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100 System Design

This section discusses the major phases of the design of instrumentation and control
systems. It references other sections of the manual for detailed information on
each aspect of the design process. It presents the overall picture of how the many
components of an instrumentation design develop, from job scope to turnover to

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Preliminary Design Considerations



Getting Off on the Right Foot


Designing the Better Control System


Choosing a Control System


Evaluating Viable Alternatives


Life Cycle Costs


Instrumentation Design Engineering


Detailed Design Development


Design Specifications


Specification of Instrumentation




Instrumentation Database


Construction and Startup


Documenting Field Changes




System Startup


Closing Documentation




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110 Introduction
The Instrumentation and Control Manual is intended to help engineers and
designers design, construct, start up, and maintain typical Company instrumentation
systems. It is intended to be used as a guide, with the understanding that no guide
can replace sound engineering judgement.
This section introduces the many aspects and procedures involved in designing an
instrumentation system. Whether designing a small field job or a large facility, the
elements of system design are similar.
Protecting People and the Environment is a cornerstone of how Chevron does business, and must become an integral part of the design of any Chevron facility.
With this commitment firmly in mind, a structured approach to defining, designing,
and implementing a control system must be used to ensure success.

120 Preliminary Design Considerations

121 Getting Off on the Right Foot
For the Control Systems Engineer, this first step is defining the objectives of the
system he/she intends to install. This is a function embedded in the Chevron Project
Development and Execution Process (CPDEP), and the analyses described below
form an integral part of Chevrons Policy 530.
The Control Objectives Analysis (COA) is a facilitating process for defining what a
control system does. The process consists of plant operators, process engineers, and
control engineers reviewing plant process flow diagrams and defining the objective
of each regulating device (control valve, damper, variable speed drive, etc.) on the
drawing. The format of the objective is a single-sentence statement, defining what
the regulating device always does to a process variable. (Example: CV-1002 maintains overhead pressure between limits.)
In the case of a new process on which plant engineers and operators do not have
hands-on experience, the Control Objectives Analysis should be done with the assistance of engineers and operators from other facilities presently operating the
process. Finally, experience operating similar processes should serve as a basis for
the COA.
Similar facilitating processes define the objectives of safety shutdown systems
(Shutdown Objectives Analysis, or SOA) and alarm systems (Alarm Objectives
Analysis, or AOA).
Only after these objectives have been defined and agreed to by Operations and
Engineering, can the design of the control, safety, and alarm systems begin.

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100 System Design

122 Designing the Better Control System

With Objectives firmly in hand, the Control Systems Engineer needs to define the
HOW of the control system.
Items which are defined in the Control Design Analysis process include:

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System Geography - is control hardware in the field, in remote instrument

enclosures or in a rack room in the control center? Will there be multiple sites
where the operator can access the control system? Will multiple sites be peer or

System Architecture - what will be the defined and potential data transfer links
to other control systems? To control and/or monitoring computers? To a
Management Information system?

Control Architecture - how much of the control will be done by the systems
front end? Will there be advanced control such as DMC? Will there be a separate computer for advanced control?

Environmental - what is the Area Classification for the plant and for field sites
where controls will be located? For the area where operator interfaces will be
located? What are the measurable airborne contaminants for these locations?

Operator Interface - does the operator see the process via a CRT, an array of
controller faceplates, or field indicating controllers? Or via a combination of
two or three of these methods?

Operability - can the process be manually controlled in the field using a manual
bypass around the regulating valve? Will there be field operators to perform
this function when required?

Reliability - what is the minimum acceptable operating factor for the control
system? What is the economic incentive for increasing reliability by a defined

Failure Modes - what will be the status of the control system if individual
instruments fail? Do all failures result in the control system going to (or tending
to) the defined Fail-Safe condition of control valves and drives?

Expandability - if the control system intended for a mature, well-defined

process with little potential for expansion, or is this a pioneering process or first
step in a multiphase project?

Cutover Plans - for reinstrumentation projects, the plan for cutting over from
existing to new instrumentation should be a part of the control design process.

Hot cutovers are typically more labor intensive than conversion en masse
during a planned shutdown; however, most plants opt for the hot cutover, since
it allows a more gradual conversion, and results in one less unknown during a
plant startup.

Urban Renewal - the amount of re-engineering of existing facilities (reverification of the suitability of reused field instrumentation such as orifice plates


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100 System Design

Instrumentation and Control Manual

and control valves) needs to be determined at the initial design phase. This
process is labor intensive if done properly - process conditions need to be field

123 Choosing a Control System

Digital technology now dominates the control hardware market. Electronic analog
controls have all but vanished from the scene, and pneumatic controls are viable
only in specialized applications where reliable electric power is not available, or
where the Area Classification prevents installation of electronic controls without
using elaborate cabinet or control room purging.
Note current environmental regulations in California virtually prohibit the existence of Class 1 Division I areas.

Control & Operator Interface

Digital electronic control should be considered as the default selection for all
control systems installed in strategic facilities. With the exception of projects adding
to existing control systems, solid justification must be given for deviating to electronic analog or pneumatic controls.
Digital electronic control is available on a broad spectrum of platforms, from Single
Loop Digital Controllers (SLDCs) through Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)
to multi-plant Distributed Control Systems (DCS).
Note most SLDCs currently offered are in fact multi-loop digital controllers, with
the capacity to control up to four valves from a 3-inch x 6-inch panel mounted faceplate.
Operator interfaces range from panel mounted faceplates (which emulate traditional
panel-mounted controllers) to color CRTs using interactive graphics for display and
control of operating parameters. The industry trend is toward the use of generic
color CRTs running system-specific display and control software.

Smart process variable transmitters should also be considered as the default standard. These instruments offer higher accuracy and reliability than their electronic or
pneumatic analog counterparts, and add the bonus of remote diagnostic data acquisition and calibration checking.

Control Valves
Smart control valves are an emerging technology which offers extensive valve and
process diagnostics, using the valve positioner - actuator as a sensor, or using pressure and temperature sensors embedded in the control valve body, or a combination
of both. This technology should be considered on installations where maintenance
access to control valves and drives is restricted.

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100 System Design

Field Communications
Communications between Smart field instrumentation (transmitters and/or valves)
and the control room are typically done over the same twisted pair of wires carrying
the transmitter output or valve positioner input signal. Communications protocols
range from vendor proprietary systems such as Honeywell DE- 6 Byte to multivendor open systems such as HART.
The Fieldbus communications protocol, which is being developed by an international consortium of instrument manufacturers, will offer the ability to link field
instrumentation (transmitters, controllers, field indicators, valve positioners, and
auxiliaries) on a multidrop power - communications wire pair. Control functions
(algorithm execution) will be downloaded to the lowest possible tier of the system
architecture, freeing up higher level computation capacity for running advanced
control strategies.

Intrinsic Safety
Intrinsically Safe (I. S.) construction is intended to prevent sources of ignition (electric sparks) in Hazardous Areas by limiting the transmission of power from nonHazardous areas and by limiting the storage of energy in field devices.
Use of I.S. construction permits opening field enclosures (including transmitter and
valve positioner housings) without first powering down circuits or sniffing the area
to verify the absence of flammable mixtures.
There is no necessary correlation between I. S. construction and Hazardous Area
Classification ratings nor between I. S. construction and Explosion-proof housing
Because Intrinsically Safe construction severely limits the voltage and current
which can be transmitted into Hazardous Areas, special attention must be given to
limiting the number and type of field devices which cause voltage drops, and to the
quality of field terminations. (Corrosion on field terminals can cause indeterminate
voltage drops on current loops.)
Final determination of whether this level of protection is appropriate for an installation should be made only after an extensive review of local Electrical and Safety
The use of Smart field instrumentation, which permits communications from a
non-Hazardous area, has diminished the use of Intrinsically Safe instrumentation
systems in domestic petrochemical installations.

124 Evaluating Viable Alternatives

Once the scope and function of the control system is defined, the control systems
engineer can focus on selecting hardware.
In all likelihood, more than one commercially available system will meet the
requirements of the project. Consider the following factors in evaluating viable,
competing systems:

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System Integration - determine how well a system integrates:

horizontal integration, or the breadth of control hardware (regulatory and

discrete control algorithms; continuous, batch, or state control operation)
from a single manufacturer.
vertical integration, or the depth of control hardware (transmitters and
valve positioners, controllers, network interfaces, operator consoles,
advanced control computers, MIS links) and software to tie the pieces

Avoid the entanglements of multiple sources of interface software.

Uniformity - avoid putting one of everything in a control center. A strategic

objective should be to have a single type of operator interface for all controls in
a center; an absolute requirement should be a single operator interface for each
group of plants under the control of a single board operator.

System Maturity - reject sunset technology unless youre fitting in the last
piece of a multi-phase control replacement project. Recognize that even though
a manufacturer is legally bound to provide spare parts support for a limited
period of time following obsolescence of a product, he has limited control over
keeping competent engineers in a support function on an obsolete system.

Product Stability - avoid the control system which appears to be in a constant

state of evolution. (These are typically a maintenance nightmare.)

Technical Support - investigate the communications paths available for

connecting plant support personnel to technical resources at the Factory.
Consider also the level of local support you can expect, especially during the
first years of system operation.

Configurability - evaluate the magnitude of the configuration task. A system

requiring special-skills programmers for initial set-up will require these same
specialists, a significant expense to the plant, for every future modification. By
contrast, systems which configure with a higher level Operating System can be
set up and modified by plant control or process engineers, maintenance technicians, or selected operators.

Track Record - past performance is a valid indicator of future actions. Be wary

of born again control systems companies with a trail of dissatisfied clients
but a promise that all is changed. Check out recent references on a potential
vendors Happy Camper list; be prepared for candid dialog.

125 Life Cycle Costs

The quoted cost of a control system is the tip of a financial iceberg. Determine the
Life Cycle cost of a system by reviewing the other cost components:

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Training - engineers, maintenance technicians, trainers, and operators will all

need training on a new system. Significant cost sub-components are tuition,
time, travel, and frequency of refresher training courses.


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100 System Design

System Engineering - include an estimate of the cost of documentation, configuration, and commissioning services.

Acceptance Testing - this procedure persists in a quality-conscious world.

Determine where the system will be staged, how completely application software can be loaded, and how many User representatives will be needed to give
the system a thorough Factory Acceptance Test.

Spare Parts - request a realistic list of recommended spare parts/components

from the system vendor; advise him that the cost of these spares will be
factored into the cost evaluation of the overall system. (The magnitude of the
Recommended Spare Parts List increases once the basic system order is

Redocumentation - how readily does the system adapt to self-documentation

for changes in field instrumentation, control strategy definition, or configuration? Does the system use a fill in the blanks configuration format, or does it
require proficiency in a high-level computer language?

Maintenance - how much maintenance effort is required to keep the system in

reliable operation? Can reliability be increased (and the cost of ownership
decreased?) through minor adjustments to system architecture?

130 Instrumentation Design Engineering

131 Detailed Design Development
Detailed design fleshes out the control system skeleton defined in the Preliminary
Design phase of the Project. Successful installationsand thus successful
projectsare rooted in the patient attention to an almost limitless number of details.

Designs Engineering Contractors

The detailed design of a system is labor- and document-intensive. For this reason,
detailed design work is frequently done by engineering contractors. They offer the
advantage of being able to supply skilled technical personnel at short notice, and
only for the duration of the project. The downside is that any technical expertise
paid for by the Client and acquired by the contractor vanishes at the completion of
the Project.
Engineering contractors must be provided with current Chevron or plant Standards,
Specifications, Drawings, and Forms, if the goals of Uniformity and Quality are to
be realized.

Systems Integrators
In a similar fashion, systems integrators and packaged systems suppliers must be
provided with Chevron or plant specifications stating minimum requirements for
controls which they provide, integration with other systems, documentation and all
other information normally supplied by vendors of non-packaged instrumentation.

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132 Design Specifications

Design specifications are used to guide system designers. The application and the
type of contract are important factors in determining the extent of design specification needed.
A typical design specification (Model Design and Construction Specification,
Section J, Instrumentation and Controls) is available from the Projects and Engineering Technology Group (P&ET) of CRTC. This specification is modeled to
allow for a number of options and is adaptable to fit specific jobs.
The design phase of a job produces the construction specification, which usually
comes in two parts: a written specification and a construction drawing package.
These two parts fully define how an instrumentation system is supposed to be built.
Changes in specifications after a bid has been awarded can be very costly. It is
therefore important to form an accurate bid package (specifications and drawings).
Because an instrumentation system has many inter-related components, a thorough
end-of-job review is recommended.

133 Specification of Instrumentation

The specification of individual instrumentation is usually done on ISA (Instrumentation Society of America) specification forms. These forms are widely used
throughout the industry, and most contractors and vendors are familiar with them.
These forms are found in ISA S20 which is included in Volume 2 of this manual.
The ISA form is used during design and construction and startup and by the maintenance group after startup.
The ISA instrumentation specification forms include brief instructions for filling in
the form. For additional guidance, this manual includes data sheet guides. Various
sections of this manual also discuss instrumentation selection and specification.
Consult with the Monitoring and Controls Unit of CRTC for the latest information
on computer generated ISA data sheets.

134 Documentation
A system designed in-house by Chevron, or designed by an engineering contractor,
or designed and built by a system integrator/packaged systems supplier generally
includes complete documentation for design, construction, operation and maintenance. These documents will usually satisfy the Federal and/or local safety and
health legal compliance requirements for critical instrumentation.
The following should be considered as minimum documentation requirements for
control systems installations:

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Area Electrical Classification maps

Plot Plans & Elevations, showing location of and access to major equipment
and critical instrumentation.


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Piping & Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) - refer to Section 200.

Process Flow Diagrams, showing flow rates and conditions of pressure, temperature and chemical composition for all streams in the plant.

Process Control Diagrams, showing the configuration of front-end control strategies, as determined by the Control Objectives Analysis (COA), and verified by
the Control Designs Analysis (CDA).

Advanced Control Strategy documents, including Control Narratives,

describing Strategies for optimizing the Process. These would include complete
DMC documentation.)

Logic Diagrams, defining the functionality of Safety Interlock Systems, as

defined by the Safety Objectives Analysis.

Vessel Drawings, showing the elevation and orientation of nozzles and the
maximum, normal, and minimum levels of product and/or interfaces within the
vessel. (These are required for designing instrumentation bridles and ordering
level instruments.)
The vessel drawing shall also tabulate the following data for each level instrument connected to the vessel.
Type of instrument
Alarm setpoints
Specific gravity of process fluid(s)
Specific gravity of seal or capillary fluid
Instrument span with calculations
Zero suppression or elevation

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Instrument Data Sheets, describing the physical construction of the instrument

hardware items procured for the project. (These Data Sheets must be complete
enough to permit ordering instruments without additional descriptive documentation.)

Orifice Data Sheets, detailing flowing conditions for all orifice flowmeters.
These data should be supplied by Process Engineers familiar with the plant of
similar processes. Inaccurate process data will come back to haunt ALL engineering disciplines.

Loop Diagrams, showing the interconnections among all hardware specific

components in a control loop.

Junction Box Wiring Diagrams, showing the layout of termination strips and
their connection to Main or Branch cables or to field wiring.

Cable Schedules, listing the cables and pairs (or conductors) used for interconnection of instrumentation components. (In some cases, these may be combined
with Junction Box drawings described above.)


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Installation Details, showing the relative position of process connections,

instruments, and Utilities (power, heat tracing, vents, drains, etc.), and listing
the materials used for installation.

Configuration Forms, describing the software or firmware (or both) used for
creating Control Strategies, Operator Displays, and Reports.

Critical Alarm, Instrumentation, & Emergency Shutdown testing programs

(procedures and frequencies for testing).

Indexes, for cross-referencing all of the above.

Documentation may be developed and maintained using paper or electronic media,

or a combination of both. In all instances, current documentation must be available
to plant Operations, Maintenance, and Technical organizations.
Use of electronic documentation systems with relational data bases increases the
speed and accuracy of the documentation effort, since a single data entry event
generates (or edits) parameters on multiple, related data files.

Design Reviews
Periodic reviews of project design documentation ensures that costly rework or reordering of material is eliminated. The frequency of these design reviews is best determined by the Project Management team, to which the Control Engineer reports.

135 Instrumentation Database

The efficient handling of the vast array of instrumentation information for a project
is a key issue in any instrumentation design. It is desirable to create a Master
instrumentation database. Data need only to be entered once and changes are automatically updated for all sub-databases.
Software tools are available to control instrumentation information and generate
reports and schedules. An instrumentation schedule can be used to document most
of the instrumentation information.

140 Construction and Startup

141 Documenting Field Changes
A well-planned and designed control project minimizes the number and nature of
field engineering changes.
These field changes should be documented on a master markup set of Drawings
maintained in the Project Engineering Office, and should include all necessary
supporting documentation.
Field changes must be signed off by the same level of authority as original drawings or formal revisions thereto. Prior to issuing Field Change Orders, all appropriate Management of Change (MOC) requirements must be satisfied.

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142 Commissioning
The commissioning process consists of verifying the proper installation, connection, and calibration of all instrumentation items on the Project.
Specification ICM-MS-1586, Instrument Commissioning, is a guide for preparing
newly installed instrumentation prior to plant startup. It describes the contractors
responsibility for inspecting, checking, adjusting, and calibrating the instrumentation and documenting all of the work for approval by the Company.
Recent trends in instrumentation have eased the burden of the Commissioning

Most Smart process transmitters can be interrogated from the control console
or from termination panels in the rack room, to verify that the right transmitter is connected to the right terminations. (Forcing the transmitter to identify itself by Tag Number is a technique for electronically ringing out a
transmitter installation.)

The accuracy of digital electronic transmitters far exceeds that of field test
equipment, and digital transmitters show no tendency to drift. Therefore, shop
or field calibration of transmitters becomes superfluous. Instruments can move
directly from the Tally Room to the installation site.

The increasing use of Smart valve actuators or positioners permits calibration

checks and recalibration of control valves from the rack room or marshaling
panel. This minimizes the requirement for cycling control valves through the
valve or instrument shop prior to installation.

All instrument installations should be signed off by the installer, the instrument
inspector, and an Operator. OSHA regulations (29 CFR 1910) require that Critical
instrumentation be installed and inspected by qualified workers.

143 System Startup

At the system startup phase, operation of final control elements is switched over to
the new control system.
A major effort is required to tune control loops, especially on a grass-roots project,
or loops on a reinstrumentation project which did not previously exist.
Prior to attempting to tune control loops, verify that any control configurations
which inhibit controller response on changes in set point have been disabled. (These
features will need to be re-enabled following controller tuning.)
The use of a high speed data recorder (with chart speed selectable up to 6 in. / min.)
will aid in the capture of process response to changes in set point or changes in
controller tuning constants. Use of high speed trending on a CRT display is acceptable, especially if the set point, process variable, and controller output can be
trended on the same display.

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A moderate amount of process variable damping is required for flow loops on

digital controllers, to prevent the control algorithm from chasing noise on the PV
signal. (The magnitude of this noise is not apparent on analog instrumentation, due
to the inherent damping of inputs from volumetric capacity (pneumatic controls) or
input R-C filters (electronic analog controls).
When tuning Cascade Controllers, tune the slave controller first, then the master
At the conclusion of controller tuning, note tuning constants in a secure logbook,
which can be used for future reference to determine is controller tuning constants
have been altered.

144 Closing Documentation

All field changes must be transferred to permanent documentation following turnover of the control system to the Proprietor of the project.
Final, As-Built drawing revisions must be provided to plant Operations, Maintenance, and Engineering offices as part of the projects documentation. In addition to
the documentation described on Section 134, this final documentation project must
include operating instructions, maintenance manuals, and spare parts lists for all
equipment installed.

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