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ADAPTIVE LIGHTING SYSTEM FOR

AUTOMOBILES

Abstract
Our project Adaptive Lighting System for Automobiles is a
smart solution for safe and convenient night driving without the
intense dazzling effect and aftermaths. Adaptive Lighting
System for Automobiles needs no manual operation for
switching ON and OFF headlight/down light (Bright/Dim) when
there is a vehicle coming from front at night. It detects itself
whether there is light from the front coming vehicle or not.
When there is light from front coming vehicle, it automatically
switches to the down light and when the vehicle passes it
automatically switch back to headlight. The user can adjust the
light detection sensitivity of this Adaptive Lighting System.

INTRODUCTION
Adaptive Lighting System for Automobiles needs no manual
operation for switching ON and OFF headlight/downlight when
there is vehicle coming from front at night. It detects itself
weather there is light from front coming vehicle or not. When
there is light from front coming vehicle it automatically
switches to the downlight and when the vehicle passes it
automatically switch back to head light. The sensitiveness of the
Adaptive Lighting System for Automobiles can be adjusted. In
our project we have used four L.E.D for indication of
headlight/downlight but for high power lamp switching one can
connect Relay (electromagnetic switch) at the output of pin 1 of
I.C LM358 Then it will be possible to turn ON/OFF high power
headlight/downlight of the vehicle.

PRINCIPLE:
This circuit uses a popular timer I.C LM 358. I.C LM358 is
connected as comparator with pin-6 connected with positive rail,
the output goes high (1) when the trigger pin 3 is at lower then
voltage level at pin no 2. Conversely the output goes low (0)
when it is above pin no 2 level. So small change in the voltage
of pin-2 is enough to change the level of output (pin-1) from 1
to 0 and 0 to 1. The output has only two states high and low and
cannot remain in any intermediate stage. It is powered by a 12V
power supply. The circuit is economic in power consumption.
Pin 4 is ground and pin 8 is connected to the positive supply and
pin 1 is grounded.
To detect the present of an object we have used LDR and a
source of light.
LDR is a special type of resistance whose value depends on the
brightness of the light, which is falling on it. It has resistance of
about 1 mega ohm when in total darkness, but a resistance of
only about 5k ohms when brightness illuminated. It responds to
a large part of light spectrum. We have made a potential divider
circuit with LDR and 10K variable resistance connected in
series. We know that voltage is directly proportional to
conductance so low voltage we will get from this divider when
LDR is getting light and high voltage in darkness. This divided

voltage is given to pin 2 of IC LM358. Variable resistance is so


adjusted that it crosses potential of 1/2 in darkness and fall
below 1/2 in light.
Sensitiveness can be adjusted by this variable resistance. As
soon as LDR gets light the voltage of pin 2 drops of the supply
voltage and pin 3 gets high and LED or buzzer that is connected
to the output gets activated.

Component used
1) Voltage Regulator 7812
2) 12 V transformer
3) Diode IN4007
4) LM358
5) Relay
6) Switch
7) General Purpose PCB
8) LEDs
9) Variable Resistance
10) Resistor, capacitors etc.

COMPONENTS
a) Power Supply: For 12v power supply we can use 12 v step
down transformer, bridge rectifier, 12 v regulator.
b) Switch: Any general-purpose switch can be used. Switch is
used as circuit breaker.
c) L.D.R: (Light Depending Resistance) it is a special type of
resistance whose value
depends on the brightness of light, which is falling on it. It has
resistance of about 1mega ohm when in total darkness, but a
resistance of only about 5k ohms when brightness illuminated. It
responds to a large part of light spectrum.
d) L.E.D: A diode is a component that only allows electricity to
flow one way. It can be thought as a sort of one way street for
electrons. Because of this characteristic, diode are used to
transform or rectify AC voltage into a DC voltage. Diodes
have two connections, an anode and a cathode. The cathode is
the end on the schematic with the point of the triangle pointing
towards a line. In other words, the triangle points toward that
cathode. The anode is, of course, the opposite end. Current
flows from the anode to the cathode. Light emitting diodes, or
LEDs, differ from regular diodes in that when a voltage is
applied, they emit light.

This light can be red (most common), green, yellow, orange,


blue (not very common), or infa red. LEDs are used as
indicators, transmitters, etc. Most likely, a LED will never burn
out like a regular lamp will and requires many times less
current. Because LEDs act like regular diodes and will form a
short if connected between + and -, a current limiting resistor is
used to prevent that very thing. LEDs may or may not be drawn
with the circle surrounding them.
e) Variable resistance: (Potentiometer) Resistors are one of the
most common electronic components. A resistor is a device that
limits, or resists current. The current limiting ability or
resistance is measured in ohms, represented by the Greek
symbol Omega. Variable resistors (also called potentiometers or
just "pots") are resistors that have a variable resistance. You
adjust the resistance by turning a shaft. This shaft moves a wiper
across the actual resistor element. By changing the amounts of
resistor between the wiper connection and the connection (s) to
the resistor element, you can change the resistance. You will
often see the resistance of resistors

written with K

(kilohms) after the number value. This means that there are that
many thousands of ohms. For example, 1K is 1000 ohm, 2K is
2000 ohm, 3.3K is 3300 ohm, etc. You may also see the suffix
M (mega ohms). This simply means million. Resistors are also
rated by their power handling capability. This is the amount of

heat the resistor can take before it is destroyed. The power


capability is measured in W (watts).
Common wattages for variable resistors are 1/8W, 1/4W, 1/2W
and 1W. Anything of a higher wattage is referred to as a
rheostat.
f) P.C.B: (Printed Circuit Board) with the help of P.C.B it is easy
to assemble circuit with neat and clean end products. P.C.B is
made of bake lite with surface pasted with copper track-layout.
For each components leg, hole is made. Connection pin is
passed through the hole and is soldered.

POWER SUPPLY
The power supply designed for catering a fixed demand
connected in this project. The basic requirement for designing
a power supply is as follows,
1. The voltage levels required for operating the devices is
+5volt. Here +5Volt required for operating microcontroller.
And as well as required for drivers and amplifiers and ir
transmitters and receivers.
2. The current requirement of each device or load must be
added to estimate the final capacity of the power supply.
The power supply always specified with one or multiple
voltage outputs along with a current capacity. As it is estimate
the requirement of power is approximately as follows,
Out Put Voltage = +5Volt, Capacity = 1000mA
The power supply is basically consisting of three sections as
follows,
1.

Step down section

2.

Rectifier Section

3.

Regulator section

Design principle:
There are two methods for designing power supply, the
average value method and peak value method. In case of
small power supply peak value method is quit economical, for
a particular value of DC output the in put AC requirement is
appreciably less. In this method the DC out put is
approximately equal to Vm. A full wave bridge rectifier is
designed using two diodes and the output of the rectifier is
filtered with a low pass filter. The capacitor value is decided
so that it will back up for the voltage and current during the

discharging period of the DC output. In this case the out put


with reference to the center tap of the transformer is taken in
to consideration, though the rectifier designed is a full wave
bridge rectifier but the voltage across the load is a half wave
rectified out put. The Regulator section used here is
configured with a series regulator LM78XX the XX
represents the output voltage and 78 series indicates the
positive voltage regulator 79 series indicates the negative
regulator for power supply. The positive regulator works
satisfactorily between the voltage XX+2 to 40 Volt DC. The
output remains constant within this range of voltage. The
output remains constant within this range of voltage.

Circuit connection: - In this we are using Transformer (12-012) v / 1mA, IC 7805 , diodes IN 4007,LED & resistors.
Here 230V, 50 Hz ac signal is given as input to the primary of
the transformer and the secondary of the transformer is given
to the bridge rectification diode. The positive out put of the
bridge rectifier is given as i/p to the IC regulator (7805)

through capacitor (1000uf/25v).

The o/p of the IC regulator

is given to the LED through resistors to act as indicator.


Circuit Explanations: - When ac signal is given to the primary
of the transformer, due to the magnetic effect of the coil
magnetic flux is induced in the coil (primary) and transfer to
the secondary coil of the transformer due to the transformer
action. Transformer is an electromechanical static device
which transformer electrical energy from one coil to another
without changing its frequency. Here the diodes are
connected to the two +12volt output of the transformer. The
secondary coil of the transformer is given to the diode circuit
for rectification purposes.
During the +ve cycle of the ac signal the diodes D1 conduct
due to the forward bias of the diodes and diodes D2 does not
conduct due to the reversed bias of the diodes. Similarly
during the ve cycle of the ac signal the diodes D2 conduct
due to the forward bias of the diodes and the diodes D1 does
not conduct due to reversed bias of the diodes. The output of
the bridge rectifier is not a power dc along with rippled ac is
also present. To overcome this effect, a low pass filter is

connected to the o/p of the diodes (D1 & D2). Which removes
the unwanted ac signal and thus a pure dc is obtained. Here
we need a fixed voltage, thats for we are using IC regulators
(7805).Voltage regulation is a circuit that supplies a constant
voltage regardless of changes in load current. This ICs are
designed as fixed voltage regulators and with adequate heat
sinking can deliver output current in excess of 1A. The o/p
the full wave rectifier is given as input to the IC regulator
through low pass filter with respect to GND and thus a fixed
o/p is obtained. The o/p of the IC regulator (7805) is given to
the LED for indication purpose through resistor. Due to the
forward bias of the LED, the LED glows ON state, and the
o/p are obtained from the pin no-3.

MICROCONTROLLER
BLOCK DIAGRAM

PB0-PB7

PD0-PD7

The microcontroller used here is atmega 16 which has inbuilt


adc and counter along with microcontroller. The pin
configuration and details are given below.

The ATmega16 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit


microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC
architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single
clock cycle, the ATmega16 achieves throughputs approaching
1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designed to optimize
power consumption versus processing speed.

The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32


general purpose working registers.

All the 32 registers are directly connected to the


Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), allowing two independent
registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in
one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code
efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster
than conventional CISC microcontrollers.

The ATmega16 provides the following features: 16K


bytes of In-System Programmable Flash Program memory
with Read-While-Write capabilities, 512 bytes EEPROM, 1K
byte SRAM, 32 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general purpose
working registers, a JTAG interface for Boundary-scan, Onchip Debugging support and programming, three flexible
Timer/Counters with compare modes, Internal and External
Interrupts, a serial programmable USART, a byte oriented
Two-wire Serial Interface, an 8-channel, 10-bit ADC with
optional differential input stage with programmable gain
(TQFP package only),a programmable Watchdog Timer with

Internal Oscillator, an SPI serial port, and six software


selectable power saving modes. The Idle mode stops the CPU
while allowing the USART, Two-wire interface, A/D
Converter, SRAM, Timer/Counters, SPI port, and interrupt
system to continue functioning. The Power-down mode saves
the register contents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all
other chip functions until the next External Interrupt or
Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the Asynchronous
Timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer
base while the rest of the device is sleeping.

The ADC Noise Reduction mode stops the CPU and


all I/O modules except Asynchronous Timer and ADC, to
minimize switching noise during ADC conversions. In
Standby mode, the crystal/resonator Oscillator is running
while the rest of the device is sleeping.

This allows very fast start-up combined with lowpower consumption. In Extended Standby mode, both the
main Oscillator and the Asynchronous Timer continue to run.

The device is manufactured using Atmels high density


non-volatile memory technology. The On-chip ISP Flash
allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system
through an SPI serial interface, by a conventional non-volatile
memory programmer, or by an On-chip Boot program
running on the AVR core. The boot program can use any
interface to download the application program in the
Application Flash memory. Software in the Boot Flash
section will continue to run while the Application Flash
section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write
operation. By combining an 8-bit RISC CPU with In-System
Self-Programmable Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel
ATmega16 is a powerful microcontroller that provides a
highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded
control applications.

The ATmega16 AVR is supported with a full suite of


program and system development tools including: C
compilers, macro assemblers, program debugger/simulators,
in-circuit emulators, and evaluation kits.

Pin Descriptions

VCC Digital supply voltage.


GND Ground.
Port A (PA7..PA0) Port A serves as the analog inputs to the
A/D Converter.
Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port, if the
A/D Converter is not used. Port pins can provide internal
pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port A output
buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high
sink and source capability. When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as

inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current
if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins
are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if
the clock is not running.
Port B (PB7..PB0) Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port
with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port
B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port B pins
that are externally pulled low will source current if the pullup resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when
a reset
condition becomes active, even if the clock is not
running.Port B also serves the functions of various special
features of the ATmega16 .
Port C (PC7..PC0) Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port
with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port
C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins
that are externally pulled low will source current if the pullup resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when
a reset
condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. If
the JTAG interface is enabled, the pull-up resistors on pins
PC5(TDI), PC3(TMS) and PC2(TCK) will be activated even
if a reset occurs.

Port C also serves the functions of the JTAG interface


and other special features of the ATmega16 as listed on page
61.
Port D (PD7..PD0) Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port
with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). The Port
D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with
both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port D pins
that are externally pulled low will source current if the pullup resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when
a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not
running. Port D also serves the functions of various special
features of the ATmega16.

RESET Reset Input. A low level on this pin for longer than
the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the
clock is not running. The minimum pulse length is 0.1 vcc.
Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.
XTAL1 Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input
to the internal clock operating circuit.
XTAL2 Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier.
AVCC AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the
A/D Converter. It should be externally
connected to VCC, even if the ADC is not used. If the ADC is
used, it should be connected
to VCC through a low-pass filter.
AREF AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D
Converter.
Adc
10-bit Resolution
0.5 LSB Integral Non-linearity
2 LSB Absolute Accuracy
13 - 260 s Conversion Time
Up to 15 kSPS at Maximum Resolution
8 Multiplexed Single Ended Input Channels
7 Differential Input Channels
2 Differential Input Channels with Optional Gain of 10x and
200x(1)
Optional Left adjustment for ADC Result Readout
0 - VCC ADC Input Voltage Range
Selectable 2.56V ADC Reference Voltage
Free Running or Single Conversion Mode
ADC Start Conversion by Auto Triggering on Interrupt
Sources
Interrupt on ADC Conversion Complete
Sleep Mode Noise Canceler

BLOCK DIAGRAM
POWER SUPPLY

LDR

RALAY
8051
MICROCONT
ROLLER

Prominent Features

12V automobile battery powered automatic switching


circuit with negligible current consumption in standby
mode.

Reliable and weatherproof light sensor module (Cds


photocell).

Independent variable control to set the light detection


sensitivity to avoid false triggering caused by the influence
of other light sources like streetlights.

Optional selector switch for Automatic Signaling Mode


(ASM). In this mode, dim/bright control of headlight is in
pulsed, i.e. headlight automatically changes to dim level
from bright level and vice versa in a rhythmic style (like a
signal to the other motorists) when light from the front
coming vehicle is detected by the light sensor module.

Energy Saving Mode If the circuit is in active state, by


default, headlights automatically goes off when the vehicle
enters in a well-lighted area.

Functional Block Diagram

Proposed electrical wiring diagram for existing connection

Proposed electrical wiring diagram for new connection

Schematic Circuit Diagram

Parts list

IC: NE555 1
IC Socket 8 Pin 1
Transistor: BC547 1
Diode: 1N4007 2
Resistors: 100K Trimpot 1, 47K 1/4W 1 ,22K 1/4W
1 ,10K 1/4W 1 , 1K 1/4W 2
Capacitors: 10uF/25V 1, 100uF/25V 1
LEDs: 5mm Red /Green 2
LDR: 20mm Encapsulated Type 1
Relay: 12VDC SPDT 1
Switch: SPST Rocker Switch 2

Working of the circuit


This circuit is built around the popular timer chip NE555 (IC1).
Here IC1 is configured as a gated-a stable multivibrator running
at a frequency of about 1.5 Hertz (duty cycle 75%), determined
by the values of components R1, R3 and C1. The whole circuit
can be directly powered from the 12V automobile battery.
When power switch S1 is turned to on position, 12VDC
supply from the battery is fed to the whole circuit through
polarity guard diode 1N4007 (D1). Capacitor C3 (100uF/25V) is
a traditional buffer capacitor to improve the circuit stability.
Initially, a stable built around IC1 is disabled by the light sensor
circuit realized using the 20mm Light Dependent Resistor
(LDR), 100K trimpot (P1) and BC547 (T1) transistor. As a
result output (pin 3) of IC1 is at a low level, and the 12V
electro-magnetic relay (RL1) connected at the output of IC1 is
in off state. The first LED (LED1) indicates this condition. As
per the wiring (+ve supply is routed to headlights through the
N/C contacts of RL1), headlights are in now in on condition.
However, when a strong light falls on the LDR, IC1 is enabled
immediately and as a result its output goes high to energize

the relay. Now the down lights are powered by the N/O contacts
of the relay and stays in this condition until the light level on
LDR is reversed. The second LED (LED2) indicates this
condition. Note that, switch for the ASM mode (S2), directly
grounds pin 6 and 2 of IC1, when it is in on mode and hence
the stable function of IC1 is in disabled state. If S2 is in off
mode, the ASM function turns to on and this flashes
headlights and down lights rapidly, as long as strong light level
(from another headlight) is detected by the LDR.

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