-style changes.
Composition of workforce. New skills required.
Environmental challenges.
Lean and mean organizations.
Downsizing and rightsizing of the organizations.
Culture prevailing in the organization etc. Human Resource Management: Futuristic
Vision On the basis of the various issues and challenges the following suggestions will be
of much help to the philosophy of HRM with regard to its futuristic vision:

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1. There should be a properly defined recruitment policy in the organization that should
give its focus on professional aspect and merit based selection.
2. In every decision-making process there should be given proper weight age to the
aspect that employees are involved wherever possible. It will ultimately lead to sense of
team spirit, team-work and inter-team collaboration.
3. Opportunity and comprehensive framework should be provided for full expression of
employees talents and manifest potentialities.
4. Networking skills of the organizations should be developed internally and externally as
well as horizontally and vertically.
5. For performance appraisal of the employees emphasis should be given to 360 degree
feedback which is based on the review by superiors, peers, subordinates as well as selfreview.
6. 360 degree feedback will further lead to increased focus on customer services, creating
of highly involved workforce, decreased hierarchies, avoiding discrimination and biases
and identifying performance threshold.
7. More emphasis should be given to Total Quality Management. TQM will cover all
employees at all levels; it will conform to customers needs and expectations; it will
ensure effective utilization of resources and will lead towards continuous improvement in
all spheres and activities of the organization.
8. There should be focus on job rotation so that vision and knowledge of the employees
are broadened as well as potentialities of the employees are increased for future job
prospects.
9. For proper utilization of manpower in the organization the concept of six sigma of
improving

productivity

should

be

intermingled

in

the

HRM

strategy.

10. The capacities of the employees should be assessed through potential appraisal for
performing new roles and responsibilities. It should not be confined to organizational
aspects only but the environmental changes of political, economic and social
considerations should also be taken into account.

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11. The career of the employees should be planned in such a way that individualizing
process and socializing process come together for fusion process and career planning should
constitute the part of human resource planning. To conclude Human Resource Management
should be linked with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance
and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility. All the above futuristic
visions coupled with strategic goals and objectives should be based on 3 Hs of Heart, Head and
Handier., we should feel by Heart, think by Head and implement by Hand

Data analysis and Interpretations.


Hypothetical provement of linkage between TQM AND HRM
Based on the extensive study, it would therefore suggest that HRM issues improve TQM
implementation. As such, the following hypotheses are proposed.
H1: HRM issues are positively associated with TQM implementation.
The above hypothesis can be specifically written as:
H11: Employee Empowerment is positively associated with TQM implementation
H12: Employee involvement is positively associated with TQM implementation
H13: Staffing is positively associated with TQM implementation
H14: Selection is positively associated with TQM implementation
H15: Job Analysis is positively associated with TQM implementation
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H16: Teamwork is positively associated with TQM implementation
H17: Training and development is positively associated with TQM implementation
H18: Performance appraisal is positively associated with TQM implementation
H19: Reward and Recognition system is positively associated with TQM implementation
Employee Empowerment:
Employee empowerment implies the disparity between success and failure in the pursuit
for TQM. Unless employees are given the opportunity to plan and perform their own work
assignments, there can be little initiative for participation in the improvement process. It is
generally accepted that a TQM environment fosters employee empowerment. In fact, five of
Demings 14 points relate directly to the notion of involvement and empowerment.
According to the literature, TQM should promote empowerment of front-line employees,
giving them more responsibility and information (Schuler and Harris, 1992), Fernandez, (1996);
Newall et al, (1991) if quality initiatives to work, there must be sufficient participation. TQM
programs improve employee participation in decision making Lam (1996). Boon et al., (2006)
feels that empowerment have a strong relationship with the propensity of employees to remain
within the organization.
Human resources are the major assets of empowerment that allows team members to
recognize their own responsibilities for achieving company goals. Having the capability to
problem-solve leads people composing the teams to seek more opportunities to complete their
tasks and to sustain preparation of status reports important to management. These are
empowering practices that sustain total involvement in the improvement process which is vital to
effect change and, therefore, to the success of TQM efforts.
Hence,

H11:

Employee

Empowerment

is

positively

correlated

with

TQM

implementation.
Employee Involvement:
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Researchers believe that employee involvement is associated with quality management
activities such as quality circles and communication. Lawler et al., (1995) feels that the most
interesting consequences from his study are how employee involvement and total quality
management work together to impact on organisational performance. Evans (1985) and Hogan
(1992), employees participate in advisory groups to voice concerns and exchange views on
quality issues.
Employee involvement has also been extensively studied in association with TQM and
human resources management (Wood and Peccei, 1995; Cheng and Tummala, 1998; Wilkinson,
1998).Beekun, Sundstrom et al. (1990), self-managing work teams typically produce positive
results in terms of quality and costs, Partlow (1996) suggested that TQM should be supported by
human resources practices such as employee involvement.
Sun, Hongi et al., (2000) result supports the proposition that employee involvement is a
prerequisite for TQM and other quality management programmes. To implement employment
involvement, management needs to hold a new management philosophy and new attitude
towards employees and employees should be provided with the necessary authority, information,
skills, and reward.
Hence, H12: Employee involvement is positively correlated with TQM implementation.
Staffing:
Industrial Relations Review and Report (1991) reports that how organizations identify the
selection of staff as a key area in total quality management. Bowen et al, (1992) stated that
recruitment is consequently imperative along with specific media for advertising with a view to
hiring staff and more refined recruitment and selection processes are prerequisite for TQM
(Wilkinson et al., 1994). Clinton et al., (1994) argues that successful recruitment and selection of
human resources requires proper knowledge, skills, abilities, and attitudes compatible with a
TQM philosophy.

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According to Ahmad et al., (2002) the recruitment and selection process should be
identify prospective employees who can work in team, ability to solve the problems and ideas to
foster quality management philosophy.
Hence, H13: Staffing is positively correlated with TQM implementation

Selection:
Devanna, (1984) claims, that the attempt to develop a quality culture starts with
the selection of employees with the appropriate characteristics. It is necessary to consider
employees behaviour, attitudes and values for any TQM program to be successful. Reference
was also made to the recruitment process, appointing people with specific qualities and values
that will contribute to the continuing success of the organization (Smyth et al., 1996).
Wilkinson et al., (1994) states that selection and the integration of the new staff in the
organization, the human resource cycle will move its focus on to the organizations performance
as manifested by control, rewards, and development. More sophisticated recruitment and
selection techniques are needed for TQM.
Cascio (1991), Cardy et al., (1991) states the objective of traditional personnel selection
processes and differentiation of applicants on one or more dimensions such as knowledge, skill,
ability, or motivation. Recruitment should be externally oriented in the main (Schuler and
Jackson, 1987). However, some compromise over the internal market is required in order to
foster TQM (Schuler and Harris, 1991)
Snape et al., (1995) states that the bid to build up a quality culture should be by selecting
and recruiting employees with the necessary attitudinal and behavioural characteristics, Simmons
et al., (1995) and Snape et al., (1995) article implies that candidates must fit the organizational
culture and the TQM system.
Hence, H14: Selection is positively correlated with TQM implementation.

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Job Analysis:
Job analysis is the process of studying jobs in order to gather and analyze information
about the content of a job, the human requirement, and the conditions within which the job is
performed (Cascio, 1991; Schneider et al., 1992: and Heneman et al., 1994). Deming argues is
counter-productive to a team and system approach to quality output. Deming suggests that job
descriptions should establish limits on performance variations instead of detailing specific tasks
and duties. If an organization is dissatisfied with the level of an employee's performance,
management should then change the system to allow for increased performance.
However, as stated by Dobbins et al. (1991), the primary focus of traditional job analyses
is on an individual employee level and, therefore, individuals are viewed as isolated units within
the organization, each with individually defined responsibilities. By extending this perspective,
one can see that selection and evaluation of employees is based on individual criteria. Blackburn
et at., (1993) claims that Baldrige Award winning organizations have elements of job
descriptions which include innovation, creativity problem solving, customer service
competencies, cross-functional work teams striving for total quality and to determine efficient
areas of cross-training for their employees.
Hence, H15: Job Analysis is positively correlated with TQM implementation.
Team Work:
The dominant concerns of most businesses focus on efficiency, quality and profitability.
The key in any tough competitive market is to minimize costs in order to maximize profits. The
two words, quality and profitability, have not always been used as synonyms; and the quest to
find a way to narrow these gaps has been aided by the implementation of teamwork (Conti Betty
et al., (1997).
Dean et al., (1994) in their article claims that teamwork is necessary because it involves
the collaboration between managers and non-managers, between functions, as well as with
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customers and suppliers (Dean and Bowen, 1994). Within the context of TQM, teamwork is an
important outcome and a condition for continuous improvement. It facilitates collaborative
efforts to solve quality problems (Waldman, 1994).
Teamwork is central to TQM (Aubrey et al., 1988; Wilkinson, 1992). There is a
consensus in the literature that multidisciplinary teamwork in teams composed of members from
different organizational functional areas promotes TQM (Mohanty and Sethi, 1996; Schonberger,
1994; Simmons et al., 1995), Boon et al. (2007), teamwork was perceived as the dominant TQM
practice, which has a strong association with job satisfaction.
Hence, H16: Teamwork is positively correlated with TQM implementation.
Training and Development
Training and development are accepted by most theorists as being essential in an
implementation of total quality management. Demings 14 points for managers include, institute
training. Too often, workers have learned their job from another worker who was never trained
properly. They are forced to follow unintelligible instructions. They cant do their jobs because
no one tells them how.
TQM can expose organizational inadequacy in training. Mandal et al., (1998),
Schonberger, (1994) states companies committed to TQM invest in training, Samson and
Terziovski (1993) claims that training is vital for the internal dissemination of quality ideas and
its practices, Schonberger, (1994), Schuler et al., (1991), Schuler et al., (1987), Snape et al.,
(1995) - TQM training is not a single effort, but should be conducted on a continuous basis.
Alan Brown (1994) writes that introducing TQM requires an increased training effort for
several reasons. First, awareness programmes are needed simply to inform people of what TQM
is, how it can be introduced and what it can do. Employee training is fundamental for many
TQM programs such as the adoption of new quality concepts, the set-up and practices of
customer satisfaction systems, the use of statistical quality control, or the change of culture or
quality control circle (Bowen et al., 1992 and Yang, 2006).

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Hence, H17: Training and development is positively correlated with TQM
implementation.
Performance Appraisal:
Bowman, (1994) and Boudreaux, (1994) writes that total quality proponents take a
different view of how performance appraisal should be conducted. Deming (1986) highlights that
the importance of the system rather than the individual as the critical factor in determining
performance. Research has shown that rating performance is difficult in distinguishing systemic
causes of employee performance from individual causes (Carson et al., 1991). Regardless of their
shortcomings, performance appraisals are recognized by most TQM proponents to serve
imperative functions in the management of human resources (Eckes, 1994).
Soltani et al., (2004), Soltani et al., (2003), reports that the traditional performance
appraisal systems are likely to obstruct the aims of TQM by placing a heavy emphasis on the
individual employee as the main contributor to organizational performance The main problems
of performance appraisal, is that it ignore the existence of variability in the system, it holds
workers responsible for errors that may be the result of faults within the system and it
undermines teamwork. However,Blackburn et al., (1993), Wilkinson et al., (1994), Simmons et
al., (1995) conclude that performance appraisal is compatible with TQM if it is based on quality
criteria
Although it argued that formal performance evaluation systems facilitate improved total
quality performance, Schuler and Jackson, (1987) and Simmons et al., (1995) states that
performance appraisal can be related to individual performance, and should be focused on
measuring organizational and group performance. Solatani, (2003) concludes that performance
appraisal is used fro training and development through formal evaluation but at the same time
Snape et al., (1995) argues that compensation and incentive plans have also been a controversial
issue in the quality management.
Deming (1986) opposes pay incentives, considering that recognition rather than reward is
important. However, Ehigie et al., (2005) emphasis on the alignment between the reward system
and TQM is required. Consequently, rewards should foster cooperation, employee involvement
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and teamwork, not emphasize individually oriented compensation (Wilkinson et al., 1994, Yang,
2006.
(Hence, H18: Performance appraisal is positively correlated with TQM implementation.
Rewards and Recognition:
Organizations typically design and implement compensation and reward programs as a
means of focusing employee attention on specific behaviors that the Organization considers
necessary to achieve its desired outcome or objective (Henderson, 1994). Deming (1986) states
that work standards, MBO should be eliminated, since incentive programs are based on
expectance and reward theory, the assumption is that when rewards and incentives are linked
with the achievement, reward and recognition shall strengthen quality proportionate to shortrange monetary concern (Evans et al,, 2002).
Meanwhile, Herzbergs (1996) writes that recognition is perceived as one of essential
motivators which determine positive behavior, accordingly, employees then receive
compensation based on their individual Performance in comparison to some preestablished
objective, if the objective is the reduction of errors and the increase of quality, the consideration
of system variance factors becomes an essential consideration in order to correctly reward
individual performance (Henderson, 1994).
Total quality management removes the traditional career ladder because of the flat flexible
structure within the organization. Total quality management sets, on the other hand, the cross
functional experience as a reward. A key element in the cycle is that of rewards in order to retain
and motivate the staff, especially in work areas facing major competition (Bowen et al., 1992). In
the attempt to hold on to employees, rewards such as cash may play an important role. Bowen et
al., (1992) stresses upon that if any reward system must persuade both team as well as group
work in addition to quality improvements.
Relationship between TQM and HR

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Questions
General Information on Company Profile
Name of the organisation:

prachodana organisation

Size of the organisation (no. of employees): 200 and above.


Age of the organisation: 19 years
Position of respondent in the organisation: Director and founder and employees.

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CHAPTER -3
ANALYSIAND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIOQUESTIONNIAIRES
1

In your opinion, which of these words best define quality? (Not limited to single
answer)
-

High cost (expensive)


Satisfying internal customer ( within the organization)
Satisfying external customer ( outside the organization)
Appearance
Increased profit
Value for money
Teamwork

Do you think that TQM will (or


does) work in your organization?

Very well well


10

Description

Respondents %

Very well

10

20%

Well

35

70%

To some extent

04%

Wont work

02%

Cant say

04%

Total

50

100%

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35

To some extent Wont work


2

Cant say
2

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Graph: 2.01

INTERPRETATION: It clearly reveals that TQM works in the organisation and helps
to increase the performance of the organisation, and few of the respondents response have not
agreed that tqm works effectively in the organisation for improvising the performance of the
organisation. The major observation is that implementation of total quality management helps to
boost the performance of the organisation (NGO).

2. Would a TQM program be beneficial to your organization?


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Yes

No

Cant say
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40
Criteria

Resondents

Percentage

Yes

40

80%

No

02

4%

Cant say

08

16%

Total

50

100%

Graph:2.02

INTERPRETATION: Majority of the respondents believes that TQM program will be


beneficial to the organisation to meet the needs in long term & meet the strategy of their
organization and few of the respondents did not respond to the issue as they are not aware of
TQM needs in their organization & its benefits.
3. TQM would be used in all
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Project

Cost estimating

Warranty

Reduce change
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this areas?

design
15

Criteria

30
Respondents Total %

Project design

30

60

Cost estimating

15

30

Warranty

Reduce change orders

05

10

Total

50

100

claims

orders

05

Graph: 2.03

INTERPRETATION: Majority of the respondents opted that the total quality management
implementation in NGOs HRM function would result to improve the project design ,and very
few the respondents believes that it reduce the change orders and very few of the respondents
said that it reduce cost , so finally the tqm implementation is very feasible and appropriate to
NGOs performance.

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4

Are you aware of any industry programs to

Yes

implement TQM or the ISO 9000 Standards?

30

Criteria
Yes
No
Total

Respondents
30
20
50

No
20
Total %
60
40
100

Graph: 2.04

INTERPRETATION: Majority of the respondents are aware of total quality management


and few of the respondents said that they are not aware of the TQM activities from this
observation its clear that total quality management activities can be easily imposed on HR
functions and practice in the organisation for its better performance and respondents believes
that TQM is the strength of the services provided by the organisation.

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5. What is your
organizations

Elimination

A tool to

Others

of defects

increase

competitive

(please

profits

advantage

specify)

09

15

01

perception of quality?
25
Criteria
Elimination of defects
A tool to increase profits
A competitive advantage
Others (please specify)
Total

Respondents
25
09
15
01
50

%
50
08
30
02
100

Graph:2.05

INTERPRETATION: Most of the respondent responded that TQM implementation would


result to reduce the defects, very few believe it helps makes profit few of the respondents said it
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helps achieve competitive advantage. This is the total quality management helps organisationa in
boosting the overall performance of the organisation.
6

How would you

VVIMP

Very important

Important

Somewhat

Not

rate the

25

10

08

important

Important

05

02

importance of
service quality?
Description
Respondents

Percentage

VVIMP

25

50%

Very important

10

20%

Important

08

16%

Some what imp

05

10%

Not imp

04%

Total

50

100%

Graph: 2.06

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INTERPRETATION : Most of the respondents agrees that TQM is very important, to see
the good quality products & services at the end to satisfy the needs of end customers & very few
has not agreed as they view that

the TQM is not important in measuring the importance of

service quality .
7 How does your
organization solves
quality related problems?

Assigns
individual to
solve.

Set up a
multi
disciplinary
team for
each
problem.

A
permanent
team is
available.

Other
(please
specify)

10
0

40

Criteria
Assigns individual to solve.
Set up a multi disciplinary team
for each problem.
A permanent team is available.
Other (please specify)

Total

Respondents
10
40

%
20
80

0
0
100

0
0
100

Graph: 2.07

INTERPRETATION : Majority of the respondents are said that they are solving the
problems through set up multi disciplinary teach for each problem and very few of the

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respondents are said that they solve the problems through assining individuals to solve the
problems.

8. Has your
organization
developed a clear
quality policy?

Criteria
Yes
No
Total

Yes

No

Respondents
40
10
50

Cant say
(undecide
d)

%
80
20
100

Graph: 2.09

INTERPRETATION: Majority of the respondents have revealed that the management has
a clear quality policy for improvements of their products & services offered for its customers &
very few are not aware of the quality policy maintained in their organization.
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9. Do you collect data to measure the performance of operations or


process?
-

Yes

No

30

20

2.09

INTERPRETATIONS: most of the population agrees that they collect data to measure
performance, few of them said no form is been used to rate

the observation. Organisation is

collecting information for measuring the performance of the operations and process to rectify the
mistakes in operations in the organization.

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10. Are employees empowered to make significant changes to construct


operations or methodology?
Full empowered

Only key personal


are empowered

Empowerment is
not needed

Cant say
(undecided)

10

30

2.10

INTERPRETATIONS: Majority of the respondents believes that only key people are
empowered to make significant changes to construct operations or methodology. But few
respondents wont agree with this has they are least concerned with empowerment factor for the
growth in the organization.

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11 .How total qualities provides efficiency to the organisation and to its employees?.
Particulars
Fully providing
Partially providing
Not providing
Total

No. of respondents
26
20
4
50

Percentage
52
40
8
100

Table:2.11

Graph: 2.11
INTERPRETATION:
Most of the employees view that the maintenance of quality is very much essential to the
organization & employees for their professional success in their organization & very few have
not agreed with this has they have not come across with the importance of quality in th
operational area.
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12 . How is TQM principles are helpful for succession of HR activities in the organization?.
Particulars
Extremely good
Good
Bad
Total

No. of respondents
15
30
5
50
Table: 2.12

Percentage
30
60
10
100

Graph: 2.12

INTERPRETATION:
As majority of employees are rated as good, it can be concluded that superior and
subordinates are maintaining a healthy relationship. It depends upon good communication and co
operation between superiors and subordinates. Some of them lack in above mentioned aspects
with the superiors, so, they fail.

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13. Whether the company provides any opportunities for growth and development by
following TQM ?.
Particulars
Yes

No. of respondents
48

Percentage
96

No

Total

50

100
Table: 2.13

Graph: 2.13

INTERPRETATION:
Most of the employees have responded yes, it can be concluded that the company is
providing good opportunities for growth and development. It means the company is encouraging
the employees by many ways for their growth and development. For some of them it is not
providing the opportunities because of some personal issues.

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14.How is your working atmosphere?
Particulars
Pleasant and enjoyable
Normal conditions
Over dependency on rules and

No. of respondents
14
20
16

Percentage
28
40
32

regulations
Total

50

100
Table: 2.14

Graph: 2.14
INTERPRETATION:
From the data, it can be interpreted as employees are getting normal conditions in their
working atmosphere. Some of them are feeling over dependency of rules and regulations in the
working atmosphere and others feeling pleasant and enjoyable atmosphere, it helps for the
growth of the company.

15. How is the recognition program in your company?


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Particulars
Extremely motivational
Motivational
Discouraging
Total

No. of respondents
9
31
10
50
Table: 2.15

Percentage
18
62
20
100

Graph: 2.15
INTERPRETATION:
Most of the employees are rated to motivational factors, so it can be concluded that the
recognition programmes provides by the company is preferable. Also, this recognition
programmer helps employees to accomplish their career in a effective way & very few have not
come with the good opinion as their talents are not recognized in right time & have not recorded
by the management.

16.What is your opinion about the role of TQM in human relation to achieve the
objectives?
Particulars
[Type text]

No. of respondents

Percentage
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Extremely important
Important
Not important
Total

28
20
2
50

56
40
4
100
Table: 2.16

Graph: 2.16
INTERPRETATION:
From the data, it can be interpreted as the role of human relation in achieving objectives is
extremely important as rated by the employees. Because, without proper communication, co
ordination with others while doing work leads to poor performance in their work. Hence, the role
of human relation in achieving the objectives is important.

17. Is it important to allow the opportunity to develop close interaction with peers and
colleagues?
Particulars
Should be allowed
Allowed
[Type text]

No. of respondents
22
20

Percentage
44
40
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Not allowed
Total

8
50

16
100
Table: 2.17

Graph: 2.17

INTERPRETATION:
According to the majority of the respondents, it can be interpreted that to develop the
close interaction with peers and colleagues should be allowed in the company. By allowing close
interaction between them helps to improve their co ordination with them and also to perform
well in the given work & very few have few have not agreed with the issue has they lack
knowledge about the relationship between the management & employees.

18. Is it important to provide promotional opportunities and attractive rewards to the


employees?
Particulars
Very much important
Important
Not important
[Type text]

No. of respondents
27
20
3

Percentage
54
40
6
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Total

50

100
Table: 2.18

Graph: 2.19
INTERPRETATION:
According to the majority of respondents, it is very much important to provide
promotional opportunities and attractive rewards to the employees. By providing these
opportunities to the employees leads to accomplish to achieve higher task in the organization.

19. Whether team spirit is a key factor for achievement your organisational goals.
Particulars
Yes
No
Total

[Type text]

No. of respondents
38
12
50
Table: 2.19

Percentage
76
24
100

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Graph: 2.19

INTERPRETATION:
As most of the employees are rated as yes, it can be concluded that team spirit is essential
as a key factor for the achievement of goals. Due to this factor, employees will get motivated to
achieve their objectives in the effective manner.

20.Whether company is providing opportunities for independent thought and action?.


Particulars
Should be allowed
Allowed
Not allowed
Total

No. of respondents
18
21
11
50

Percentage
36
42
22
100

Table: 2.20
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Graph: 2.20

INTERPRETATION:
From the data, it can be interpreted that the company is providing opportunities for the
employees independent thoughts and action should be allowed. Some of them are not showing
interest for the opportunities provided by the company for sharing their views with them.

FINDINGS
1. Majority of response have related that TQM work in organization very effective and
efficiency way
2. most of the responded have aggrieve that TQM program is very benificial to meet the
long term needs of the organization
3. Majority of respondent have come up that way TQM will have the areas will benificial
especially in the project design
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4. Most of the respondent are aware of industry programs to implement TQM or the ISO
9000 Standards by HR deportment
5. Most of employs view perception of quality are Elimination of defects and company of
0 defect in product or services to words the customers
6. Majority of the respondent s have revalued important service quality is very much
efficiency to satisfy the end customers
7. The quality related the problem in the organization solved by majority by setting up
malty disciplinary team for each problem
8. Majority of the respondent view that

is followed all clear cut to maintained

the

production and services in effective way


9. Data is been collected from the management to measure the performance operation or
process carried in the work place
10. Most of respondent states that only key personal Are employees empowered to make
significant changes to construct operations or methodology
11. Majority of respondent view that total quality provide more efficiency to organization to
the employees in achieving the strategically organization
12. TQM principal or help full the HRM deportments who really executives and follow the
principles of TQM in the organized
13. Definitely by following TQM principal organization it s provides opportunity all round
development and growth of then organization
14. Working atmospheres in organization is god and normal which is been depicted by
respondent
15. The reorganization program in the organized is followed by majority by the management
by motivation the employee for the growth in the organization
16. The role of TQM in very important to meet the objectives of the organization
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17. It very important to have a cordial realize quality discharge the work effectively
18. It is very important for the management to provide as it improver the self confident trust
and confident of employ to put more effort full fill the goal is in organization
19. Definitely teams sprits is the key factors for achieve the organization goals by the
dedicated employees in the team
20. It is very significant for the management to provide and number of operchunety
independent thought and action

SUGESSIONS

1.

organization must strive apply total quality management applications because the
majority of the respondents are agreed that total quality management improves the
performance of the organization.

2. Total quality and its applications are very beneficial to the organization so company
/organization have to implement total quality management practices.
3.

organization must continue it implementations of tqm practices to improve the project


design.

4.

organization must implement or adopt TQM or the ISO 9000 Standards and other
applications to HR deportment

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5. Total quality management is eliminating the defects in services so tqm is very necessary
to the organization to meet the global standards.
6. Quality is enduring efficiency for the Prachodana services so quality management aspects
are very essential to meet the quality quantum.
7. Prachodana must build teams to solve the quality related problems.
8. Clear cut methods and process are help full to the organization to reduce the defects.
9. Prachodana must give equivalent importance to the top and low level management.
10. Only key personal empowered to make significant changes to construct operations or
methodology. Organization must give opportunity to employees to involve it operations.
11. Total quality provide more efficiency to organization to the employees in achieving the
strategically organization tqm quality factory are highly required in organization.
12. TQM principals are help full the HRM deportments who really executives and follow the
principles of TQM in the organized so tqm standars have to implacable on its working
areas.
13. TQM principal s provides opportunity to all round development and growth of then
organizations o company should concentrate on improvising quality through new
applications of quality like Six sigma Kizen etc.
14. Working atmospheres is very important to avoid stress organization must work out on it .
15. Recognition programmes mu enables and leads employees towards success
16. TQM in very important to meet the objectives of the organization .
17. A cordial realize quality discharge the work effectively has to done for the smooth
functioning of the organization.
18. Organization has to play a vital role in improve the self confidence of the employees.
19. Teams sprits is the key factors for achieve the organization goals .
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Conclusion
The present study strongly proposes a comprehensive attitude for matching the
dimensions of TQM and HR issues. The strength of HRM practices lies in the prospective
modification and adaptation within the TQM framework. The paper emphasizes the fact that
TQM has specific relationships with HR issues in continuous improvement. Improvement in
performance can be enhanced by enhancing the performance of the people.
Based on the findings, organizations can rank and assess their performance on the four
critical elements. The survey should be repeated on a regular basis and two times per year is a
suggested interval. Organizations can then use the longitudinal results to assess whether changes
were successful and to identify areas for future improvement. As TQM results vary, companies
must take the responsibility for assessment and quantitative evaluation of implementation results.
This proposed survey is an attempt to validate improvement efforts. Performed frequently, this
assessment will allow practitioners to chart efforts and make implementation modifications when
needed to ensure ongoing TQM emphasis and success. For scholars and TQM researchers, this
methodology will allow needed TQM quantification. Further studies are needed to assess factors
for TQM success.

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